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Sample records for au-ge based candidate

  1. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...... and microhardness has been extensively reported. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and its corresponding microhardness of these promising candidate alloys have been investigated in this work. After thermal aging at 200°C for different durations ranging from 1 day to 3 weeks...

  2. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge eutectic were investigated in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and its corresponding microhardness of these promising candidate alloys have been extensively reported. To investigate the effects of aging temperature, candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature......, 150°C for up to 3 weeks and compared with aging at 200°C. After being subjected to high-temperature aging, the microstructure varied a lot in morphology in the case of both Au-Ge-Sb and Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloys while the microstructure remained relatively stable even after long-term thermal aging...

  3. n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    To achieve radio frequency (RF) power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS) power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than −17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively. PMID:28629144

  4. n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2017-06-17

    To achieve radio frequency (RF) power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS) power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than -17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively.

  5. Controlling Lateral Fano Interference Optical Force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 Hybrid Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Tun; Bao, Jiaxin; Mao, Libang

    2016-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that a pronounced dipole-quadrupole (DQ) Fano resonance (FR) induced lateral force can be exerted on a dielectric particle 80 nm in radius (R-sphere = 80 nm) that is placed 5 nm above an asymmetric bow-tie nanoantenna array based on Au/Ge2Sb2Te5 dual layers. The DQ-FR-i...... in flexible nanomechanical control and may provide a new means of biomedical sensing and nano -optical conveyor belts....

  6. A Corrosion Investigation of Solder Candidates for High-Temperature Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Ambat, Rajan

    2009-01-01

    , corrosion investigation was carried out on potential ternary lead-free candidate alloys based on these binary alloys for high temperature applications. These promising ternary candidate alloys were determined by the CALPHAD approach based on the solidification criterion and the nature of the phases...... predicted in the bulk solder. This work reveals that the Au-Sn based candidate alloys close to the eutectic composition (20 wt. % Sn) are more corrosion resistant than the Au-Ge based ones....

  7. Dewetting induced Au-Ge composite nanodot evolution in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, D. P.; Chettah, A.; Siva, V.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    A composite nanostructure comprising of Au and Ge gradually evolves on SiO2 surface when a bilayer of Au and Ge is irradiated by medium keV Xe-ion beam. The morphology progresses through different stages from nucleating patches to extended islands and finally a Au-Ge composite nanodot array develops on the insulator surface. While ion energy and fluence are found to determine dimensions of the nanostructures, existence of a characteristic lateral length scale is also detected at every stage of evolution. Through morphological and compositional analysis, the observed evolution is understood as an effect of ion beam induced dewetting of Au top layer. Numerical estimation based on the unified thermal spike model using the present experimental condition demonstrates formation of molten zones around the ion track due to nuclear and electronic energy deposition in the target. Dewetting results from mass flow onto the surface driven by local melting along the ion track and combines with sputter erosion of the bilayer film to lead to composite nanodot evolution. The generality of the ion induced processes provides possible route towards metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructure synthesis on insulator surface.

  8. Structural and phonon transmission study of Ge-Au-Ge eutectically bonded interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    This thesis presents a structural analysis and phonon transparency investigation of the Ge-Au-Ge eutectic bond interface. Interface development was intended to maximize the interfacial ballistic phonon transparency to enhance the detection of the dark matter candidate WIMPs. The process which was developed provides an interface which produces minimal stress, low amounts of impurities, and insures Ge lattice continuity through the interface. For initial Au thicknesses of greater than 1,000 {angstrom} Au per substrate side, eutectic epitaxial growth resulted in a Au dendritic structure with 95% cross sectional and 90% planar Au interfacial area coverages. In sections in which Ge bridged the interface, lattice continuity across the interface was apparent. Epitaxial solidification of the eutectic interface with initial Au thicknesses < 500 A per substrate side produced Au agglomerations thereby reducing the Au planar interfacial area coverage to as little as 30%. The mechanism for Au coalescence was attributed to lateral diffusion of Ge and Au in the liquid phase during solidification. Phonon transmission studies were performed on eutectic interfaces with initial Au thicknesses of 1,000 {angstrom}, 500 {angstrom}, and 300 {angstrom} per substrate side. Phonon imaging of eutectically bonded samples with initial Au thicknesses of 300 {angstrom}/side revealed reproducible interfacial percent phonon transmissions from 60% to 70%. Line scan phonon imaging verified the results. Phonon propagation TOF spectra distinctly showed the predominant phonon propagation mode was ballistic. This was substantiated by phonon focusing effects apparent in the phonon imaging data. The degree of interface transparency to phonons and resulting phonon propagation modes correlate with the structure of the interface following eutectic solidification. Structural studies of samples with initial Au thickness of 1,000 {angstrom}/side appear to correspond with the phonon transmission study.

  9. EuAuGe type indides RAgIn (R = Ca, Sr, La, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Schmolke, Kai Heinz; Block, Theresa; Heletta, Lukas; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2017-08-03

    The equiatomic intermetallic phases CaAgIn [a = 482.75(7), b = 750.0(1), c = 835.5(1) pm], SrAgIn [a = 495.86(5), b = 794.71(9), c = 851.89(9) pm], LaAgIn [a = 489.99(5), b = 767.93(9), c = 837.53(9) pm], and EuAgIn [a = 493.02(7), b = 781.6(1), c = 844.2(1) pm] were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium containers. They crystallize with the EuAuGe type structure, space group Imm2. The four structures were refined from single-crystal X-ray data. The silver and indium atoms build up orthorhombically distorted, puckered Ag{sub 3}In{sub 3} hexagons, which are stacked in AA' sequence, leading to direct Ag-Ag and In-In interlayer bonding (e.g. 303 and 304 pm in CaAgIn). Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show a magnetic moment of 7.40(1) μ{sub B} per europium atom. EuAgIn orders antiferromagnetically at 5.7(5) K. The divalent nature of europium is also evident from {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectra: δ = -10.50(1) mm.s{sup -1} at 78 K. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  11. Photoluminescent Au-Ge composite nanodots formation on SiO2 surface by ion induced dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, D. P.; Siva, V.; Singh, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    Medium energy ion irradiation on a bilayer of Au and Ge on SiO2 is observed to result in gradual morphological evolution from an interconnected network to a nanodot array on the insulator surface. Structural and compositional analyses reveal composite nature of the nanodots, comprising of both Au and Ge. The growing nanostructures are found to be photoluminescent at room temperature where the emission intensity and wavelengths vary with morphology. The growth of such nanostructures can be understood in terms of dewetting of the metal layer under ion irradiation due to ion-induced melting along the ion tracks. The visible PL emission is found to be related with evolution of the Au-Ge nanodots. The study indicates a route towards single step synthesis of metal-semiconductor nanodots on insulator surface.

  12. Evaluation of project based learning sufficiency of teacher candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfi Tugun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of that research, it is the project based learning process suffuciency of teacher candidates who developedmultimedia by working in online and blended groups. Importance of research Being able to guide to studies that is going tobe done about assessment of multimedia projection for project based educational application to teachers and teachercandidates and It has been thought as an advisor source about being arranged new educational environment for the futureto teacher and teacher candidates for project based educational application and multimedia projection. Research is anexperimental study and has been shaped according to pre-test and last-test research model with the two groups. This groupsare online group and blended group. Discussion of research In the result of the study, in the process of project basedlearning, it is determined that the success level in multimedia development of teacher candidates who work in blendedlearning model is higher than the success level of teacher candidates who work in online learning model.

  13. Frictional Behavior of Fe-based Cladding Candidates for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Thak Sang [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2014-10-15

    After the recent nuclear disaster at Fukushima Daiichi reactors, there is a growing consensus on the development of new fuel systems (i.e., accident-tolerant fuel, ATF) that have high safety margins under design-basis accident (DBA) and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA). A common objective of various developing candidates is to archive the outstanding corrosion-resistance under severe accidents such as DBA and DBDA conditions for decreasing hydrogen production and increasing coping time to respond to severe accidents. ATF could be defined as new fuel/cladding system with enhanced accident tolerant to loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period under severe accidents while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. This means that, in normal operating conditions, new fuel systems should be applicable to current operating PWRs for suppressing various degradation mechanisms of current fuel assembly without excessive design changes. When considering that one of the major degradation mechanisms of PWR fuel assemblies is a grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), it is necessary to examine the tribological behavior of various ATF candidates at initial development stage. In this study, friction and reciprocating wear behavior of two kinds of Fe-based ATF candidates were examined with a reciprocating wear tests at room temperature (RT) air and water. The objective is to examine the compatibilities of these Fe-based alloys against current Zr-based alloy properties, which is used as major structural materials of PWR fuel assemblies. The reciprocating wear behaviors of Fe-based accident-tolerant fuel cladding candidates against current Zr-based alloy has been studied using a reciprocating sliding wear tester in room temperature air and water. Frictional behavior and wear depth were used for evaluating the applicability and compatibilities of Fe-based candidates without significant design changes of PWR fuel assemblies

  14. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  15. Whole genome homology-based identification of candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and might play some important roles in drought tolerance in sesame. Our results provided genomic resources for further functional analysis and genetic engineering towards drought tolerance improvement in sesame. Keywords: Sesamum indicum, candidate genes, drought tolerance, orthologous gene, whole genome ...

  16. Whole genome homology-based identification of candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Erhiakporeh

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... 1,075 from potato and 270 from tomato, comparative analysis against sesame genome led to the identification of a set of 75 candidate genes (42, 22 and 11 from Arabidopsis, potato and tomato, respectively). Mapping results .... applying drought stress by withholding water for 5 days. At this stage, all plants ...

  17. An inventory of continental U.S. terrestrial candidate ecological restoration areas based on landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Kurt Riitters; Peter Vogt; Jennifer Costanza; Anne Neale

    2017-01-01

    Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed.We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existing natural vegetation. We identified 1,102,720 candidate ecological restoration areas across...

  18. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  19. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    based on its notorious legacy as a major health hazard across the spectrum of human generations and cultures. Flip chip assembly is also now increasingly being used for the high-performance (H-P) systems. These H-P systems perform mission-critical operations and are expected to experience virtually......Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...... for interconnecting the chip to a carrier in certain applications due to the unique properties of lead. Despite of all the beneficial attributes of lead, its potential environmental impact when the products are discarded to land fills has resulted in various legislatives to eliminate lead from the electronic products...

  20. Candidate genes and cerebral palsy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine S; Maclennan, Alastair H; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Goldwater, Paul N; Sullivan, Thomas R; Munroe, David J; Tsang, Shirley; Stewart, Claudia; Nelson, Karin B

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether selected genetic polymorphisms in the infant are associated with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy. A population-based case-control study was conducted of 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms measured in newborn screening blood spots. A total of 413 children with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy were born to white women in South Australia in 1986-1999, and there were 856 control children. Distributions of genotypic frequencies were examined in total cerebral palsy, in gestational age groups, and by types of cerebral palsy and gender. Genotyping was performed by using a TaqMan assay. For inducible nitric-oxide synthase, possession of the T allele was more common in all children with cerebral palsy and for heterozygotes who were born at term. For lymphotoxin alpha, homozygous variant status was associated with risk for cerebral palsy and with spastic hemiplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Among term infants, heterozygosity for the endothelial protein C receptor single-nucleotide polymorphism was more frequent in children with cerebral palsy. In preterm infants, the variant A allele of interleukin 8 and heterozygosity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor were associated with cerebral palsy risk. Interleukin 8 heterozygote status was associated with spastic diplegia. Variants of several genes were associated with cerebral palsy in girls but not in boys. Two of the 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms examined were associated with all types of spastic cerebral palsy in both gestational age groups and others with cerebral palsy in gestational age or cerebral palsy subgroups. Some of these associations support previous findings. There may be a genetic contribution to cerebral palsy risk, and additional investigation is warranted of genes and gene-environment interactions in cerebral palsy.

  1. Development of New Candidate Gene and EST-Based Molecular Markers for Gossypium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V; Yu, John Z; Saha, Sukumar; Sharma, Govind C

    2011-01-01

    New source of molecular markers accelerate the efforts in improving cotton fiber traits and aid in developing high-density integrated genetic maps. We developed new markers based on candidate genes and G. arboreum EST sequences that were used for polymorphism detection followed by genetic and physical mapping. Nineteen gene-based markers were surveyed for polymorphism detection in 26 Gossypium species. Cluster analysis generated a phylogenetic tree with four major sub-clusters for 23 species while three species branched out individually. CAP method enhanced the rate of polymorphism of candidate gene-based markers between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Two hundred A-genome based SSR markers were designed after datamining of G. arboreum EST sequences (Mississippi Gossypium arboreum  EST-SSR: MGAES). Over 70% of MGAES markers successfully produced amplicons while 65 of them demonstrated polymorphism between the parents of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense RIL population and formed 14 linkage groups. Chromosomal localization of both candidate gene-based and MGAES markers was assisted by euploid and hypoaneuploid CS-B analysis. Gene-based and MGAES markers were highly informative as they were designed from candidate genes and fiber transcriptome with a potential to be integrated into the existing cotton genetic and physical maps.

  2. Development of new candidate gene and EST-based molecular markers for Gossypium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    New source of molecular markers accelerates the efforts in improving cotton fiber traits and aid in developing high-density integrated genetic maps. We developed new markers based on candidate genes and G. arboreum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences, and validated them through amplification, ge...

  3. An inventory of continental U.S. terrestrial candidate ecological restoration areas based on landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed. We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existin...

  4. Utility-based Recommendation of Candidate Coalitions in Virtual Creativity Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 28-30 September). Utility-based Recommendation of Candidate Coalitions in Virtual Creativity Teams. Presentation at the first Workshop on Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2010), Barcelona, Spain.

  5. Using Bayesian Networks for Candidate Generation in Consistency-based Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Mengshoel, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Consistency-based diagnosis relies heavily on the assumption that discrepancies between model predictions and sensor observations can be detected accurately. When sources of uncertainty like sensor noise and model abstraction exist robust schemes have to be designed to make a binary decision on whether predictions are consistent with observations. This risks the occurrence of false alarms and missed alarms when an erroneous decision is made. Moreover when multiple sensors (with differing sensing properties) are available the degree of match between predictions and observations can be used to guide the search for fault candidates. In this paper we propose a novel approach to handle this problem using Bayesian networks. In the consistency- based diagnosis formulation, automatically generated Bayesian networks are used to encode a probabilistic measure of fit between predictions and observations. A Bayesian network inference algorithm is used to compute most probable fault candidates.

  6. Using gradient-based ray and candidate shadow maps for environmental illumination distribution estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eem, Changkyoung; Kim, Iksu; Hong, Hyunki

    2015-07-01

    A method to estimate the environmental illumination distribution of a scene with gradient-based ray and candidate shadow maps is presented. In the shadow segmentation stage, we apply a Canny edge detector to the shadowed image by using a three-dimensional (3-D) augmented reality (AR) marker of a known size and shape. Then the hierarchical tree of the connected edge components representing the topological relation is constructed, and the connected components are merged, taking their hierarchical structures into consideration. A gradient-based ray that is perpendicular to the gradient of the edge pixel in the shadow image can be used to extract the shadow regions. In the light source detection stage, shadow regions with both a 3-D AR marker and the light sources are partitioned into candidate shadow maps. A simple logic operation between each candidate shadow map and the segmented shadow is used to efficiently compute the area ratio between them. The proposed method successively extracts the main light sources according to their relative contributions on the segmented shadows. The proposed method can reduce unwanted effects due to the sampling positions in the shadow region and the threshold values in the shadow edge detection.

  7. Sequential Validation of Blood-Based Protein Biomarker Candidates for Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Michela; Bantis, Leonidas E; Scelo, Ghislaine; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peng; Dhillon, Dilsher S; Patel, Nikul J; Kundnani, Deepali L; Wang, Hong; Abbruzzese, James L; Maitra, Anirban; Tempero, Margaret A; Brand, Randall; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Katz, Matthew H; Brennan, Paul; Feng, Ziding; Taguchi, Ayumu; Hanash, Samir M

    2017-04-01

    CA19-9, which is currently in clinical use as a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) biomarker, has limited performance in detecting early-stage disease. We and others have identified protein biomarker candidates that have the potential to complement CA19-9. We have carried out sequential validations starting with 17 protein biomarker candidates to determine which markers and marker combination would improve detection of early-stage disease compared with CA19-9 alone. Candidate biomarkers were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based sequential validation using independent multiple sample cohorts consisting of PDAC cases (n = 187), benign pancreatic disease (n = 93), and healthy controls (n = 169). A biomarker panel for early-stage PDAC was developed based on a logistic regression model. All statistical tests for the results presented below were one-sided. Six out of the 17 biomarker candidates and CA19-9 were validated in a sample set consisting of 75 PDAC patients, 27 healthy subjects, and 19 chronic pancreatitis patients. A second independent set of 73 early-stage PDAC patients, 60 healthy subjects, and 74 benign pancreatic disease patients (combined validation set) yielded a model that consisted of TIMP1, LRG1, and CA19-9. Additional blinded testing of the model was done using an independent set of plasma samples from 39 resectable PDAC patients and 82 matched healthy subjects (test set). The model yielded areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.949 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.917 to 0.981) and 0.887 (95% CI = 0.817 to 0.957) with sensitivities of 0.849 and 0.667 at 95% specificity in discriminating early-stage PDAC vs healthy subjects in the combined validation and test sets, respectively. The performance of the biomarker panel was statistically significantly improved compared with CA19-9 alone (P early-stage PDAC.

  8. Candidate Smoke Region Segmentation of Fire Video Based on Rough Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidate smoke region segmentation is the key link of smoke video detection; an effective and prompt method of candidate smoke region segmentation plays a significant role in a smoke recognition system. However, the interference of heavy fog and smoke-color moving objects greatly degrades the recognition accuracy. In this paper, a novel method of candidate smoke region segmentation based on rough set theory is presented. First, Kalman filtering is used to update video background in order to exclude the interference of static smoke-color objects, such as blue sky. Second, in RGB color space smoke regions are segmented by defining the upper approximation, lower approximation, and roughness of smoke-color distribution. Finally, in HSV color space small smoke regions are merged by the definition of equivalence relation so as to distinguish smoke images from heavy fog images in terms of V component value variety from center to edge of smoke region. The experimental results on smoke region segmentation demonstrated the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed scheme.

  9. An improved Bayesian network method for reconstructing gene regulatory network based on candidate auto selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linlin; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yin

    2017-11-17

    The reconstruction of gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data can discover regulatory relationships among genes and gain deep insights into the complicated regulation mechanism of life. However, it is still a great challenge in systems biology and bioinformatics. During the past years, numerous computational approaches have been developed for this goal, and Bayesian network (BN) methods draw most of attention among these methods because of its inherent probability characteristics. However, Bayesian network methods are time consuming and cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while the mutual information-based methods are highly effective but directionless and have a high false-positive rate. To solve these problems, we propose a Candidate Auto Selection algorithm (CAS) based on mutual information and breakpoint detection to restrict the search space in order to accelerate the learning process of Bayesian network. First, the proposed CAS algorithm automatically selects the neighbor candidates of each node before searching the best structure of GRN. Then based on CAS algorithm, we propose a globally optimal greedy search method (CAS + G), which focuses on finding the highest rated network structure, and a local learning method (CAS + L), which focuses on faster learning the structure with little loss of quality. Results show that the proposed CAS algorithm can effectively reduce the search space of Bayesian networks through identifying the neighbor candidates of each node. In our experiments, the CAS + G method outperforms the state-of-the-art method on simulation data for inferring GRNs, and the CAS + L method is significantly faster than the state-of-the-art method with little loss of accuracy. Hence, the CAS based methods effectively decrease the computational complexity of Bayesian network and are more suitable for GRN inference.

  10. Immunogenicity of multi-epitope-based vaccine candidates administered with the adjuvant Gp96 against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yange; Liu, Ye; Yang, Limin; Qu, Hongren; Zhao, Jingyi; Hu, Rongliang; Li, Jing; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-04-01

    Rabies, a zoonotic disease, causes > 55,000 human deaths globally and results in at least 500 million dollars in losses every year. The currently available rabies vaccines are mainly inactivated and attenuated vaccines, which have been linked with clinical diseases in animals. Thus, a rabies vaccine with high safety and efficacy is urgently needed. Peptide vaccines are known for their low cost, simple production procedures and high safety. Therefore, in this study, we examined the efficacy of multi-epitope-based vaccine candidates against rabies virus. The ability of various peptides to induce epitope-specific responses was examined, and the two peptides that possessed the highest antigenicity and conservation, i.e., AR16 and hPAB, were coated with adjuvant canine-Gp96 and used to prepare vaccines. The peptides were prepared as an emulsion of oil in water (O/W) to create three batches of bivalent vaccine products. The vaccine candidates possessed high safety. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected on the day 14 after the first immunization in mice and beagles, reaching 5-6 IU/mL in mice and 7-9 IU/mL in beagles by day 28. The protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates was about 70%-80% in mice challenged by a virulent strain of rabies virus. Thus, a novel multi-epitope-based rabies vaccine with Gp96 as an adjuvant was developed and validated in mice and dogs. Our results suggest that synthetic peptides hold promise for the development of novel vaccines against rabies.

  11. Network Based Integrated Analysis of Phenotype-Genotype Data for Prioritization of Candidate Symptom Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief are the essential clinical manifestations for individualized diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. To gain insights into the molecular mechanism of symptoms, we develop a computational approach to identify the candidate genes of symptoms. Methods. This paper presents a network-based approach for the integrated analysis of multiple phenotype-genotype data sources and the prediction of the prioritizing genes for the associated symptoms. The method first calculates the similarities between symptoms and diseases based on the symptom-disease relationships retrieved from the PubMed bibliographic database. Then the disease-gene associations and protein-protein interactions are utilized to construct a phenotype-genotype network. The PRINCE algorithm is finally used to rank the potential genes for the associated symptoms. Results. The proposed method gets reliable gene rank list with AUC (area under curve 0.616 in classification. Some novel genes like CALCA, ESR1, and MTHFR were predicted to be associated with headache symptoms, which are not recorded in the benchmark data set, but have been reported in recent published literatures. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that by integrating phenotype-genotype relationships into a complex network framework it provides an effective approach to identify candidate genes of symptoms.

  12. Ovine rotavirus strain LLR-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Tao; Li, Xin; Liu, Hai-Jun; Yu, Li

    2010-11-20

    Group A bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) are the most important cause of diarrheal diseases in neonatal calves and cause significant morbidity and mortality in the young animals, and epidemiologic surveillance of bovine rotavirus G genotypes conducted in various cattle populations throughout the world has shown that approximately 90% of the bovine rotavirus isolates belong to G6 and G10. Based on the modified Jennerian approach to immunization, we constructed and characterized a reassortant rotavirus stain, which bears a single bovine rotavirus VP7 gene encoding G genotype 6 specificity while the remaining 10 genes are derived from the ovine attenuated rotavirus LLR-85. The reassortant rotavirus strain, named as R191, and its parental virus strain LLR-85 were combined as bivalent vaccine candidates to inoculate the colostrums-deprived neonatal calves for evaluation of the immunogenicity. The calves were orally inoculated with the reassortant R191 (group 1), the parental rotavirus LLR-85 (group 2), or combined the R191 and LLR-85 (group 3), and serum specimens were detected to determine the immune response of IgG and IgA antibodies. Results showed that seroconversion to positivity for IgG and IgA antibodies occurred at postinoculation day (PID) 10 in all of the inoculated calves, and the highest titers of the serum IgG (range 1:800 to 1:6400) and IgA (range 1:800 to 1:3200) antibodies were obtained at PID 21 for all calves. Meanwhile, virus shedding was detected after inoculation, showing that the inoculated virus was positive in 2 of 77 fecal specimens (2.6%) collected from the inoculated calves during the first 7 days of oral inoculation with the rotavirus vaccine candidates. The results suggested that the rotavirus strains R191 and LLR-85 are promising bivalent vaccine candidates for the prevention of bovine G6 and G10 rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Candidate List of yoUr Biomarker (CLUB: A Web-based Platform to Aid Cancer Biomarker Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leigh Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CLUB (“Candidate List of yoUr Biomarkers” is a freely available, web-based resource designed to support Cancer biomarker research. It is targeted to provide a comprehensive list of candidate biomarkers for various cancers that have been reported by the research community. CLUB provides tools for comparison of marker candidates from different experimental platforms, with the ability to filter, search, query and explore, molecular interaction networks associated with cancer biomarkers from the published literature and from data uploaded by the community. This complex and ambitious project is implemented in phases. As a first step, we have compiled from the literature an initial set of differentially expressed human candidate cancer biomarkers. Each candidate is annotated with information from publicly available databases such as Gene Ontology, Swiss-Prot database, National Center for Biotechnology Information’s reference sequences, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and IntAct interaction. The user has the option to maintain private lists of biomarker candidates or share and export these for use by the community. Furthermore, users may customize and combine commonly used sets of selection procedures and apply them as a stored workflow using selected candidate lists. To enable an assessment by the user before taking a candidate biomarker to the experimental validation stage, the platform contains the functionality to identify pathways associated with cancer risk, staging, prognosis, outcome in cancer and other clinically associated phenotypes. The system is available at http://club.bii.a-star.edu.sg.

  14. Porcine rotavirus strain Gottfried-based human rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Ross, Jerri; Kapikian, Albert Z

    2005-05-31

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis remains the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide, and thus, a safe and effective rotavirus vaccine is urgently needed in both developing and developed countries. Various candidate rotavirus vaccines that were developed by us and others have been or are being evaluated in different populations in various parts of the world. We have recently confirmed that a porcine rotavirus Gottfried strain bears a P (VP4) serotype (P2B[6]) closely related to human rotavirus P serotype 2A[6] which is of epidemiologic importance in some regions of the world. Based on the modified Jennerian approach to immunization, we have constructed 11 Gottfried-based single VP7 or VP4 gene substitution reassortant vaccine candidates which could provide: (i) an attenuation phenotype of a porcine rotavirus in humans; and (ii) antigenic coverage for G serotypes 1-6 and 8-10 and P serotype 1A[8], 1B[4] and 2A[6]. In addition, following immunization of guinea pigs with Gottfried VP4, we found low but consistent levels of neutralizing antibodies to VP4 with P1A[8] or P1B[4] specificity, both of which are of global epidemiologic importance. Thus, porcine-based VP7 reassortant rotavirus vaccines may provide an advantage over rhesus- or bovine-based VP7 reassortant vaccines since the VP4s of the latter vaccines do not evoke antibodies capable of neutralizing the viruses bearing P1A[8], P1B[4] or P2A[6] VP4.

  15. Addictions biology: haplotype-based analysis for 130 candidate genes on a single array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Colin A; Yuan, Qiaoping; Xu, Ke; Shen, Pei-Hong; Heinz, Elizabeth; Lobos, Elizabeth A; Binder, Elizabeth B; Cubells, Joe; Ehlers, Cindy L; Gelernter, Joel; Mann, John; Riley, Brien; Roy, Alec; Tabakoff, Boris; Todd, Richard D; Zhou, Zhifeng; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    To develop a panel of markers able to extract full haplotype information for candidate genes in alcoholism, other addictions and disorders of mood and anxiety. A total of 130 genes were haplotype tagged and genotyped in 7 case/control populations and 51 reference populations using Illumina GoldenGate SNP genotyping technology, determining haplotype coverage. We also constructed and determined the efficacy of a panel of 186 ancestry informative markers. An average of 1465 loci were genotyped at an average completion rate of 91.3%, with an average call rate of 98.3% and replication rate of 99.7%. Completion and call rates were lowered by the performance of two datasets, highlighting the importance of the DNA quality in high throughput assays. A comparison of haplotypes captured by the Addictions Array tagging SNPs and commercially available whole-genome arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix shows comparable performance of the tag SNPs to the best whole-genome array in all populations for which data are available. Arrays of haplotype-tagged candidate genes, such as this addictions-focused array, represent a cost-effective approach to generate high-quality SNP genotyping data useful for the haplotype-based analysis of panels of genes such as these 130 genes of interest to alcohol and addictions researchers. The inclusion of the 186 ancestry informative markers allows for the detection and correction for admixture and further enhances the utility of the array.

  16. ReCGiP, a database of reproduction candidate genes in pigs based on bibliomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lun; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Chen, Jian; Wang, Qishan; Wang, Lishan; Jiang, Yue; Pan, Yuchun

    2010-08-14

    Reproduction in pigs is one of the most economically important traits. To improve the reproductive performances, numerous studies have focused on the identification of candidate genes. However, it is hard for one to read all literatures thoroughly to get information. So we have developed a database providing candidate genes for reproductive researches in pig by mining and processing existing biological literatures in human and pigs, named as ReCGiP. Based on text-mining and comparative genomics, ReCGiP presents diverse information of reproduction-relevant genes in human and pig. The genes were sorted by the degree of relevance with the reproduction topics and were visualized in a gene's co-occurrence network where two genes were connected if they were co-cited in a PubMed abstract. The 'hub' genes which had more 'neighbors' were thought to be have more important functions and could be identified by the user in their web browser. In addition, ReCGiP provided integrated GO annotation, OMIM and biological pathway information collected from the Internet. Both pig and human gene information can be found in the database, which is now available. ReCGiP is a unique database providing information on reproduction related genes for pig. It can be used in the area of the molecular genetics, the genetic linkage map, and the breeding of the pig and other livestock. Moreover, it can be used as a reference for human reproduction research.

  17. ReCGiP, a database of reproduction candidate genes in pigs based on bibliomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction in pigs is one of the most economically important traits. To improve the reproductive performances, numerous studies have focused on the identification of candidate genes. However, it is hard for one to read all literatures thoroughly to get information. So we have developed a database providing candidate genes for reproductive researches in pig by mining and processing existing biological literatures in human and pigs, named as ReCGiP. Description Based on text-mining and comparative genomics, ReCGiP presents diverse information of reproduction-relevant genes in human and pig. The genes were sorted by the degree of relevance with the reproduction topics and were visualized in a gene's co-occurrence network where two genes were connected if they were co-cited in a PubMed abstract. The 'hub' genes which had more 'neighbors' were thought to be have more important functions and could be identified by the user in their web browser. In addition, ReCGiP provided integrated GO annotation, OMIM and biological pathway information collected from the Internet. Both pig and human gene information can be found in the database, which is now available. Conclusions ReCGiP is a unique database providing information on reproduction related genes for pig. It can be used in the area of the molecular genetics, the genetic linkage map, and the breeding of the pig and other livestock. Moreover, it can be used as a reference for human reproduction research.

  18. Machine Learning-Based Gene Prioritization Identifies Novel Candidate Risk Genes for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Ofer; Dotan, Iris; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2017-09-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders, associated with genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors. Although hundreds of genes are implicated in IBD etiology, it is likely that additional genes play a role in the disease process. We developed a machine learning-based gene prioritization method to identify novel IBD-risk genes. Known IBD genes were collected from genome-wide association studies and annotated with expression and pathway information. Using these genes, a model was trained to identify IBD-risk genes. A comprehensive list of 16,390 genes was then scored and classified. Immune and inflammatory responses, as well as pathways such as cell adhesion, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and sulfur metabolism were identified to be related to IBD. Scores predicted for IBD genes were significantly higher than those for non-IBD genes (P genes had a high prediction score (>0.8). A literature review of the genes, excluding those used to train the model, identified 67 genes without any publication concerning IBD. These genes represent novel candidate IBD-risk genes, which can be targeted in future studies. Our method successfully differentiated IBD-risk genes from non-IBD genes by using information from expression data and a multitude of gene annotations. Crucial features were defined, and we were able to detect novel candidate risk genes for IBD. These findings may help detect new IBD-risk genes and improve the understanding of IBD pathogenesis.

  19. Framing the Candidate: A Corpus-based Rhetorical Analysis of the 2016 Democratic Primaries in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Framing the Candidate: A Corpus-Based Rhetorical Analysis of the 2016 Democratic Primaries in the USA analyzes the rhetoric of the two main Democratic candidates running in the 2016 election cycle: Hillary Rodham Clinton and Bernard ‘Bernie’ Sanders. In order to identify the main persuasive strategies employed, we used the tools of corpus linguistics to study their campaign speeches and interventions during the televised debates. The transcripts of the speeches were collected both online and ...

  20. Sequence-Based Introgression Mapping Identifies Candidate White Mold Tolerance Genes in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Mamidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available White mold, caused by the necrotrophic fungus (Lib. de Bary, is a major disease of common bean ( L.. WM7.1 and WM8.3 are two quantitative trait loci (QTL with major effects on tolerance to the pathogen. Advanced backcross populations segregating individually for either of the two QTL, and a recombinant inbred (RI population segregating for both QTL were used to fine map and confirm the genetic location of the QTL. The QTL intervals were physically mapped using the reference common bean genome sequence, and the physical intervals for each QTL were further confirmed by sequence-based introgression mapping. Using whole-genome sequence data from susceptible and tolerant DNA pools, introgressed regions were identified as those with significantly higher numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs relative to the whole genome. By combining the QTL and SNP data, WM7.1 was located to a 660-kb region that contained 41 gene models on the proximal end of chromosome Pv07, while the WM8.3 introgression was narrowed to a 1.36-Mb region containing 70 gene models. The most polymorphic candidate gene in the WM7.1 region encodes a BEACH-domain protein associated with apoptosis. Within the WM8.3 interval, a receptor-like protein with the potential to recognize pathogen effectors was the most polymorphic gene. The use of gene and sequence-based mapping identified two candidate genes whose putative functions are consistent with the current model of pathogenicity.

  1. Identification of fungal candidates for asthma protection in a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Rompa, Susanne; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Mayer, Melanie; Bauer, Johann; Genuneit, Jon; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Horak, Elisabeth; Boznanski, Andrzej; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to molds has been related to asthma risk both positively and negatively, depending on the environmental setting. The pertinent results are based on generic markers or culturing methods although the majority of present fungi cannot be cultured under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present analysis was to assess environmental dust samples for asthma-protective fungal candidates with a comprehensive molecular technique covering also non-cultivable and non-viable fungi. Mattress dust samples of 844 children from the GABRIELA study were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) of the fungus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Known asthma candidate species were tested for their associations with asthma, and further gel positions were sought to explain the above. As a second, data-driven, analysis, we tested the association of each individual gel position with asthma. In the hypothesis-driven approach, Penicillium chrysogenum emerged with an odds ratio of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96; p = 0.020). The effect size was changed by 39% toward the null when adjusting for the two bands 683 (DNA of Metschnikowia sp., Aureobasidium spp.) and 978 (DNA of Epicoccum spp., Galactomyces spp., uncultured Penicillium). The data-driven approach yielded an additional band (containing DNA of Pseudotaeniolina globosa) with reduced risk of asthma (OR = 0.80 [0.66-0.96], p = 0.012). A large population-based study revealed several fungal taxa with inverse associations with childhood asthma. Molds produce a variety of bioactive compounds with detrimental but also beneficial immunoregulatory capacities, which renders them promising targets for further asthma research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey in the SDSS Footprint. I. Infrared-based Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Linhua; Green, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. However, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide-area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the quasar luminosity function at z> 3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of z≳ 3 quasars at the brightest end. We identified the purely optical-color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore, we designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright ({m}{{i}}learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation. The ELQS will spectroscopically follow-up ˜230 new quasar candidates in an area of ˜12,000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.0≤slant z≤slant 5.0. In this paper, we present the quasar selection algorithm and the quasar candidate catalog.

  3. Solid particle erosion of steels and nickel based alloys candidates for USC steam turbine blading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Guardamagna, Cristina; Lorenzoni, Lorenzo [ERSE SpA, Milan (Italy); Robba, Davide [CESI, Milan (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of COST536 Action is to develop highly efficient steam power plant with low emissions, from innovative alloy development to validation of component integrity. In this perspective, to improve the operating efficiency, materials capable of withstanding higher operating temperatures are required. For the manufacturing of components for steam power plants with higher efficiency steels and nickel-based alloys with improved oxidation resistance and creep strength at temperature as high as 650 C - 700 C have to be developed. Candidate alloys for manufacturing high pressure steam turbine diaphragms, buckets, radial seals and control valves should exhibit, among other properties, a good resistance at the erosion phenomena induced by hard solid particles. Ferric oxide (magnetite) scales cause SPE by exfoliating from boiler tubes and steam pipes (mainly super-heaters and re-heaters) and being transported within the steam flow to the turbine. In order to comparatively study the erosion behaviour of different materials in relatively short times, an accelerated experimental simulation of the erosion phenomena must be carried out. Among different techniques to induce erosion on material targets, the use of an air jet tester is well recognised to be one of the most valid and reliable. In this work the results of SPE comparative tests performed at high temperatures (550 C, 600 C and 650 C) at different impaction angles on some steels and nickel based alloys samples are reported. (orig.)

  4. In Silico Analysis of Epitope-Based Vaccine Candidates against Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juzeng; Lin, Xianfan; Wang, Xiuyan; Zheng, Liyu; Lan, Songsong; Jin, Sisi; Ou, Zhanfan; Wu, Jinming

    2017-05-16

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has persisted as a major public health problem due to the lack of an effective treatment for those chronically infected. Therapeutic vaccination holds promise, and targeting HBV polymerase is pivotal for viral eradication. In this research, a computational approach was employed to predict suitable HBV polymerase targeting multi-peptides for vaccine candidate selection. We then performed in-depth computational analysis to evaluate the predicted epitopes' immunogenicity, conservation, population coverage, and toxicity. Lastly, molecular docking and MHC-peptide complex stabilization assay were utilized to determine the binding energy and affinity of epitopes to the HLA-A0201 molecule. Criteria-based analysis provided four predicted epitopes, RVTGGVFLV, VSIPWTHKV, YMDDVVLGA and HLYSHPIIL. Assay results indicated the lowest binding energy and high affinity to the HLA-A0201 molecule for epitopes VSIPWTHKV and YMDDVVLGA and epitopes RVTGGVFLV and VSIPWTHKV, respectively. Regions 307 to 320 and 377 to 387 were considered to have the highest probability to be involved in B cell epitopes. The T cell and B cell epitopes identified in this study are promising targets for an epitope-focused, peptide-based HBV vaccine, and provide insight into HBV-induced immune response.

  5. A Sub-Pathway Based Method to Identify Candidate Agents for Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for new therapeutics for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS is highlighted by the general lack of efficacy for most agents currently available for this disease. Many recent studies have detailed molecular pathways in AS, and several molecule-targeting agents are undergoing evaluation. We aimed to explore the mechanism of AS and identify biologically active small molecules capable of targeting the sub-pathways which were disregulated in the development of AS. By using the GSE25101 microarray data accessible from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between AS samples and healthy controls, followed by the sub-pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs. In addition, we propose the use of an approach based on targeting sub-pathways to identify potential agents for AS. A total of 3,280 genes were identified as being significantly different between patients and controls with p-values < 0.1. Our study showed that neurotrophic signaling pathway and some immune-associated pathways may be involved in the development of AS. Besides, our bioinformatics analysis revealed a total of 15 small molecules which may play a role in perturbing the development of AS. Our study proposes the use of an approach based on targeting sub-pathways to identify potential agents for AS. Candidate agents identified by our approach may provide the groundwork for a combination therapy approach for AS.

  6. Candidate Gene Analysis Suggests Untapped Genetic Complexity in Melanin-Based Pigmentation in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Yann X C; Bertrand, Joris A M; Delahaie, Boris; Cornuault, Josselin; Duval, Thomas; Milá, Borja; Thébaud, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Studies on melanin-based color variation in a context of natural selection have provided a wealth of information on the link between phenotypic and genetic variation. Here, we evaluated associations between melanic plumage patterns and genetic polymorphism in the Réunion grey white-eye (Zosterops borbonicus), a species in which mutations on MC1R do not seem to play any role in explaining melanic variation. This species exhibits 5 plumage color variants that can be grouped into 3 color forms which occupy discrete geographic regions in the lowlands of Réunion, and a fourth high-elevation form which comprises 2 color morphs (grey and brown) and represents a true color polymorphism. We conducted a comprehensive survey of sequence variation in 96 individuals at a series of 7 candidate genes other than MC1R that have been previously shown to influence melanin-based color patterns in vertebrates, including genes that have rarely been studied in a wild bird species before: POMC, Agouti, TYR, TYRP1, DCT, Corin, and SLC24A5 Of these 7 genes, 2 (Corin and TYRP1) displayed an interesting shift in allele frequencies between lowland and highland forms and a departure from mutation-drift equilibrium consistent with balancing selection in the polymorphic highland form only. Sequence variation at Agouti, a gene frequently involved in melanin-based pigmentation patterning, was not associated with color forms or morphs. Thus, we suggest that functionally important changes in loci other than those classically studied are involved in the color polymorphism exhibited by the Réunion grey white-eye and possibly many other nonmodel species. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing-Based Mapping and Candidate Identification of Mutations from Fixed Zebrafish Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Sanchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As forward genetic screens in zebrafish become more common, the number of mutants that cannot be identified by gross morphology or through transgenic approaches, such as many nervous system defects, has also increased. Screening for these difficult-to-visualize phenotypes demands techniques such as whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH or antibody staining, which require tissue fixation. To date, fixed tissue has not been amenable for generating libraries for whole genome sequencing (WGS. Here, we describe a method for using genomic DNA from fixed tissue and a bioinformatics suite for WGS-based mapping of zebrafish mutants. We tested our protocol using two known zebrafish mutant alleles, gpr126st49 and egr2bfh227, both of which cause myelin defects. As further proof of concept we mapped a novel mutation, stl64, identified in a zebrafish WISH screen for myelination defects. We linked stl64 to chromosome 1 and identified a candidate nonsense mutation in the F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (fbxw7 gene. Importantly, stl64 mutants phenocopy previously described fbxw7vu56 mutants, and knockdown of fbxw7 in wild-type animals produced similar defects, demonstrating that stl64 disrupts fbxw7. Together, these data show that our mapping protocol can map and identify causative lesions in mutant screens that require tissue fixation for phenotypic analysis.

  8. Cell-Based Assay Design for High-Content Screening of Drug Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierode, Gregory; Kwon, Paul S; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kwon, Seok-Joon

    2016-02-01

    To reduce attrition in drug development, it is crucial to consider the development and implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as decipher diverse molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. High-throughput fluorescence and confocal microscopes with advanced analysis software have simplified the simultaneous identification and quantification of various cellular processes through what is now referred to as highcontent screening (HCS). HCS permits automated identification of modifiers of accessible and biologically relevant targets and can thus be used to detect gene interactions or identify toxic pathways of drug candidates to improve drug discovery and development processes. In this review, we summarize several HCS-compatible, biochemical, and molecular biology-driven assays, including immunohistochemistry, RNAi, reporter gene assay, CRISPR-Cas9 system, and protein-protein interactions to assess a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, morphological changes, protein expression, localization, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. These cell-based assay methods can be applied to not only 2D cell culture but also 3D cell culture systems in a high-throughput manner.

  9. Trust Based Algorithm for Candidate Node Selection in Hybrid MANET-DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Papaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid MANET - DTN is a mobile network that enables transport of the data between groups of the disconnected mobile nodes. The network provides benefits of the Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET and Delay Tolerant Network (DTN. The main problem of the MANET occurs if the communication path is broken or disconnected for some short time period. On the other side, DTN allows sending data in the disconnected environment with respect to higher tolerance to delay. Hybrid MANET - DTN provides optimal solution for emergency situation in order to transport information. Moreover, the security is the critical factor because the data are transported by mobile devices. In this paper, we investigate the issue of secure candidate node selection for transportation of the data in a disconnected environment for hybrid MANET- DTN. To achieve the secure selection of the reliable mobile nodes, the trust algorithm is introduced. The algorithm enables select reliable nodes based on collecting routing information. This algorithm is implemented to the simulator OPNET modeler.

  10. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Thiadiazole and Thiazole-Based Strobilurins as Potent Fungicide Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lai; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Fan, Zhi-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Jing-Hua; Song, Ying-Qi; Yurievich, Morzherin Y; Belskaya, Nataliya P; Bakulev, Vasiliy A

    2017-02-01

    Strobilurin fungicides play a crucial role in protecting plants against different pathogens and securing food supplies. A series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and thiazole-based strobilurins were rationally designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested against various fungi. Introduction of 1,2,3-thiadiazole greatly improved the fungicidal activity of the target molecules. Compounds 8a, 8c, 8d, and 10i exhibited a relatively broad spectrum of fungicidal activity. Compound 8a showed excellent activities against Gibberella zeae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia cerealis with median effective concentrations (EC50) of 2.68, 0.44, and 0.01 μg/mL, respectively; it was much more active than positive controls enestroburin, kresoxim-methyl, and azoxystrobin with EC50 between 0.06 and 15.12 μg/mL. Comparable or better fungicidal efficacy of compound 8a compared with azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin against Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonspera cubensis was validated in cucumber fields at the same application dosages. Therefore, compound 8a is a promising fungicidal candidate worthy of further development.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylic-Based Photopolymer as a Candidate for Denture Base Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, S. T.; Rasyida; Ardhyananta, H.

    2017-05-01

    Denture base is a denture part that rests on the soft tissue covering the jawbone and becomes an anchor of a denture. The material that commonly used for this purpose is poly (methyl methacrylate). However, it lacks in mechanical properties due to high water absorption. The aim of this research was to improve the physical and mechanical properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) by making a copolymer with styrene via photopolymerization process. In this method was used the addition of styrene monomer at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt% into the acrylic resin to form copolymer materials via photopolymerization process. The amount of 1.5 wt% Irgacure 784’s photoinitiator was added as a photoinitiator. The results showed that the addition of 40% by weight of styrene copolymer is the best performance compare to the addition styrene of 10, 20, 30, and 50%. The samples with an addition styrene of 40 wt% showed excellent properties such as high water absorption value of 2.405 μg/mm3, the solubility of 0.434 μg/mm3, the flexural strength of 69.336 MPa, a flexural modulus of 1.236 GPa, and a hardness value of 82.583 HD. Poly (methyl methacrylate-co-styrene) copolymer with the addition of styrene 40 wt% has the closest value to the requirements for a denture base material.

  12. Prioritizing disease candidate proteins in cardiomyopathy-specific protein-protein interaction networks based on "guilt by association" analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Li

    Full Text Available The cardiomyopathies are a group of heart muscle diseases which can be inherited (familial. Identifying potential disease-related proteins is important to understand mechanisms of cardiomyopathies. Experimental identification of cardiomyophthies is costly and labour-intensive. In contrast, bioinformatics approach has a competitive advantage over experimental method. Based on "guilt by association" analysis, we prioritized candidate proteins involving in human cardiomyopathies. We first built weighted human cardiomyopathy-specific protein-protein interaction networks for three subtypes of cardiomyopathies using the known disease proteins from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man as seeds. We then developed a method in prioritizing disease candidate proteins to rank candidate proteins in the network based on "guilt by association" analysis. It was found that most candidate proteins with high scores shared disease-related pathways with disease seed proteins. These top ranked candidate proteins were related with the corresponding disease subtypes, and were potential disease-related proteins. Cross-validation and comparison with other methods indicated that our approach could be used for the identification of potentially novel disease proteins, which may provide insights into cardiomyopathy-related mechanisms in a more comprehensive and integrated way.

  13. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

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    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  14. Detection of colonic polyp candidates with level set-based thickness mapping over the colon wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Duan, Chaijie; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Huafeng; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-03-01

    Further improvement of computer-aided detection (CADe) of colonic polyps is vital to advance computed tomographic colonography (CTC) toward a screening modality, where the detection of flat polyps is especially challenging because limited image features can be extracted from flat polyps, and the traditional geometric features-based CADe methods usually fail to detect such polyps. In this paper, we present a novel pipeline to automatically detect initial polyp candidates (IPCs), especially flat polyps, from CTC images. First, the colon wall mucosa was extracted via a partial volume segmentation approach as a volumetric layer, where the inner border of colon wall can be obtained by shrinking the volumetric layer using level set based adaptive convolution. Then the outer border of colon wall (or the colon wall serosa) was segmented via a combined implementation of geodesic active contour and Mumford-Shah functional in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, the wall thickness was estimated along a unique path between the segmented inner and outer borders with consideration of the volumetric layers and was mapped onto a patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) colon wall model. The IPC detection results can usually be better visualized in a 2D image flattened from the 3D model, where abnormalities were detected by Z-score transformation of the thickness values. The proposed IPC detection approach was validated on 11 patients with 22 CTC scans, and each scan has at least one flat poly annotation. The above presented novel pipeline was effective to detect some flat polyps that were missed by our CADe system while keeping false detections in a relative low level. This preliminary study indicates that the presented pipeline can be incorporated into an existing CADe system to enhance the polyp detection power, especially for flat polyps.

  15. Detection of the early keratoconus based on corneal biomechanical properties in the refractive surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Pniakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Subclinical keratoconus is contraindication to refractive surgery. The currently used methods of preoperative screening do not always allow differentiating between healthy eyes and those with subclinical keratoconus. Aim: To evaluate biomechanical parameters of the cornea, waveform score (WS, and intraocular pressure (IOP as potentially useful adjuncts to the diagnostic algorithm for precise detection of the early keratoconus stages and selection of refractive surgery candidates. Settings and Design: Department of Ophthalmology and prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Patients enrolled in the study were diagnosed with refractive disorders. We assessed parameters of corneal biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldman-correlated IOP (IOPg, corneal compensated IOP, WS, and keratoconus match index (KMI. They were classified into one of three groups based on the predefined KMI range: Group 1 (from 0.352 to 0.757 – 45 eyes, Group 2 (from −0.08 to 0.313 – 52 eyes, and Group 0 - control group (from 0.761 to 1.642 – 80 eyes. Results: In both study groups, IOPg, CRF, and CH were decreased when compared to control (P < 0.0001. In control group, there was positive correlation between CH and KMI (P < 0.05, with no correlations in any of the two study groups. CRF correlated positively with KMI in control (P < 0.0001 and in Group 2 (P < 0.05. Conclusions: CH and CRF, together with WS and IOPg, consist a clinically useful adjunct to detect subclinical keratoconus in patients referred for refractive surgery when based on KMI staging.

  16. PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY STUDY OF A CANDIDATE VACCINE AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTION BASED ON RECOMBINANT PROTEIN FliCVP6VP8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dukhovlinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection is among leading causes of severe diarrhea which often leads to severe dehydration, especially, in children under 5 years old. In Russia, the incidence of rotavirus infection is constantly increased, due to higher rates of actual rotavirus infection cases and improved diagnostics of the disease. Immunity to rotavirus is unstable, thus causing repeated infections intra vitam. Anti-infectious resistance in reconvalescents is explained by induction of specific IgM, IgG, and, notably, IgA antibodies. Due to absence of market drugs with direct action against rotavirus, a rational vaccination is considered the most effective way to control the disease. Currently available vaccines for prevention of rotavirus infection are based on live attenuated rotavirus strains, human and/or animal origin, which replicate in human gut. Their implementation may result into different complications. Meanwhile, usage of vaccines based on recombinant proteins is aimed to avoid risks associated with introduction of a complete virus into humans. In this paper, we studied protective activity of candidate vaccines against rotavirus.In this work we studied protective activity of a candidate vaccine against rotavirus infection based on recombinant FliCVP6VP8 protein which includes VP6 and VP8, as well as components of Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (FliC as an adjuvant. Different components are joined by flexible bridges. Efficiency of the candidate vaccine was studied in animal model using Balb/c mice. We have shown high level of protection which occurs when the candidate vaccine is administered twice intramuscularly. Complete protection of animals against mouse rotavirus EDC after intramuscular immunization with a candidate vaccine was associated with arising rotavirus-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and intestine of immunized animals. The efficacy of candidate vaccine based on recombinant protein FliCVP6VP8 against rotavirus infection was

  17. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  18. Chest Fat Quantification via CT Based on Standardized Anatomy Space in Adult Lung Transplant Candidates.

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    Yubing Tong

    Full Text Available Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification and quality assessment based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS is presented. The goal of the paper is to seek answers to several key questions related to chest fat quantity and quality assessment based on a single slice CT (whether in the chest, abdomen, or thigh versus a volumetric CT, which have not been addressed in the literature.Unenhanced chest CT image data sets from 40 adult lung transplant candidates (age 58 ± 12 yrs and BMI 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and the remainder with other conditions were analyzed together with a single slice acquired for each patient at the L5 vertebral level and mid-thigh level. The thoracic body region and the interface between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in the chest were consistently defined in all patients and delineated using Live Wire tools. The SAT and VAT components of chest were then segmented guided by this interface. The SAS approach was used to identify the corresponding anatomic slices in each chest CT study, and SAT and VAT areas in each slice as well as their whole volumes were quantified. Similarly, the SAT and VAT components were segmented in the abdomen and thigh slices. Key parameters of the attenuation (Hounsfield unit (HU distributions were determined from each chest slice and from the

  19. A cell wall protein-based vaccine candidate induce protective immune response against Sporothrix schenckii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Martínez, Damiana Téllez; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Duarte, Roberta Aparecida; de Paula E Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco de; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by several closely related thermo-dimorphic fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, affecting humans and other mammals. In the last few years, new strategies have been proposed for controlling sporotrichosis owning to concerns about its growing incidence in humans, cats, and dogs in Brazil, as well as the toxicity and limited efficacy of conventional antifungal drugs. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective properties of two aluminum hydroxide (AH)-adsorbed S. schenckii cell wall protein (ssCWP)-based vaccine formulations in a mouse model of systemic S. schenckii infection. Fractioning by SDS-PAGE revealed nine protein bands, two of which were functionally characterized: a 44kDa peptide hydrolase and a 47kDa enolase, which was predicted to be an adhesin. Sera from immunized mice recognized the 47kDa enolase and another unidentified 71kDa protein, whereas serum from S. schenckii-infected mice recognized both these proteins plus another unidentified 9.4kDa protein. Furthermore, opsonization with the anti-ssCWP sera led to markedly increased phagocytosis and was able to strongly inhibit the fungus' adhesion to fibroblasts. Immunization with the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation led to increased ex vivo release of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17, whereas only IL-12 and IFN-γ were induced by the higher-dose non-adjuvanted formulation. Lastly, passive transference of the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation's anti-ssCWP serum was able to afford in vivo protection in a subsequent challenge with S. schenckii, becoming a viable vaccine candidate for further testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression QTL-based analyses reveal candidate causal genes and loci across five tumor types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyuan; Stram, Alexander; Chen, Constance; Kar, Siddhartha; Gayther, Simon; Pharoah, Paul; Haiman, Christopher; Stranger, Barbara; Kraft, Peter; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of trait-associated loci discovered through genome-wide association studies are located outside of known protein coding regions. Consequently, it is difficult to ascertain the mechanism underlying these variants and to pinpoint the causal alleles. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) provide an organizing principle to address both of these issues. eQTLs are genetic loci that correlate with RNA transcript levels. Large-scale data sets such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provide an ideal opportunity to systematically evaluate eQTLs as they have generated multiple data types on hundreds of samples. We evaluated the determinants of gene expression (germline variants and somatic copy number and methylation) and performed cis-eQTL analyses for mRNA expression and miRNA expression in five tumor types (breast, colon, kidney, lung and prostate). We next tested 149 known cancer risk loci for eQTL effects, and observed that 42 (28.2%) were significantly associated with at least one transcript. Lastly, we described a fine-mapping strategy for these 42 eQTL target–gene associations based on an integrated strategy that combines the eQTL level of significance and the regulatory potential as measured by DNaseI hypersensitivity. For each of the risk loci, our analyses suggested 1 to 81 candidate causal variants that may be prioritized for downstream functional analysis. In summary, our study provided a comprehensive landscape of the genetic determinants of gene expression in different tumor types and ranked the genes and loci for further functional assessment of known cancer risk loci. PMID:24907074

  1. A chimeric protein-based malaria vaccine candidate induces robust T cell responses against Plasmodium vivax MSP119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Singh, Balwan; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; da Costa Lima-Junior, Josué; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Moreno, Alberto

    2016-10-06

    The most widespread Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, poses a significant public health threat. An effective vaccine is needed to reduce global malaria burden. Of the erythrocytic stage vaccine candidates, the 19 kDa fragment of the P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (PvMSP119) is one of the most promising. Our group has previously defined several promiscuous T helper epitopes within the PvMSP1 protein, with features that allow them to bind multiple MHC class II alleles. We describe here a P. vivax recombinant modular chimera based on MSP1 (PvRMC-MSP1) that includes defined T cell epitopes genetically fused to PvMSP119. This vaccine candidate preserved structural elements of the native PvMSP119 and elicited cytophilic antibody responses, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells capable of recognizing PvMSP119. Although CD8+ T cells that recognize blood stage antigens have been reported to control blood infection, CD8+ T cell responses induced by P. falciparum or P. vivax vaccine candidates based on MSP119 have not been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first time a protein based subunit vaccine has been able to induce CD8+ T cell against PvMSP119. The PvRMC-MSP1 protein was also recognized by naturally acquired antibodies from individuals living in malaria endemic areas with an antibody profile associated with protection from infection. These features make PvRMC-MSP1 a promising vaccine candidate.

  2. Using a Candidate Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map to Identify QTL for Winter Survival in Perennial Ryegrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Paina

    Full Text Available Important agronomical traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding programs such as winter survival and heading date, are quantitative traits that are generally controlled by multiple loci. Individually, these loci have relatively small effects. The aim of this study was to develop a candidate gene based Illumina GoldenGate 1,536-plex assay, containing single nucleotide polymorphism markers designed from transcripts involved in response to cold acclimation, vernalization, and induction of flowering. The assay was used to genotype a mapping population that we have also phenotyped for winter survival to complement the heading date trait previously mapped in this population. A positive correlation was observed between strong vernalization requirement and winter survival, and some QTL for winter survival and heading date overlapped on the genetic map. Candidate genes were located in clusters along the genetic map, some of which co-localized with QTL for winter survival and heading date. These clusters of candidate genes may be used in candidate gene based association studies to identify alleles associated with winter survival and heading date.

  3. Candidate lesion-based criteria for defining a positive sacroiliac joint MRI in two cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Østergaard, Mikkel; Lambert, Robert G W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine candidate lesion-based criteria for a positive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) MRI based on bone marrow oedema (BMO) and/or erosion in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA); to compare the performance of lesion-based criteria with global evaluation by expert readers...... were associated with comparably high sensitivity to global assessment without affecting specificity. These combined criteria showed both higher sensitivity and specificity than the ASAS definition. CONCLUSIONS: Lesion-based criteria for a positive SIJ MRI based on both BMO and/or erosion performed best...

  4. Identification of putative vaccine candidates against Helicobacter pylori exploiting exoproteome and secretome: a reverse vaccinology based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Anam; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Obaid, Ayesha; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Amjad

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen associated with diverse gastric disorders ranging from peptic ulcer to malignancy. It has also been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as class I carcinogen. Conventional treatment regimens for H. pylori seem to be ineffective, possibly due to antibiotic resistance mechanisms acquired by the pathogen. In this study we have successfully employed a reverse vaccinology approach to predict the potential vaccine candidates against H. pylori. The predicted potential vaccine candidates include vacA, babA, sabA, fecA and omp16. Host-pathogen interactions analysis elaborated their direct or indirect role in the specific signaling pathways including epithelial cell polarity, metabolism, secretion system and transport. Furthermore, surface-exposed antigenic epitopes were predicted and analyzed for conservation among 39 complete genomes of H. pylori (Genbank) for all the candidate proteins. These epitopes may serve as a base for the development of broad spectrum peptide or multi-component vaccines against H. pylori. We also believe that the proposed pipeline can be extended to other pathogens and for the identification of novel candidates for the development of effective vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fully Pipelined Parallel Architecture for Candidate Block and Pixel-Subsampling-Based Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba Korah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power and high speed architecture for motion estimation with Candidate Block and Pixel Subsampling (CBPS Algorithm. Coarse-to-fine search approach is employed to find the motion vector so that the local minima problem is totally eliminated. Pixel subsampling is performed in the selected candidate blocks which significantly reduces computational cost with low quality degradation. The architecture developed is a fully pipelined parallel design with 9 processing elements. Two different methods are deployed to reduce the power consumption, parallel and pipelined implementation and parallel accessing to memory. For processing 30 CIF frames per second our architecture requires a clock frequency of 4.5 MHz.

  6. Characterization nanoparticles-based vaccines and vaccine candidates: a Transmission Electron Microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Menéndez I

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM is a valuable tool for the biotech industry. This paper summarizes some of the contributions of MET in the characterization of the recombinant antigens are part of vaccines or vaccine candidates obtained in the CIGB. It mentions the use of complementary techniques MET (Negative staining, and immunoelectron that enhance visualization and ultrastructural characterization of the recombinant proteins obtained by Genetic Engineering.

  7. Identification of Novel Potential Vaccine Candidates against Tuberculosis Based on Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria P. Monterrubio-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic infectious disease, considered as the second leading cause of death worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The limited efficacy of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against pulmonary TB and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB warrants the need for more efficacious vaccines. Reverse vaccinology uses the entire proteome of a pathogen to select the best vaccine antigens by in silico approaches. M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome was analyzed with NERVE (New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment prediction software to identify potential vaccine targets; these 331 proteins were further analyzed with VaxiJen for the determination of their antigenicity value. Only candidates with values ≥0.5 of antigenicity and 50% of adhesin probability and without homology with human proteins or transmembrane regions were selected, resulting in 73 antigens. These proteins were grouped by families in seven groups and analyzed by amino acid sequence alignments, selecting 16 representative proteins. For each candidate, a search of the literature and protein analysis with different bioinformatics tools, as well as a simulation of the immune response, was conducted. Finally, we selected six novel vaccine candidates, EsxL, PE26, PPE65, PE_PGRS49, PBP1, and Erp, from M. tuberculosis that can be used to improve or design new TB vaccines.

  8. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, DV; Lee, W.; D. Li; Liu, J.; Van Den Berg, D.; Thomas, PD; Bergen, AW; Swan, GE; Tyndale, RF; Benowitz, NL; Lerman, C

    2008-01-01

    Although the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence has been previously demonstrated, there is substantial variability among individuals in treatment response. We performed a systems-based candidate gene study of 1295 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 genes within the neuronal nicotinic receptor and dopamine systems to investigate their role in smoking cessation in a bupropion placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Putative functional variants were supplemented w...

  9. Candidate genes and genetic architecture of symbiotic and agronomic traits revealed by whole-genome, sequence-based association genetics in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stanton-Geddes

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS has revolutionized the search for the genetic basis of complex traits. To date, GWAS have generally relied on relatively sparse sampling of nucleotide diversity, which is likely to bias results by preferentially sampling high-frequency SNPs not in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD with causative SNPs. To avoid these limitations we conducted GWAS with >6 million SNPs identified by sequencing the genomes of 226 accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula. We used these data to identify candidate genes and the genetic architecture underlying phenotypic variation in plant height, trichome density, flowering time, and nodulation. The characteristics of candidate SNPs differed among traits, with candidates for flowering time and trichome density in distinct clusters of high linkage disequilibrium (LD and the minor allele frequencies (MAF of candidates underlying variation in flowering time and height significantly greater than MAF of candidates underlying variation in other traits. Candidate SNPs tagged several characterized genes including nodulation related genes SERK2, MtnodGRP3, MtMMPL1, NFP, CaML3, MtnodGRP3A and flowering time gene MtFD as well as uncharacterized genes that become candidates for further molecular characterization. By comparing sequence-based candidates to candidates identified by in silico 250K SNP arrays, we provide an empirical example of how reliance on even high-density reduced representation genomic makers can bias GWAS results. Depending on the trait, only 30-70% of the top 20 in silico array candidates were within 1 kb of sequence-based candidates. Moreover, the sequence-based candidates tagged by array candidates were heavily biased towards common variants; these comparisons underscore the need for caution when interpreting results from GWAS conducted with sparsely covered genomes.

  10. Fast-Solving Quasi-Optimal LS-S$³$VM Based on an Extended Candidate Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuefeng; Liang, Xun; Kwok, James T; Li, Jianping; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-02-14

    The semisupervised least squares support vector machine (LS-S³VM) is an important enhancement of least squares support vector machines in semisupervised learning. Given that most data collected from the real world are without labels, semisupervised approaches are more applicable than standard supervised approaches. Although a few training methods for LS-S³VM exist, the problem of deriving the optimal decision hyperplane efficiently and effectually has not been solved. In this paper, a fully weighted model of LS-S³VM is proposed, and a simple integer programming (IP) model is introduced through an equivalent transformation to solve the model. Based on the distances between the unlabeled data and the decision hyperplane, a new indicator is designed to represent the possibility that the label of an unlabeled datum should be reversed in each iteration during training. Using the indicator, we construct an extended candidate set consisting of the indices of unlabeled data with high possibilities, which integrates more information from unlabeled data. Our algorithm is degenerated into a special scenario of the previous algorithm when the extended candidate set is reduced into a set with only one element. Two strategies are utilized to determine the descent directions based on the extended candidate set. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for locating a good starting point based on the properties of the equivalent IP model. Combined with the extended candidate set and the carefully computed starting point, a fast algorithm to solve LS-S³VM quasi-optimally is proposed. The choice of quasi-optimal solutions results in low computational cost and avoidance of overfitting. Experiments show that our algorithm equipped with the two designed strategies is more effective than other algorithms in at least one of the following three aspects: 1) computational complexity; 2) generalization ability; and 3) flexibility. However, our algorithm and other algorithms have similar

  11. Extending the interview to all medical school candidates--Computer-Based Multiple Sample Evaluation of Noncognitive Skills (CMSENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Kelly L; Reiter, Harold I; Eva, Kevin W; Krueger, Sharyn; Scriven, Edward; Siu, Eric; Hilsden, Shannon; Thomas, Jennifer; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2009-10-01

    Most medical school candidates are excluded without benefit of noncognitive skills assessment. Is development of a noncognitive preinterview screening test that correlates with the well-validated Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) possible? Study 1: 110 medical school candidates completed MMI and Computer-based Multiple Sample Evaluation of Noncognitive Skills (CMSENS)-eight 1-minute video-based scenarios and four self-descriptive questions, with short-answer-response format. Seventy-eight responses were audiotaped, 32 typewritten; all were scored by two independent raters. Study 2: 167 candidates completed CMSENS-eight videos, six self-descriptive questions, typewritten responses only, scored by two raters; 88 of 167 underwent the MMI. Results for overall test generalizability, interrater reliability, and correlation with MMI, respectively, were, for Study 1, audio-responders: 0.86, 0.82, 0.15; typewritten-responders: 0.72, 0.81, 0.51; and for Study 2, 0.83, 0.95, 0.46 (correlation with disattenuation was 0.60). Strong psychometric properties, including MMI correlation, of CMSENS warrant investigation into future widespread implementation as a preinterview noncognitive screening test.

  12. An Investigation of Immunogenicity of Chitosan-Based Botulinum Neurotoxin E Binding Domain Recombinant Candidate Vaccine via Mucosal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Bagheripour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Botulism syndrome is caused by serotypes A-G of neurotoxins of Clostridium genus. Neurotoxin binding domain is an appropriate vaccine candidate due to its immunogenic activity. In this study, the immunogenicity of chitosan-based botulinum neurotoxin E binding domain recombinant candidate vaccine was investigated via mucosal route of administration. Methods: In this experimental study, chitosan nanoparticles containing rBoNT/E protein were synthesized by ionic gelation method and were administered orally and intranasally to mice. After each administration, IgG antibody titer was measured by ELISA method. Finally, all groups were challenged with active botulinum neurotoxin type E. Data were analyzed using Duncan and repeated ANOVA tests. The significance level was considered as p0.05, even intranasal route reduced the immunogenicity.

  13. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingsheng; Chen, Xiaoming; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shukai; Zang, Fuyu; Xing, Jinchao; Zhang, Youyue; Liang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Guihong; Liao, Ming; Qi, Wenbao

    2017-01-01

    In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health. This JEV DNA-based replicon contains a large deletion in the structural genes (C-prM-E). A PRRSV GP5/M was inserted into the deletion position of JEV DNA-based replicons to develop a chimeric replicon vaccine candidate for PRRSV. The results showed that BALB/c mice models with the replicon vaccines pJEV-REP-G-2A-M-IRES and pJEV-REP-G-2A-M stimulated antibody responses and induced a cellular immune response. Analysis of ELSA data showed that vaccination with the replicon vaccine expressing GP5/M induced a better antibodies response than traditional DNA vaccines. Therefore, the results suggested that this ectopic expression system based on JEV DNA-based replicons may represent a useful molecular platform for various biological applications, and the JEV DNA-based replicons expressing GP5/M can be further developed into a novel, safe vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  14. Imputation-based analysis of association studies: candidate regions and quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Servin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new framework for the analysis of association studies, designed to allow untyped variants to be more effectively and directly tested for association with a phenotype. The idea is to combine knowledge on patterns of correlation among SNPs (e.g., from the International HapMap project or resequencing data in a candidate region of interest with genotype data at tag SNPs collected on a phenotyped study sample, to estimate ("impute" unmeasured genotypes, and then assess association between the phenotype and these estimated genotypes. Compared with standard single-SNP tests, this approach results in increased power to detect association, even in cases in which the causal variant is typed, with the greatest gain occurring when multiple causal variants are present. It also provides more interpretable explanations for observed associations, including assessing, for each SNP, the strength of the evidence that it (rather than another correlated SNP is causal. Although we focus on association studies with quantitative phenotype and a relatively restricted region (e.g., a candidate gene, the framework is applicable and computationally practical for whole genome association studies. Methods described here are implemented in a software package, Bim-Bam, available from the Stephens Lab website http://stephenslab.uchicago.edu/software.html.

  15. Finding candidate drugs for hepatitis C based on chemical-chemical and chemical-protein interactions.

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    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an infectious virus that can cause serious illnesses. Only a few drugs have been reported to effectively treat hepatitis C. To have greater diversity in drug choice and better treatment options, it is necessary to develop more drugs to treat the infection. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to discover candidate drugs using experimental methods, and computational methods may complement experimental approaches as a preliminary filtering process. This type of approach was proposed by using known chemical-chemical interactions to extract interactive compounds with three known drug compounds of HCV, and the probabilities of these drug compounds being able to treat hepatitis C were calculated using chemical-protein interactions between the interactive compounds and HCV target genes. Moreover, the randomization test and expectation-maximization (EM algorithm were both employed to exclude false discoveries. Analysis of the selected compounds, including acyclovir and ganciclovir, indicated that some of these compounds had potential to treat the HCV. Hopefully, this proposed method could provide new insights into the discovery of candidate drugs for the treatment of HCV and other diseases.

  16. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians’ head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians’ size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  17. The (w)hole survey: An unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, N.; Verhaar, B. W.; van Terwisga, S.; Merín, B.; Herczeg, G.; Ligterink, N. F. W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, I.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen candidates, selected by their spectral energy distribution (SED), have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased toward the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star-forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 young stellar objects. Using color criteria, we selected a sample of ~150 candidates and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid- and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC-3D disk models with a limited number of parameters: disk mass, inner disk mass, scale height and flaring, and disk cavity radius, where the latter is the main parameter of interest. About 72% of our targets possibly have dust cavities based on the SED. The derived cavity sizes are consistent with imaging/modeling results in the literature, where available. Trends are found with Ldisk over L∗ ratio and stellar mass and a possible connection with exoplanet orbital radii. A comparison with a previous study where color observables are used reveals large overlap between their category of planet-forming disks and our transition disks with cavities. A large number of the new transition disk candidates are suitable for follow-up observations with ALMA. Full Tables 4, 5, A.1-A.3, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  18. A Plasmodium falciparum candidate vaccine based on a six-antigen polyprotein encoded by recombinant poxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Eric; Gilbert, Sarah C; Schneider, Joerg; Moore, Anne C; Sheu, Eric G; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Robson, Kathryn J H; Hill, Adrian V S

    2004-01-06

    To generate broadly protective T cell responses more similar to those acquired after vaccination with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, we have constructed candidate subunit malaria vaccines expressing six preerythrocytic antigens linked together to produce a 3240-aa-long polyprotein (L3SEPTL). This polyprotein was expressed by a plasmid DNA vaccine vector (DNA) and by two attenuated poxvirus vectors, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and fowlpox virus of the FP9 strain. MVAL3SEPTL boosted anti-thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (anti-TRAP) and anti-liver stage antigen 1 (anti-LSA1) CD8(+) T cell responses when primed by single antigen TRAP- or LSA1-expressing DNAs, respectively, but not by DNA-L3SEPTL. However, prime boost regimes involving two heterologous viral vectors expressing L3SEPTL induced a strong cellular response directed against an LSA1 peptide located in the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Peptide-specific T cells secreted IFN-gamma and were cytotoxic. IFN-gamma-secreting T cells specific for each of the six antigens were induced after vaccination with L3SEPTL, supporting the use of polyprotein inserts to induce multispecific T cells against P. falciparum. The use of polyprotein constructs in nonreplicating poxviruses should broaden the target antigen range of vaccine-induced immunity and increase the number of potential epitopes available for immunogenetically diverse human populations.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Lipooligosaccharide-Based Conjugates as Vaccine Candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin-Xing; Chen, Jing; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Robbins, John B.; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Lim, David J.; Battey, James

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The detoxified LOS (dLOS) was coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high-molecular-weight proteins (HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and HMP conjugates were 19:1 and 31:1, respectively. The antigenicity of the two conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of both conjugates elicited a 50- to 100-fold rise in the geometric mean of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the homologous LOS in mice after three injections and a 350- to 700-fold rise of anti-LOS IgG in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced antisera had complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain and heterologous strains of M. catarrhalis. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate for immunization against M. catarrhalis diseases. PMID:9573066

  20. A meta-analysis based method for prioritizing candidate genes involved in a pre-specific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes associated with a given biological function in plants remains a challenge, although network-based gene prioritization algorithms have been developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and many non-model plant species. Nevertheless, these network-based gene prioritization algorithms have encountered several problems; one in particular is that of unsatisfactory prediction accuracy due to limited network coverage, varying link quality, and/or uncertain network connectivity. Thus a model that integrates complementary biological data may be expected to increase the prediction accuracy of gene prioritization. Towards this goal, we developed a novel gene prioritization method named RafSee, to rank candidate genes using a random forest algorithm that integrates sequence, evolutionary, and epigenetic features of plants. Subsequently, we proposed an integrative approach named RAP (Rank Aggregation-based data fusion for gene Prioritization, in which an order statistics-based meta-analysis was used to aggregate the rank of the network-based gene prioritization method and RafSee, for accurately prioritizing candidate genes involved in a pre-specific biological function. Finally, we showcased the utility of RAP by prioritizing 380 flowering-time genes in Arabidopsis. The ‘leave-one-out’ cross-validation experiment showed that RafSee could work as a complement to a current state-of-art network-based gene prioritization system (AraNet v2. Moreover, RAP ranked 53.68% (204/380 flowering-time genes higher than AraNet v2, resulting in an 39.46% improvement in term of the first quartile rank. Further evaluations also showed that RAP was effective in prioritizing genes-related to different abiotic stresses. To enhance the usability of RAP for Arabidopsis and non-model plant species, an R package implementing the method is freely available at http://bioinfo.nwafu.edu.cn/software.

  1. Phylogeography, salinity adaptations and metabolic potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria based on a partial single cell genome.

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    Lisa M Nigro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that has been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome (SAG of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source.

  2. Tsunami-HySEA: A GPU based model for the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vida, Jose Manuel; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel; de la Asuncion, Marc; Melini, Daniele; Romano, Fabrizio; Tonini, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Molinari, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Service Providers (TSP), providing tsunami warnings in the framework of the systems coordinated by IOC/UNESCO worldwide, and other national tsunami warning centers, are striving to complement, or replace, decision matrices and pre-calculated tsunami scenario databases with FTRT (Faster Than Real Time) tsunami simulations. The aim is to increase the accuracy of tsunami forecast by assimilating the largest possible amount of data in quasi real time, and performing simulations in a few minutes wall-clock time, possibly including the coastal inundation stage. This strategy of direct real time computation, that could seem unfeasible a decade ago, it is now foreseeable thanks to the astonishingly recent increase in the computational power and bandwidth evolution of modern GPUs. The INGV in collaboration with the EDANYA Group (University of Málaga) are developing and implementing a FTRT Tsunami Simulation approach for the Italian candidate TSP, namely the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT), which is in pre-operational stage starting from 1 October 2014, in the 24/7 seismic monitoring room at INGV. The mandate of CAT is to provide warnings for potential tsunamis within the Mediterranean basin to its subscribers, in the framework of NEAMTWS (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70:neamtws-home&catid=9&Itemid=14&lang=es). CAT also performs global monitoring, for continuous testing, training, and validation purposes. The tsunami-HySEA model, developed by EDANYA Group, implements in the same code the three phases of an earthquake generated tsunami: generation, propagation and coastal inundation. At the same time it is implemented in nested meshes with different resolution and multi-GPU environment, which allows much faster than real time simulations. The challenge set by the Italian TSP for warning in the NEAMTWS region is twofold: to be able to reasonably constrain the earthquake source in the absence of deep sea tsunami sensors, and to

  3. Predicting Dissertation Methodology Choice among Doctoral Candidates at a Faith-Based University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has investigated dissertation methodology choice and the factors that contribute to this choice. Quantitative research is based in mathematics and scientific positivism, and qualitative research is based in constructivism. These underlying philosophical differences posit the question if certain factors predict dissertation…

  4. Optimized candidal biofilm microtiter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Bastiaan P.; Cohen, Jesse B.; Feser, Gail E. McElhaney; Cihlar, Ronald L.

    Microtiter based candidal biofilm formation is commonly being used. Here we describe the analysis of factors influencing the development of candidal biofilms such as the coating with serum, growth medium and pH. The data reported here show that optimal candidal biofilm formation is obtained when

  5. Inferior immunogenicity and efficacy of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein-based subunit vaccine candidates in aged versus young mice.

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    Corinne Cayatte

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is recognized as an important cause of lower and upper respiratory tract infections in older adults, and a successful vaccine would substantially lower morbidity and mortality in this age group. Recently, two vaccine candidates based on soluble purified glycoprotein F (RSV F, either alone or adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, failed to reach their primary endpoints in clinical efficacy studies, despite demonstrating the desired immunogenicity profile and efficacy in young rodent models. Here, one of the RSV F vaccine candidates (post-fusion conformation, RSV post-F, and a stabilized pre-fusion form of RSV F (RSV pre-F, DS-Cav1 were evaluated in aged BALB/c mice. Humoral and cellular immunogenicity elicited after immunization of naïve, aged mice was generally lower compared to young animals. In aged mice, RSV post-F vaccination without adjuvant poorly protected the respiratory tract from virus replication, and addition of GLA-SE only improved protection in the lungs, but not in nasal turbinates. RSV pre-F induced higher neutralizing antibody titers compared to RSV post-F (as previously reported but interestingly, RSV F-specific CD8 T cell responses were lower compared to RSV post-F responses regardless of age. The vaccines were also tested in RSV seropositive aged mice, in which both antigen forms similarly boosted neutralizing antibody titers, although GLA-SE addition boosted neutralizing activity only in RSV pre-F immunized animals. Cell-mediated immune responses in the aged mice were only slightly boosted and well below levels induced in seronegative young mice. Taken together, the findings suggest that the vaccine candidates were not able to induce a strong anti-RSV immune response in recipient mice with an aged immune system, in agreement with recent human clinical trial results. Therefore, the aged mouse model could be a useful tool to evaluate improved vaccine

  6. Biotransformation of prednisone and dexamethasone by cytochrome P450 based systems - Identification of new potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Kiss, Flora Marta; Schmitz, Daniela; Zapp, Josef; Hutter, Michael C; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-01-20

    Prednisone and dexamethasone are synthetic glucocorticoids widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Since their hydroxylated derivatives could serve as novel potential drug candidates, our aim was to investigate their biotransformation by the steroid hydroxylase CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC13368. In vitro we were able to demonstrate highly selective 15β-hydroxylation of the steroids with a reconstituted CYP106A2 system. The reactions were thoroughly characterized, determining the kinetic parameters and the equilibrium dissociation constant. The observed lower conversion rate in the case of dexamethasone hydroxylation was clarified by quantum chemical calculations, which suggest a rearrangement of the intermediately formed radical species. To identify the obtained conversion products with NMR, CYP106A2-based Bacillus megaterium whole-cell systems were applied resulting in an altered product pattern for prednisone, yet no significant change for dexamethasone conversion compared to in vitro. Even the MS941 control strain performed a highly selective biotransformation of prednisone producing the known metabolite 20β-dihydrocortisone. The identified novel prednisone derivatives 15β, 17, 20β, 21-tetrahydroxy-preg-4-en-3,11-dione and 15β, 17, 20β, 21-tetrahydroxy-preg-1,4-dien-3,11-dione as well as the 15β-hydroxylated variants of both drugs are promising candidates for drug-design and development approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Problem-Based Learning in the Educational Psychology Classroom: Bahraini Teacher Candidates' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Nina Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There was a concern from faculty at Bahrain Teachers' College that undergraduate Bahraini students lack the necessary competencies needed for success in educational contexts that are conducive to active, student-centered learning. It was decided that the students be introduced to a problem-based learning (PBL) strategy in one of their educational…

  8. Usability of a Web-Based School Experience System: Opinions of IT Teachers and Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Zülfü

    2015-01-01

    With advances in information and communication technologies, the classical nature of educational institutions has changed. One innovative effort within teacher training is the Web-Based School Experience System (WBSES) developed by the researcher. In this study, the usability of an existing WBSES is evaluated from both teachers' (n = 13) and…

  9. Pharmacokinetics of the phage endolysin-based candidate drug SAL200 in monkeys and its appropriate intravenous dosing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Youm, So Young; Han, Hyoung-Yun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    SAL200 is a new phage endolysin-based candidate drug for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. An intravenous administration study was conducted in monkeys to obtain pharmacokinetic information on SAL200 and to assess the safety of a short SAL200 dosing period (<1 week). Maximum serum drug concentrations and systemic SAL200 exposure were proportional to the dose and comparable in male and female monkeys. SAL200 was well tolerated, and no adverse events or laboratory abnormalities were detected after injection of a single dose of up to 80 mg/kg per day, or injection of multiple doses of up to 40 mg/kg per day. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Genre-based Scaffolding on Research Paper Writing of MA Candidates in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salehpour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on genre-based approaches to writing instruction. However, scant attention has been paid to the use of genre-based scaffolding in the realm of academic writing. Hence, in an attempt to tackle the problems prevalent in academic writing, this study set out to investigate the effect of genre-based scaffolding through sentence starters and writing frames on MA candidates’ research paper writing. To this end, twenty MA candidates majoring in ELT were randomly assigned to two homogenous groups, one control and one experimental group, each including 10 participants. Both groups were exposed to a five-session genre-based instruction while the experimental group benefitted from the additional provision of sentence starters and writing frames relevant to different sections of a research paper. The analysis of the results, using independent sample of t-test, reveals that genre-based instruction can be a useful tool in improving academic writing. Moreover, the outperformance of the participants of the experimental group is indicative of the beneficial effect of scaffolding through starters and frames.

  11. Investigation of candidate data structures and search algorithms to support a knowledge based fault diagnosis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Edward L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The focus of this research is the investigation of data structures and associated search algorithms for automated fault diagnosis of complex systems such as the Hubble Space Telescope. Such data structures and algorithms will form the basis of a more sophisticated Knowledge Based Fault Diagnosis System. As a part of the research, several prototypes were written in VAXLISP and implemented on one of the VAX-11/780's at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This report describes and gives the rationale for both the data structures and algorithms selected. A brief discussion of a user interface is also included.

  12. Investigation of candidate genes for osteoarthritis based on gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuanghai; Xia, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2016-12-01

    To explore the mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA) and provide valid biological information for further investigation. Gene expression profile of GSE46750 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Linear Models for Microarray Data (limma) package (Bioconductor project, http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/limma.html) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in inflamed OA samples. Gene Ontology function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed based on Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery data, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. Regulatory network was screened based on Encyclopedia of DNA Elements. Molecular Complex Detection was used for sub-network screening. Two sub-networks with highest node degree were integrated with transcriptional regulatory network and KEGG functional enrichment analysis was processed for 2 modules. In total, 401 up- and 196 down-regulated DEGs were obtained. Up-regulated DEGs were involved in inflammatory response, while down-regulated DEGs were involved in cell cycle. PPI network with 2392 protein interactions was constructed. Moreover, 10 genes including Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Aurora B kinase (AURKB) were found to be outstanding in PPI network. There are 214 up- and 8 down-regulated transcription factor (TF)-target pairs in the TF regulatory network. Module 1 had TFs including SPI1, PRDM1, and FOS, while module 2 contained FOSL1. The nodes in module 1 were enriched in chemokine signaling pathway, while the nodes in module 2 were mainly enriched in cell cycle. The screened DEGs including IL6, AGT, and AURKB might be potential biomarkers for gene therapy for OA by being regulated by TFs such as FOS and SPI1, and participating in the cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor

  13. Key enzymes and proteins of crop insects as candidate for RNAi based gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P.; Madhav, Maganti Sheshu; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of homology dependent gene silencing present in plants and animals. It operates through 21–24 nucleotides small RNAs which are processed through a set of core enzymatic machinery that involves Dicer and Argonaute proteins. In recent past, the technology has been well appreciated toward the control of plant pathogens and insects through suppression of key genes/proteins of infecting organisms. The genes encoding key enzymes/proteins with the great potential for developing an effective insect control by RNAi approach are actylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, amino peptidase N, allatostatin, allatotropin, tryptophan oxygenase, arginine kinase, vacuolar ATPase, chitin synthase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, trehalose phosphate synthase, vitellogenin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and hormone receptor genes. Through various studies, it is demonstrated that RNAi is a reliable molecular tool which offers great promises in meeting the challenges imposed by crop insects with careful selection of key enzymes/proteins. Utilization of RNAi tool to target some of these key proteins of crop insects through various approaches is described here. The major challenges of RNAi based insect control such as identifying potential targets, delivery methods of silencing trigger, off target effects, and complexity of insect biology are very well illustrated. Further, required efforts to address these challenges are also discussed. PMID:25954206

  14. Exploration of candidate biomarkers for human psoriasis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Li, X; Zhou, Q; Quan, C; Xue, F; Zheng, J; Yu, Y

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that dysregulated metabolic pathways are linked to psoriasis pathogenesis. However, an extensive, unbiased metabolic analysis in patients with psoriasis has not been completely explored. The metabolome represents the end products of proteomics or cellular processes that may be closely associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To determine the differences in serum metabolomic profiles among patients with psoriasis and healthy controls with the goal of identifying potential biomarkers in patients with psoriasis. Serum metabolomic profiles from 29 subjects (14 patients with psoriasis and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls). The serum metabolites were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based on a combined full scan and selected-ion monitoring mode. Multivariate statistical analysis of metabolomics data revealed altered serum metabolites between the patients with psoriasis and healthy individuals. Compared with healthy individuals, patients with psoriasis had higher levels of amino acids including asparagine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, phenylalanine, ornithine and proline; higher levels of lactic acid and urea; and lower levels of crotonic acid, azelaic acid, ethanolamine and cholesterol. It appears that the glycolysis pathway and amino acid metabolic activity are increased in patients with psoriasis. These metabolic perturbations may stem from increased demand for protein biosynthesis and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Our findings may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of psoriasis and provide insights into early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and has a potential to increase the

  16. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  17. Losing on all fronts: the effects of negative versus positive person-based campaigns on implicit and explicit evaluations of political candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luciana; Gawronski, Bertram; Castelli, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    The current research investigated the effects of negative as compared to positive person-based political campaigns on explicit and implicit evaluations of the involved candidates. Participants were presented with two political candidates and statements that one of them ostensibly said during the last political campaign. For half of the participants, the campaign included positive remarks about the source of the statement (positive campaign); for the remaining half, the campaign included negative remarks about the opponent (negative campaign). Afterwards, participants completed measures of explicit and implicit evaluations of both candidates. Results indicate that explicit evaluations of the source, but not the opponent, were less favourable after negative as compared to positive campaigns. In contrast, implicit evaluations were less favourable for both candidates after negative campaigns. The results are discussed in terms of associative and propositional processes, highlighting the importance of associative processes in political decision making.

  18. Exploring the Altruistic Expectations of Teacher Candidates Enrolled in Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Mixed Methods Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buel, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods research design, crafted as a phenomenological study, and developed through a lens of critical social theory, was conducted to explore the altruistic expectation level of teacher candidates. Further, the research questions and hypotheses reflect the problem that many well-meaning teacher candidates enter the teaching profession…

  19. An LC-MS/MS based candidate reference method for the quantification of carbamazepine in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibon, Judith; Schmid, Rupert; Lucha, Stephanie; Pongratz, Stephan; Tarasov, Kirill; Seger, Christoph; Timm, Christian; Thiele, Roland; Herlan, Joachim Mark; Kobold, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    A validated LC-MS/MS-based candidate reference measurement procedure for the quantification of carbamazepine is presented in order to be used for standardization and harmonization of routine assays applied for therapeutic drug monitoring. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation using acetonitrile followed by sample dilution. Since the previously listed certified reference material (CRM) SRM 1599 (anticonvulsant drug level assay standard) is no longer available, an ISO certified calibration material was used in this assay. As internal standards deuterated analyte congeners were applied. The method allows the measurement of carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine in the concentration range of 0.1 to 22.0μg/ml with LODs and LOQs of <0.1μg/ml and 0.1μg/ml, respectively. Comparative measurement of 105 native patient samples using the here presented method showed a good agreement between two independent laboratories with a mean bias of 0.6%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative testing of six antigen-based malaria vaccine candidates directed toward merozoite-stage Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Cavanagh, David R; Remarque, Edmond J

    2008-01-01

    Immunogenicity testing of Plasmodium falciparum antigens being considered as malaria vaccine candidates was undertaken in rabbits. The antigens compared were recombinant baculovirus MSP-1(19) and five Pichia pastoris candidates, including two versions of MSP-1(19), AMA-1 (domains I and II), AMA-1......G concentrations. The two P. pastoris-produced MSP-1(19)-induced IgGs conferred the lowest growth inhibition. Comparative analysis of immunogenicity of vaccine antigens can be used to prioritize candidates before moving to expensive GMP production and clinical testing. The assays used have given discriminating...

  1. Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourse, E. James, E-mail: james.la-course@liverpool.ac.u [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Jefferies, James R. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Barrett, John [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A.; Kille, Peter [Biosciences, University of Cardiff, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Brophy, Peter M. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This study provides greater understanding of Phase II detoxification GST superfamily status of an important environmental pollution sentinel organism. - This study currently provides the most comprehensive view of the Phase II detoxification enzyme superfamily of glutathione transferases within the important environmental pollution sentinel earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  2. Jenner-predict server: prediction of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) in bacteria based on host-pathogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins have been effective in preventing infectious diseases and are expected to meet the demands of future vaccine development. Computational approach, especially reverse vaccinology (RV) method has enormous potential for identification of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) from a proteome. The existing protective antigen prediction software and web servers have low prediction accuracy leading to limited applications for vaccine development. Besides machine learning techniques, those software and web servers have considered only protein’s adhesin-likeliness as criterion for identification of PVCs. Several non-adhesin functional classes of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are known to provide protection against bacterial infections. Therefore, knowledge of bacterial pathogenesis has potential to identify PVCs. Results A web server, Jenner-Predict, has been developed for prediction of PVCs from proteomes of bacterial pathogens. The web server targets host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis by considering known functional domains from protein classes such as adhesin, virulence, invasin, porin, flagellin, colonization, toxin, choline-binding, penicillin-binding, transferring-binding, fibronectin-binding and solute-binding. It predicts non-cytosolic proteins containing above domains as PVCs. It also provides vaccine potential of PVCs in terms of their possible immunogenicity by comparing with experimentally known IEDB epitopes, absence of autoimmunity and conservation in different strains. Predicted PVCs are prioritized so that only few prospective PVCs could be validated experimentally. The performance of web server was evaluated against known protective antigens from diverse classes of bacteria reported in Protegen database and datasets used for VaxiJen server development. The web server efficiently predicted known vaccine candidates reported from Streptococcus pneumoniae and

  3. Jenner-predict server: prediction of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) in bacteria based on host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Rajinder S; Rout, Chittaranjan

    2013-07-01

    Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins have been effective in preventing infectious diseases and are expected to meet the demands of future vaccine development. Computational approach, especially reverse vaccinology (RV) method has enormous potential for identification of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) from a proteome. The existing protective antigen prediction software and web servers have low prediction accuracy leading to limited applications for vaccine development. Besides machine learning techniques, those software and web servers have considered only protein's adhesin-likeliness as criterion for identification of PVCs. Several non-adhesin functional classes of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are known to provide protection against bacterial infections. Therefore, knowledge of bacterial pathogenesis has potential to identify PVCs. A web server, Jenner-Predict, has been developed for prediction of PVCs from proteomes of bacterial pathogens. The web server targets host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis by considering known functional domains from protein classes such as adhesin, virulence, invasin, porin, flagellin, colonization, toxin, choline-binding, penicillin-binding, transferring-binding, fibronectin-binding and solute-binding. It predicts non-cytosolic proteins containing above domains as PVCs. It also provides vaccine potential of PVCs in terms of their possible immunogenicity by comparing with experimentally known IEDB epitopes, absence of autoimmunity and conservation in different strains. Predicted PVCs are prioritized so that only few prospective PVCs could be validated experimentally. The performance of web server was evaluated against known protective antigens from diverse classes of bacteria reported in Protegen database and datasets used for VaxiJen server development. The web server efficiently predicted known vaccine candidates reported from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

  4. Prioritizing Disease Candidate Proteins in Cardiomyopathy-Specific Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Based on “Guilt by Association” Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiming; Li, Weiguo; Qu, Xiaoli; Liang, Binhua; Gao, Qianping; Feng, Chenchen; Jia, Xu; Lv, Yana; Zhang, Siya; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    The cardiomyopathies are a group of heart muscle diseases which can be inherited (familial). Identifying potential disease-related proteins is important to understand mechanisms of cardiomyopathies. Experimental identification of cardiomyophthies is costly and labour-intensive. In contrast, bioinformatics approach has a competitive advantage over experimental method. Based on “guilt by association” analysis, we prioritized candidate proteins involving in human cardiomyopathies. We first built weighted human cardiomyopathy-specific protein-protein interaction networks for three subtypes of cardiomyopathies using the known disease proteins from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man as seeds. We then developed a method in prioritizing disease candidate proteins to rank candidate proteins in the network based on “guilt by association” analysis. It was found that most candidate proteins with high scores shared disease-related pathways with disease seed proteins. These top ranked candidate proteins were related with the corresponding disease subtypes, and were potential disease-related proteins. Cross-validation and comparison with other methods indicated that our approach could be used for the identification of potentially novel disease proteins, which may provide insights into cardiomyopathy-related mechanisms in a more comprehensive and integrated way. PMID:23940716

  5. Novel Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccines: evidence-based searching for variant surface antigens as candidates for vaccination against pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Jensen, Anja T R; Theander, Thor G

    2002-01-01

    Malaria vaccine development has traditionally concentrated on careful molecular, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of candidate antigens. In contrast, evidence of the importance of identified antigens in immunity to human infection and disease has generally been limited......) in particular, to provide robust evidence of a causal link between the two in order to allow efficient and evidence-based identification of candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development....... to statistically significant co-variation with protection rather than on demonstration of causal relationships. We have studied the relationship between variant surface antigen-specific antibodies and clinical protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria in general, and from pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM...

  6. Temperature stabilizes rough Au/Ge(001) surface reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Kaori; Sanna, Simone; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2018-01-01

    The temperature-dependent energetics of self-assembled Au nanowires on Ge(001) surfaces is studied with the help of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations: By calculating the surface phonon modes within harmonic approximation the surface vibrational free energy is obtained to complement the zero-temperature DFT total energies. We consider several previously suggested structural models for a Au coverage between 0.75 and 1.75 monolayer and investigate a temperature range between 0 and 900 K. The stability of the investigated surface models is found to depend clearly on temperature. We find that the extended Ge bridge dimer model previously predicted to be most stable for a large range of preparation conditions is less prominent in the phase diagrams for finite temperatures. On the other hand, a model derived previously from the giant missing row structure with a higher Au coverage gets stabilized by temperature. These findings explain, at least partially, the discrepancies between experimental data and previous theoretical investigations neglecting temperature effects.

  7. Identification of HSPA8 as a candidate biomarker for endometrial carcinoma by using iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nianchun Shan,1 Wei Zhou,2 Shufen Zhang,1 Yu Zhang1 1Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, 2Health Management Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although there are advances in diagnostic, predictive, and therapeutic strategies, discovering protein biomarker for early detection is required for improving the survival rate of the patients with endometrial carcinoma. In this study, we identify proteins that are differentially expressed between the Stage I endometrial carcinoma and the normal pericarcinous tissues by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis. Totally, we screened 1,266 proteins. Among them, 103 proteins were significantly overexpressed, and 30 were significantly downexpressed in endometrial carcinoma. Using the bioinformatics analysis, we identified a list of proteins that might be closely associated with endometrial carcinoma, including CCT7, HSPA8, PCBP2, LONP1, PFN1, and EEF2. We validated the gene overexpression of these molecules in the endometrial carcinoma tissues and found that HSPA8 was most significantly upregulated. We further validated the overexpression of HSPA8 by using immunoblot analysis. Then, HSPA8 siRNA was transferred into the endometrial cancer cells RL-95-2 and HEC-1B. The depletion of HSPA8 siRNAs significantly reduced cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell growth in both cell lines. Taken together, HSPA8 plays a vital role in the development of endometrial carcinoma. HSPA8 is a candidate biomarker for early diagnosis and therapy of Stage I endometrial carcinoma. Keywords: iTRAQ, HSPA8, endometrial carcinoma, RL-95-2 cells

  8. The effects of CpG-ODNs and Chitosan adjuvants on the elicitation of immune responses induced by the HIV-1-Tat-based candidate vaccines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Samira; Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Abdoli, Asghar

    2017-03-01

    HIV1-Tat-based vaccines could elicit broad, durable and neutralizing immune responses and are considered as potential AIDS vaccines. The present study aims to formulate CpG-ODNs adjuvant and Chitosan with Tat protein to enhance the immunogenicity of HIV-1-Tat-based candidate vaccines and to investigate their efficacies in mice. To this end, we added CpG-ODNs, Chitosan and Alum as adjuvants to the Tat-based candidate vaccine formulations. Then, we compared frequency and magnitude of both humoral and cellular immune responses from mice immunized with the adjuvant-formulated Tat candidate vaccines against those obtained from mice immunized with recombinant Tat protein alone. Mice were subcutaneously immunized three times at 2-week intervals with the candidate vaccines. Measurements of anti-Tat immune responses showed that all vaccinated groups had a good immunity compared to the control groups and developed high levels of both humoral and cellular responses. However, immunized mice with CpG-ODNs, and Chitosan-adjuvanted Tat vaccines elicited stronger T-cell responses (both humoral and cellular immunity) compared to the others. These data suggest that co-administration of recombinant Tat protein with CpG-ODNs and Chitosan may serve as a potential formulation for enhancing of the Tat vaccine-induced immunity and might have effects on shaping Th polarization induced by HIV1-Tat protein vaccines. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Candidate Genes Within Tissue Culture Regeneration QTL Revisited with a Linkage Map Based on Transcript Derived Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green plant regeneration from tissue culture is under the genetic control of multiple genes. Candidate genes for regeneration have been identified in multiple species using QTL and microarray analyses, and some of these genes have been verified as improving regeneration through transformation. Multi...

  10. Long-term creep rupture strength of weldment of Fe-Ni based alloy as candidate tube and pipe for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Laboratory; Marumoto, Yoshihide [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2010-07-01

    A lot of works have been going to develop 700C USC power plant in Europe and Japan. High strength Ni based alloys such as Alloy 617, Alloy 740 and Alloy 263 were the candidates for boiler tube and pipe in Europe, and Fe-Ni based alloy HR6W (45Ni-24Fe-23Cr-7W-Ti) is also a candidate for tube and pipe in Japan. One of the Key issues to achieve 700 C boilers is the welding process of these alloys. Authors investigated the weldability and the long-term creep rupture strength of HR6W tube. The weldments were investigated metallurgically to find proper welding procedure and creep rupture tests are ongoing exceed 38,000 hours. The long-term creep rupture strengths of the HST weld joints are similar to those of parent metals and integrity of the weldments was confirmed based on with other mechanical testing results. (orig.)

  11. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate universal influenza A nanovaccines produced in plants by Tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, Natalia V; Gasanova, Tatiana V; Stepanova, Liudmila A; Rusova, Oxana A; Potapchuk, Marina V; Korotkov, Alexandr V; Skurat, Eugene V; Tsybalova, Liudmila M; Kiselev, Oleg I; Ivanov, Peter A; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for super-expression of the influenza virus epitope M2e in plants has been developed on the basis of a recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, strain U1) genome designed for Agrobacterium-mediated delivery into the plant cell nucleus. The TMV coat protein (CP) served as a carrier and three versions of the M2e sequence were inserted into the surface loop between amino acid residues 155 and 156. Cysteine residues in the heterologous peptide were thought likely to impede efficient assembly of chimeric particles. Therefore, viral vectors TMV-M2e-ala and TMV-M2e-ser were constructed in which cysteine codons 17 and 19 of the M2e epitope were substituted by codons for serine or alanine. Agroinfiltration experiments proved that the chimeric viruses were capable of systemically infecting Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Antisera raised against TMV-M2e-ala virions appear to contain far more antibodies specific to influenza virus M2e than those specific to TMV carrier particle (ratio 5:1). Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the 2-epitopes were uniformly distributed and tightly packed on the surface of the chimeric TMV virions. Apparently, the majority of the TMV CP-specific epitopes in the chimeric TMV-M2e particles are hidden from the immune system by the M2e epitopes exposed on the particle surface. The profile of IgG subclasses after immunization of mice with TMV-M2e-ser and TMV-M2e-ala was evaluated. Immunization with TMV-M2e-ala induced a significant difference between the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a (IgG1/IgG2a=3.2). Mice immunized with the chimeric viruses were resistant to five lethal doses (LD50) of the homologous influenza virus strain, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and TMV-M2e-ala also gave partial protection (5LD50, 70% of survival rate) against a heterologous strain influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) (4 amino acid changes in M2e). These results indicate that a new generation candidate universal nanovaccine against influenza based on a recombinant TMV

  12. Bioinformatics Approach Based Research of Profile Protein Carbonic Anhydrase II Analysis as a Potential Candidate Cause Autism for The Variation of Learning Subjects Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.

  13. Metabolomics-based approach for ranking the candidate structures of unidentified peaks in capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori

    2017-04-01

    One of the technical challenges encountered during metabolomics research is determining the chemical structures of unidentified peaks. We have developed a metabolomics-based chemoinformatics approach for ranking the candidate structures of unidentified peaks. Our approach uses information about the known metabolites detected in samples containing unidentified peaks and involves three discrete steps. The first step involves identifying "precursor/product metabolites" as potential reactants or products derived from the unidentified peaks. In the second step, candidate structures for the unidentified peak are searched against the PubChem database using a molecular formula. These structures are then ranked by structural similarity against precursor/product metabolites and candidate structures. In the third step, the migration time is predicted to refine the candidate structures. Two simulation studies were conducted to highlight the efficacy of our approach, including the use of 20 proteinogenic amino acids as pseudo-unidentified peaks, and leave-one-out experiments for all of the annotated metabolites with and without filtering against the Human Metabolome Database. We also applied our approach to two unidentified peaks in a urine sample, which were identified as glycocyamidine and N-acetylglycine. These results suggest that our approach could be used to identify unidentified peaks during metabolomics analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantitative iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Diabetic Nephropathy in Plasma of Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Thingholm, Tine Engberg; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    immunoassay confirmed the overall protein expression patterns observed by the iTRAQ analysis. CONCLUSION: The candidate biomarkers discovered in this cross-sectional cohort may turn out to be progression biomarkers and might have several clinical applications in the treatment and monitoring of diabetic......INTRODUCTION: As part of a clinical proteomics programme focused on diabetes and its complications, it was our goal to investigate the proteome of plasma in order to find improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Proteins derived from plasma from a cross......-sectional cohort of 123 type 1 diabetic patients previously diagnosed as normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric were enriched with hexapeptide library beads and subsequently pooled within three groups. Proteins from the three groups were compared by online liquid chromatography and tandem mass...

  15. Identification of candidate domestication regions in the radish genome based on high-depth resequencing analysis of 17 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Young-Min; Jeong, Seongmun; Kim, Goon-Bo; Baek, Seunghoon; Kwon, Young-Eun; Cho, Ara; Choi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jiwoong; Lim, Won-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Park, Won; Kim, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Yim, Bomi; Lee, Young Joon; Chun, Byung-Moon; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    This study provides high-quality variation data of diverse radish genotypes. Genome-wide SNP comparison along with RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes related to domestication that have potential as trait-related markers for genetics and breeding of radish. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an annual root vegetable crop that also encompasses diverse wild species. Radish has a long history of domestication, but the origins and selective sweep of cultivated radishes remain controversial. Here, we present comprehensive whole-genome resequencing analysis of radish to explore genomic variation between the radish genotypes and to identify genetic bottlenecks due to domestication in Asian cultivars. High-depth resequencing and multi-sample genotyping analysis of ten cultivated and seven wild accessions obtained 4.0 million high-quality homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/insertions or deletions. Variation analysis revealed that Asian cultivated radish types are closely related to wild Asian accessions, but are distinct from European/American cultivated radishes, supporting the notion that Asian cultivars were domesticated from wild Asian genotypes. SNP comparison between Asian genotypes identified 153 candidate domestication regions (CDRs) containing 512 genes. Network analysis of the genes in CDRs functioning in plant signaling pathways and biochemical processes identified group of genes related to root architecture, cell wall, sugar metabolism, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Expression profiling of the genes during root development suggested that domestication-related selective advantages included a main taproot with few branched lateral roots, reduced cell wall rigidity and favorable taste. Overall, this study provides evolutionary insights into domestication-related genetic selection in radish as well as identification of gene candidates with the potential to act as trait-related markers for background selection of elite lines in molecular

  16. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulsegge, Ina; Woelders, Henri; Smits, Mari

    2013-01-01

    and processes in brain areas and pituitary involved in reproductive traits in cattle using information derived from three different data sources: gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and literature. We identified 59, 89, 53, 23, and 71 genes in bovine amygdala, dorsal hypothalamus, hippocampus......, pituitary, and ventral hypothalamus, respectively, potentially involved in processes underlying estrus and estrous behavior. Functional annotation of the candidate genes points to a number of tissue-specific processes of which the "neurotransmitter/ion channel/synapse" process in the amygdala, "steroid...

  17. VennPainter: A Tool for the Comparison and Identification of Candidate Genes Based on Venn Diagrams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Lin

    Full Text Available VennPainter is a program for depicting unique and shared sets of genes lists and generating Venn diagrams, by using the Qt C++ framework. The software produces Classic Venn, Edwards' Venn and Nested Venn diagrams and allows for eight sets in a graph mode and 31 sets in data processing mode only. In comparison, previous programs produce Classic Venn and Edwards' Venn diagrams and allow for a maximum of six sets. The software incorporates user-friendly features and works in Windows, Linux and Mac OS. Its graphical interface does not require a user to have programing skills. Users can modify diagram content for up to eight datasets because of the Scalable Vector Graphics output. VennPainter can provide output results in vertical, horizontal and matrix formats, which facilitates sharing datasets as required for further identification of candidate genes. Users can obtain gene lists from shared sets by clicking the numbers on the diagram. Thus, VennPainter is an easy-to-use, highly efficient, cross-platform and powerful program that provides a more comprehensive tool for identifying candidate genes and visualizing the relationships among genes or gene families in comparative analysis.

  18. Generation and Characterization of Live Attenuated Influenza A(H7N9 Candidate Vaccine Virus Based on Russian Donor of Attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shcherbik

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A (H7N9 virus has emerged recently and continues to cause severe disease with a high mortality rate in humans prompting the development of candidate vaccine viruses. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV are 6:2 reassortant viruses containing the HA and NA gene segments from wild type influenza viruses to induce protective immune responses and the six internal genes from Master Donor Viruses (MDV to provide temperature sensitive, cold-adapted and attenuated phenotypes.LAIV candidate A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9-CDC-LV7A (abbreviated as CDC-LV7A, based on the Russian MDV, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2, was generated by classical reassortment in eggs and retained MDV temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotypes. CDC-LV7A had two amino acid substitutions N123D and N149D (H7 numbering in HA and one substitution T10I in NA. To evaluate the role of these mutations on the replication capacity of the reassortants in eggs, the recombinant viruses A(H7N9RG-LV1 and A(H7N9RG-LV2 were generated by reverse genetics. These changes did not alter virus antigenicity as ferret antiserum to CDC-LV7A vaccine candidate inhibited hemagglutination by homologous A(H7N9 virus efficiently. Safety studies in ferrets confirmed that CDC-LV7A was attenuated compared to wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013. In addition, the genetic stability of this vaccine candidate was examined in eggs and ferrets by monitoring sequence changes acquired during virus replication in the two host models. No changes in the viral genome were detected after five passages in eggs. However, after ten passages additional mutations were detected in the HA gene. The vaccine candidate was shown to be stable in the ferret model; post-vaccination sequence data analysis showed no changes in viruses collected in nasal washes present at day 5 or day 7.Our data indicate that the A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9-CDC-LV7A reassortant virus is a safe and genetically stable candidate vaccine virus that is now available for

  19. Integration of gene-based markers in a pearl millet genetic map for identification of candidate genes underlying drought tolerance quantitative trait loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Deepmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes underlying drought tolerance (DT quantitative trait loci (QTLs will facilitate understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also will accelerate genetic improvement of pearl millet through marker-assisted selection. We report a map based on genes with assigned functional roles in plant adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses and demonstrate its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL. Results Seventy five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and conserved intron spanning primer (CISP markers were developed from available expressed sequence tags (ESTs using four genotypes, H 77/833-2, PRLT 2/89-33, ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004, representing parents of two mapping populations. A total of 228 SNPs were obtained from 30.5 kb sequenced region resulting in a SNP frequency of 1/134 bp. The positions of major pearl millet linkage group (LG 2 DT-QTLs (reported from crosses H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 and 841B × 863B were added to the present consensus function map which identified 18 genes, coding for PSI reaction center subunit III, PHYC, actin, alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, uridylate kinase, acyl-CoA oxidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, MADS-box, serine/threonine protein kinase, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, zinc finger C- × 8-C × 5-C × 3-H type, Hd3, acetyl CoA carboxylase, chlorophyll a/b binding protein, photolyase, protein phosphatase1 regulatory subunit SDS22 and two hypothetical proteins, co-mapping in this DT-QTL interval. Many of these candidate genes were found to have significant association with QTLs of grain yield, flowering time and leaf rolling under drought stress conditions. Conclusions We have exploited available pearl millet EST sequences to generate a mapped resource of seventy five new gene-based markers for pearl millet and demonstrated its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL in this species. The reported gene-based

  20. Predicted Coverage and Immuno-Safety of a Recombinant C-Repeat Region Based Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Celia; Cosh, Samantha; Vu, Therese; Nichols, Jemma; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Fane, Anne; Smeesters, Pierre R; Rush, Catherine M; Hafner, Louise M; Ketheesan, Natkuman; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the M-protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major target for vaccine development. The major feature is the C-repeat region, consisting of 35-42 amino acid repeat units that display high but not perfect identity. SV1 is a S. pyogenes vaccine candidate that incorporates five 14mer amino acid sequences (called J14i variants) from differing C-repeat units in a single recombinant construct. Here we show that the J14i variants chosen for inclusion in SV1 are the most common variants in a dataset of 176 unique M-proteins. Murine antibodies raised against SV1 were shown to bind to each of the J14i variants present in SV1, as well as variants not present in the vaccine. Antibodies raised to the individual J14i variants were also shown to bind to multiple but different combinations of J14i variants, supporting the underlying rationale for the design of SV1. A Lewis Rat Model of valvulitis was then used to assess the capacity of SV1 to induce deleterious immune response associated with rheumatic heart disease. In this model, both SV1 and the M5 positive control protein were immunogenic. Neither of these antibodies were cross-reactive with cardiac myosin or collagen. Splenic T cells from SV1/CFA and SV1/alum immunized rats did not proliferate in response to cardiac myosin or collagen. Subsequent histological examination of heart tissue showed that 4 of 5 mice from the M5/CFA group had valvulitis and inflammatory cell infiltration into valvular tissue, whereas mice immunised with SV1/CFA, SV1/alum showed no sign of valvulitis. These results suggest that SV1 is a safe vaccine candidate that will elicit antibodies that recognise the vast majority of circulating GAS M-types.

  1. A Feasibility Assessment of Behavioral-based Interviewing to Improve Candidate Selection for a Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Geneva; Kokas, Maria; Smith, Cathy L; DiGiovine, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Traditional interviews for residency and fellowship training programs are an important component in the selection process, but can be of variable value due to a nonstandardized approach. We redesigned the candidate interview process for our large pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship program in the United States using a behavioral-based interview (BBI) structure. The primary goal of this approach was to standardize the assessment of candidates within noncognitive domains with the goal of selecting those with the best fit for our institution's fellowship program. Eight faculty members attended two BBI workshops. The first workshop identified our program's "best fit" criteria using the framework of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies and additional behaviors that fit within our programs. BBI questions were then selected from a national database and refined based on the attributes deemed most important by our faculty. In the second workshop, faculty practiced the BBI format in mock interviews with third-year fellows. The interview process was further refined based on feedback from the interviewees, and then applied with fellowship candidates for the 2014 recruitment season. The 1-year pilot of behavioral-based interviewing allowed us to achieve consensus on the traits sought for our incoming fellows and to standardize the interview process for our program using the framework of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Although the effects of this change on the clinical performance of our fellows have not yet been assessed, this description of our development and implementation processes may be helpful for programs seeking to redesign their applicant interviews.

  2. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling

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    Üstün Bedirhan T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels. While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. Methods The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire. ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Results Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. Conclusion The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.

  3. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia; Chatterji, Somnath; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ustün, Bedirhan T; Stucki, Gerold

    2006-07-27

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels.While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a) to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b) to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire.ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.

  4. An In Silico Identification of Common Putative Vaccine Candidates against Treponema pallidum: A Reverse Vaccinology and Subtractive Genomics Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Jaiswal, Arun; Tiwari, Sandeep; Jamal, Syed Babar; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco; Soares, Siomar C

    2017-02-14

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are caused by a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are transmitted from one person to another primarily by vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact. Syphilis is a serious disease caused by a sexually transmitted infection. Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) is a motile, gram-negative spirochete, which can be transmitted both sexually and from mother to child, and can invade virtually any organ or structure in the human body. The current worldwide prevalence of syphilis emphasizes the need for continued preventive measures and strategies. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited. In this study, we focus on the identification of vaccine targets and putative drugs against syphilis disease using reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics. We compared 13 strains of T. pallidum using T. pallidum Nichols as the reference genome. Using an in silicoapproach, four pathogenic islands were detected in the genome of T. pallidum Nichols. We identified 15 putative antigenic proteins and sixdrug targets through reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics, respectively, which can be used as candidate therapeutic targets in the future.

  5. GC-MS Based Plasma Metabolomics for Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami Ranjbar, Mohammad R.; Luo, Yue; Di Poto, Cristina; Varghese, Rency S.; Ferrarini, Alessia; Zhang, Chi; Sarhan, Naglaa I.; Soliman, Hanan; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Ziada, Dina H.; Roy, Rabindra; Ressom, Habtom W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates changes in metabolite levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis by analysis of human blood plasma using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples from participants recruited in Egypt was performed using two GC-MS platforms: a GC coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometer (GC-qMS) and a GC coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-TOFMS). Analytes that showed statistically significant changes in ion intensities were selected using ANOVA models. These analytes and other candidates selected from related studies were further evaluated by targeted analysis in plasma samples from the same participants as in the untargeted metabolomic analysis. The targeted analysis was performed using the GC-qMS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method confirmed significant changes in the levels of glutamic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, alpha tocopherol, cholesterol, and sorbose in HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis. Specifically, our findings indicate up-regulation of metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. Although BCAAs are increasingly used as a treatment for cancer cachexia, others have shown that BCAA supplementation caused significant enhancement of tumor growth via activation of mTOR/AKT pathway, which is consistent with our results that BCAAs are up-regulated in HCC. PMID:26030804

  6. Designing defect-based qubit candidates in wide-gap binary semiconductors for solid-state quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung; Ma, He; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2017-12-01

    The development of novel quantum bits is key to extending the scope of solid-state quantum-information science and technology. Using first-principles calculations, we propose that large metal ion-vacancy pairs are promising qubit candidates in two binary crystals: 4 H -SiC and w -AlN. In particular, we found that the formation of neutral Hf- and Zr-vacancy pairs is energetically favorable in both solids; these defects have spin-triplet ground states, with electronic structures similar to those of the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center and the SiC divacancy. Interestingly, they exhibit different spin-strain coupling characteristics, and the nature of heavy metal ions may allow for easy defect implantation in desired lattice locations and ensure stability against defect diffusion. To support future experimental identification of the proposed defects, we report predictions of their optical zero-phonon line, zero-field splitting, and hyperfine parameters. The defect design concept identified here may be generalized to other binary semiconductors to facilitate the exploration of new solid-state qubits.

  7. GC-MS Based Plasma Metabolomics for Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Nezami Ranjbar

    Full Text Available This study evaluates changes in metabolite levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis by analysis of human blood plasma using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples from participants recruited in Egypt was performed using two GC-MS platforms: a GC coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometer (GC-qMS and a GC coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-TOFMS. Analytes that showed statistically significant changes in ion intensities were selected using ANOVA models. These analytes and other candidates selected from related studies were further evaluated by targeted analysis in plasma samples from the same participants as in the untargeted metabolomic analysis. The targeted analysis was performed using the GC-qMS in selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. The method confirmed significant changes in the levels of glutamic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, alpha tocopherol, cholesterol, and sorbose in HCC cases vs. patients with liver cirrhosis. Specifically, our findings indicate up-regulation of metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism. Although BCAAs are increasingly used as a treatment for cancer cachexia, others have shown that BCAA supplementation caused significant enhancement of tumor growth via activation of mTOR/AKT pathway, which is consistent with our results that BCAAs are up-regulated in HCC.

  8. Systematic exploration of a class of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs yields multiple new candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Kirandeep; Malyshev, Denis A; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Kubelka, Tomáš; Hocek, Michal; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a family of unnatural base pairs (UBPs), which rely on hydrophobic and packing interactions for pairing and which are well replicated and transcribed. While the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM) has received the most attention, and has been used to expand the genetic alphabet of a living organism, recent efforts have identified dTPT3-dNaM, which is replicated with even higher fidelity. These efforts also resulted in more UBPs than could be independently analyzed, and thus we now report a PCR-based screen to identify the most promising. While we found that dTPT3-dNaM is generally the most promising UBP, we identified several others that are replicated nearly as well and significantly better than d5SICS-dNaM, and are thus viable candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet of a living organism. Moreover, the results suggest that continued optimization should be possible, and that the putatively essential hydrogen-bond acceptor at the position ortho to the glycosidic linkage may not be required. These results clearly demonstrate the generality of hydrophobic forces for the control of base pairing within DNA, provide a wealth of new structure-activity relationship data and importantly identify multiple new candidates for in vivo evaluation and further optimization. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Next-generation DNA sequencing-based assay for measuring allelic expression imbalance (AEI of candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in human brain

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    Xu Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common genetic variants that regulate gene expression are widely suspected to contribute to the etiology and phenotypic variability of complex diseases. Although high-throughput, microarray-based assays have been developed to measure differences in mRNA expression among independent samples, these assays often lack the sensitivity to detect rare mRNAs and the reproducibility to quantify small changes in mRNA expression. By contrast, PCR-based allelic expression imbalance (AEI assays, which use a "marker" single nucleotide polymorphism (mSNP in the mRNA to distinguish expression from pairs of genetic alleles in individual samples, have high sensitivity and accuracy, allowing differences in mRNA expression greater than 1.2-fold to be quantified with high reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the use of an efficient PCR/next-generation DNA sequencing-based assay to analyze allele-specific differences in mRNA expression for candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in human brain. Results Using our assay, we successfully analyzed AEI for 70 candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in 52 independent human brain samples. Among these genes, 62/70 (89% showed AEI ratios greater than 1 ± 0.2 in at least one sample and 8/70 (11% showed no AEI. Arranging log2AEI ratios in increasing order from negative-to-positive values revealed highly reproducible distributions of log2AEI ratios that are distinct for each gene/marker SNP combination. Mathematical modeling suggests that these log2AEI distributions can provide important clues concerning the number, location and contributions of cis-acting regulatory variants to mRNA expression. Conclusions We have developed a highly sensitive and reproducible method for quantifying AEI of mRNA expressed in human brain. Importantly, this assay allowed quantification of differential mRNA expression for many candidate disease genes entirely missed in previously published microarray-based studies of

  10. Identification and prioritization of candidate genes for symptom variability in breast cancer survivors based on disease characteristics at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleck, Theresa A; Conley, Yvette P

    2016-01-01

    Research is beginning to suggest that the presence and/or severity of symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors may be associated with disease-related factors of cancer. In this article, we present a novel approach to the identification and prioritization of biologically plausible candidate genes to investigate relationships between genomic variation and symptom variability in breast cancer survivors. Cognitive dysfunction is utilized as a representative breast cancer survivor symptom to elucidate the conceptualization of and justification for our cellular, disease-based approach to address symptom variability in cancer survivors. Initial candidate gene identification was based on genes evaluated as part of multigene expression profiles for breast cancer, which are commonly used in the clinical setting to characterize the biology of cancer cells for the purpose of describing overall tumor aggressiveness, prognostication, and individualization of therapy. A list of genes evaluated within five multigene expression profiles for breast cancer was compiled. In order to prioritize candidate genes for investigation, genes used in each profile were compared for duplication. Twenty-one genes (BAG1, BCL2, BIRC5, CCNB1, CENPA, CMC2, DIAPH3, ERBB2, ESR1, GRB7, MELK, MKI67, MMP11, MYBL2, NDC80, ORC6, PGR, RACGAP1, RFC4, RRM2, and SCUBE2) are utilized in two or more profiles, including five genes (CCNB1, CENPA, MELK, MYBL2, and ORC6) used in three profiles. To ensure that the parsimonious 21 gene set is representative of the more global biological hallmarks of cancer, an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted. Evaluation of genes known to impact pathways involved with cancer development and progression provide a means to evaluate the overlap between the biological underpinnings of cancer and symptom development within the context of cancer.

  11. Candidate pathway-based genome-wide association studies identify novel associations of genomic variants in the complement system associated with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengqi; Yang, Qin; Xiong, Hongbo; Wang, Longfei; Cai, Jianping; Wang, Fan; Li, Sisi; Chen, Jing; Wang, Chuchu; Wang, Dan; Xiong, Xin; Wang, Pengyun; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Yufeng; Chen, Shanshan; Yin, Dan; Li, Xiuchun; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinqiu; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hui; Ke, Tie; Ren, Xiang; Wu, Yanxia; Wu, Gang; Wan, Jing; Zhang, Rongfeng; Wu, Tangchun; Wang, Junhan; Xia, Yunlong; Yang, Yanzong; Cheng, Xiang; Liao, Yuhua; Chen, Qiuyun; Zhou, Yanhong; He, Qing; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing K

    2014-12-01

    Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway. Mining of GWAS data was performed to analyze variants in 32 complement system genes for positive association with CAD. Functional variants in genes showing positive association were then identified by searching existing expression quantitative loci databases and validated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A follow-up case-control design was then used to determine whether the functional variants are associated with CAD in 2 independent GeneID Chinese populations. Candidate pathway-based GWAS identified positive association between variants in C3AR1 and C6 and CAD. Two functional variants, rs7842 in C3AR1 and rs4400166 in C6, were found to be associated with expression levels of C3AR1 and C6, respectively. Significant association was identified between rs7842 and CAD (P=3.99×10(-6); odds ratio, 1.47) and between rs4400166 and CAD (P=9.30×10(-3); odds ratio, 1.24) in the validation cohort. The significant findings were confirmed in the replication cohort (P=1.53×10(-5); odds ratio, 1.37 for rs7842; P=8.41×10(-3); odds ratio, 1.21 for rs4400166). Integration of GWAS with biological pathways and expression quantitative loci is effective in identifying new risk variants for CAD. Functional variants increasing C3AR1 and C6 expression were shown to confer significant risk of CAD for the first time. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Anderson, David E; Ghorbani, Masoud; Gee, Katrina; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120) resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:17076905

  13. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120 resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity.

  14. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Andrew J.; William, H. Manilal; Perry, Gregory; Khanal, Raja; Pauls, K. Peter; Kelly, James D.; Navabi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Alleles at the Co–4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08) where Co–4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co–4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK–4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co–4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases. PMID:26431031

  15. Utilizing Science Philosophy Statements to Facilitate K-3 Teacher Candidates' Development of Inquiry-Based Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized pre-service teachers' philosophy statements to connect their beliefs for science teaching with inquiry-based constructivist classroom practice. The major findings of this study suggested that before entering the classroom prospective teachers are strongly aligned with inquiry-based, constructivist-based theories, and describe…

  16. Serum-free microcarrier based production of replication deficient Influenza vaccine candidate virus lacking NS1 using Vero cells

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    Yan Mylene L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus is a major health concern that has huge impacts on the human society, and vaccination remains as one of the most effective ways to mitigate this disease. Comparing the two types of commercially available Influenza vaccine, the live attenuated virus vaccine is more cross-reactive and easier to administer than the traditional inactivated vaccines. One promising live attenuated Influenza vaccine that has completed Phase I clinical trial is deltaFLU, a deletion mutant lacking the viral Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1 gene. As a consequence of this gene deletion, this mutant virus can only propagate effectively in cells with a deficient interferon-mediated antiviral response. To demonstrate the manufacturability of this vaccine candidate, a batch bioreactor production process using adherent Vero cells on microcarriers in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media is described. Results Five commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media (SFM were evaluated for growth of Vero cells in agitated Cytodex 1 spinner flask microcarrier cultures. EX-CELL Vero SFM achieved the highest cell concentration of 2.6 × 10^6 cells/ml, whereas other SFM achieved about 1.2 × 10^6 cells/ml. Time points for infection between the late exponential and stationary phases of cell growth had no significant effect in the final virus titres. A virus yield of 7.6 Log10 TCID50/ml was achieved using trypsin concentration of 10 μg/ml and MOI of 0.001. The Influenza vaccine production process was scaled up to a 3 liter controlled stirred tank bioreactor to achieve a cell density of 2.7 × 10^6 cells/ml and virus titre of 8.3 Log10 TCID50/ml. Finally, the bioreactor system was tested for the production of the corresponding wild type H1N1 Influenza virus, which is conventionally used in the production of inactivated vaccine. High virus titres of up to 10 Log10 TCID50/ml were achieved. Conclusions We describe for the

  17. Serum-free microcarrier based production of replication deficient influenza vaccine candidate virus lacking NS1 using Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen; Poh, Swan Li; Dietzsch, Christian; Roethl, Elisabeth; Yan, Mylene L; Ng, Say Kong

    2011-08-11

    Influenza virus is a major health concern that has huge impacts on the human society, and vaccination remains as one of the most effective ways to mitigate this disease. Comparing the two types of commercially available Influenza vaccine, the live attenuated virus vaccine is more cross-reactive and easier to administer than the traditional inactivated vaccines. One promising live attenuated Influenza vaccine that has completed Phase I clinical trial is deltaFLU, a deletion mutant lacking the viral Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) gene. As a consequence of this gene deletion, this mutant virus can only propagate effectively in cells with a deficient interferon-mediated antiviral response. To demonstrate the manufacturability of this vaccine candidate, a batch bioreactor production process using adherent Vero cells on microcarriers in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media is described. Five commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media (SFM) were evaluated for growth of Vero cells in agitated Cytodex 1 spinner flask microcarrier cultures. EX-CELL Vero SFM achieved the highest cell concentration of 2.6 × 10^6 cells/ml, whereas other SFM achieved about 1.2 × 10^6 cells/ml. Time points for infection between the late exponential and stationary phases of cell growth had no significant effect in the final virus titres. A virus yield of 7.6 Log10 TCID50/ml was achieved using trypsin concentration of 10 μg/ml and MOI of 0.001. The Influenza vaccine production process was scaled up to a 3 liter controlled stirred tank bioreactor to achieve a cell density of 2.7 × 10^6 cells/ml and virus titre of 8.3 Log10 TCID50/ml. Finally, the bioreactor system was tested for the production of the corresponding wild type H1N1 Influenza virus, which is conventionally used in the production of inactivated vaccine. High virus titres of up to 10 Log10 TCID50/ml were achieved. We describe for the first time the production of Influenza viruses using Vero

  18. Selection and validation of potato candidate genes for maturity corrected resistance to Phytophthora infestans based on differential expression combined with SNP association and linkage mapping

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    Meki Shehabu Muktar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR. Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28% to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111 identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification and in the response to pathogen elicitors.

  19. Adenovirus-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates tested in efficacy trials elicit CD8+ T cells with limited breadth of HIV-1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Peter J; Cox, Josephine H; Coleman, Adam R; Fernandez, Natalia; Bergin, Philip J; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; de Souza, Mark; Duerr, Ann; Morgan, Cecilia; Gilmour, Jill W

    2016-07-17

    The ability of HIV-1 vaccine candidates MRKAd5, VRC DNA/Ad5 and ALVAC/AIDSVAX to elicit CD8 T cells with direct antiviral function was assessed and compared with HIV-1-infected volunteers. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based regimens MRKAd5 and VRC DNA/Ad5, designed to elicit HIV-1-specific T cells, are immunogenic but failed to prevent infection or impact on viral loads in volunteers infected subsequently. Failure may be due in part to a lack of CD8 T cells with effective antiviral functions. An in-vitro viral inhibition assay tested the ability of bispecific antibody expanded CD8 T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells to inhibit replication of a multiclade panel of HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4 T cells. HIV-1 proteins recognized by CD8 T cells were assessed by IFNγ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Ad5-based regimens elicited CD8 T cells that inhibited replication of HIV-1 IIIB isolate with more limited inhibition of other isolates. IIIB isolate Gag and Pol genes have high sequence identities (>96%) to vector HIV-1 gene inserts, and these were the predominant HIV-1 proteins recognized by CD8 T cells. Virus inhibition breadth was greater in antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected volunteers naturally controlling viremia (plasma viral load elicited by the ALVAC/AIDSVAX regimen. The Ad5-based regimens, although immunogenic, elicited CD8 T cells with limited HIV-1-inhibition breadth. Effective T-cell-based vaccines should presumably elicit broader HIV-1-inhibition profiles. The viral inhibition assay can be used in vaccine design and to prioritize promising candidates with greater inhibition breadth for further clinical trials.

  20. Comparison of Deconvolution-Based and Absorption Modeling IVIVC for Extended Release Formulations of a BCS III Drug Development Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Xia, Binfeng; Agrawal, Nancy G. B.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro–in vivo correlations (IVIVC) are predictive mathematical models describing the relationship between dissolution and plasma concentration for a given drug compound. The traditional deconvolution/convolution-based approach is the most common methodology to establish a level A IVIVC that provides point to point relationship between the in vitro dissolution and the in vivo input rate. The increasing application of absorption physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) has provided...

  1. Integrating candidate metabolites and biochemical factors to elucidate the action mechanism of Xue-sai-tong injection based on (1)H NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Xiaoping; Wang, Linli; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Zheng

    2016-07-15

    A strategy of integrating candidate metabolites with crucial biochemical factors was proposed in this study to discover relevant biological functions for interpreting the action mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM). This approach was applied to Xue-Sai-Tong injection (XST) to reveal the action mechanism based on the metabolic response in an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model by analyzing NMR profile. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare metabolic profiles of serum samples and revealed nine metabolites altered by I/R injury could be restored to normal status (sham-operated group) under the therapy of XST. The pathway enrichment analysis suggested the metabolic changes were mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, and citrate cycle. The functional roles of the candidate metabolites were further identified by Pearson correlation analysis with the key biochemical factors in serum. The results indicated pyruvate, succinate, acetate and lysine showed significant associations with the oxidative stress factors. Elevated level of pyruvate was found as an essential metabolic response for the major effect of XST against I/R injury by enhancing glycolysis and overcoming the induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This metabolomics approach provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of TCM and helps to develop a holistic view of TCM efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of ICT Assisted Project Based Learning Approach on Prospective ICT Integration Skills of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilten, Pusat; Pilten, Gulhiz; Sahinkaya, Nihan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is studying the effects of information and communication technologies (ICT) assisted project based learning practices on ICT integration skills of pre-service classroom teachers. The research adopted a mixed method. The quantitative dimension of the research was designed with pre-test-post-test control groups.…

  3. Using rule-based machine learning for candidate disease gene prioritization and sample classification of cancer gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Glaab

    Full Text Available Microarray data analysis has been shown to provide an effective tool for studying cancer and genetic diseases. Although classical machine learning techniques have successfully been applied to find informative genes and to predict class labels for new samples, common restrictions of microarray analysis such as small sample sizes, a large attribute space and high noise levels still limit its scientific and clinical applications. Increasing the interpretability of prediction models while retaining a high accuracy would help to exploit the information content in microarray data more effectively. For this purpose, we evaluate our rule-based evolutionary machine learning systems, BioHEL and GAssist, on three public microarray cancer datasets, obtaining simple rule-based models for sample classification. A comparison with other benchmark microarray sample classifiers based on three diverse feature selection algorithms suggests that these evolutionary learning techniques can compete with state-of-the-art methods like support vector machines. The obtained models reach accuracies above 90% in two-level external cross-validation, with the added value of facilitating interpretation by using only combinations of simple if-then-else rules. As a further benefit, a literature mining analysis reveals that prioritizations of informative genes extracted from BioHEL's classification rule sets can outperform gene rankings obtained from a conventional ensemble feature selection in terms of the pointwise mutual information between relevant disease terms and the standardized names of top-ranked genes.

  4. Improving the quality of biomarker candidates in untargeted metabolomics via peak table-based alignment of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Heather D.; Hill, Jane E.; Dimandja, Jean-Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution analytical technologies like GC×GC/TOF MS in untargeted metabolomics and biomarker discovery has been limited by the development of fully automated software that can efficiently align and extract information from multiple chromatographic data sets. In this work we report the first investigation on a peak-by-peak basis of the chromatographic factors that impact GC×GC data alignment. A representative set of 16 compounds of different chromatographic characteristics were followed through the alignment of 63 GC×GC chromatograms. We found that varying the mass spectral match parameter had a significant influence on the alignment for poorly- resolved peaks, especially those at the extremes of the detector linear range, and no influence on well- chromatographed peaks. Therefore, optimized chromatography is required for proper GC×GC data alignment. Based on these observations, a workflow is presented for the conservative selection of biomarker candidates from untargeted metabolomics analyses. PMID:25857541

  5. Comparison of the Hydrolysis Rate of Several Polyol Ester Oils as a Candidate for Environmentally Adapted Synthetic Base Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Du Hee [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea); Masuko, Masabumi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The hydrolysis rates of seven kinds of polyol ester base oils [POEs] of different branch shape were investigated by using a simple apparatus under a mild acidic condition. Seven polyol ester base oils were made of poly hydric alcohols of two-four valence, normal or branched fatty acids of different carbon number. p-Toluene sulfonic acid was used as an acid catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrolysis. Partial esters and fatty acid produced by sequential hydrolysis of POEs were identified, and their concentrations were determined by the calibrated-internal standard method using Gas Chromatography. The rate constants of each step, in sequential hydrolysis, were determined by the least square method from rate equation, and the concentration of each component was compared with one another. It was shown that the rate of hydrolysis of POEs was strongly affected by the molecular structure of fatty acid, a straight chain or a branch chain, and the position of branch. The hydrolysis stability for all the POEs can be reasonably explained by the steric hindrance effect of their molecular structures as water molecule makes an attack on the carbonyl carbon of POEs. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Information criterion-based clustering with order-restricted candidate profiles in short time-course microarray experiments

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    Zhang Baoxue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments produce vector gene expression profiles across a series of time points. Clustering genes based on these profiles is important in discovering functional related and co-regulated genes. Early developed clustering algorithms do not take advantage of the ordering in a time-course study, explicit use of which should allow more sensitive detection of genes that display a consistent pattern over time. Peddada et al. 1 proposed a clustering algorithm that can incorporate the temporal ordering using order-restricted statistical inference. This algorithm is, however, very time-consuming and hence inapplicable to most microarray experiments that contain a large number of genes. Its computational burden also imposes difficulty to assess the clustering reliability, which is a very important measure when clustering noisy microarray data. Results We propose a computationally efficient information criterion-based clustering algorithm, called ORICC, that also takes account of the ordering in time-course microarray experiments by embedding the order-restricted inference into a model selection framework. Genes are assigned to the profile which they best match determined by a newly proposed information criterion for order-restricted inference. In addition, we also developed a bootstrap procedure to assess ORICC's clustering reliability for every gene. Simulation studies show that the ORICC method is robust, always gives better clustering accuracy than Peddada's method and saves hundreds of times computational time. Under some scenarios, its accuracy is also better than some other existing clustering methods for short time-course microarray data, such as STEM 2 and Wang et al. 3. It is also computationally much faster than Wang et al. 3. Conclusion Our ORICC algorithm, which takes advantage of the temporal ordering in time-course microarray experiments, provides good clustering accuracy and is meanwhile much

  7. Network-based analysis of differentially expressed genes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood reveals new candidate genes for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Safari-Alighiarloo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The involvement of multiple genes and missing heritability, which are dominant in complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS, entail using network biology to better elucidate their molecular basis and genetic factors. We therefore aimed to integrate interactome (protein–protein interaction (PPI and transcriptomes data to construct and analyze PPI networks for MS disease. Methods Gene expression profiles in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs samples from MS patients, sampled in relapse or remission and controls, were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes which determined only in CSF (MS vs. control and PBMCs (relapse vs. remission separately integrated with PPI data to construct the Query-Query PPI (QQPPI networks. The networks were further analyzed to investigate more central genes, functional modules and complexes involved in MS progression. Results The networks were analyzed and high centrality genes were identified. Exploration of functional modules and complexes showed that the majority of high centrality genes incorporated in biological pathways driving MS pathogenesis. Proteasome and spliceosome were also noticeable in enriched pathways in PBMCs (relapse vs. remission which were identified by both modularity and clique analyses. Finally, STK4, RB1, CDKN1A, CDK1, RAC1, EZH2, SDCBP genes in CSF (MS vs. control and CDC37, MAP3K3, MYC genes in PBMCs (relapse vs. remission were identified as potential candidate genes for MS, which were the more central genes involved in biological pathways. Discussion This study showed that network-based analysis could explicate the complex interplay between biological processes underlying MS. Furthermore, an experimental validation of candidate genes can lead to identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Conservation and diversity of influenza A H1N1 HLA-restricted T cell epitope candidates for epitope-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thiamjoo Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune-related evolution of influenza viruses is exceedingly complex and current vaccines against influenza must be reformulated for each influenza season because of the high degree of antigenic drift among circulating influenza strains. Delay in vaccine production is a serious problem in responding to a pandemic situation, such as that of the current H1N1 strain. Immune escape is generally attributed to reduced antibody recognition of the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins whose rate of mutation is much greater than that of the internal non-structural proteins. As a possible alternative, vaccines directed at T cell epitope domains of internal influenza proteins, that are less susceptible to antigenic variation, have been investigated.HLA transgenic mouse strains expressing HLA class I A*0201, A*2402, and B*0702, and class II DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401 were immunized with 196 influenza H1N1 peptides that contained residues of highly conserved proteome sequences of the human H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, H5N1, and avian influenza A strains. Fifty-four (54 peptides that elicited 63 HLA-restricted peptide-specific T cell epitope responses were identified by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. The 54 peptides were compared to the 2007-2009 human H1N1 sequences for selection of sequences in the design of a new candidate H1N1 vaccine, specifically targeted to highly-conserved HLA-restricted T cell epitopes.Seventeen (17 T cell epitopes in PB1, PB2, and M1 were selected as vaccine targets based on sequence conservation over the past 30 years, high functional avidity, non-identity to human peptides, clustered localization, and promiscuity to multiple HLA alleles. These candidate vaccine antigen sequences may be applicable to any avian or human influenza A virus.

  9. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  10. Protection and mechanism of action of a novel human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate based on the extracellular domain of small hydrophobic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Bert; Sedeyn, Koen; Vande Ginste, Liesbeth; De Baets, Sarah; Schotsaert, Michael; Roose, Kenny; Houspie, Lieselot; Van Ranst, Marc; Gilbert, Brian; van Rooijen, Nico; Fiers, Walter; Piedra, Pedro; Saelens, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Infections with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) occur globally in all age groups and can have devastating consequences in young infants. We demonstrate that a vaccine based on the extracellular domain (SHe) of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of HRSV, reduced viral replication in challenged laboratory mice and in cotton rats. We show that this suppression of viral replication can be transferred by serum and depends on a functional IgG receptor compartment with a major contribution of FcγRI and FcγRIII. Using a conditional cell depletion method, we provide evidence that alveolar macrophages are involved in the protection by SHe-specific antibodies. HRSV-infected cells abundantly express SH on the cell surface and are likely the prime target of the humoral immune response elicited by SHe-based vaccination. Finally, natural infection of humans and experimental infection of mice or cotton rats does not induce a strong immune response against HRSV SHe. Using SHe as a vaccine antigen induces immune protection against HRSV by a mechanism that differs from the natural immune response and from other HRSV vaccination strategies explored to date. Hence, HRSV vaccine candidates that aim at inducing protective neutralizing antibodies or T-cell responses could be complemented with a SHe-based antigen to further improve immune protection. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates invo...

  12. Isolation of human umbilical cord blood-derived osteoprogenitor cells: a promising candidate for cell-based therapy for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Iuco Castro-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived osteoprogenitor cells and to prove its applicability as a promising candidate for cell-based therapeutics for bone repair. Methods: Primary cultures of human umbilical blood cord adherent cells were expanded in vitro until passage 2 and seeded for osteodifferentiation study. Morphological (light microscopy, cytochemical (Von Kossa’s method, and functional analyses (calcium level, alkaline phosphatase activity, and total protein content in cell culture were carried out 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the osteoinduction protocol. Results: The proliferative step showed colony-forming units in 7 days. After osteoinduction, cuboidal cellular morphology similar to osteoblasts at 14 days and mineralization nodules and biochemical changes (increased alkaline phosphatase level and calcium deposits at 21 days confirmed the osteodifferentiation process. Conclusion: Cell culture of human umbilical blood cord is a reliable technique, constituting itself as an alternative source of osteoprogenitor cells for experimental needs. More animal tests and clinical trials must be carried out to validate its use and to establish quality control of future autologous or allogeneic cell-based therapy aimed at bone repair.

  13. Candidate selection for quadrant-based focal ablation through a combination of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Saito, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Jiro; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishioka, Junichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Masuda, Hitoshi; Kawakami, Satoru; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    To identify prostatic quadrants that could be preserved without intervention, using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and extended core biopsy, as a step toward implementation of quadrant-based focal ablation with potential preservation of erectile and ejaculatory functions, based on comparisons with unilateral hemi-gland ablation. We conducted a prebiopsy DWI study including 648 quadrants in 162 men who underwent 14-core biopsy including anterior sampling and radical prostatectomy (RP) for localised cancer. Imaging and pathology were analysed on a quadrant basis. Each quadrant was assessed through four-core sampling. Predictive performance of DWI and biopsy for quadrant status was analysed. On RP specimens, 170 anterior (52.5%) and 172 posterior quadrants (53.1%) harboured significant cancer. Negative predictive values of DWI, biopsy, and their combination for significant cancer were 79.7%, 70.6%, and 91.1%, respectively, in anterior quadrants, and 78.5%, 81.3%, and 91.7%, respectively, in posterior quadrants. DWI incrementally improved the negative predictive values of biopsy in anterior (P < 0.001) and posterior quadrants (P = 0.025), without untoward impacts on positive predictive values. Negative findings on both DWI and biopsy were identified in posterior quadrants of 109 sides (33.6%), but in entire hemi-glands of 54 sides (16.7%). The combination of DWI and 14-core biopsy including anterior sampling efficiently identifies quadrants without significant cancer in men with localised prostate cancer; the remaining quadrants, therefore, could be potential candidate areas for focal ablation. Focal therapy designed based on quadrant-based assessment could be superior to unilateral hemi-gland ablation for preservation of posterior quadrants and retaining of sexual function in more sides. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A generalized matching law analysis of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys: effects of candidate 'agonist-based' medications on sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsell, Blake A; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated reductions in cocaine choice produced by either continuous 14-day phendimetrazine and d-amphetamine treatment or removing cocaine availability under a cocaine vs. food choice procedure in rhesus monkeys. The aim of the present investigation was to apply the concatenated generalized matching law (GML) to cocaine vs. food choice dose-effect functions incorporating sensitivity to both the relative magnitude and price of each reinforcer. Our goal was to determine potential behavioral mechanisms underlying pharmacological treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice. A multi-model comparison approach was used to characterize dose- and time-course effects of both pharmacological and environmental manipulations on sensitivity to reinforcement. GML models provided an excellent fit of the cocaine choice dose-effect functions in individual monkeys. Reductions in cocaine choice by both pharmacological and environmental manipulations were principally produced by systematic decreases in sensitivity to reinforcer price and non-systematic changes in sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The modeling approach used provides a theoretical link between the experimental analysis of choice and pharmacological treatments being evaluated as candidate 'agonist-based' medications for cocaine addiction. The analysis suggests that monoamine releaser treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice was mediated by selectively increasing the relative price of cocaine. Overall, the net behavioral effect of these pharmacological treatments was to increase substitutability of food pellets, a nondrug reinforcer, for cocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TAXONOMY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC RECORD OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC CONODONTS OF THE PIZZO MONDELLO SECTION (WESTERN SICILY, ITALY, GSSP CANDIDATE FOR THE BASE OF THE NORIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE MAZZA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New taxonomic and biostratigraphic investigations on the late Carnian to Rhaetian (Upper Triassic platform conodonts from the Pizzo Mondello section (Western Sicily, Italy, Sicano basin are here presented. Pizzo Mondello is one of the two GSSP candidates for the Carnian/Norian boundary; the section is a 430 m thick continuous succession of upper Carnian to upper Norian marine limestones (Scillato Formation, characterized by uniform facies and high sedimentation rates, and ca. 20 m of Rhaetian white calcilutites (Portella Gebbia limestone. Pizzo Mondello offers one of the most complete conodont records for this time interval in the Tethys. The conodont faunas are characterized by a large variety of species, belonging to the genera Carnepigondolella, Epigondolella, Metapolygnathus, Misikella, Mockina, Neocavitella, Norigondolella, Paragondolella, and Parvigondolella. The richness of the populations allowed a detailed revision and description of all the Upper Triassic species and morphotypes recovered. The revision of the problematic species Carnepigondolella nodosa and "Metapolygnathus communisti B" was thus possible, leading to the establishment of two new species: Carnepigondolella tuvalica n.sp. and Carnepigondolella gulloae n.sp. The latter species would be a good proxy for the Carnian/Norian boundary in the case that the FAD of Halobia austriaca (sample FNP135a will be selected as the primary biomarker for the base of the Norian. 

  16. Usolka section (southern Urals, Russia: a potential candidate for GSSP to define the base of the Gzhelian Stage in the global chronostratigraphic scale

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    Valery V. Chernykh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conodont species Streptognathodus simulator Ellison, 1941 has been proposed recently to define the Kasimovian-Gzhelian boundary in the global chronostratigraphic scale.The species distributed globally and traditionally has been used as a marker of the base of the Gzhelian Stage in the type sections in Moscow Basin and Urals. Recent studies of conodont taxonomy and biostratigraphy in southern Urals have established the chronocline with ascendant and descendant to Streptognathodus simulator species. Usolka section proposed here as a potential candidate for the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point to define the global Gzhelian Stage at the FAD of the Streptognathodus simulator within the chronocline Streptognathodus praenuntius Chernykh, 2005 – St. simulator Ellison, 1941 – St. auritus Chernykh, 2005. The chronocline recovered within 2.7 m of beds 4 and 5 at the Usolka section, with all three species described and properly figured. No obvious interruptions in sedimentation are recorded within the Kasimovian-Gzhelian transition there. Several volcanic ash beds are present below and above the proposed boundary, making radiometric calibration highly possible in the near future. Mode of preservation of conodonts with a CAI of around 1.0–1.5 provides excellent basis for the geochemical studies. Accessibility presently is adequate, and this exposure will be improved and maintained permanently for interested scientists. Future access will be guaranteed by means of legislative action to create a scientific preserve.

  17. Protection against Multiple Influenza A Virus Strains Induced by Candidate Recombinant Vaccine Based on Heterologous M2e Peptides Linked to Flagellin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Anna A.; Potapchuk, Marina V.; Korotkov, Alexandr V.; Sergeeva, Mariia V.; Kasianenko, Marina A.; Kuprianov, Victor V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Tsybalova, Liudmila M.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Kiselev, Oleg I.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a broadly protective influenza vaccine. M2e-based vaccines against human influenza A provide only partial protection against avian influenza viruses because of differences in the M2e sequences. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of obtaining equal protection and immune response by using recombinant protein on the basis of flagellin as a carrier of the M2e peptides of human and avian influenza A viruses. Recombinant protein was generated by the fusion of two tandem copies of consensus M2e sequence from human influenza A and two copies of M2e from avian A/H5N1 viruses to flagellin (Flg-2M2eh2M2ek). Intranasal immunisation of Balb/c mice with recombinant protein significantly elicited anti-M2e IgG in serum, IgG and sIgA in BAL. Antibodies induced by the fusion protein Flg-2M2eh2M2ek bound efficiently to synthetic peptides corresponding to the human consensus M2e sequence as well as to the M2e sequence of A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/05 RG (H5N1) and recognised native M2e epitopes exposed on the surface of the MDCK cells infected with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/05 RG (H5N1) to an equal degree. Immunisation led to both anti-M2e IgG1 and IgG2a response with IgG1 prevalence. We observed a significant intracellular production of IL-4, but not IFN-γ, by CD4+ T-cells in spleen of mice following immunisation with Flg-2M2eh2M2ek. Immunisation with the Flg-2M2eh2M2ek fusion protein provided similar protection from lethal challenge with human influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2) and avian influenza virus (H5N1). Immunised mice experienced significantly less weight loss and decreased lung viral titres compared to control mice. The data obtained show the potential for the development of an M2e-flagellin candidate influenza vaccine with broad spectrum protection against influenza A viruses of various origins. PMID:25799221

  18. Protection against multiple influenza A virus strains induced by candidate recombinant vaccine based on heterologous M2e peptides linked to flagellin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila A Stepanova

    Full Text Available Matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e is considered a promising candidate for a broadly protective influenza vaccine. M2e-based vaccines against human influenza A provide only partial protection against avian influenza viruses because of differences in the M2e sequences. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of obtaining equal protection and immune response by using recombinant protein on the basis of flagellin as a carrier of the M2e peptides of human and avian influenza A viruses. Recombinant protein was generated by the fusion of two tandem copies of consensus M2e sequence from human influenza A and two copies of M2e from avian A/H5N1 viruses to flagellin (Flg-2M2eh2M2ek. Intranasal immunisation of Balb/c mice with recombinant protein significantly elicited anti-M2e IgG in serum, IgG and sIgA in BAL. Antibodies induced by the fusion protein Flg-2M2eh2M2ek bound efficiently to synthetic peptides corresponding to the human consensus M2e sequence as well as to the M2e sequence of A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/05 RG (H5N1 and recognised native M2e epitopes exposed on the surface of the MDCK cells infected with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 and A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/05 RG (H5N1 to an equal degree. Immunisation led to both anti-M2e IgG1 and IgG2a response with IgG1 prevalence. We observed a significant intracellular production of IL-4, but not IFN-γ, by CD4+ T-cells in spleen of mice following immunisation with Flg-2M2eh2M2ek. Immunisation with the Flg-2M2eh2M2ek fusion protein provided similar protection from lethal challenge with human influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2 and avian influenza virus (H5N1. Immunised mice experienced significantly less weight loss and decreased lung viral titres compared to control mice. The data obtained show the potential for the development of an M2e-flagellin candidate influenza vaccine with broad spectrum protection against influenza A viruses of various origins.

  19. S100A16, a promising candidate as a prognostic marker for platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katono K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ken Katono,1 Yuichi Sato,2 Makoto Kobayashi,3 Ryo Nagashio,2 Shinichiro Ryuge,1 Satoshi Igawa,1 Masaaki Ichinoe,4 Yoshiki Murakumo,4 Makoto Saegusa,4 Noriyuki Masuda1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Diagnostics, School of Allied Health Sciences, 3Department of Applied Tumor Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Although cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer, not all patients show a survival benefit, and some patients experience severe toxicity. Therefore, identifying biomarkers is important for selecting subgroups of patients who may show improved survival with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. S100A16 is thought to play key roles during different steps of tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of S100A16 expression as a prognostic marker in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma receiving platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: S100A16 expression was immunohistochemically studied in 65 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent complete resection and received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of S100A16 expression on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS.Results: S100A16 expression was detected in 26 of the 65 (40.0% lung adenocarcinoma patients. Although S100A16 expression was not correlated with DFS (P=0.062, it was significantly correlated with OS (P=0.009. In addition, multivariable analysis revealed that S100A16 expression independently predicted a poorer survival (HR =4.79; 95% CI =1.87–12.23; P=0.001. Conclusion: The present study revealed that S100A16 is a promising candidate as a prognostic marker for

  20. An LC-MS/MS based candidate reference method for the quantification of total gentamicin in human serum and plasma using NMR characterized calibrator material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, Stephanie; Taibon, Judith; Pongratz, Stephan; Geletneky, Christian; Huber, Erasmus; Wintterle-Roehm, Christine; Lang, Robert; Grimm, Stefanie H; Duelffer, Thomas; Tarasov, Kirill; Zander, Johannes; Vogeser, Michael; Kobold, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of gentamicin concentration in serum and plasma is required for therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure appropriate treatment of patients. In this work, we present a validated LC-MS/MS-based candidate reference measurement procedure for total gentamicin quantification to be used for standardization and harmonization of routine assays applied for therapeutic drug monitoring of this compound. Total gentamicin is the sum of the concentrations of five known congeners C1, C1a, C2, C2a and C2b. To our knowledge, there is so far no LC-MS method for quantification of total gentamicin in human serum described in literature. Sample preparation was based on sample dilution with an aqueous internal standard solution followed by protein precipitation. Stable derivatives of gentamicin-glycine congeners were prepared by chemical synthesis and used as internal standards. The primary calibration material used in this assay was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and the pattern of the gentamicin congeners was determined. The total gentamicin was reported as the sum of the congeners which were quantified individually by LC-MS/MS. The method allows the measurement of total gentamicin in human serum and plasma in the concentration range of 0.1 to 12.0μg/ml with an assay imprecision of ≤6% CV and an assay accuracy between 96% and 114%. LOD and LOQ for the total gentamicin were 0.04μg/ml and 0.13μg/ml, respectively. Comparative measurement of 128 native patient samples using this method implemented at two laboratory sites showed an excellent agreement. Validation results proved that this protocol describes a robust and reliable method which is suggested as reference measurement procedure for the standardization and harmonization of routine assays for the quantification of total gentamicin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerance of the Phage Endolysin-Based Candidate Drug SAL200 after a Single Intravenous Administration among Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jang, In Jin; Yoon, Seonghae; Jang, Kyungho; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo Youn; Seong, Moon-Woo; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2017-06-01

    This study was a phase 1, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dosing, and dose-escalating study of intravenous SAL200. It is a new candidate drug for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections based on a recombinant form of the phage endolysin SAL-1. The study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance among healthy male volunteers after the intravenous infusion of single ascending doses of SAL200 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg of body weight). SAL200 was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events (AEs) were observed in this clinical study. Most AEs were mild, self-limiting, and transient. The AEs reported in more than three participants were fatigue, rigors, headache, and myalgia. No clinically significant values with respect to the findings of clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyses, urinalysis, vital signs, and physical examinations were observed, and no notable trends in our electrocardiogram (ECG) results for any tested dose were noticed. A greater-than-dose-proportional increase with regard to systemic exposure and the maximum serum concentration was observed when the SAL200 dose was increased from 0.1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. This investigation constitutes the first-in-human phase 1 study of an intravenously administered, phage endolysin-based drug. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01855048 and at the Clinical Research Information Service [https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/] under identifier KCT0000968.). Copyright © 2017 Jun et al.

  2. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Muscle-invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer Candidates for Curative Surgery: A Prospective Clinical Trial Based on Cisplatin Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Giovanni; Monterisi, Santa; Pierconti, Francesco; Nazzicone, Giulia; Marandino, Laura; Orlandi, Armando; Racioppi, Marco; Cassano, Alessandra; Bassi, Pierfrancesco; Barone, Carlo; Rossi, Ernesto

    2017-11-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a survival benefit versus cystectomy alone in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. Despite this advantage, preoperative chemotherapy is not widely employed. When patients are unfit for cisplatin-based regimen, they are often candidates for immediate surgery. In our study, patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The principal objective was the rate of complete pathological response (pCR). Secondary end-points were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. Patients (n=72) with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1, clinical stage cT3-4, and/or N+ muscle-invasive bladder cancer were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimen was established according to the cisplatin feasibility. Thirty patients were treated with cisplatin/gemcitabine (Gem) and 42 with carboplatin/Gem. The rate of pCR was 29.2%, 36% with cisplatin-based treatment and 23.8% with carboplatin (p=0.3574). DFS and OS were longer in pCR patients, while no difference was reported between cisplatin/Gem and Carboplatin/Gem groups. Our results confirm the prognostic value of pCR in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. When the patients are not fit for cisplatin, a carboplatin/Gem regimen represents a valid option because of comparable long-term outcome. When cisplatin is not feasible, the exclusion of a preoperative treatment is not justified. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  4. Evaluation and selection of Bacillus species based on enzyme production, antimicrobial activity and biofilm synthesis as direct-fed microbials candidates for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Latorre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly-resistant endospores, production of antimicrobial compounds and synthesize different exogenous enzymes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and select Bacillus spp. from environmental and poultry sources as DFM candidates, considering their enzyme production profile, biofilm synthesis capacity and pathogen-inhibition activity. Thirty one Bacillus isolates were screened for in vitro relative enzyme activity of amylase, protease, lipase and phytase using a selective media for each enzyme, with 3/31 strains selected as superior enzyme producers. These three isolates were identified as B. subtilis (1/3, and B. amyloliquefaciens (2/3 based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. For evaluation of biofilm synthesis, the generation of an adherent crystal violet-stained ring was determined in polypropylene tubes, resulting in 11/31 strains showing a strong biofilm formation. Moreover, all Bacillus strains were evaluated for growth inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (26/31, Escherichia coli (28/31 and Clostridioides difficile (29/31. Additionally, in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, these selected Bacillus strains have shown to be resistant to different biochemical conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Results of the present study suggest that the selection and consumption of Bacillus-DFM, producing a variable set of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds may contribute to enhanced performance through improving nutrient digestibility

  5. A virus-like particle vaccine candidate for influenza A virus based on multiple conserved antigens presented on hepatitis B tandem core particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Morris, Stephen; Maucourant, Sophie; D'Ascanio, Isabella; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lu, I-Na; Farinelle, Sophie; Muller, Claude P; Whelan, Michael; Rosenberg, William

    2018-02-01

    Existing Influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines target variable parts of the virus that may change between seasons. Vaccine design relies on predicting the predominant circulating influenza strains but when there is a mismatch between vaccine and circulating strains, efficacy is sub-optimal. Furthermore, current approaches provide limited protection against emerging influenza strains that may cause pandemics. One solution is to design vaccines that target conserved protein domains of influenza, which remain largely unchanged over time and are likely to be found in emergent variants. We present a virus-like particle (VLP), built using the hepatitis B virus tandem core platform, as an IAV vaccine candidate containing multiple conserved antigens. Hepatitis B core protein spontaneously assembles into a VLP that is immunogenic and confers immunogenicity to proteins incorporated into the major insertion region (MIR) of core monomers. However, insertion of antigen sequences may disrupt particle assembly preventing VLP formation or result in unstable particles. We have overcome these problems by genetically manipulating the hepatitis B core to express core monomers in tandem, ligated with a flexible linker, incorporating different antigens at each of the MIRs. Immunisation with this VLP, named Tandiflu1, containing 4 conserved antigens from matrix protein 2 ectodomain and hemagglutinin stalk, leads to production of cross-reactive and protective antibodies. The polyclonal antibodies induced by Tandiflu1 can bind IAV Group 1 hemagglutinin types H1, H5, H11, H9, H16 and a conserved epitope on matrix protein 2 expressed by most strains of IAV. Vaccination with Tandiflu1 results in 100% protection from a lethal influenza challenge with H1N1 IAV. Serum transfer from vaccinated animals is sufficient to confer protection from influenza-associated illness in naïve mice. These data suggest that a Tandem Core based IAV vaccine might provide broad protection against common and emergent H1

  6. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  7. Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  8. Genetic predictors of antidepressant side effects: a grouped candidate gene approach in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Karen; Uher, Rudolf; Crawford, Andrew A; Lewis, Glyn; O'Donovan, Michael C; Keers, Robert; Dernovsek, Mojca Z; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Souery, Daniel; Maier, Wolfgang; Henigsberg, Neven; Rietschel, Marcella; Placentino, Anna; Aitchison, Katherine; Farmer, Anne; Davis, Oliver; McGuffin, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The unwanted side effects associated with antidepressants are key determinants of treatment adherence in depression; propensity to experience these adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be influenced by genetic variation. However, previous work attempting to ascertain the genetic variants involved has had limited success, in part due to the range of ADRs reported with antidepressants. ADRs reported with antidepressant treatment were categorised using their likely pharmacological basis; adrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic and histaminergic. To identify genetic predictors of susceptibility to each group of ADRs, a candidate gene analysis was performed with data from 431 depressed patients (from a total sample size of 811 patients) enrolled in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project, who were randomly allocated to receive treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline. Data from 474 patients treated with citalopram or reboxetine in the GenPod project (total sample of 601 patients) were used for replication of significant findings. We found no significant predictors of presumed adrenergic, cholinergic and histaminergic ADRs. Putative serotonergic ADRs were significantly associated with variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C, rs6644093, odds ratio (OR)=1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-2.25, p=7.43×10(-5)) in GENDEP. However, this finding was not replicated in GenPod. The association between serotonergic side effects and variation in the HTR2C gene in the GENDEP sample supports the hypothesis that serotonin receptor-mediated mechanisms underlie these adverse reactions, however this finding was not replicated in GenPod.

  9. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    Full Text Available Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin or presumed (surfactin or no (paromomycin activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  10. Evaluation and Selection of Bacillus Species Based on Enzyme Production, Antimicrobial Activity, and Biofilm Synthesis as Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates for Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Wolfenden, Ross E; Vicente, Jose L; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Menconi, Anita; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly resistant endospores, produce antimicrobial compounds, and synthesize different exogenous enzymes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and select Bacillus spp. from environmental and poultry sources as DFM candidates, considering their enzyme production profile, biofilm synthesis capacity, and pathogen-inhibition activity. Thirty-one Bacillus isolates were screened for in vitro relative enzyme activity of amylase, protease, lipase, and phytase using a selective media for each enzyme, with 3/31 strains selected as superior enzyme producers. These three isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (1/3), and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (2/3), based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. For evaluation of biofilm synthesis, the generation of an adherent crystal violet-stained ring was determined in polypropylene tubes, resulting in 11/31 strains showing a strong biofilm formation. Moreover, all Bacillus strains were evaluated for growth inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (26/31), Escherichia coli (28/31), and Clostridioides difficile (29/31). Additionally, in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, these selected Bacillus strains have shown to be resistant to different biochemical conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Results of the present study suggest that the selection and consumption of Bacillus-DFM, producing a variable set of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds, may contribute to enhanced performance through improving nutrient digestibility

  11. Evaluation of the antigenicity and reactogenicity of varying formulations of the rhesus rotavirus-based quadrivalent and the M37 rotavirus vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Schael, I; Blanco, M; Garcia, D; White, L; Alfonzo, E; Crespo, I; Cunto, W; Pittman, A L; Kapikian, A Z; Flores, J

    1994-04-01

    Three phase I trials of the rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-based quadrivalent vaccine [composed of serotype 3 (RRV), and serotypes 1 (D x RRV), 2 (DS1 x RRV), and 4 (ST3 x RRV) human rotavirus x RRV reassortants] and the M37 (nursery strain) rotavirus vaccine candidates were conducted in an attempt to find a safe and optimally antigenic formulation. Infants 10-20 weeks old received, in trial I, 1) the quadrivalent vaccine as two separate bivalent doses (1 x 10(4) PFU each of D x RRV and RRV, followed 4 weeks later by 1 x 10(4) PFU each of DS1 x RRV and ST3 x RRV) or 2) placebo; in trial II, 1) one dose of quadrivalent vaccine (10(4) PFU of each component), or 2) two doses of quadrivalent vaccine, or 3) a 10(4) PFU dose of M37 vaccine, or 4) M37 vaccine followed by the quadrivalent vaccine, or 5) placebo; in trial III, 1) a dose of a higher-titered quadrivalent vaccine (10(5) PFU of each component), or 2) two doses of higher titered quadrivalent vaccine, or 3) a dose of higher titered M37 vaccine (10(5) PFU) or 4) two doses of M37 vaccine (10(5) PFU), or 5) M37 vaccine (10(5) PFU) followed by the higher titered quadrivalent vaccine, or 6) placebo. A mild, transient fever during the first week postvaccination was associated with the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines but not with the M37 vaccine. Fourfold or greater serum IgA ELISA responses to rotavirus were observed in 48-92% of the infants receiving quadrivalent vaccine and in 32-50% of those receiving M37 vaccine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Prediction of overall in vitro microsomal stability of drug candidates based on molecular modeling and support vector machines. Case study of novel arylpiperazines derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ulenberg

    Full Text Available Other than efficacy of interaction with the molecular target, metabolic stability is the primary factor responsible for the failure or success of a compound in the drug development pipeline. The ideal drug candidate should be stable enough to reach its therapeutic site of action. Despite many recent excellent achievements in the field of computational methods supporting drug metabolism studies, a well-recognized procedure to model and predict metabolic stability quantitatively is still lacking. This study proposes a workflow for developing quantitative metabolic stability-structure relationships, taking a set of 30 arylpiperazine derivatives as an example. The metabolic stability of the compounds was assessed in in vitro incubations in the presence of human liver microsomes and NADPH and subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Density functional theory (DFT calculations were used to obtain 30 models of the molecules, and Dragon software served as a source of structure-based molecular descriptors. For modeling structure-metabolic stability relationships, Support Vector Machines (SVM, a non-linear machine learning technique, were found to be more effective than a regression technique, based on the validation parameters obtained. Moreover, for the first time, general sites of metabolism for arylpiperazines bearing the 4-aryl-2H-pyrido[1,2-c]pyrimidine-1,3-dione system were defined by analysis of Q-TOF-MS/MS spectra. The results indicated that the application of one of the most advanced chemometric techniques combined with a simple and quick in vitro procedure and LC-MS analysis provides a novel and valuable tool for predicting metabolic half-life values. Given the reduced time and simplicity of analysis, together with the accuracy of the predictions obtained, this is a valid approach for predicting metabolic stability using structural data. The approach presented provides a novel, comprehensive and reliable tool

  13. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  14. Supersymmetric Dark Matter Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental motivations for supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, we recall that supersymmetric relics from the Big Bang are expected in models that conserve R parity. We then discuss possible supersymmetric dark matter candidates, focusing on the lightest neutralino and the gravitino. In the latter case, the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle is expected to be long-lived, and possible candidates include spartners of the tau lepton, top quark and neutrino. We then discuss the roles of the renormalization-group equations and electroweak symmetry breaking in delimiting the supersymmetric parameter space. We discuss in particular the constrained minimal extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM), in which the supersymmetry-breaking parameters are assumed to be universal at the grand unification scale, presenting predictions from a frequentist analysis of its parameter space. We also discuss astrophysical and cosmological constraints on gravitin...

  15. Immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated Plasmodium falciparum GLURP-MSP3 chimeric protein-based malaria vaccine candidate in comparison to adjuvanted formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborrini, Marco; Stoffel, Sabine A; Westerfeld, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In clinical trials, immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs) have shown great potential as a versatile antigen delivery platform for synthetic peptides derived from Plasmodium falciparum antigens. This study describes the immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated recombinant ...... fusion protein comprising domains of the two malaria vaccine candidate antigens MSP3 and GLURP....

  16. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research was…

  17. Teachers Candidates' Reviews on Teacher Candidate Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Sedat; Görgen, Izzet

    2017-01-01

    In our country, as a result of the appointment in some different disciplines, nearly 30000 teacher candidates could be a part of education system. Also, a new revision has been completed on teacher candidate training and it has been put into action. Teacher candidates have been trained for six months after they have been appointed. These teachers…

  18. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dowall, Stuart D.; Graham, Victoria A.; Emma Rayner; Laura Hunter; Robert Watson; Irene Taylor; Antony Rule; Carroll, Miles W.; Roger Hewson

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. I...

  19. Immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated Plasmodium falciparum GLURP-MSP3 chimeric protein-based malaria vaccine candidate in comparison to adjuvanted formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamborrini Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs have shown great potential as a versatile antigen delivery platform for synthetic peptides derived from Plasmodium falciparum antigens. This study describes the immunogenicity of a virosomally-formulated recombinant fusion protein comprising domains of the two malaria vaccine candidate antigens MSP3 and GLURP. Methods The highly purified recombinant protein GMZ2 was coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine and the conjugates incorporated into the membrane of IRIVs. The immunogenicity of this adjuvant-free virosomal formulation was compared to GMZ2 formulated with the adjuvants Montanide ISA 720 and Alum in three mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds. Results Intramuscular injections of all three candidate vaccine formulations induced GMZ2-specific antibody responses in all mice tested. In general, the humoral immune response in outbred NMRI mice was stronger than that in inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. ELISA with the recombinant antigens demonstrated immunodominance of the GLURP component over the MSP3 component. However, compared to the Al(OH3-adjuvanted formulation the two other formulations elicited in NMRI mice a larger proportion of anti-MSP3 antibodies. Analyses of the induced GMZ2-specific IgG subclass profiles showed for all three formulations a predominance of the IgG1 isotype. Immune sera against all three formulations exhibited cross-reactivity with in vitro cultivated blood-stage parasites. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot competition experiments showed that both components of the hybrid protein induced IgG cross-reactive with the corresponding native proteins. Conclusion A virosomal formulation of the chimeric protein GMZ2 induced P. falciparum blood stage parasite cross-reactive IgG responses specific for both MSP3 and GLURP. GMZ2 thus represents a candidate component suitable for inclusion into a multi-valent virosomal

  20. Association study of 167 candidate genes for schizophrenia selected by a multi-domain evidence-based prioritization algorithm and neurodevelopmental hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Zhao

    Full Text Available Integrating evidence from multiple domains is useful in prioritizing disease candidate genes for subsequent testing. We ranked all known human genes (n=3819 under linkage peaks in the Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families using three different evidence domains: 1 a meta-analysis of microarray gene expression results using the Stanley Brain collection, 2 a schizophrenia protein-protein interaction network, and 3 a systematic literature search. Each gene was assigned a domain-specific p-value and ranked after evaluating the evidence within each domain. For comparison to this ranking process, a large-scale candidate gene hypothesis was also tested by including genes with Gene Ontology terms related to neurodevelopment. Subsequently, genotypes of 3725 SNPs in 167 genes from a custom Illumina iSelect array were used to evaluate the top ranked vs. hypothesis selected genes. Seventy-three genes were both highly ranked and involved in neurodevelopment (category 1 while 42 and 52 genes were exclusive to neurodevelopment (category 2 or highly ranked (category 3, respectively. The most significant associations were observed in genes PRKG1, PRKCE, and CNTN4 but no individual SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing. Comparison of the approaches showed an excess of significant tests using the hypothesis-driven neurodevelopment category. Random selection of similar sized genes from two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS of schizophrenia showed the excess was unlikely by chance. In a further meta-analysis of three GWAS datasets, four candidate SNPs reached nominal significance. Although gene ranking using integrated sources of prior information did not enrich for significant results in the current experiment, gene selection using an a priori hypothesis (neurodevelopment was superior to random selection. As such, further development of gene ranking strategies using more carefully selected sources of information is

  1. A 2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) candidate model based on Swarm’s experimental absolute magnetometer vector mode data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneron, Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Each of the three satellites of the European Space Agency Swarm mission carries an absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) that provides the nominal 1-Hz scalar data of the mission for both science and calibration purposes. These ASM instruments, however, also deliver autonomous 1-Hz experimental vector...... geographical distribution of the selected data set (essentially due to a lack of availability of data at high northern latitude satisfying nighttime conditions at the end of the time period considered). These appear to be comparable to differences classically observed among IGRF candidate models...

  2. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, Sandra; Zeng, Xuemei; Lykins, David; Roberts, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia. PMID:26580600

  3. Screening restimulation candidates in the Antrim Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, C.W.; Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Tatum, C.L.; Hill, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a simple method to identify, prioritize, and evaluate restimulation candidates in the Antrim Shale of the Michigan Basin. This work is being performed as part of an ongoing field-based Gas Research Institute (GRI) project investigating the Antrim Shale. There are between 500 and 1,000 Antrim Shale wells which could be candidates for restimulation due to previous screenouts and/or flowback problems, when sand consolidation material was not used. However, all of these wells might not benefit from restimulation, due to either poor reservoir quality or because the wells are already effectively stimulated. Based on historical results, the authors estimate the increase in reserves from restimulation could be between 50 and 400 MMscf per well, which could add 50 to 200 Bscf in future reserves from the 500--1,000 candidate wells.

  4. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Founds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia.

  5. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP. It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  6. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  7. Characterization of the Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus Genome and a Genotyping Array Based on Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWoody, J Andrew; Fernandez, Nadia B; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Antonides, Jennifer D; Doyle, Jacqueline M; San Miguel, Phillip; Westerman, Rick; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Godard-Codding, Céline A J; Bickham, John W

    2017-06-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches have much to offer in terms of ecology, evolution, and conservation. To better understand the biology of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861), we sequenced the genome and produced an assembly that contains ∼95% of the genes known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. From this assembly, we annotated 22,711 genes and identified 2,057,254 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using this assembly, we generated a curated list of candidate genes potentially subject to strong natural selection, including genes associated with osmoregulation, oxygen binding and delivery, and other aspects of marine life. From these candidate genes, we queried 92 autosomal protein-coding markers with a panel of 96 SNPs that also included 2 sexing and 2 mitochondrial markers. Genotyping error rates, calculated across loci and across 69 intentional replicate samples, were low (0.021%), and observed heterozygosity was 0.33 averaged over all autosomal markers. This level of variability provides substantial discriminatory power across loci (mean probability of identity of 1.6 × 10(-25) and mean probability of exclusion >0.999 with neither parent known), indicating that these markers provide a powerful means to assess parentage and relatedness in gray whales. We found 29 unique multilocus genotypes represented among our 36 biopsies (indicating that we inadvertently sampled 7 whales twice). In total, we compiled an individual data set of 28 western gray whales (WGSs) and 1 presumptive eastern gray whale (EGW). The lone EGW we sampled was no more or less related to the WGWs than expected by chance alone. The gray whale genomes reported here will enable comparative studies of natural selection in cetaceans, and the SNP markers should be highly informative for future studies of gray whale evolution, population structure, demography, and relatedness.

  8. Fostering the educational value of candidate evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Arden

    2017-12-01

    Approaches to fostering the educational value of candidate evaluation are presented, in view of the plethora of intra-psychic challenges that combine with many other complexities of learning to work as an analyst. Four integrally interrelated practices have been found to address sensitivities inherent in candidates' experience of training in general, and being evaluated in particular. When applied in concert, the institute's evaluative process not only becomes more considered, but also better promotes a psychoanalytic attitude and minimizes the intrusion of evaluators' personal responses. The first is defining and employing in synergy criteria for clinical immersion based on demonstration of the development and deepening of an analytic process, as well as the development of psychoanalytic competencies. The second is mandating institute-wide application of guidelines for assessment of progression/graduation that are clearly explicated to all candidates and faculty. The third is transparent and timely communication between candidates and their supervisors and progression advisors regarding progress essential to a sense of collaboration. Fourth the progression review process must be systematic and in-depth, with built-in consultative relationships serving as checks and balances on personal elements. The implementation and educational impact of these practices are considered in the case of one candidate. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in

  10. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  11. SU-B-213-00: Education Council Symposium: Accreditation and Certification: Establishing Educational Standards and Evaluating Candidates Based on these Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP.

  12. Enhanced mucosal immune responses induced by a combined candidate mucosal vaccine based on Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus structural proteins linked to tuftsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Jia, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hao; Lu, Xuexin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the most common causes of infectious hepatitis. These viruses are spread largely by the fecal-oral route and lead to clinically important disease in developing countries. To evaluate the potential of targeting hepatitis A and E infection simultaneously, a combined mucosal candidate vaccine was developed with the partial open reading frame 2 (ORF2) sequence (aa 368-607) of HEV (HE-ORF2) and partial virus protein 1 (VP1) sequence (aa 1-198) of HAV (HA-VP1), which included the viral neutralization epitopes. Tuftsin is an immunostimulatory peptide which can enhance the immunogenicity of a protein by targeting it to macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we developed a novel combined protein vaccine by conjugating tuftsin to HE-ORF2 and HA-VP1 and used synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) as the adjuvant. Subsequent experiments in BALB/c mice demonstrated that tuftsin enhanced the serum-specific IgG and IgA antibodies against HEV and HAV at the intestinal, vaginal and pulmonary interface when delivered intranasally. Moreover, mice from the intranasally immunized tuftsin group (HE-ORF2-tuftsin + HA-VP1-tuftsin + CpG) showed higher levels of IFN-γ-secreting splenocytes (Th1 response) and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells than those of the no-tuftsin group (HE-ORF2 + HA-VP1 + CpG). Thus, the tuftsin group generated stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared with the no-tuftsin group. Moreover, enhanced responses to the combined protein vaccine were obtained by intranasal immunization compared with intramuscular injection. By integrating HE-ORF2, HA-VP1 and tuftsin in a vaccine, this study validated an important concept for further development of a combined mucosal vaccine against hepatitis A and E infection.

  13. Democratic candidates call for change in the health care system: wider use of home and community-based care, chronic disease management, universal coverage, and greater use of telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Aaron G

    2008-10-01

    Senator Barack Obama, the Democratic candidate for president, and Senator Joe Biden, the party's candidate for vice president, have made health care reform a central pillar of their campaign. The Democrats want to target the 12 percent of Americans who are responsible for 69 percent of health care costs. Such individuals generally have multiple and complex health care problems, which if left untreated, require them to seek care in hospital emergency rooms which are vastly overcrowded. In order to solve the problem, they believe first that universal coverage along the lines of the Federal Government Employees' health plan is necessary, followed by a shift away from institutionally-based care, making home and community-based care, which integrates telehealth and other technologies, the norm. The party's platform includes this committment to help solve the problem of long-term care, which affects not only the nation's 35 million elderly, but increasingly will affect the 78 million baby boomers who are entering their retirement years.

  14. Lack of replication of four candidate SNPs implicated in human male fertility traits: a large-scale population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Youichi; Tajima, Atsushi; Tsunematsu, Kouki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Imoto, Issei; Yamauchi, Aiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2015-06-01

    Are the four candidate loci (rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078) for human male fertility traits, identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a Hutterite population in the USA, associated with semen quality traits in a Japanese population? The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 have no association with semen parameters in a meta-analysis of two Japanese male cohorts. Four (rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078) of the SNPs associated with family size or birth rate in the GWAS of a Hutterite population in the USA were associated with semen parameters in ethnically diverse men from Chicago, USA. This is a replication study in a total of 2015 Japanese subjects, including 791 fertile men and 1224 young men from the general population. We performed a replication study in two cohorts to assess whether the SNPs rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 are associated with sperm concentration, semen volume, total sperm numbers, total motile sperm numbers or sperm motility. The rs12870438 SNP was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR while rs7174015, rs724078 and rs7867029 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan probes. This study indicated that none of the four SNPs rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 displayed a significant association with semen parameters in the meta-analysis of two Japanese male cohorts. Only four SNPs identified in the Hutterite GWAS were examined for associations with semen quality traits in a Japanese population. In addition, the linkage disequilibrium structures around the testing markers were different between ethnic groups. Locus mapping studies using a set of tagging SNPs across the loci will be necessary in populations with larger sample sizes in order to understand the contribution of specific genes to semen quality. This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1013201) (to T.I.), Grant-in-Aids for

  15. Dynamics of copper-phthalocyanine molecules on Au/Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotthewes, K.; Heimbuch, R.; Zandvliet, H. J. W. [Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-10-07

    Spatially resolved current-time scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with current-distance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the dynamic behavior of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules adsorbed on a Au-modified Ge(001) surface. The analyzed CuPc molecules are adsorbed in a “molecular bridge” configuration, where two benzopyrrole groups (lobes) are connected to a Au-induced nanowire, whereas the other two lobes are connected to the adjacent nanowire. Three types of lobe configurations are found: a bright lobe, a dim lobe, and a fuzzy lobe. The dim and fuzzy lobes exhibit a well-defined switching behavior between two discrete levels, while the bright lobe shows a broad oscillation band. The observed dynamic behavior is induced by electrons that are injected into the LUMO+1 orbital of the CuPc molecule. By precisely adjusting the tip-molecule distance, the switching frequency of the lobes can be tuned accurately.

  16. Probing the electronic transport on the reconstructed Au/Ge(001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Krok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By using scanning tunnelling potentiometry we characterized the lateral variation of the electrochemical potential µec on the gold-induced Ge(001-c(8 × 2-Au surface reconstruction while a lateral current flows through the sample. On the reconstruction and across domain boundaries we find that µec shows a constant gradient as a function of the position between the contacts. In addition, nanoscale Au clusters on the surface do not show an electronic coupling to the gold-induced surface reconstruction. In combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we conclude that an additional transport channel buried about 2 nm underneath the surface represents a major transport channel for electrons.

  17. Probing the electronic transport on the reconstructed Au/Ge(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok, Franciszek; Kaspers, Mark R; Bernhart, Alexander M; Nikiel, Marek; Jany, Benedykt R; Indyka, Paulina; Wojtaszek, Mateusz; Möller, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary By using scanning tunnelling potentiometry we characterized the lateral variation of the electrochemical potential µec on the gold-induced Ge(001)-c(8 × 2)-Au surface reconstruction while a lateral current flows through the sample. On the reconstruction and across domain boundaries we find that µec shows a constant gradient as a function of the position between the contacts. In addition, nanoscale Au clusters on the surface do not show an electronic coupling to the gold-induced surface reconstruction. In combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we conclude that an additional transport channel buried about 2 nm underneath the surface represents a major transport channel for electrons. PMID:25247129

  18. Dynamics of copper-phthalocyanine molecules on Au/Ge(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Heimbuch, Rene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved current-time scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with current-distance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the dynamic behavior of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules adsorbed on a Au-modified Ge(001) surface. The analyzed CuPc molecules are adsorbed in a “molecular

  19. Specific memory B cell response and participation of CD4+central and effector memory T cells in mice immunized with liposome encapsulated recombinant NE protein based Hepatitis E vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shruti P; Thanapati, Subrat; Arankalle, Vidya A; Tripathy, Anuradha S

    2016-11-21

    Liposome encapsulated neutralizing epitope protein of Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rNEp, our Hepatitis E vaccine candidate, was shown to be immunogenic and safe in pregnant and non-pregnant mice and yielded sterilizing immunity in rhesus monkeys. The current study in Balb/c mice assessed the levels and persistence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies by ELISA, frequencies of B, memory B, T and memory T cells by flow cytometry and HEV-specific IgG secreting memory B cells by ELISPOT till 420days post immunization (PI) with 5?g rNEp encapsulated in liposome based adjuvant (2 doses, 4weeks apart). Mice immunized with a lower dose (1?g) were assessed only for anamnestic response post booster dose. Vaccine candidate immunized mice (5?g dose) elicited strong anti-HEV IgG response that was estimated to persist for lifetime. At day 120 PI, frequency of memory B cells was higher in immunized mice than those receiving adjuvant alone. Anti-HEV IgG titers were lower in mice immunized with 1?g dose. A booster dose yielded a heightened antibody response in mice with both high (>800GMT, 5?g) and low (?100GMT, 1?g) anti-HEV IgG titers. At day 6th post booster dose, HEV-specific antibody secreting plasma cells (ASCs) were detected in 100% and 50% of mice with high and low anti-HEV IgG titers, respectively, whereas the frequencies of CD4 + central and effector memory T cells were high in mice with high anti-HEV IgG titers only. Taken together, the vaccine candidate effectively generates persistent and anamnestic antibody response, elicits participation of CD4 + memory T cells and triggers memory B cells to differentiate into ASCs upon boosting. This approach of assessing the immunogenicity of vaccine candidate could be useful to explore the longevity of HEV-specific memory response in future HEV vaccine trials in human. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Disease candidate gene identification and prioritization using protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronow Bruce J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most of the current disease candidate gene identification and prioritization methods depend on functional annotations, the coverage of the gene functional annotations is a limiting factor. In the current study, we describe a candidate gene prioritization method that is entirely based on protein-protein interaction network (PPIN analyses. Results For the first time, extended versions of the PageRank and HITS algorithms, and the K-Step Markov method are applied to prioritize disease candidate genes in a training-test schema. Using a list of known disease-related genes from our earlier study as a training set ("seeds", and the rest of the known genes as a test list, we perform large-scale cross validation to rank the candidate genes and also evaluate and compare the performance of our approach. Under appropriate settings – for example, a back probability of 0.3 for PageRank with Priors and HITS with Priors, and step size 6 for K-Step Markov method – the three methods achieved a comparable AUC value, suggesting a similar performance. Conclusion Even though network-based methods are generally not as effective as integrated functional annotation-based methods for disease candidate gene prioritization, in a one-to-one comparison, PPIN-based candidate gene prioritization performs better than all other gene features or annotations. Additionally, we demonstrate that methods used for studying both social and Web networks can be successfully used for disease candidate gene prioritization.

  1. A response to information criterion-based clustering with order-restricted candidate profiles in short time-course microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbach David M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For gene expression data obtained from a time-course microarray experiment, Liu et al. 1 developed a new algorithm for clustering genes with similar expression profiles over time. Performance of their proposal was compared with three other methods including the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. 23. In this note we point out several inaccuracies in Liu et al. 1 and conclude that the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. (programmed in the software ORIOGEN indeed operates at the desired nominal Type 1 error level, an important feature of a statistical decision rule, while being computationally substantially faster than indicated by Liu et al. 1. Results Application of ORIOGEN to the well-known breast cancer cell line data of Lobenhofer et al. 4 revealed that ORIOGEN software took only 21 minutes to run (using 100,000 bootstraps with p = 0.0025, substantially faster than the 72 hours found by Liu et al. 1 using Matlab. Also, based on a data simulated according to the model and parameters of simulation 1 (σ2 = 1, M = 5 in 1 we found that ORIOGEN took less than 30 seconds to run in stark contrast to Liu et al. who reported that their implementation of the same algorithm in R took 2979.29 seconds. Furthermore, for the simulation studies reported in 1, unlike the claims made by Liu et al. 1, ORIOGEN always maintained the desired false positive rate. According to Figure three in Liu et al. 1 their algorithm had a false positive rate ranging approximately from 0.20 to 0.70 for the scenarios that they simulated. Conclusions Our comparisons of run times indicate that the implementations of ORIOGEN's algorithm in Matlab and R by Liu et al. 1 is inefficient compared to the publicly available JAVA implementation. Our results on the false positive rate of ORIOGEN suggest some error in Figure three of Liu et al. 1, perhaps due to a programming error.

  2. Development of candidate rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R F

    1993-01-01

    Candidate rotavirus vaccines tested to date have been developed using a 'Jennerian' approach. Strains of bovine and simian rotaviruses that are naturally attenuated for humans have been assessed and found to confer immunity that is serotype specific in a varying proportion of recipients. The spectrum of protection has been widened by developing reassortants in which the bovine or simian gene coding for VP7 (the major outer capsid protein) has been replaced by the corresponding gene from human VP7 types 1, 2, 3 or 4. Once the protective antigen(s) are identified it may be possible to develop subunit vaccines that eliminate side effects sometimes observed with live vaccine candidates.

  3. Electrical performance verification methodology for large reflector antennas: based on the P-band SAR payload of the ESA BIOMASS candidate mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an electrical performance verification methodology for large reflector antennas is proposed. The verification methodology was developed for the BIOMASS P-band (435 MHz) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), but can be applied to other large deployable or fixed reflector antennas for which...... pattern and gain of the entire antenna including support and satellite structure with an appropriate computational software. A preliminary investigation of the proposed methodology was carried out by performing extensive simulations of different verification approaches. The experimental validation...... the verification of the entire antenna or payload is impossible. The two-step methodology is based on accurate measurement of the feed structure characteristics, such as complex radiation pattern and radiation efficiency, with an appropriate Measurement technique, and then accurate calculation of the radiation...

  4. SU-F-T-631: Linear Accelerator-Based Frameless Extracranial Radiosurgery for Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia for Non-Surgical Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, T; Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Spalding, A [The Norton Cancer Institute Radiation Center, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Occipital neuralgia is a condition wherein pain is transmitted by the occipital nerves. Non-invasive therapies generally alleviate symptoms; however, persistent or recurring pain may require invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures upon failure are considered higher risk and are often contraindicated due to compounding inherent risk. SRS has not been explored as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target (as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia), but advances in linear-accelerator frameless-based SRS now present an opportunity to evaluate the novel potential of this modality for this application. Methods: Patient presented with severe occipital pain following decompression and fusion of the cervical vertebrae with prior intervention attempted via radiofrequency ablation yielding temporary pain cessation. A 0.6 mm slice spacing CT was obtained for treatment planning, and a cervical spine oriented 1.0 mm slice spacing CT myelogram was obtained for the purpose of defining the targeted C2 occipital dorsal root ganglion (to receive 80 Gy to the isocenter) and spinal cord. Results: The spinal cord was most proximally 12.0 mm from the isocenter receiving a maximum dose of 3.36 Gy, and doses to 0.35 and 1.2 cc of 1.84 Gy and 0.79 Gy, respectively. The brain maximum dose was 2.29 Gy. The treatment was successfully performed with a NovalisTX (Varian) equipped with ExacTrac stereoscopic x-ray image guidance (BrainLAB). Treatment time was 59 minutes for 18,323 MUs. Imaging was performed prior to each arc delivery resulting in twenty-one imaging sessions (twelve requiring positional corrections with the remaining verified within tolerance). The average deviation magnitude requiring a positional or rotational correction was 0.96±0.25 mm, 0.8±0.41° while the average deviation magnitude deemed within tolerance was 0.41±0.12 mm, 0.57±0.28°. Conclusion: Linear accelerator-based frameless radiosurgery

  5. A web-based interactive framework to assist in the prioritization of disease candidate genes in whole-exome sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Alejandro; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Salavert, Francisco; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2014-07-01

    Whole-exome sequencing has become a fundamental tool for the discovery of disease-related genes of familial diseases and the identification of somatic driver variants in cancer. However, finding the causal mutation among the enormous background of individual variability in a small number of samples is still a big challenge. Here we describe a web-based tool, BiERapp, which efficiently helps in the identification of causative variants in family and sporadic genetic diseases. The program reads lists of predicted variants (nucleotide substitutions and indels) in affected individuals or tumor samples and controls. In family studies, different modes of inheritance can easily be defined to filter out variants that do not segregate with the disease along the family. Moreover, BiERapp integrates additional information such as allelic frequencies in the general population and the most popular damaging scores to further narrow down the number of putative variants in successive filtering steps. BiERapp provides an interactive and user-friendly interface that implements the filtering strategy used in the context of a large-scale genomic project carried out by the Spanish Network for Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER) in which more than 800 exomes have been analyzed. BiERapp is freely available at: http://bierapp.babelomics.org/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. A risk-based statistical investigation of the quantification of polymorphic purity of a pharmaceutical candidate by solid-state 19F NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Samantha J; Pham, Tran N; Borman, Phil J; Edwards, Andrew J; Watson, Simon A

    2012-01-27

    The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) framework and associated statistical tools have been applied to both identify and reduce variability observed in a quantitative (19)F solid-state NMR (SSNMR) analytical method. The method had been developed to quantify levels of an additional polymorph (Form 3) in batches of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), where Form 1 is the predominant polymorph. In order to validate analyses of the polymorphic form, a single batch of API was used as a standard each time the method was used. The level of Form 3 in this standard was observed to gradually increase over time, the effect not being immediately apparent due to method variability. In order to determine the cause of this unexpected increase and to reduce method variability, a risk-based statistical investigation was performed to identify potential factors which could be responsible for these effects. Factors identified by the risk assessment were investigated using a series of designed experiments to gain a greater understanding of the method. The increase of the level of Form 3 in the standard was primarily found to correlate with the number of repeat analyses, an effect not previously reported in SSNMR literature. Differences in data processing (phasing and linewidth) were found to be responsible for the variability in the method. After implementing corrective actions the variability was reduced such that the level of Form 3 was within an acceptable range of ±1% ww(-1) in fresh samples of API. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Immunogenicity of Multi-Epitope DNA and Peptide Vaccine Candidates Based on Core, E2, NS3 and NS5B HCV Epitopes in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishraft Sabet, Leila; Taheri, Tahereh; Memarnejadian, Arash; Mokhtari Azad, Talat; Asgari, Fatemeh; Rahimnia, Ramin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Rafati, Sima; Samimi Rad, Katayoun

    2014-10-01

    Hypervariability of HCV proteins is an important obstacle to design an efficient vaccine for HCV infection. Multi-epitope vaccines containing conserved epitopes of the virus could be a promising approach for protection against HCV. Cellular and humoral immune responses against multi-epitope DNA and peptide vaccines were evaluated in BALB/c mice. In this experimental study, multi-epitope DNA- and peptide-based vaccines for HCV infection harboring immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes (HLA-A2 and H2-Dd) from Core (132-142), NS3 (1073-1081) and NS5B (2727-2735), a Th CD4+ epitope from NS3 (1248-1262) and a B-cell epitope from E2 (412-426) were designed. Multi-epitope DNA and peptide vaccines were tested in two regimens as heterologous DNA/peptide (group 1) and homologous peptide/peptide (group 2) prime/boost vaccine in BALB/c mice model. Electroporation was used for delivery of the DNA vaccine. Peptide vaccine was formulated with Montanide ISA 720 (M720) as adjuvant. Cytokine assay and antibody detection were performed to analyze the immune responses. Mice immunized with multi-epitope peptide formulated with M720 developed higher HCV-specific levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a than those immunized with multi-epitope DNA vaccine. IFN-γ levels in group 2 were significantly higher than group 1 (i.e. 3 weeks after the last immunization; 37.61 ± 2.39 vs. 14.43 ± 0.43, P epitope DNA and peptide-vaccines confirmed their specific immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. However, lower Th1 immune responses in mice immunized with DNA vaccine suggests further investigations to improve the immunogenicity of the multi-epitope DNA vaccine through immune enhancers.

  8. Fc-based delivery system enhances immunogenicity of a tuberculosis subunit vaccine candidate consisting of the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Hadi; Mosavat, Arman; Soleimanpour, Saman; Sadeghian, Hamid; Akbari Eydgahi, Mohammad Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sankian, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-06-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat despite chemotherapy and Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Therefore, a safer and more effective vaccine against TB is urgently needed. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of early secreted antigenic target protein 6 kDa (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP-10) and the Fc-domain of mouse IgG2a as a novel subunit vaccine. The recombinant expression vectors (pPICZαA-ESAT-6:CFP-10:Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-ESAT-6:CFP-10:His) were transferred into Pichia pastoris. After SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, the immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated in mice. When both recombinant proteins (ESAT-6:CFP-10:Fcγ2a and ESAT-6:CFP-10:His) were used for vaccination, Th1-type cellular responses were induced producing high levels of IFN-γ and IL-12. However, the Fc-tagged recombinant protein induced more effective Th1-type cellular responses with a small increase in IL-4 as compared to the BCG and ESAT-6:CFP-10:His groups. Moreover, mice primed with BCG and then supplemented with ESAT-6:CFP-10:Fcγ2a produced the highest levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in immunized groups. The findings indicate that when Fcγ2a is fused to the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex, as a delivery vehicle, there could be an increase in the immunogenicity of this type of subunit vaccine. Therefore, additional investigations are necessary for the development of appropriate Fc-based tuberculosis vaccines.

  9. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  10. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  11. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  12. Characterization of preclinical in vitro and in vivo ADME properties and prediction of human PK using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for YQA-14, a new dopamine D3 receptor antagonist candidate for treatment of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Yang, Cuiping; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Shan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jin; Lu, Chuang; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2014-07-01

    YQA-14 is a novel and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, with potential for the treatment of drug addiction. However, earlier compounds in its structural class tend to have poor oral bioavailability. The objectives of this study were to characterize the preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties and pharmacokinetics (PK) of YQA-14, then to simulate the clinical PK of YQA-14 using a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model to assess the likelihood of developing YQA-14 as a clinical candidate. For human PK prediction, PBPK models were first built in preclinical species, rats and dogs, for validation purposes. The model was then modified by input of human in vitro ADME data obtained from in vitro studies. The study data showed that YQA-14 is a basic lipophilic compound, with rapid absorption (Tmax ~ 1 h) in both rats and dogs. Liver microsomal clearances and in vivo clearances were moderate in rats and dogs consistent with the moderate bioavailability observed in both species. The PBPK models built for rats and dogs simulated the observed PK data well in both species. The PBPK model refined with human data predicted that YQA-14 would have a clearance of 8.0 ml/min/kg, a volume distribution of 1.7 l/kg and a bioavailability of 16.9%. These acceptable PK properties make YQA-14 an improved candidate for further research and development as a potential dopamine D3R antagonism for the treatment of drug addiction in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Analysis of TPA Task 2: Instructing and Engaging Students--What Evidence Does the Teacher Performance Assessment Reveal about Science Education Teacher Candidates' Understanding of Inquiry-Based Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Barbara Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In secondary science, the 2011 Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA) was designed to represent a teacher candidate's ability to both apply their understanding of their science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, and to allow the candidates to reflect on student learning. Specifically, Task 2 of the TPA requires teacher…

  14. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward organometallic antischistosomal drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeannine; Keiser, Jennifer; Gasser, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of novel approaches for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis. Among the different approaches used, organometallic compounds were found to offer unique opportunities in the design of antiparasitic drug candidates. A ferrocenyl derivative, namely ferroquine, has even entered clinical trials as a novel antimalarial. In this short review, we report on the studies describing the use of organometallic compounds against schistosomiasis.

  17. An Analysis of the Candidate Teachers' Beliefs Related to Knowledge, Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erdal; Vural, Ömer Faruk; Demir, Servet; Bagceci, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Candidate teachers have several beliefs related to their knowledge, learning and teaching. The purpose of this study is to analyze the beliefs of candidate teachers about knowledge, learning and teaching. Candidate teachers were assigned a scale and from the answers "belief points" were obtained based on their attitudes about these three…

  18. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... candidacy of which the candidate is a beneficiary; gifts of a personal nature which had been customarily received prior to candidacy; proceeds from lotteries and similar legal games of chance. (iii) A candidate...

  19. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 110.13 Section 110.13... PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2...

  20. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  1. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in...

  2. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Ferrini, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassing, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Kjøbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  3. Epitaxial Gd2O3 on GaN and AlGaN: a potential candidate for metal oxide semiconductor based transistors on Si for high power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Das, S.; Khiangte, K. R.; Choudhury, N.; Laha, Apurba

    2017-11-01

    We report structural and electrical properties of hexagonal Gd2O3 grown epitaxially on GaN/Si (1 1 1) and AlGaN/GaN/Si(1 1 1) virtual substrates. GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE), whereas the Gd2O3 layer was grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique. Initial structural characterizations show that Gd2O3 grown on III-nitride layers by PLA, exhibit a hexagonal structure with an epitaxial relationship as {{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}GaN} and {{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}GaN} . X-ray photoelectron measurements of the valence bands revealed that Gd2O3 exhibits band offsets of 0.97 eV and 0.4 eV, for GaN and Al0.3Ga0.7N, respectively. Electrical measurements such as capacitance–voltage and leakage current characteristics further confirm that epi-Gd2O3 on III-nitrides could be a potential candidate for future metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-based transistors also for high power applications in radio frequency range.

  4. Neurobiological candidate endophenotypes of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie; Blackford, Jennifer U; Brühl, Annette B; Blair, Karina S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Studies indicate a genetic component in the development of SAD, but the search for genetic mechanisms underlying this vulnerability is complicated. A focus on endophenotypes instead of the disorder itself may provide a fruitful path forward. Endophenotypes are measurable characteristics related to complex psychiatric disorders and reflective of genetically-based disease mechanisms, and could shed light on the ways by which genes contribute to the development of SAD. We review evidence for candidate MRI endophenotypes of SAD and discuss the extent to which they meet the criteria for an endophenotype, focussing on the amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex, whole-brain functional connectivity and structural-anatomical changes. Strongest evidence is present for the primary endophenotype criterion of association between the candidate endophenotypes and SAD, while the other criteria, involving trait-stability, heritability and co-segregation of the endophenotype with the disorder within families, warrant further investigation. We highlight the potential of neuroimaging endophenotypes and stress the need for family studies into SAD endophenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, T.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Raetz, St.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Marka, C.; Rammo, W.; Reithe, A.; Roell, T.; Vaňko, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have performed deep, wide-field imaging on a ˜ 0.4 deg2 field in the Pleiades (Melotte 22). The selected field was not yet target of a deep search for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our limiting magnitudes are R˜22 mag and I˜20 mag, sufficient to detect brown dwarf candidates down to 40 MJ. We found 197 objects, whose location in the (I, R-I) color magnitude diagram is consistent with the age and the distance of the Pleiades. Using CTK R and I as well as JHK photometry from our data and the 2MASS survey we were able to identify 7 new brown dwarf candidates. We present our data reduction technique, which enables us to resample, calibrate, and co-add many images by just two steps. We estimate the interstellar extinction and the spectral type from our optical and the NIR data using a two-dimensional χ2 fitting. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich- Schiller-University. Table A3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AN/330/439

  6. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... at the same time. Examples are given of how the first steps of the method may be carried out and a number of candidate worldviews are outlined and briefly discussed. In its own way, each worldview answers certain fundamental questions about the nature of design. These include the ontological question of what...

  7. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  8. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F. A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2013-07-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labour intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction (PEACE) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning-based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68 per cent of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17 per cent of sorted candidates, 95 per cent within the top 0.34 per cent and 100 per cent within the top 3.7 per cent. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.

  9. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  10. Hyper-Plurality of Candidates, Effectiveness of Democratic Representation and Regulation of Candidate Entry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Bhattacharya; Subrata K, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    The presence of large number of candidates in Indian elections had often evoked extremely strong policy recommendations from different expert groups. The major policy tool to control candidate entry in India had, however, been electoral deposit. Using panel data on elections in different states and UTs, our study estimates the impact of electoral deposit on candidate entry. Results suggest that increase in deposit had a substantial short-term negative impact on candidate entry. The candidate ...

  11. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Planetary Nebula Candidates Uncovered with the HASH Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkou, Vasiliki; Bojičić, Ivan; Frew, David; Parker, Quentin

    2017-10-01

    A detailed examination of new high quality radio catalogues (e.g. Cornish) in combination with available mid-infrared (MIR) satellite imagery (e.g. Glimpse) has allowed us to find 70 new planetary nebula (PN) candidates based on existing knowledge of their typical colors and fluxes. To further examine the nature of these sources, multiple diagnostic tools have been applied to these candidates based on published data and on available imagery in the HASH (Hong Kong/ AAO/ Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula) research platform. Some candidates have previously-missed optical counterparts allowing for spectroscopic follow-up. Indeed, the single object spectroscopically observed so far has turned out to be a bona fide PN.

  13. BL LAC CANDIDATES FOR TeV OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  14. BL LAC candidates for TeV observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; Errando, M.; D' Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  15. Polysaccharides: Candidates of promising vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants remain the only adjuvants approved for human use in the USA for over 80 years because of alum's simplicity, tolerability, safety and cost-efficiency. Recent development of vaccines, especially the increasing applications of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines, makes aluminium adjuvants cannot stimulate enough immunity to the antigens, since aluminium adjuvants can only induce Th2 type immune responses. So, novel adjuvants are urgent to make up the disadvantages of aluminium adjuvants. However, some major hurdles need to be overcome, not only the scientific knowledge of adjuvants but also unacceptable side-effects and toxicity. A number of carbohydrate-based polysaccharides from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and recognize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, followed by triggering innate immunity and regulating adaptive immunity. What is more, polysaccharides are safe and biodegradable without tissue deposits as observed in aluminium adjuvants. Therefore, polysaccharide-based compounds and formulations are potential vaccine adjuvant candidates. Here, we mainly review polysaccharide-based adjuvants investigated in recent years.

  16. Supervising PETE Candidates Using the Situational Supervision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Linda S.; Johnson, Lynn V.

    2012-01-01

    Physical education teacher candidates (PETCs) often, as part of their curricular requirements, engage in early field experiences that prepare them for student teaching. Matching the PETC's developmental level with the mentor's supervision style enhances this experience. The situational supervision model, based on the situational leadership model,…

  17. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  18. Subcutaneous administration CpG-ODNs acts as a potent adjuvant for an HIV-1-tat-based vaccine candidate to elicit cellular immunity in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Zeinab; Abdoli, Asghar; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Bahrami, Fariborz

    2018-01-08

    To evaluate the combined effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) adjuvant and subcutaneous injection route on efficacy of a HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate using BALB/c mice as an animal model. Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity of mice injected subcutaneously with HIV-1-tat gene cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector indicated that significant levels of IFN-γ cytokine secretion (900 pg/ml), lymphocyte proliferation (2.5 stimulation index) and IgG2a (1.45 absorbance 450 nm) production could be achieved. These indicators of stimulated cellular immunity were elicited 2 weeks after the last injection (P < 0.05). Formulation of HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate with CpG-ODNs as an adjuvant while administrated subcutaneously are a promising approach to induce effective cellular immunity responses against HIV-1 infection.

  19. Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae Candidates Found with HST/LEGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Laura; Churnetski, Kristen; Pellerin, Anne; Annibali, Francesca; LEGUS

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive search for planetary nebulae in nearby galaxies observed for the Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey. A total of 32 galaxies were examined and 166 planetary nebula candidates were found. Images from the Hubble Space Telescope in ~BVI filters were visually inspected to identify potential candidates based on their color. The presence of strong emission lines from [OIII]4959, 5007A in planetary nebulae enhances their brightness in the F555W or F606W filter compared to other, more ordinary stars. Making use of the LEGUS stellar photometric catalogs, color-magnitude and color-color diagrams were used to eliminate outliers.

  20. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    using well-defined statistical criteria in the spectral domain and maps in the physical space. These analyses were made to pinpoint both troublesome coefficients and the geographical regions where the candidate models most significantly differ. Some models showed clear deviation from other candidate...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...... models. However, a majority of the task force members appointed by IAGA thought that the differences were not sufficient to exclude models that were well documented and based on different techniques. Conclusions: The task force thus voted for and applied an iterative robust estimation scheme in space...

  1. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  2. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  3. Critical Thinking Tendencies among Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Salih Zeki

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine critical thinking tendencies among teacher candidates. 720 students from primary school teaching department (Primary School Teaching Programme, Science Teaching Programme and Pre-School Teaching Programme) form the sample of the study. When the gender and age distributions were investigated, 253 candidates are males and…

  4. Prediction of Waitlist Mortality in Adult Heart Transplant Candidates: The Candidate Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasseron, Carine; Legeai, Camille; Jacquelinet, Christian; Leprince, Pascal; Cantrelle, Christelle; Audry, Benoît; Porcher, Raphael; Bastien, Olivier; Dorent, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The cardiac allocation system in France is currently based on urgency and geography. Medical urgency is defined by therapies without considering objective patient mortality risk factors. This study aimed to develop a waitlist mortality risk score from commonly available candidate variables. The study included all patients, aged 16 years or older, registered on the national registry CRISTAL for first single-organ heart transplantation between January 2010 and December 2014. This population was randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio into derivation and validation cohorts. The association of variables at listing with 1-year waitlist death or delisting for worsening medical condition was assessed within the derivation cohort. The predictors were used to generate a candidate risk score (CRS). Validation of the CRS was performed in the validation cohort. Concordance probability estimation (CPE) was used to evaluate the discriminative capacity of the models. During the study period, 2333 patients were newly listed. The derivation (n =1 555) and the validation cohorts (n = 778) were similar. Short-term mechanical circulatory support, natriuretic peptide decile, glomerular filtration rate, and total bilirubin level were included in a simplified model and incorporated into the score. The Concordance probability estimation of the CRS was 0.73 in the derivation cohort and 0.71 in the validation cohort. The correlation between observed and expected 1-year waitlist mortality in the validation cohort was 0.87. The candidate risk score provides an accurate objective prediction of waitlist mortality. It is currently being used to develop a modified cardiac allocation system in France.

  5. Ionospheric and induced field leakage in geomagnetic field models, and derivation of candidate models for DGRF 1995 and DGRF 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Lowes, F.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the 9th generation of the IGRF defined by IAGA, we proposed a candidate model for DGRF 1995 and two candidate models for DGRF 2000. These candidate models, the derivation of which is described in the present note, are based on the "Comprehensive Model, Version 4 (CM4)", and on the "Ors...

  6. A DNA pooling-based case-control study of myopia candidate genes COL11A1, COL18A1, FBN1, and PLOD1 in a Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kim Hung; Fung, Wai Yan; Ng, Po Wah; Sham, Pak Chung; Yap, Maurice K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relationship between high myopia and common polymorphisms in four candidate genes: collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1); collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1 (COL18A1); fibrillin 1 (FBN1); and procollagen-lysine 1,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 (PLOD1). These genes were selected because rare pathogenic mutations in these genes cause disease syndromes that have myopia, usually high myopia, as one of the common presenting features. Methods This study recruited 600 unrelated Han Chinese subjects including 300 cases with high myopia (spherical equivalent or SE≤-8.00 diopters) and 300 controls (SE within ±1.00 diopter). A total of 66 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for study from these four candidate genes. The study adopted a DNA pooling strategy with an initial screen of DNA pools to identify putatively positive SNPs and then confirmed the “positive” SNPs by genotyping individual samples forming the original DNA pools. DNA pools were each constructed by mixing equal amounts of DNA from 50 individuals with the same phenotype status. Six case pools were prepared from 300 cases and six control pools from 300 controls. Allele frequencies of DNA pools were estimated by analyzing the primer-extended products with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and compared between case pools and control pools with nested ANOVA. Results In the first stage, 60 SNPs from the 4 candidate genes were successfully screened using the DNA pooling approach. Of these, 6 SNPs showed a statistical significant difference in estimated allele frequencies between case pools and controls at pmyopia. PMID:21527992

  7. A Comparison Study of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Single Subject Mathematics Credential Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra, Vicki Ann

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study compares the entry-level pedagogical content knowledge of single subject mathematics credential candidates based on career status and undergraduate majors. Career changers from science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) fields are compared to first career candidates to see if they bring different skills and knowledge to…

  8. Understanding How Service-Learning Impacts the Dispositions of Teach for America Candidates and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dymaneke; Karlin, Sy; Price, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a study that assessed Teach for America (TFA) candidates' dispositions toward service-learning before and after they developed and implemented a service-learning project with their students. This article may be used to understand the significance of raising alternative certification teacher candidates' community awareness…

  9. Diminishing Marginal Returns From Genomic Selection As More Selection Candidates Are Phenotyped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Henryon, Mark; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    We used stochastic simulation to test hypotheses that, (i) phenotyping proportion of high ranking selection candidates based on estimated breeding values (EBV) before genotyping could realize as much genetic gains as phenotyping all candidates, and (ii) there is diminishing return to selection...

  10. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors focus on the human dimension of Systems Engineering by addressing the need for the development of systems engineering potential in candidate engineers. Specifically, the authors propose a research design for a systems...

  11. SALT Classification of DES Supernova Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Smith, M.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.

    2015-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (400-850 nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  12. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Driel Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information is the usual strategy by which candidate disease genes are selected. Enrichment for candidate disease genes, however, depends on the skills of the operating researcher. Over the past few years, a number of bioinformatics methods that enrich for the most likely candidate disease genes have been developed. Such in silico prioritisation methods may further improve by completion of datasets, by development of standardised ontologies across databases and species and, ultimately, by the integration of different strategies.

  13. Nanoformulations and Clinical Trial Candidates as Probably ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanoformulations and Clinical Trial Candidates as Probably Effective and Safe Therapy for Tuberculosis. Madeeha Laghari, Yusrida Darwis, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Arshad Ali Khan, Ibrahim Mohammed Tayeb Abdulbaqi, Reem Abou Assi ...

  14. Candidate Quality Measures for Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Quality measures are tools used by physicians, health care systems, and payers to evaluate performance, monitor the outcomes of interventions, and inform quality improvement efforts. A paucity of quality measures exist that address hand surgery care. We completed a RAND/UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) Delphi Appropriateness process with the goal of developing and evaluating candidate hand surgery quality measures to be used for national quality measure development efforts. A consortium of 9 academic upper limb surgeons completed a RAND/UCLA Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, scientific acceptability, usability, and feasibility of 44 candidate quality measures. These addressed hand problems the panelists felt were most appropriate for quality measure development. Panelists rated the measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 as equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 as valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), the panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more of the panelists' ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range and 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, the panelists were considered to be in disagreement. There was agreement on 43% (19) of the measures as important, 27% (12) as scientifically sound, 48% (21) as usable, and 59% (26) as feasible to complete. Ten measures met all 4 of these criteria and were, therefore, considered valid measurements of quality. Quality measures that were developed address outcomes (patient-reported outcomes for assessment and improvement of function) and processes of care (utilization rates of imaging, antibiotics, occupational therapy, ultrasound, and operative treatment). The consortium developed 10

  15. Indico CONFERENCE: Candidate participant's registration/application

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to apply as a candidate participant (if the event requires approval from the event manager) or to register (if participation to the event doesn't require approval from an event manager) to the conference using the registration form for the event. You are also going to learn how to approve a candidate participant's application as an event manager.

  16. Connecting light dark matter candidates with neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lineros, Roberto A.

    2018-01-01

    Seminar at USACH on 11/Dec/2017Abstract:Dark Matter is an unseen sculptor of the Universe. Its presence affects astrophysical objects at different scales. However, its nature is still unknown. Particle dark matter candidates have been proposed explaining the relic abundance, properties, and indicating search strategies. Unfortunately, the null observational results motivate the community to study other candidates and to propose new search strategies. A possible way to observe dark matter is ...

  17. Connecting light dark matter candidates with neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lineros, Roberto A.

    2018-01-01

    Seminar given at UTFSM on 13/Dec/2017AbstractDark Matter is an unseen sculptor of the Universe. Its presence affects astrophysical objects at different scales. However, its nature is still unknown. Particle dark matter candidates have been proposed explaining the relic abundance, properties, and indicating search strategies. Unfortunately, the null observational results motivate the community to study other candidates and to propose new search strategies. A possible way to observe dark matte...

  18. Connecting light dark matter candidates with neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lineros, Roberto A.

    2018-01-01

    Seminar given at UNAB on 12/Dec/2017AbstractDark Matter is an unseen sculptor of the Universe. Its presence affects astrophysical objects at different scales. However, its nature is still unknown. Particle dark matter candidates have been proposed explaining the relic abundance, properties, and indicating search strategies. Unfortunately, the null observational results motivate the community to study other candidates and to propose new search strategies. A possible way to observe dark matter...

  19. Vaccine candidates for malaria: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Eizo; Morita, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Although it is more than a decade since the parasite genome information was obtained, standardized novel genome-wide selection/prioritization strategies for candidacy of malaria vaccine antigens are still sought. In the quest to systematically identify candidates, it is impossible to overemphasize the usefulness of wheat germ cell-free technology in expressing quality proteins for the post-genome vaccine candidate discovery.

  20. HMGA1a recognition candidate DNA sequences in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Manabe

    Full Text Available High mobility group protein A1a (HMGA1a acts as an architectural transcription factor and influences a diverse array of normal biological processes. It binds AT-rich sequences, and previous reports have demonstrated HMGA1a binding to the authentic promoters of various genes. However, the precise sequences that HMGA1a binds to remain to be clarified. Therefore, in this study, we searched for the sequences with the highest affinity for human HMGA1a using an existing SELEX method, and then compared the identified sequences with known human promoter sequences. Based on our results, we propose the sequences "-(G/A-G-(A/T-(A/T-A-T-T-T-" as HMGA1a-binding candidate sequences. Furthermore, these candidate sequences bound native human HMGA1a from SK-N-SH cells. When candidate sequences were analyzed by performing FASTAs against all known human promoter sequences, 500-900 sequences were hit by each one. Some of the extracted genes have already been proven or suggested as HMGA1a-binding promoters. The candidate sequences presented here represent important information for research into the various roles of HMGA1a, including cell differentiation, death, growth, proliferation, and the pathogenesis of cancer.

  1. Between paranoia and creativity: candidates' experience of psychoanalytic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Anne; Gibson, Walter; Miqueu-Baz, Christine

    2010-10-01

    There is widespread concern regarding various aspects of psychoanalytic education. A recent paper by Patrick Casement, drawn widely from his long experience as a supervisor both in the U.K. and abroad, implied that the British Psychoanalytical Society is not exempt from these concerns. To investigate this, a semistructured, anonymous questionnaire was devised and sent to all candidates and all recently qualified analysts at the society. Overall there was a 58% response rate, with 77% of candidates and 39% of recently qualified analysts responding. Concerns were expressed about aspects of the training, but on the whole these were balanced by appreciation. Although strong criticism was expressed by a minority, it seems that when something goes wrong for a candidate, this experience is felt keenly by the peer group as well. The results are discussed in the context of the current training and ethos of the British Society, as well as in relation to a more widespread move toward "competency-based" education. The maturational tasks facing both candidates and trainers are also addressed.

  2. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  3. Jellyfish Galaxy Candidates at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-03-01

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04-0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity LX. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (1011-1014M⊙), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M⊙ 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  4. I. Analysis of candidates for interacting galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth J.; Rios, Martín de los; Oio, Gabriel A.; Lang, Daniel Hernández; Tagliaferro, Tania Aguirre; Domínguez, Mariano J. R.; Castellón, José Luis Nilo; Cuevas, Héctor L.; Valotto, Carlos A.

    2018-01-01

    Merging galaxy clusters allows to study the different mass components, dark and baryonic, separately. Also their occurrence enables to test the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario and they could put constrains in the self interacting cross section of the dark matter particle. It is necessary to perform an homogeneous analysis of these systems. Hence, based in a recently presented sample of candidates for interacting galaxy clusters, we present the analysis of two of these cataloged systems. In this work, t...

  5. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Sullivan, Patrick F; Root, Tammy L; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Berrettini, Wade H; Schork, Nicholas J; Kaye, Walter H; Bergen, Andrew W; Magistretti, Pierre; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela K; Klump, Kelly L; La Via, Maria; Mitchell, James E; Strober, Michael; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake

    2010-07-01

    We performed association studies with 5,151 SNPs that were judged as likely candidate genetic variations conferring susceptibility to anorexia nervosa (AN) based on location under reported linkage peaks, previous results in the literature (182 candidate genes), brain expression, biological plausibility, and estrogen responsivity. We employed a case-control design that tested each SNP individually as well as haplotypes derived from these SNPs in 1,085 case individuals with AN diagnoses and 677 control individuals. We also performed separate association analyses using three increasingly restrictive case definitions for AN: all individuals with any subtype of AN (All AN: n = 1,085); individuals with AN with no binge eating behavior (AN with No Binge Eating: n = 687); and individuals with the restricting subtype of AN (Restricting AN: n = 421). After accounting for multiple comparisons, there were no statistically significant associations for any individual SNP or haplotype block with any definition of illness. These results underscore the importance of large samples to yield appropriate power to detect genotypic differences in individuals with AN and also motivate complementary approaches involving Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analyses, sequencing-based rare variant discovery assays, and pathway-based analysis in order to make up for deficiencies in traditional candidate gene approaches to AN. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Su, Baofeng; Balhoff, James P.; Eames, B. Frank; Dahdul, Wasila M.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Vision, Todd J.; Dunham, Rex A.; Mabee, Paula M.; Westerfield, Monte

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology. PMID:26500251

  7. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  8. Interferometric confirmation of `water fountain' candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José F.; Suárez, Olga; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; Uscanga, Lucero; Walsh, Andrew; Miranda, Luis F.; Bendjoya, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Water fountain stars (WFs) are evolved objects with water masers tracing high-velocity jets (up to several hundreds of km s-1). They could represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass-loss in evolved objects and thus be a key to understanding the shaping mechanisms of planetary nebulae. Only 13 objects had been confirmed so far as WFs with interferometer observations. We present new observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and archival observations with the Very Large Array of four objects that are considered to be WF candidates, mainly based on single-dish observations. We confirm IRAS 17291-2147 and IRAS 18596+0315 (OH 37.1-0.8) as bona fide members of the WF class, with high-velocity water maser emission consistent with tracing bipolar jets. We argue that IRAS 15544-5332 has been wrongly considered as a WF in previous works, since we see no evidence in our data nor in the literature that this object harbours high-velocity water maser emission. In the case of IRAS 19067+0811, we did not detect any water maser emission, so its confirmation as a WF is still pending. With the result of this work, there are 15 objects that can be considered confirmed WFs. We speculate that there is no significant physical difference between WFs and obscured post-AGB stars in general. The absence of high-velocity water maser emission in some obscured post-AGB stars could be attributed to a variability or orientation effect.

  9. Discovery of Clinical Candidate 1-{[(2 S ,3 S ,4 S )-3-Ethyl-4-fluoro-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy}-7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carboxamide (PF-06650833), a Potent, Selective Inhibitor of Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4), by Fragment-Based Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katherine L.; Ambler, Catherine M.; Anderson, David R.; Boscoe, Brian P.; Bree, Andrea G.; Brodfuehrer, Joanne I.; Chang, Jeanne S.; Choi, Chulho; Chung, Seungwon; Curran, Kevin J.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Dehnhardt, Christoph M.; Dower, Ken; Drozda, Susan E.; Frisbie, Richard K.; Gavrin, Lori K.; Goldberg, Joel A.; Han, Seungil; Hegen, Martin; Hepworth, David; Hope, Heidi R.; Kamtekar, Satwik; Kilty, Iain C.; Lee, Arthur; Lin, Lih-Ling; Lovering, Frank E.; Lowe, Michael D.; Mathias, John P.; Morgan, Heidi M. [Worldwide; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Patny, Akshay; Pierce, Betsy S.; Rao, Vikram R.; Saiah, Eddine; Samardjiev, Ivan J.; Samas, Brian M.; Shen, Marina W. H.; Shin, Julia H.; Soutter, Holly H.; Strohbach, Joseph W.; Symanowicz, Peter T.; Thomason, Jennifer R.; Trzupek, John D.; Vargas, Richard; Vincent, Fabien; Yan, Jiangli [Worldwide; Zapf, Christoph W.; Wright, Stephen W.

    2017-03-27

    Through fragment-based drug design focused on engaging the active site of IRAK4 and leveraging three-dimensional topology in a ligand-efficient manner, a micromolar hit identified from a screen of a Pfizer fragment library was optimized to afford IRAK4 inhibitors with nanomolar potency in cellular assays. The medicinal chemistry effort featured the judicious placement of lipophilicity, informed by co-crystal structures with IRAK4 and optimization of ADME properties to deliver clinical candidate PF-06650833 (compound 40). This compound displays a 5-unit increase in lipophilic efficiency from the fragment hit, excellent kinase selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for oral administration.

  10. Interviews with candidates for president transmitted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In election years, television interviews with presidential candidates, broadcast live, i.e. without the use of editing, have become an important genre of journalistic representation in Brazilian political campaigns. These interviews are conducted in network studios by well-known Brazilian news anchors. The fact that these interviews are transmitted directly to the electorate in an unedited form is generally offered as a guarantee of a genuine, authentic portrayal of the candidates themselves. The present work proposes that live network candidate interviews, rather than a means of political presentation on television, are actually an arena in which the institution of journalism attempts to use rhetorical and argumentative means to control the candidates’ discourse without relying on the traditional advantages conferred in daily news coverage.

  11. Development of Polypeptide-based Nanoparticles for Non-viral Delivery of CD22 RNA Trans-splicing Molecule as a New Precision Medicine Candidate Against B-lineage ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CD22ΔE12 has emerged as a driver lesion in the pathogenesis of pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and a new molecular target for RNA therapeutics. Here we report a 43-gene CD22ΔE12 signature transcriptome that shows a striking representation in primary human leukemia cells from patients with relapsed BPL. Our data uniquely indicate that CD22ΔE12 is a candidate driver lesion responsible for the activation of MAPK and PI3-K pathways in aggressive forms of B-lineage ALL. We also show that the forced expression of a CD22 RNA trans-splicing molecule (RTM markedly reduces the capacity of the leukemic stem cell fraction of CD22ΔE12+ B-lineage ALL cells to engraft and cause overt leukemia in NOD/SCID mice. We have successfully complexed our rationally designed lead CD22-RTM with PVBLG-8 to prepare a non-viral nanoscale formulation of CD22ΔE12-RTM with potent anti-cancer activity against CD22ΔE12+ B-lineage leukemia and lymphoma cells. CD22-RTM nanoparticles effectively delivered the CD22-RTM cargo into B-lineage ALL cells and exhibited significant anti-leukemic activity in vitro.

  12. Lost Near-Earth Object Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Peter; Farnocchia, Davide; Williams, Gareth; Keys, Sonia; Boardman, Ian; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    The number of discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) increases rapidly, currently exceeding 16,000 NEOs. 2016 was the most productive year ever with 1,888 NEO discoveries. The NEO discovery process typically begins with three to five detections of a previously unidentified object that are reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC). According to the plane-of-sky motion, the MPC ranks all of the new candidate discoveries for the likelihood of being NEOs using the so-called digest score. If the digest score is greater than 65 the observations appear on the publicly accessible NEO Confirmation Page (NEOCP). Objects on the NEOCP are followed up in subsequent hours and days. When enough observations are collected to ensure that the object is real and that the orbit is determined, the NEO is officially announced with its new designation by a Minor Planet Electronic Circular. However, 14% of NEO candidates never get confirmed and are therefore lost due to the lack of follow-up observations. We analyzed the lost NEO candidates that appeared on NEOCP in 2013-2016 and investigated the reasons why they were not confirmed. In particular, we studied the properties of the lost NEO candidates with a digest score of 100 that were reported by the two most prolific discovery sites - Pan-STARRS1 (F51) and Mt. Lemmon Survey (G96). We derived their plane-of-sky positions and rates, brightness, and ephemeris uncertainties, and assessed correlations with the phase of the moon and seasonal effects apparent in the given observatory’s data. We concluded that lost NEO candidates typically have a larger rate of motion and larger uncertainties than those of confirmed objects. However, many of the lost candidates could be recovered. In fact, the 1-sigma plane-of-sky uncertainty was still within ±0.5 deg in 79% (F51) and 69% (G96) of the cases 24 hours after discovery and in 31% (F51) and 30% (G96) of the cases 48 hours after discovery. If all of the NEO candidates with a digest score of 100 had

  13. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  14. A structural classification of candidate oscillatory and multistationary biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchini, Franco; Franco, Elisa; Giordano, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    Molecular systems are uncertain: The variability of reaction parameters and the presence of unknown interactions can weaken the predictive capacity of solid mathematical models. However, strong conclusions on the admissible dynamic behaviors of a model can often be achieved without detailed knowledge of its specific parameters. In systems with a sign-definite Jacobian, for instance, cycle-based criteria related to the famous Thomas' conjectures have been largely used to characterize oscillatory and multistationary dynamic outcomes. We build on the rich literature focused on the identification of potential oscillatory and multistationary behaviors using parameter-free criteria. We propose a classification for sign-definite non-autocatalytic biochemical networks, which summarizes several existing results in the literature. We call weak (strong) candidate oscillators systems which can possibly (exclusively) transition to instability due to the presence of a complex pair of eigenvalues, while we call weak (strong) candidate multistationary systems those which can possibly (exclusively) transition to instability due to the presence of a real eigenvalue. For each category, we provide a characterization based on the exclusive or simultaneous presence of positive and negative cycles in the associated sign graph. Most realistic examples of biochemical networks fall in the gray area of systems in which both positive and negative cycles are present: Therefore, both oscillatory and bistable behaviors are in principle possible. However, many canonical example circuits exhibiting oscillations or bistability fall in the categories of strong candidate oscillators/multistationary systems, in agreement with our results.

  15. A novel live-attenuated vaccine candidate for mayaro Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Weise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a dengue-like illness in many regions of South America, and which has the potential to urbanize. Because no specific treatment or vaccine is available for MAYV infection, we capitalized on an IRES-based approach to develop a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate. Testing in infant, immunocompetent as well as interferon receptor-deficient mice demonstrated a high degree of attenuation, strong induction of neutralizing antibodies, and efficacy against lethal challenge. This vaccine strain was also unable to infect mosquito cells, a major safety feature for a live vaccine derived from a mosquito-borne virus. Further preclinical development of this vaccine candidate is warranted to protect against this important emerging disease.

  16. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three......Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from...... local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously...

  17. Psychological aptitude evaluation of the special forces candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Luca; Jelmini, F; Lang, M; Muggli, F

    2017-02-01

    Changes in recruitment procedures reduced early dismissal rates from Swiss military basic recruitment schools; however, such improvements were not reflected in premature discharge rates from the special forces (SF) (Grenadier) recruitment school. A six-item questionnaire designed to identify recruits likely to be subject to premature dismissal on psychological or psychiatric grounds was developed and prospectively validated. The questionnaire was based on an analysis of medical and psychiatric/psychological records of 26 recruits dismissed from a SF recruitment school. Six items were identified that appeared to have prognostic value for early discharge. These six questions were submitted to the remaining applicants in the recruitment school by a suitably qualified psychologist or psychiatrist and effectively identified candidates who would be discharged early. Based on these results a 0-6 scale was developed and applied prospectively to subsequent Grenadier recruitment courses. Statistical analysis showed that 75% of candidates with the lowest scores would eventually complete the course and that no candidates with highest scores would subsequently complete the recruitment course. Prospective studies in subsequent recruitment courses candidates with high scores were classified as not qualified to enter the course, and those with intermediate scores were subject to additional in-depth interviews with a psychologist or psychiatrist to determine their suitability. In the following courses a correlation was established between the questionnaire score and week of discharge for those discharged. Application of this method during subsequent recruitment courses has reduced early dismissal from Swiss SF recruitment schools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Cochlear coiling pattern and orientation differences in cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Monedero, Rodrigo; Niparko, John K; Aygun, Nafi

    2011-09-01

    Detailed studies of cochlear morphology can guide our approach to cochleostomy and electrode insertion to optimize neuronal and hair cell preservation and ultimate electrode location. Normal developed cochleae from 124 cochlear implant candidates were studied. We performed morphometric analysis of the right cochleae in all subjects based on computed tomographic data. The length and width of the cochlear base, the angle between the first and second turn of the cochlea, and the cochlear orientation within the cranial base were measured and compared across age groups. In cochlear implant candidates with underdeveloped cochleae (n = 7), we performed similar measurements and assessed the modiolar inlet area on 3D volume rendered images. The birth to 1 year and 1- to 2-year age groups showed insignificant differences in the lengths and widths of the cochlear base, although variability was considerable, and a significantly wider angle (from the midsagittal line) than that of the older age groupings (p cochlear base were significantly smaller and angled between the first and second turn differed from the normal developed group. The modiolar inlet also was significantly smaller in the underdeveloped cochleae compared with normal cochleae. We observed that perspective 3D-volume rendering of the cochlea enables the determination of key features of cochlear morphology and orientation that may escape detection with routine computed tomographic scanning. Infants and young toddler candidates demonstrate greater variability in the dimensions of the cochlear base and in the orientation of the cochlea within the cranium. As evolving surgical techniques and device design enhance the ability of the surgeon to avoid cochlear damage and optimize electrode location, refined morphometric information may assist the surgeon in tailoring strategies of scala tympani implantation.

  19. Supporting Masters Candidates in Business Studies Christine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate course work teachers and research supervisors are usually active researchers in specialised fields. Thesis supervision (whether full thesis or part- dissertation), tends to be unconsciously framed by the supervisor's own theoretical orientation, sometimes with no, or very little, knowledge of the candidates' ...

  20. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  1. Modeling Collaboration for ESL Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, Margo

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a semester-long project where a TESOL professor and English Education professor modeled collaborative teaching and explicitly taught collaboration skills to a coscheduled teaching methods class consisting of TESOL and Secondary English teacher candidates. Data were collected in the form of pre- and postsemester surveys. In…

  2. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  3. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  4. Clipboard: Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 4. Clipboard: Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine? Anjali Karande. Volume 29 Issue 4 December 2004 pp 373-374. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/029/04/0373-0374. Author Affiliations.

  5. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  6. GTC Classification of DES Supernova Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Perez-Valladares, D.; Miquel, R.; Smith, M.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-03-01

    We report optical spectroscopy and classification of 3 SN candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (490-920 nm) were obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), and classification was performed using SuperFit (Howell et al. 2005, Ap.J. 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, Ap.J., 666, 1024).

  7. Shortlisted candidates for Accounts / Admin Assistant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Indian Academy of Sciences. Bengaluru. The following shortlisted candidates have been sent call letters for written test to be held on Friday, 29th January 2016 at Academy Office, Sadashivanagar, Bengaluru. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT. (29 January 2016, 9:30 – 11:00 a.m.). ACCOUNTS ASSISTANT. (29 January 2016 ...

  8. Galactic Supernova Remnant Candidates Discovered by THOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren; Wang, Yuan; Bihr, Simon; Rugel, Michael; Beuther, Henrik; THOR Team

    2018-01-01

    There is a considerable deficiency in the number of known supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy compared to that expected. Searches for extended low-surface brightness radio sources may find new Galactic SNRs, but confusion with the much larger population of HII regions makes identifying such features challenging. SNRs can, however, be separated from HII regions using their significantly lower mid-infrared (MIR) to radio continuum intensity ratios. We use the combination of high-resolution 1-2 GHz continuum data from The HI, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR) and lower-resolution VLA 1.4 GHz Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) continuum data, together with MIR data from the Spitzer GLIMPSE, Spitzer MIPSGAL, and WISE surveys to identify SNR candidates. To ensure that the candidates are not being confused with HII regions, we exclude radio continuum sources from the WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions, which contains all known and candidate H II regions in the Galaxy. We locate 76 new Galactic SNR candidates in the THOR and VGPS combined survey area of 67.4deg>l>17.5deg, |b|increase would still, however, leave a discrepancy between the known and expected SNR populations of about a factor of two.

  9. Transiently expressed pattern during myogenesis and candidate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Notably, mir-16-1 significantly decreased luciferase activity in dual luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, suggesting that it can be identified as potential factors affecting Tmem8C. This study investigated Tmem8C in water bird for the first time, and provided useful information about this gene and its candidate miRNAs in ...

  10. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  11. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  12. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  13. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  14. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson James R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy (IE is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD, and Beagles, and that the gene(s responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Results Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Conclusions Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  15. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Patterson, Edward E; Minor, Katie M; Mickelson, James R

    2011-04-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS), Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD), and Beagles, and that the gene(s) responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  16. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemker, B.K. [Boys Town National Research hospital, Omaha, NE (United States); Swaroop, A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kimberling, W.J. [Yale medical School, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  17. Calculating life years from transplant (LYFT): methods for kidney and kidney-pancreas candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R A; McCullough, K P; Schaubel, D E; Kalbfleisch, J D; Murray, S; Stegall, M D; Leichtman, A B

    2008-04-01

    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Kidney Committee is considering a proposal for a new deceased donor kidney allocation system. Among the components under consideration is a strategy to rank candidates in part by the estimated incremental years of life that are expected to be achieved with a transplant from a specific available deceased donor, computed as the difference in expected median lifespan with that transplant compared with remaining on dialysis. This concept has been termed life years from transplant or LYFT. Median lifespans could be calculated, based on objective medical criteria, for each candidate when a deceased donor kidney becomes available, based on Cox regression models using current candidate and donor medical information. The distribution of the calculated LYFT scores for an average nonexpanded criteria donor kidney is similar across candidate sex, race/ethnicity, insurance status and, with the exception of diabetes, diagnosis. LYFT scores tend to be higher for younger candidates and lower for diabetics receiving a kidney-alone rather than a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant. Prioritizing candidates with higher LYFT scores for each available kidney could substantially increase total years of life among both transplant candidates and recipients. LYFT is also a powerful metric for assessing trends in allocation outcomes and for comparing alternative allocation systems.

  18. The Top 10 List of Gravitational Lens Candidates from the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ostrander, Eric J.

    1999-05-01

    A total of 10 good candidates for gravitational lensing have been discovered in the WFPC2 images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and archival primary observations. These candidate lenses are unique HST discoveries, i.e., they are faint systems with subarcsecond separations between the lensing objects and the lensed source images. Most of them are difficult objects for ground-based spectroscopic confirmation or for measurement of the lens and source redshifts. Seven are ``strong lens'' candidates that appear to have multiple images of the source. Three are cases in which the single image of the source galaxy has been significantly distorted into an arc. The first two quadruply lensed candidates were reported by Ratnatunga et al. We report on the subsequent eight candidates and describe them with simple models based on the assumption of singular isothermal potentials. Residuals from the simple models for some of the candidates indicate that a more complex model for the potential will probably be required to explain the full structural detail of the observations once they are confirmed to be lenses. We also discuss the effective survey area that was searched for these candidate lens objects.

  19. Correlation between trainee candidate selection criteria and subsequent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Jesse C; Tong, Winnie; Koshy, John; Ibrahim, Amir; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The objective of trainee recruitment is to identify candidates likely to perform well as trainees and subsequent faculty. The effectiveness of this process has not been established. The goal of this study was to identify trainee selection criteria predictive of excellent performance. Twenty-nine microsurgery fellows were enrolled from 2008 to 2012. Each candidate was interviewed and rated based on presentation, plastic surgery (PS) training experience, academic potential, personality, social skills, communication skills, and ability to be a team player. An unadjusted rank list was generated based on weighted averages, and an adjusted rank list was then generated at a faculty meeting. At the conclusion of fellowship, each fellow was rated based on the ACGME core competencies. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were used to measure the correlations between fellow selection criteria and fellow performance. Plastic surgery training and academic potential had, by far, the strongest correlation to overall performance (r: 0.678, p competencies. When reformulated to weight PS training and academic potential more heavily than subjective criteria, the scoring system was significantly more predictive of excellent performance (r: 0.49 vs 0.70). The unadjusted rank list was more predictive of excellent performance than the adjusted rank list (r: 0.45 vs 0.65). Plastic surgery training experience and academic potential were better predictors of performance than any subjective information ascertained during the interview. Adjustments to the rank list based on faculty discussion resulted in lower performance candidates moving up in ranking. Ranking criteria and interview techniques must be refined to improve predictive power. It may be beneficial for semi-objective criteria to carry more weight than subjective criteria and raw scores to remain unadjusted by extraneous information. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PLANETARY CANDIDATES OBSERVED BY KEPLER. III. ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST 16 MONTHS OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Burke, Christopher J.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bryson, Stephen T.; Christiansen, Jessie L. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, Timothy M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Dupree, Andrea K.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W., E-mail: Natalie.Batalha@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2013-02-15

    New transiting planet candidates are identified in 16 months (2009 May-2010 September) of data from the Kepler spacecraft. Nearly 5000 periodic transit-like signals are vetted against astrophysical and instrumental false positives yielding 1108 viable new planet candidates, bringing the total count up to over 2300. Improved vetting metrics are employed, contributing to higher catalog reliability. Most notable is the noise-weighted robust averaging of multi-quarter photo-center offsets derived from difference image analysis that identifies likely background eclipsing binaries. Twenty-two months of photometry are used for the purpose of characterizing each of the candidates. Ephemerides (transit epoch, T {sub 0}, and orbital period, P) are tabulated as well as the products of light curve modeling: reduced radius (R {sub P}/R {sub *}), reduced semimajor axis (d/R {sub *}), and impact parameter (b). The largest fractional increases are seen for the smallest planet candidates (201% for candidates smaller than 2 R {sub Circled-Plus} compared to 53% for candidates larger than 2 R {sub Circled-Plus }) and those at longer orbital periods (124% for candidates outside of 50 day orbits versus 86% for candidates inside of 50 day orbits). The gains are larger than expected from increasing the observing window from 13 months (Quarters 1-5) to 16 months (Quarters 1-6) even in regions of parameter space where one would have expected the previous catalogs to be complete. Analyses of planet frequencies based on previous catalogs will be affected by such incompleteness. The fraction of all planet candidate host stars with multiple candidates has grown from 17% to 20%, and the paucity of short-period giant planets in multiple systems is still evident. The progression toward smaller planets at longer orbital periods with each new catalog release suggests that Earth-size planets in the habitable zone are forthcoming if, indeed, such planets are abundant.

  1. Most of the benefits from genomic selection can be realised by genotyping a proportion of selection candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2012-01-01

    allocated to male and female candidates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. For genotyped candidates, a direct-genomic value (DGV) was sampled with reliabilities 0.10, 0.50, and 0.90. Ten sires and 300 dams with the highest breeding values after genotyping were selected at each generation......We reasoned that there are diminishing marginal returns from genomic selection as the proportion of genotyped selection candidates is increased and breeding values based on a priori information are used to choose the candidates that are genotyped. We tested this premise by stochastic simulation...... of breeding schemes that resembled those used for pigs. We estimated rates of genetic gain and inbreeding realized by genomic selection in breeding schemes where candidates were phenotyped before genotyping and 0-100% of the candidates were genotyped based on predicted breeding values. Genotypings were...

  2. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  3. Psychiatric history in living kidney donor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2012-04-01

    To critically discuss recent studies of living kidney donor candidates with a past or current psychiatric history and to offer guidance for the psychosocial evaluation of such donors. A global consensus has been developed that active, significant mental illness and substance abuse are absolute contraindications to organ donation due to diminished ability to make a well informed, rational decision about donation or to maintain health status after donation. However, to date, there has been little information published on the suitability for donation and the long-term psychosocial and medical outcomes after donation in donors with mental health issues, especially relatively milder psychiatric disorders, or past significant psychiatric history. To resolve the ethical dilemma of whether living donor candidates with mental health issues should be allowed to donate as is their right or be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection, we need more information. Information should include careful evaluation, possible intervention and follow-up to optimize donation.

  4. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Kaufmann,Stefan H. E.; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...

  5. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  6. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  7. Fusible heat sink materials - An identification of alternate candidates. [for astronaut thermoregulation in EVA portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lomax, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. An extensive database search was undertaken to identify candidate materials with liquid solid transformations over the temperature range of -18 C to 5 C; and 1215 candidates were identified. Based on available data, 59 candidate materials with thermal storage capability, DeltaH values higher than that of water were identified. This paper presents the methodology utilized in the study, including the decision process used for materials selection.

  8. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  9. Ranking candidate genes in rat models of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhl Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat models are frequently used to find genomic regions that contribute to complex diseases, so called quantitative trait loci (QTLs. In general, the genomic regions found to be associated with a quantitative trait are rather large, covering hundreds of genes. To help selecting appropriate candidate genes from QTLs associated with type 2 diabetes models in rat, we have developed a web tool called Candidate Gene Capture (CGC, specifically adopted for this disorder. Methods CGC combines diabetes-related genomic regions in rat with rat/human homology data, textual descriptions of gene effects and an array of 789 keywords. Each keyword is assigned values that reflect its co-occurrence with 24 different reference terms describing sub-phenotypes of type 2 diabetes (for example "insulin resistance". The genes are then ranked based on the occurrences of keywords in the describing texts. Results CGC includes QTLs from type 2 diabetes models in rat. When comparing gene rankings from CGC based on one sub-phenotype, with manual gene ratings for four QTLs, very similar results were obtained. In total, 24 different sub-phenotypes are available as reference terms in the application and based on differences in gene ranking, they fall into separate clusters. Conclusion The very good agreement between the CGC gene ranking and the manual rating confirms that CGC is as a reliable tool for interpreting textual information. This, together with the possibility to select many different sub-phenotypes, makes CGC a versatile tool for finding candidate genes. CGC is publicly available at http://ratmap.org/CGC.

  10. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  11. Candidate z~8-9 Galaxies from WFC3 Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzoni, Silvio; Bunker, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen; Stanway, Elizabeth; Jarvis, Matt; Caruana, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We present a search for galaxies at 7.6 < z < 9.8 using the latest Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared data, based on the Lyman-break technique. We search for galaxies which have large (Y−J) colours (the ‘Y-drops’) on account of the Lyman α forest absorption, and with (J−H) colours inconsistent with being low-redshift contaminants. We identify 24 candidates at redshift z≈ 8–9 (15 are robust and a further nine more marginal but consistent with being high redshift) o...

  12. RELICS: A Candidate Galaxy Arc at z~10 and Other Brightly Lensed z>6 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Brett; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Bradac, Marusa; Huang, Kuang-Han; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel; Stark, Daniel P.; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Avila, Roberto J.; Ogaz, Sara; Acebron, Ana; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Carrasco, Daniela; Cerny, Catherine; Cibirka, Nathália; Dawson, William; Frye, Brenda; Hoag, Austin; Jones, Christine; Mainali, Ramesh; Ouchi, Masami; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rodney, Steven; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; RELICS

    2018-01-01

    Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. We present here some of the most brightly lensed z>6 galaxy candidates known from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and the discovery of a particularly fortuitous z~10 galaxy candidate which has been arced by the effects of strong gravitational lensing. The z~10 candidate has a lensed H-band magnitude of 25.8 AB mag and a high lensing magnification (~4-7). The inferred upper limits on the stellar mass (log [M_star /M_Sun]=9.5) and star formation rate (log [SFR/(M_Sun/yr)]=1.5) indicate that this candidate is a typical star-forming galaxy on the z>6 SFR-M_star relation. We rule out the only low-z solution as unphysical based on the required stellar mass, dust attenuation, size, and [OIII] EW needed for a z~2 SED to match the data. Finally, we reconstruct the source-plane image and estimate the candidate's physical size at z~10, finding a half-light radius of r_e 9 candidates. While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect z>10 with ease, this rare candidate offers the potential for unprecedented spatial resolution less than 500 Myr after the Big Bang.

  13. Electoral Competition when Candidates are Better Informed than Voters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    candidates are both completely office-motivated but differ in state-dependent quality. Voters have some information about the state but candidates are better informed. If voters' information is unknown to the candidates when they take positions and sufficiently accurate then candidates will, in refined...... equilibrium, reveal their information by converging to the most likely median. If voters' information is not sufficiently accurate then there is polarization and the candidates'information is not revealed to the voters. We also show that if voters'information is known to the candidates then they will never...

  14. Reasons Why Eligible Candidates Decline Left Ventricular Assist Device Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Kostick, Kristin M; Delgado, Estevan D; Wilhelms, Lidija A; Volk, Robert J; Smith, Martin L; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Loebe, Matthias; Estep, Jerry D; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    A greater understanding of how beliefs and perceptions inform LVAD placement refusals can help ensure that standards for informed decision making are met. We report on the factors that influence refusal and what accounts for changes in decliners' decision-making process when, and if, that occurs. We identified candidates (8 bridge to transplant; 6 destination therapy, 7 without designation) who declined LVAD placement (n = 21), 11 of whom were identified prospectively from February 2014 to March 2015, and 10 of whom were identified retrospectively with the use of our program database. Of these 21 decliners, 11 candidates persistently declined LVAD placement, with a median time of 175 days elapsing between time of LVAD offer and March 4, 2015. Ten candidates declined for an average of 224 days before agreeing to LVAD placement. From March 2014 to March 2015, we conducted structured interviews with LVAD decliners. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed quantitatively with the use of Atlas.ti. The findings reflect that refusal can evolve over time. Decliners report that their initial refusals were made reflexively, but the 10 decliners who ultimately opted for LVAD placement changed their decisions as symptoms worsened. Decliners have concerns about the impacts of LVAD treatment on mobility, and they distrust LVAD technology. Some decliners believe LVAD placement would affect their ability to receive a transplant. Finally, decliners believe that they are not sick enough for LVAD placement when they are stabilized with medical management. Decliners' perspectives are integral for improving informed consent and refusal processes. Our analysis revealed decliners' decision-making processes and factors influencing their decisions. We provide several clinically based practical recommendations based on our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the Infrared Properties of Candidate Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jessica; /Southern California U. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Blazars are active galaxies with super-massive black holes, containing jets that accelerate plasma material and produce radiation. They are unique among other active galaxies for properties such as rapid variability and the lack of emission lines. The double-peaked spectral energy distribution (SED) found for most blazar objects suggests that synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering occurs in the jets. This study is an investigation of the infrared (IR) spectra of a selected population of blazar candidates, focusing on the IR properties of objects within the three types of blazars currently recognized by their spectral characteristics at other wavelengths. Using blazar candidates found in a recent study of the northern sky (Sowards-Emmerd et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 2005), IRAS data for 12, 25, 60, and 100 {micro}m, as well as any available data from 2MASS and EGRET, were located. The synchrotron peak of the SED of each object was expected to occur anywhere in the infrared (IR) to soft X-ray range. However, peaks were generally found to lie in the IR range, suggesting potential selection biases. An analysis of selection techniques reveals that the figure of merit used in the original survey is engineered to select objects with a Compton scattering peak luminosity occurring in the GeV range, the energy band most easily detected by the upcoming GLAST mission. Therefore, this figure of merit selection process should be used to compile a list of blazar candidates for further study in anticipation of the launch of the satellite.

  16. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  17. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is not yet direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. This paper reviews the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  18. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  19. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  20. Comparative analysis of agro-food trade in Montenegro and EU candidate countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was the analysis of the competitiveness and changes in the foreign trade of the Montenegro from 2006-2013. The main contribution of the work was supplemented by the comparison of the Montenegro agro-food trade performance with candidate and potential candidate EU countries. Taking into account the many differences among the analyzed countries we used an unconventional methodical practice based on the calculation of trade balance per one inhabitant. During the analyzed period, only 2 countries exceeded the level of 100% self-sufficiency and permanently reached the positive trade balance with agricultural and food products. As to the 'self-sufficiency level' calculated on the basis of the average trade balance per one inhabitant in 2006-2013 within the candidate and potential candidate EU countries the last position belongs to the Montenegro closely before Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. The Opinions of the Teacher Candidates Who Attended the Pedagogical Formation Certificate Programme for the Professional Competency of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the opinions of the teacher candidates who attend the pedagogical formation certificate programme for the professional competency of instructors. The method of the research is a descriptive survey based on scanning. The study group included the teacher candidates who attend the pedagogical formation…

  2. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  3. A bioinformatics filtering strategy for identifying radiation response biomarker candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Oh

    Full Text Available The number of biomarker candidates is often much larger than the number of clinical patient data points available, which motivates the use of a rational candidate variable filtering methodology. The goal of this paper is to apply such a bioinformatics filtering process to isolate a modest number (<10 of key interacting genes and their associated single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in radiation response, and to ultimately serve as a basis for using clinical datasets to identify new biomarkers. In step 1, we surveyed the literature on genetic and protein correlates to radiation response, in vivo or in vitro, across cellular, animal, and human studies. In step 2, we analyzed two publicly available microarray datasets and identified genes in which mRNA expression changed in response to radiation. Combining results from Step 1 and Step 2, we identified 20 genes that were common to all three sources. As a final step, a curated database of protein interactions was used to generate the most statistically reliable protein interaction network among any subset of the 20 genes resulting from Steps 1 and 2, resulting in identification of a small, tightly interacting network with 7 out of 20 input genes. We further ranked the genes in terms of likely importance, based on their location within the network using a graph-based scoring function. The resulting core interacting network provides an attractive set of genes likely to be important to radiation response.

  4. DAZLA: an important candidate gene in male subfertility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, R.J.T. van; Tuerlings, J.H.A.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Schoute, F.; Hoefsloot, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the role of the autosomal candidate gene DAZLA (Deleted in AZoospermia Like Autosome) in male subfertility. METHODS: We reviewed clinical data of subfertile men with oligozoospermia or azoospermia, mostly candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Mutation detection

  5. Genes associated with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma as candidate drug targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is often associated with cancers. Thus, screening genes with cancer-associated aberrant DNA methylation is a useful method to identify candidate cancer-causing genes. Aberrant DNA methylation is also genotype dependent. Thus, the selection of genes with genotype-specific aberrant DNA methylation in cancers is potentially important for tailor-made medicine. The selected genes are important candidate drug targets. Results The recently proposed principal component analysis based selection of genes with aberrant DNA methylation was applied to genotype and DNA methylation patterns in squamous cell carcinoma measured using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. SNPs that are frequently found in cancers are usually highly methylated, and the genes that were selected using this method were reported previously to be related to cancers. Thus, genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation patterns will be good therapeutic candidates. The tertiary structures of the proteins encoded by the selected genes were successfully inferred using two profile-based protein structure servers, FAMS and Phyre2. Candidate drugs for three of these proteins, tyrosine kinase receptor (ALK), EGLN3 protein, and NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 (NUAK1), were identified by ChooseLD. Conclusions We detected genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma that are candidate drug targets. Using in silico drug discovery, we successfully identified several candidate drugs for the ALK, EGLN3 and NUAK1 genes that displayed genotype-specific DNA methylation. PMID:24565165

  6. The relationship of physical fitness on pilot candidate selection in the Israel Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J R; Kahana, A; Chapnik, L; Shamiss, A; Davidson, B

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical fitness is an important component in the selection process of pilot candidates to the Israel Air Force (IAF) flight school. There were 223 male pilot candidates who volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects were tested 1 - 12 wk prior to a week-long "bootcamp" for aerobic power (Astrand bicycle test), anaerobic power (vertical jump test), and percent body fat. In addition, an activity profile was established based on an activity history questionnaire. All fitness measures were correlated to a performance score based on the IAF selection criteria measure for each candidate. Candidates who were accepted to flight school had a higher aerobic capacity, anaerobic power output relative to body weight and a lower percent body fat than candidates who were not successful. Significant correlations were seen between the performance score and aerobic power (r = 0.31), anaerobic power (r = 0.17) and anaerobic power relative to body weight (r = 0.21). Linear regression analysis showed that aerobic power explained 9% of the variance in the performance score, while anaerobic power explained an additional 3%. The results of this study suggest that physical fitness has a positive influence on the success of pilot candidates in gaining admittance to the IAF flight school.

  7. Nutritional Status of Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad

    2018-01-11

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B 12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B₆ (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

  8. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  9. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Eisele

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  10. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  11. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical Approaches to Candidate Biomarker Panel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Heidi M; Ju, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    The statistical analysis of robust biomarker candidates is a complex process, and is involved in several key steps in the overall biomarker development pipeline (see Fig. 22.1, Chap. 19 ). Initially, data visualization (Sect. 22.1, below) is important to determine outliers and to get a feel for the nature of the data and whether there appear to be any differences among the groups being examined. From there, the data must be pre-processed (Sect. 22.2) so that outliers are handled, missing values are dealt with, and normality is assessed. Once the processed data has been cleaned and is ready for downstream analysis, hypothesis tests (Sect. 22.3) are performed, and proteins that are differentially expressed are identified. Since the number of differentially expressed proteins is usually larger than warrants further investigation (50+ proteins versus just a handful that will be considered for a biomarker panel), some sort of feature reduction (Sect. 22.4) should be performed to narrow the list of candidate biomarkers down to a more reasonable number. Once the list of proteins has been reduced to those that are likely most useful for downstream classification purposes, unsupervised or supervised learning is performed (Sects. 22.5 and 22.6, respectively).

  13. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-04-16

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.

  14. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-10-29

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  15. Theoretical Comparison Between Candidates for Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Valdez, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Since the generally-accepted view among astrophysicists is that the matter component of the universe is mostly dark matter, the search for dark matter particles continues unabated. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) improvements, aided by advanced computer simulations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (Berkeley Lab) National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Brown University's Center for Computation and Visualization (CCV), can potentially eliminate some particle models of dark matter. Generally, the proposed candidates can be put in three categories: baryonic dark matter, hot dark matter, and cold dark matter. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particle(LSP) of supersymmetric models is a dark matter candidate, and is classified as a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). Similar to the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang, there is a background of low-energy neutrinos in our Universe. According to some researchers, these may be the explanation for the dark matter. One advantage of the Neutrino Model is that they are known to exist. Dark matter made from neutrinos is termed ``hot dark matter''. We formulate a novel empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function adequately treats both void size and redshift, and describes the scale radius and the central density of voids. We started with a five-parameter model. Our research is mainly on LSP and Neutrino models.

  16. VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard L; McNeal, Monica M

    2010-09-01

    Several nonliving rotavirus vaccine candidates have been evaluated in animal models. Among them is the VP6 protein that comprises the intermediate layer of the rotavirus particle. This protein was expressed as a chimera with maltose binding protein (MBP::VP6) and was administered intranasally to mice. When later challenged with rotavirus, vaccinated mice were nearly 100% protected from fecal shedding of rotavirus, a result strictly dependent on coadministration of an effective adjuvant. Protection was stimulated by only 1 dose of MBP::VP6, remained fully intact for at least 1 year, was effective in all strains of mice tested, and could also be effectively delivered orally or intrarectally. When VP6 was derived from a human rotavirus, it stimulated protection comparable to that found when derived from the challenge murine EDIM strain. In contrast to live rotavirus vaccines, CD4(+) T cells were found to be the only lymphocytes required for protection. If VP6 elicits comparable protection in humans, it would represent a potential second-generation vaccine candidate.

  17. Towards a values-based person specification for recruitment of compassionate nursing and midwifery candidates: a study of registered and student nurses' and midwives' perceptions of prerequisite attributes and key skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Anne; Smith, Dave; Horsburgh, Dorothy; Gray, Morag

    2014-09-01

    Selection and retention of preregistration nursing and midwifery students are issues that exercise educators, universities and commissioning bodies both nationally and internationally. It has recently become an expectation that a values-based approach is used within recruitment and selection activities in the UK. The desirability of a person specification to support transparent recruitment and selection is well recognised. An online survey of registered and student nurses and midwives found consensus around the desirability of several personal attributes and key skills. There was consensus in the top seven ranked attributes which were honesty and trustworthiness, communication skills, being a good listener, patience and tactfulness, sensitivity and compassion, the ability to seek and act on guidance and being a good team worker; this was between registered and unregistered nurses and midwives and also between participants representing all fields of nursing and midwifery practice. Some of the responses from Practice Education Facilitators (PEFs) (n=5) and senior managers (n=15) differed from those of other registrants surveyed. The attribute 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' was considered more important by PEFs and 'Observant and able to act on your own initiative within your level of responsibility' and 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' were ranked more highly by senior managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune subdominant antigens as vaccine candidates against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark T; Ireton, Gregory C; Beebe, Elyse A; Huang, Po-Wei D; Reese, Valerie A; Argilla, David; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2014-09-15

    Unlike most pathogens, many of the immunodominant epitopes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are under purifying selection. This startling finding suggests that M. tuberculosis may gain an evolutionary advantage by focusing the human immune response against selected proteins. Although the implications of this to vaccine development are incompletely understood, it has been suggested that inducing strong Th1 responses against Ags that are only weakly recognized during natural infection may circumvent this evasion strategy and increase vaccine efficacy. To test the hypothesis that subdominant and/or weak M. tuberculosis Ags are viable vaccine candidates and to avoid complications because of differential immunodominance hierarchies in humans and experimental animals, we defined the immunodominance hierarchy of 84 recombinant M. tuberculosis proteins in experimentally infected mice. We then combined a subset of these dominant or subdominant Ags with a Th1 augmenting adjuvant, glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in stable emulsion, to assess their immunogenicity in M. tuberculosis-naive animals and protective efficacy as measured by a reduction in lung M. tuberculosis burden of infected animals after prophylactic vaccination. We observed little correlation between immunodominance during primary M. tuberculosis infection and vaccine efficacy, confirming the hypothesis that subdominant and weakly antigenic M. tuberculosis proteins are viable vaccine candidates. Finally, we developed two fusion proteins based on strongly protective subdominant fusion proteins. When paired with the glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in stable emulsion, these fusion proteins elicited robust Th1 responses and limited pulmonary M. tuberculosis for at least 6 wk postinfection with a single immunization. These findings expand the potential pool of M. tuberculosis proteins that can be considered as vaccine Ag candidates. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Three candidate double clusters in the LMC: truth or dare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, Emanuele; Zocchi, Alice; Varri, Anna Lisa; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara; Lapenna, Emilio; Origlia, Livia

    2018-02-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts a large number of candidate stellar cluster pairs. Binary stellar clusters provide important clues about cluster formation processes and the evolutionary history of the host galaxy. However, to properly extract and interpret this information, it is crucial to fully constrain the fraction of real binary systems and their physical properties. Here we present a detailed photometric analysis based on ESO-FORS2 images of three candidate cluster multiplets in the LMC, namely SL349-SL353, SL385-SL387-NGC 1922 and NGC 1836-BRHT4b-NGC 1839. For each cluster, we derived ages, structural parameters and morphological properties. We have also estimated the degree of filling of their Roche lobe, as an approximate tool to measure the strength of the tidal perturbations induced by the LMC. We find that the members of the possible pairs SL349-SL353 and BRHT4b-NGC 1839 have a similar age (t = 1.00 ± 0.12 Gyr and t = 140 ± 15 Myr, respectively), thus possibly hinting at a common origin of their member systems. We also find that all candidate pairs in our sample show evidence of intracluster overdensities that can be a possible indication of real binarity. Particularly interesting is the case of SL349-SL353. In fact, SL353 is relatively close to the condition of critical filling, thus suggesting that these systems might actually constitute an energetically bound pair. It is therefore key to pursue a detailed kinematic screening of such clusters, without which, at present, we do not dare making a conclusive statement about the true nature of this putative pair.

  20. Rheumatological Findings in Candidates for Valvular Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, Mohammad Bagher; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Naderi, Nafiseh; Mostafavi Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof; Ali Hassan Sayegh, Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Valvular heart diseases are among the frequent causes of cardiac surgery. Some patients have a well-known rheumatic condition. Heart valves are fragile connective tissues which are vulnerable to any systemic autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of rheumatological background in patients candidate for valvular heart surgery in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran. Methods. One hundred and twenty (120) patients candidate for valvular heart surgery were selected for this study. Careful history and physical examination were undertaken from rheumatological stand points. The most sensitive screening serologic tests were also assayed. Results. The result of this study showed that 53.3% were male and 46.6% were female with mean age of 48.18 ± 17.65 years old. 45.8% of the patients had history of nonmechanical joint disease, 14.2% had history of rheumatological conditions in their family, and 30% had history of constitutional symptoms. 29.8% had positive joint dysfunction findings in their physical examination while 25.8% had anemia of chronic disease. Positive Rheumatoid factor (RF), anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP, ACPA), C-reactive protein (CRP), antinuclear antibody (ANA), abnormal urine and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were 34, 2.5, 26.7, 4.2, 5, and 36.7%, respectively. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and antiphospholipid (APL) were positive in a few cases. Conclusion. The findings of this study show immunologic bases for most patients with valvular heart diseases candidate for surgery. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases may play an important role in the pathophysiology of valvular damage. PMID:23304546

  1. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  2. Changing Perceptions of Teacher Candidates in High-Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.

    2016-01-01

    Candidates enter teacher education programs with established beliefs about diversity and urban education. These belief systems impact decisions that teacher candidates make both now and in the future. Providing opportunities for candidates to spend quality time in an urban Professional Development School (PDS) setting with the support and guidance…

  3. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  4. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vice Presidential candidate campaign...

  5. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2013-09-03

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs are often part of complex multifunctional proteins with different domain organizations and biological functions that are not conserved in higher plants. For this reason, we have developed CNC search strategies based on functionally conserved amino acids in the catalytic center of annotated and/or experimentally confirmed CNCs. Here we detail this method which has led to the identification of >25 novel candidate CNCs in Arabidopsis thaliana, several of which have been experimentally confirmed in vitro and in vivo. We foresee that the application of this method can be used to identify many more members of the growing family of CNCs in higher plants. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  6. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    Saviano, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for the detection of elementary particles, and MPGDs in particular, require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work investigates the properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements. The aim is to discuss some of the important properties of gases for MPGDs, to list and summarize basic properties of eco-friendly refrigerants from the literature available, to discuss their properties for materials compatibility and safe use, and to make a prediction on selected parameters (i.e., ionization potentials, ionization pairs, etc) crucial for the performance of gas detectors considered by making use of both known parametrizations and quantum chemistry simulation codes.

  7. Risk prediction models for selection of lung cancer screening candidates: A retrospective validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin); J. Jeon (Jihyoun); M.C. Tammemagi (Martin); S.S. Han (Summer); C.Y. Kong (Chung Yin); S.K. Plevritis (Sylvia); E. Feuer (Eric); H.J. de Koning (Harry); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout W.); R. Meza (Rafael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Selection of candidates for lung cancer screening based on individual risk has been proposed as an alternative to criteria based on age and cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years). Nine previously established risk models were assessed for their ability to identify those most

  8. In silico identification of vaccine candidates against Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Sandipan; Bayan, Udeshna; Saikia, Kandarpa Kr

    2017-08-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca causes several diseases in immunocompromised as well as healthy individuals. Increasing resistance to a number of antibiotics makes treatment options limited. Prevention using vaccine could be an important solution to get rid of infections caused by Klebsiella oxytoca. In recent time, genome based approaches have contributed significantly in vaccine development. Our aim was to identify the most conserved and immunogenic antigens that can be considered as potential vaccine candidates. KEGG database was used to find out pathways unique to the bacteria. Subcellular localization of the protein sequences taken from the selected 36 pathways were predicted using PSORTb v3.0.2 and CELLO v2.5. Prediction of B cell epitope and the probability of the antigenicity were evaluated by using IEDB and Vaxijen respectively. BLASTp was done to find out the similarity of the selected proteins with the human proteome. Proteins failing to comply with the set parameters were filtered at each step. Finally, we identified 6 surface exposed proteins as potential vaccine candidates against Klebsiella oxytoca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of a parvovirus B19 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Coit, Doris; Schaefer, Mary; Spencer, Terika; Brito, Luis A; Zhang, Pu; Otten, Gillis; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2013-08-20

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children, aplastic crisis in those with blood dyscrasias, and hydrops fetalis. Previous parvovirus B19 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were produced by co-infection of insect cells with two baculoviruses, one expressing wild-type VP1 and the other expressing VP2. In humans, the VLPs were immunogenic but reactogenic. We have developed new VLP-based parvovirus B19 vaccine candidates, produced by co-expressing VP2 and either wild-type VP1 or phospholipase-negative VP1 in a regulated ratio from a single plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These VLPs are expressed efficiently, are very homogeneous, and can be highly purified. Although VP2 alone can form VLPs, in mouse immunizations, VP1 and the adjuvant MF59 are required to elicit a neutralizing response. Wild-type VLPs and those with phospholipase-negative VP1 are equivalently potent. The purity, homogeneity, yeast origin, and lack of phospholipase activity of these VLPs address potential causes of previously observed reactogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel approaches to identify protective malaria vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ni eChia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines against malaria have been the focus of substantial research activities for decades. Several categories of candidate vaccines are currently being developed for protection against malaria, based on antigens corresponding to the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage or sexual stages of the parasite. Long lasting sterile protection from Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge has been observed in human following vaccination with whole parasite formulations, clearly demonstrating that a protective immune response targeting predominantly the pre-erythrocytic stages can develop against malaria. However, most of vaccine candidates currently being investigated, which are mostly subunits vaccines, have not been able to induce substantial (>50% protection thus far. This is due to the fact that the antigens responsible for protection against the different parasite stages are still yet to be known and relevant correlates of protection have remained elusive. For a vaccine to be developed in a timely manner, novel approaches are required. In this article, we review the novel approaches that have been developed to identify the antigens for the development of an effective malaria vaccine.

  11. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  12. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  13. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  15. Verifying a candidate counterpart to gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi

    2017-08-01

    With advances in sensitivity of gravitational wave interferometers, the direct detection of neutron star mergers should be imminent. Identification of an electromagnetic counterpart would enable a wealth of astrophysics and answer the long-standing question of whether neutron star mergers are the missing cosmic mines of heavy elements synthesized by the r-process. We will be searching for a fast-fading optical counterpart with the new Zwicky Transient Facility at Palomar Observatory. Here, we propose to use HST/WFC3 to look for infrared emission from a single, most-promising candidate optical counterpart. The infrared emission would serve as a direct diagnostic of the radioactive decay of heavy elements.

  16. The Quiet HMXB Candidate HD 15137

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, M. Virginia

    2009-10-01

    HD 15137 is an intriguing runaway O-type binary that offers a rare opportunity to explore the mechanism by which it was ejected from the open cluster of its birth. All of the evidence from optical spectra points to a compact companion in this system - except for the lack of hard X-ray emission detected from the system. HD 15137 is therefore a "quiet" HMXB candidate, too widely separated for the neutron star to accrete a significant mass of stellar winds and be detected as an X-ray binary. Therefore we propose observations with XMM-Newton, to occur at the time of periastron, that will detect the hard power law spectrum from a weakly accreting neutron star and reveal the evolutionary history of HD 15137.

  17. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitheeque, M A M; Samaranayake, L P

    2003-01-01

    Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia) is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. The major etiologic agent of the disease is the oral fungal pathogen Candida predominantly belonging to Candida albicans, although other systemic co-factors, such as vitamin deficiency and generalized immune suppression, may play a contributory role. Clinically, the lesions are symptomless and regress after appropriate antifungal therapy and correction of underlying nutritional or other deficiencies. If the lesions are untreated, a minor proportion may demonstrate dysplasia and develop into carcinomas. This review outlines the demographic features, etiopathogenesis, immunological features, histopathology, and the role of Candida in the disease process. In the final part of the review, newer molecular biological aspects of the disease are considered together with the management protocols that are currently available, and directions for future research.

  18. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jespersen

    Full Text Available Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L. x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease, antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, cell expansion (expansin, and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101. Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection.

  19. Body dysmorphic disorder in aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr, Fathololoomi; Tabrizi A, Goljanian; Bafghi A, Fattahi; Sa, Noohi; A, Makhdoom

    2013-01-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder defined as obsessive ideas about distorted physical appearance, leading to social, professional and personal dysfunction. Many of these patients seek aesthetic surgery and are generally dissatisfied with the outcome of their surgery. In the present study patients coming to the otolaryngology clinic of Thaleghani Hospital in Tehran seeking rhinoplasty were evaluated. Between October 2010 and October 2011, 130 patients seeking rhinoplasty were recruited in a cross-sectional study. These patients were consecutively interviewed in the otolaryngology clinic of Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Questionnaires were filled containing demographic data. BDD was evaluated by a separate questionnaire. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire was filled to evaluate depression and anxiety. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. The frequency and standard deviations were calculated. Differences between groups were evaluated by using the chi-square, and t-tests. Ninety nine (76.2%) of rhinoplasty candidates were female and thirty one (23.8%) were male. Eighty five (65.4%) were single and thirty eight (29.2%) were married while seven were divorced. About 63.8% were University students or University graduates. Mean age was 26.43±6.29 years old. 41 patients (31.5%) had BDD. Among BDD patients 12 (29.3%) had concurrent depression and 11 (26.8%) had concurrent anxiety. No statistically significant correlation was found between the presence or severity of BDD and age, gender, marital status, level of education and profession. Considering the high prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) among rhinoplasty candidates, psychiatric evaluation is advisable before surgery to avoid unnecessary operations and patient dissatisfaction.

  20. Reducing Excessive Amounts of Data: Multiple Web Queries for Generation of Pun Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Dybala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor processing is still a less studied issue, both in NLP and AI. In this paper we contribute to this field. In our previous research we showed that adding a simple pun generator to a chatterbot can significantly improve its performance. The pun generator we used generated only puns based on words (not phrases. In this paper we introduce the next stage of the system's development—an algorithm allowing generation of phrasal pun candidates. We show that by using only the Internet (without any hand-made humor-oriented lexicons, it is possible to generate puns based on complex phrases. As the output list is often excessively long, we also propose a method for reducing the number of candidates by comparing two web-query-based rankings. The evaluation experiment showed that the system achieved an accuracy of 72.5% for finding proper candidates in general, and the reduction method allowed us to significantly shorten the candidates list. The parameters of the reduction algorithm are variable, so that the balance between the number of candidates and the quality of output can be manipulated according to needs.

  1. Development of a VLP-based HCV vaccine candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marina Isabel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia Molecular e Genética, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world population, being one of the major causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of safe, effective and affordable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HCV has become an important medical priority; however, there are many obstacles to its development. In recent years, strategies of viral ant...

  2. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Castède

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  3. Prioritization of candidate disease genes by topological similarity between disease and protein diffusion profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Qin, Yufang; Liu, Taigang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Identification of gene-phenotype relationships is a fundamental challenge in human health clinic. Based on the observation that genes causing the same or similar phenotypes tend to correlate with each other in the protein-protein interaction network, a lot of network-based approaches were proposed based on different underlying models. A recent comparative study showed that diffusion-based methods achieve the state-of-the-art predictive performance. In this paper, a new diffusion-based method was proposed to prioritize candidate disease genes. Diffusion profile of a disease was defined as the stationary distribution of candidate genes given a random walk with restart where similarities between phenotypes are incorporated. Then, candidate disease genes are prioritized by comparing their diffusion profiles with that of the disease. Finally, the effectiveness of our method was demonstrated through the leave-one-out cross-validation against control genes from artificial linkage intervals and randomly chosen genes. Comparative study showed that our method achieves improved performance compared to some classical diffusion-based methods. To further illustrate our method, we used our algorithm to predict new causing genes of 16 multifactorial diseases including Prostate cancer and Alzheimer's disease, and the top predictions were in good consistent with literature reports. Our study indicates that integration of multiple information sources, especially the phenotype similarity profile data, and introduction of global similarity measure between disease and gene diffusion profiles are helpful for prioritizing candidate disease genes. Programs and data are available upon request.

  4. Combination of a Stressor-Response Model with a Conditional Probability Analysis Approach for Developing Candidate Criteria from MBSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    I show that a conditional probability analysis using a stressor-response model based on a logistic regression provides a useful approach for developing candidate water quality criteria from empirical data, such as the Maryland Biological Streams Survey (MBSS) data.

  5. Bimodal Power and Propulsion, Mission Benefits and Candidate Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otting, William D.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Begg, Lester L.; Nikolaev, Yury V.

    1994-07-01

    The mission capabilities of Thermionic Space Nuclear Power Systems (TI-SNPS) can be significantly increased by incorporating a thermal propulsion system into the system design. The resulting bimodal power and propulsion system provides low cost performance in low-Earth-to-geosynchronous-orbit (LEO-to-GEO) applications and provides for propellant-efficient on-orbit maneuvers. This paper reviews the mission benefits of the bimodal system. Key attributes desired in a bimodal system are identified resulting in the selection of two candidate system technologies for the bimodal application. The technologies include the STAR-C out-of-core thermionic system and a Russian in-core thermionic fuel element (TFE)-based system currently under development by the Kurchatov Institute working together with the Research Institute of SIA LUTCH.

  6. Selection of a trioxaquine as an antimalarial drug candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslédan, Frédéric; Fraisse, Laurent; Pellet, Alain; Guillou, François; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kremsner, Peter G.; Moreno, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique; Maffrand, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Trioxaquines are antimalarial agents based on hybrid structures with a dual mode of action. One of these molecules, PA1103/SAR116242, is highly active in vitro on several sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum at nanomolar concentrations (e.g., IC50 value = 10 nM with FcM29, a chloroquine-resistant strain) and also on multidrug-resistant strains obtained from fresh patient isolates in Gabon. This molecule is very efficient by oral route with a complete cure of mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive or chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodia at 26–32 mg/kg. This compound is also highly effective in humanized mice infected with P. falciparum. Combined with a good drug profile (preliminary absorption, metabolism, and safety parameters), these data were favorable for the selection of this particular trioxaquine for development as drug candidate among 120 other active hybrid molecules. PMID:18987321

  7. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The corrosion surface morphology and also the corrosion products were analyzed using SEM. Focus in particular has been given to the property of corrosion resistance since corrosion resistance is a major issue for lead-free solder alloys. The electric field experienced by the solders during usage further...... of the package with different solders of different melting temperatures. High Pb containing alloys where the lead levels can be above 85% by weight, is one of the solders currently being used in this technology. Responding to market pressure i.e. need for green electronic products there is now an increasing...... pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...

  8. Unexpected marked seizure improvement in paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Mathiasen, René; Uldall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery is performed based on the assumption that medical refractory epilepsy will continue. Rarely seizure freedom occurs before surgery is performed, while the patient is being evaluated as an epilepsy surgery candidate. The aim of this study was to describe the number...... of children withdrawn from an epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected seizure improvement. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015. RESULTS......: At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number...

  9. Candidate driver genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhopuro, Pia; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Niittymäki, Iina

    2012-01-01

    . Here, we evaluated somatic mutations in microsatellite repeats of 790 genes chosen based on reduced expression in MSI CRC and existence of a coding mononucleotide repeat of 6–10 bp in length. All the repeats were initially sequenced in 30 primary MSI CRC samples and whenever frameshift mutations were...... types (A/T and C/G, 6–10 bp). Along with several know target genes, including TGFBR2, ACVR2, and MSH3, six novel candidate driver genes emerged that harbored significantly more mutations than identical control repeats. The mutation frequencies in 100 MSI CRC samples were 51% in G8 of GLYR1, 47% in T9...... genes that when mutated are likely to contribute to MSI CRC development....

  10. Identifying candidate driver genes by integrative ovarian cancer genomics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinguo; Lu, Jibo

    2017-08-01

    Integrative analysis of molecular mechanics underlying cancer can distinguish interactions that cannot be revealed based on one kind of data for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Tumor samples exhibit heterogeneity in omics data, such as somatic mutations, Copy Number Variations CNVs), gene expression profiles and so on. In this paper we combined gene co-expression modules and mutation modulators separately in tumor patients to obtain the candidate driver genes for resistant and sensitive tumor from the heterogeneous data. The final list of modulators identified are well known in biological processes associated with ovarian cancer, such as CCL17, CACTIN, CCL16, CCL22, APOB, KDF1, CCL11, HNF1B, LRG1, MED1 and so on, which can help to facilitate the discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery.

  11. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Seaman, Michael S.; Montefiori, David C.; Yates, Nicole L.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Roederer, Mario; Self, Steven G.; Borate, Bhavesh; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Barnett, Susan W.; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D.; Weiss, Deborah E.; Lee, Carter; Kibler, Karen V.; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Wagner, Ralf; Ding, Song; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    protection. Here we developed novel replicating poxvirus NYVAC-based HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates expressing clade C HIV-1 antigens, with one of them lacking the vaccinia virus B19 protein, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response. Immunization of nonhuman primates with these novel NYVAC-C-KC vectors and the protein component gp120 elicited high levels of T cell and humoral immune responses, with the vector containing a deletion in B19R inducing a trend toward a higher magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and neutralization of some HIV-1 strains. These poxvirus vectors could be considered HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates based on their activation of potential immune correlates of protection. PMID:28179536

  12. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heeney, Jonathan L; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Yates, Nicole L; Tomaras, Georgia D; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E; Roederer, Mario; Self, Steven G; Borate, Bhavesh; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Barnett, Susan W; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D; Weiss, Deborah E; Lee, Carter; Kibler, Karen V; Jacobs, Bertram L; Wagner, Ralf; Ding, Song; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    . Here we developed novel replicating poxvirus NYVAC-based HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates expressing clade C HIV-1 antigens, with one of them lacking the vaccinia virus B19 protein, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response. Immunization of nonhuman primates with these novel NYVAC-C-KC vectors and the protein component gp120 elicited high levels of T cell and humoral immune responses, with the vector containing a deletion in B19R inducing a trend toward a higher magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and neutralization of some HIV-1 strains. These poxvirus vectors could be considered HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates based on their activation of potential immune correlates of protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Perspectives on Using Physcomitrella  Patens as an Alternative Production Platform for Thapsigargin and Other Terpenoid Drug Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the potential future demand for terpenoids used as drugs, a new production platform is currently being established in our laboratory. The moss Physcomitrella has been chosen as the candidate organism for production of drug candidates based on terpenoids derived from plants, with a primary focus on the sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin. This drug candidate and other candidates/drugs with sesquiterpene skeleton are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Furthermore, they are not available in sufficient amounts from their original plant. The requirement for a new production system to meet the potential market demand for these compounds is not only obvious, but also essential if sufficient quantities of the drug candidates are to be available for the potential therapeutic use.

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  16. The FK Comae candidate UX Librae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, B. W.; Goodrich, B. D.; Africano, J. L.; Noah, P. V.; Meredith, R. J.; Palmer, L. H.; Quigley, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    New optical spectroscopic and photometric data are presented for the active chromosphere FK Com candidate UZ Lib. The star is shown to have an extremely large photometric amplitude in V of 0.35 mag, and its rotation period is established as 4.75 + or - 0.01 days. The optical spectrum is that of an early K giant, broadened by a rotation velocity of approximately 65 km/s. H-alpha is visible as a very broad emission feature, with a profile resembling that seen in FK Com. The emission intensity and profile are variable over the rotation period, with the strongest emission present at photometric minimum, in accord with dark starspot models. The photospheric absorption line profiles show variable asymmetries and distortions which are interpreted as due to the effects of the dark starspot rotating across the line of sight. New radial velocity measures are combined with published data to demonstrate the UZ Lib is a member of a binary system in synchronous rotation with a secondary of mass approximately 0.5 solar masses. This information is considered in light of the conflicting models for the origin of the optical and spectral variability of the FK Com stars, as well as their uncertain evolutionary status.

  17. Study of a Tidal Disruption Event Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, J.; Reiprich, T.; Freyberg, M.; Greiner, J.; Komossa, S.

    2017-10-01

    During the close encounter of a star with a supermassive black hole, the star might get disrupted by the black hole's tidal forces (tidal disruption events, TDE). The accretion of the stellar material onto the black hole creates luminous emission at different wavelength, including X-rays. We will report the results of an investigation of a bright X-ray source in a set of five ROSAT PSPC observations. The light curve of this event shows an increase in brightness by a factor of nine within eight days, followed by a strong fading over the following 165 days. This observation seems inconsistent with common X-ray source variability, such as active galactic nuclei, and more in favor of a TDE. In order to investigate the possible TDE origin, optical and X-ray spectra have been analyzed. An expected absence of emission lines in the optical and a very soft X-ray spectrum are confirmed. Detailed comparisons with known TDEs show discrepancies in the light curves. Particularly, the increase in brightness happens over a shorter timescale than comparable events. The study of this TDE candidate might help to gain a better understanding of such events, especially for the expected TDE discoveries with the upcoming eROSITA all-sky survey.

  18. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  19. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  20. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  1. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  2. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  3. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where v...... are that canddates' positions can diverge more in equilibrium when they differ more in state-dependent quality and when the electorate is less well informed.......The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where...... voters are uncertain about the state. Candidates are fully informed and completely office-motivated. With a reasonable restriction on voters' beliefs, an equilibrium where candidates' positions reveal the true state does not exist. Non-revealing equilibria always exist. Some main findings...

  4. Cancer evaluation in the assessment of solid organ transplant candidates: A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Sergio A; Lam, Winnie; Daly, Corinne; Kim, S Joseph; Baxter, Nancy N

    2018-01-01

    Active malignancies are a contraindication to transplantation, as immunosuppression can lead to worse cancer outcomes; therefore, ensuring transplant candidates are free of malignancy before transplantation is essential. This systematic review assesses the availability, quality, and consistency of recommended cancer evaluation prior to transplantation in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) for the selection of solid organ transplant candidates. We systematically searched for CPGs for the assessment of transplant candidates. The characteristics of included CPGs, strength of recommendations and supporting evidence were extracted. A quality assessment of the CPGs was conducted using the AGREE II tool. We identified 52 CPG for the selection of solid organ transplant candidates. Only 13 (25%) included recommendations for cancer evaluation as part of the assessment of transplant candidates. Most recommended age and sex appropriate cancer screening as per the general population guidelines. Recommendations to evaluate for other malignancies and for high-risk candidates were variable. Most recommendations were based on expert opinion and only two CPGs provided an explicit link between the recommendations and supporting evidence. There is a lack of clear and consistent recommendations for pretransplant cancer evaluation in existing CPGs. Although there is some consensus regarding the indication to screen for cancer as per the recommendations for the general population, these recommendations are not an appropriate risk reduction strategy for transplant candidates. Standardized protocols to ensure transplant candidates are cancer free prior to transplantation are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Academic Dishonesty Tendencies and Values of Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül KADI; Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN; Hasan ARSLAN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. The population of this study included teacher candidates who received pedagogic formation education during 2013-2014 academic semester at the Faculty of Education at Ege University. The study was conducted with 244 teacher candidates, who were chosen through convenient sampling method. Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire were used to collect data. It w...

  6. Fifty Years of Candidate Pulsar Selection - What next?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    For fifty years astronomers have been searching for pulsar signals in observational data. Throughout this time the process of choosing detections worthy of investigation, so called candidate selection, has been effective, yielding thousands of pulsar discoveries. Yet in recent years technological advances have permitted the proliferation of pulsar-like candidates, straining our candidate selection capabilities, and ultimately reducing selection accuracy. To overcome such problems, we now appl...

  7. 32 CFR 901.6 - Candidate fitness test requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of Athletics if a candidate's participation in high school athletics conflicts with test... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Appointment Policies and...

  8. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  9. Genotype relative risks: Methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternating design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. The authors present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which the authors condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. Tier 1 detects the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. Tier 2 tests for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. Tier 3 confirms positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be feasible. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Positional RNA-Seq identifies candidate genes for phenotypic engineering of sexual traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbore, Roberto; Sekii, Kiyono; Beisel, Christian; Ladurner, Peter; Berezikov, Eugene; Schärer, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) of trait-specific genes permits the manipulation of specific phenotypic traits ("phenotypic engineering") and thus represents a powerful tool to test trait function in evolutionary studies. The identification of suitable candidate genes, however, often relies on existing functional gene annotation, which is usually limited in emerging model organisms, especially when they are only distantly related to traditional genetic model organisms. A case in point is the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano (Lophotrochozoa: Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora), an increasingly powerful model organism for evolutionary studies of sex in simultaneous hermaphrodites. To overcome the limitation of sparse functional annotation, we have performed a positional RNA-Seq analysis on different body fragments in order to identify organ-specific candidate transcripts. We then performed gene expression (in situ hybridization) and gene function (RNAi) analyses on 23 candidate transcripts, both to evaluate the predictive potential of this approach and to obtain preliminary functional characterizations of these candidate genes. We identified over 4000 transcripts that could be expected to show specific expression in different reproductive organs (including testis, ovary and the male and female genital systems). The predictive potential of the method could then be verified by confirming organ-specific expression for several candidate transcripts, some of which yielded interesting trait-specific knock-down phenotypes that can now be followed up in future phenotypic engineering studies. Our positional RNA-Seq analysis represents a highly useful resource for the identification of candidate transcripts for functional and phenotypic engineering studies in M. lignano, and it has already been used successfully in several studies. Moreover, this approach can overcome some inherent limitations of homology-based candidate selection and thus should be applicable to a broad range of

  11. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienpont, L.M.; Beastall, G.H.; Christofides, N.D.; Faix, J.D.; Ieiri, T.; Jarrige, V.; Miller, W.G.; Miller, R.; Nelson, J.C.; Ronin, C.; Ross, H.A.; Rottmann, M.; Thijssen, J.H.; Toussaint, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis

  12. Oxidation of Copper Alloy Candidates for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. Thomas; Humphrey, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The gateway to affordable and reliable space transportation in the near future remains long-lived rocket-based propulsion systems; and because of their high conductivities, copper alloys remain the best materials for lining rocket engines and dissipating their enormous thermal loads. However, Cu and its alloys are prone to oxidative degradation -- especially via the ratcheting phenomenon of blanching, which occurs in situations where the local ambient can oscillate between oxidation and reduction, as it does in a H2/02- fuelled rocket engine. Accordingly, resistance to blanching degradation is one of the key requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) liner materials. Candidate copper alloys have been studied with a view to comparing their oxidation behavior, and hence resistance to blanching, in ambients corresponding to conditions expected in rocket engine service. These candidate materials include GRCop-84 and GRCop-42 (Cu - Cr-8 - Nb-4 and Cu - Cr-4 - Nb-2 respectively); NARloy-Z (Cu-3%Ag-0.5%Y), and GlidCop (Cu-O.l5%Al2O3 ODS alloy); they represent different approaches to improving the mechanical properties of Cu without incurring a large drop in thermal conductivity. Pure Cu (OFHC-Cu) was included in the study to provide a baseline for comparison. The samples were exposed for 10 hours in the TGA to oxygen partial pressures ranging from 322 ppm to 1.0 atmosphere and at temperatures of up to 700 C, and examined by SEM-EDS and other techniques of metallography. This paper will summarize the results obtained.

  13. Screening for keratoconus suspects among candidates for refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2014-11-01

    This review examines methods for estimating the risk of post-surgical ectasia in candidates for refractive surgery by establishing a diagnosis of keratoconus suspect as a contraindication for proceeding with surgery. Notwithstanding the desirability of achieving 100 per cent sensitivity, any associated reduction in specificity and increased numbers of false positives might deny some candidates the opportunity to proceed with refractive surgery. The introduction of a model for the risk of ectasia involving both pre- and post-surgical findings has been followed by a plethora of attempts to achieve the same purpose based on topographic and/or tomographic evaluation before surgery. The desirability of being able to depend on objective assessment using one type of instrument needs to be weighed against the possibility that subjective assessments may contribute significantly to screening success. For example, consideration of ethnicity, family history of keratoconus, a history of atopy or ocular allergies in particular, a history of significant exposure to corneal trauma associated with abnormal rubbing habits or with vocational, leisure or geographically increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation or with contact lens wear trauma or a history of significant exposure to activities which elevate intraocular pressure may improve screening success. To the extent that these factors could contribute to increased risk of the development of keratoconus, they may be useful in estimating the risk of post-surgical ectasia. If any combination of these factors helps to explain the development of keratoconus in normal or even thicker than normal corneas, they may have more significance for those corneas, which have been thinned surgically. © 2014 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  14. Candidate materials performance under Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Penttilae, S.; Rissanen, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is working at super-critical pressure (25 MPa) and a core coolant temperature up to 500 deg C. As an evolutionary step this reactor type follows the development path of modern supercritical coal-fired plants. This paper reviews the results on performance of commercial candidate materials for in-core applications focusing on corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and creep issues. General corrosion (oxidation) tests with an inlet oxygen concentration of 125-150 ppb have been performed on several iron and nickel alloys at 300 to 650 deg C and 25 MPa in supercritical water. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of selected austenitic stainless steels and a high chromium ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) alloy were also studied in slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in supercritical water at 500 deg C and 650 deg C. Furthermore, constant load creep tests have been performed on selected austenitic steels at 500 deg C and 650 deg C in supercritical water (25 MPa, 1 ppm O{sub 2}) and in an inert atmosphere (He, pressure 1 atm). Based on the materials studies, the current candidate materials for the core internals are austenitic steels with sufficient oxidation and creep resistance up to 500-550 deg C. High chromium austenitic steels and ODS alloys steels are considered for the fuel rod cladding due to their oxidation resistance up to 650 deg C. However, problems with manufacturing and joining of ODS alloys need to be solved. Alloys with high nickel content were not considered for the SCC or creep studies because of the strong effect of Ni on neutronics of the reactor core (orig.)

  15. Adaptations to climate in candidate genes for common metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Hancock

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary pressures due to variation in climate play an important role in shaping phenotypic variation among and within species and have been shown to influence variation in phenotypes such as body shape and size among humans. Genes involved in energy metabolism are likely to be central to heat and cold tolerance. To test the hypothesis that climate shaped variation in metabolism genes in humans, we used a bioinformatics approach based on network theory to select 82 candidate genes for common metabolic disorders. We genotyped 873 tag SNPs in these genes in 54 worldwide populations (including the 52 in the Human Genome Diversity Project panel and found correlations with climate variables using rank correlation analysis and a newly developed method termed Bayesian geographic analysis. In addition, we genotyped 210 carefully matched control SNPs to provide an empirical null distribution for spatial patterns of allele frequency due to population history alone. For nearly all climate variables, we found an excess of genic SNPs in the tail of the distributions of the test statistics compared to the control SNPs, implying that metabolic genes as a group show signals of spatially varying selection. Among our strongest signals were several SNPs (e.g., LEPR R109K, FABP2 A54T that had previously been associated with phenotypes directly related to cold tolerance. Since variation in climate may be correlated with other aspects of environmental variation, it is possible that some of the signals that we detected reflect selective pressures other than climate. Nevertheless, our results are consistent with the idea that climate has been an important selective pressure acting on candidate genes for common metabolic disorders.

  16. Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotic Candidate for Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB regarded as safe microorganisms; they can naturally live in gastrointestinal tract, so appropriately used as a probiotic for chicken. This study aimed to select six isolates of LAB (E1223, E3, E4, E5, E7, and E8 to obtain the isolates potentially as probiotic candidate for chicken. The six isolates were derived from spontaneous fermented corn obtained from Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Biomedical, PPSHB, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. LAB isolates were tested their susceptibility to antibiotics (bambermycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline then were examined in vitro for their tolerance to gastrointestinal pH (2, 3, 4, and 7.2 and 0.5% bile salt condition, antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and ability to adhere to chicken ileal cells. The results showed the isolates E5, E7, and E8 were sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, they could survive at pH 2, 3, 4, and 7.2, could survive at 0.5% bile salts, produced antimicrobial activity, and able to adhere to ileal cells (9.40±0.00 Log CFU/cm2 of E8 and were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of control (5.30±0.14 Log CFU/cm2. In conclusion, this study showed that isolate E8 had better potential compared to isolates E5 and E7 in most in vitro assays as a probiotic candidate for chicken. E5, E7, and E8 were closely related with Pediococcus pentosaceus based on 16S rRNA gene.

  17. ‘Don’t Leave Before You Understand’: Supporting Master’s Candidates in Business Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Postgraduate studies in business faculties pose particular challenges to candidates who have come from practically-oriented undergraduate programmes, particularly those that adopt a ‘technical-rational’ approach towards the improvement of business practices or organisational efficiency. Research studies in the applied business fields usually expect that the candidate will take a more sociological approach, or be able to work within socio-historical or political frameworks (Hordern, 2014. Candidates who are enrolled for postgraduate business studies have to negotiate this complex transition. The focus of this paper is how candidates acquire the necessary academic and social practices for theorising their research, for conducting research activities and writing up their research findings in Masters level applied business studies. We selected candidates who had experienced difficulties throughout their Masters studies and who had successfully completed, or who were close to completion, despite initial difficulty for narrative interviews. The interview data were analysed with a view to establishing the practices that supported successful transition from practice-based undergraduate business degrees to postgraduate studies in the field. This paper concludes with suggestions for supervisory practices that have the potential to support successful postgraduate research in applied business studies.

  18. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  19. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A glimpse into their orientations towards teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in the introductory science teaching course in an undergraduate science teacher preparation program. Our analysis was based on data collected using a teaching and learning beliefs questionnaire, together with structured interviews. Our results indicate that entering science teacher candidates have strong preferences for a few activity types. The most influential factors driving entering science teacher candidates' selections were the potential of the instructional activities to motivate students, be relevant to students' personal lives, result in transfer of skills to non-science situations, actively involve students in goal-directed learning, and implement curriculum that represents what students need to know. This set of influencing factors suggests that entering science teacher candidates' orientations towards teaching are likely driven by one or more of these three central teaching goals: (1) motivating students, (2) developing science process skills, and (3) engaging students in structured science activities. These goals, and the associated beliefs about students, teaching, and learning, can be expected to favor the development or enactment of three major orientations towards teaching in this population of future science teachers: "motivating students," "process," and "activity-driven."

  20. A computational method for the identification of new candidate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Lu, Jing; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Based on current knowledge, one of the causes of cancer is exposure to toxic chemical compounds, including radioactive compounds, dioxin, and arsenic. The identification of new carcinogenic chemicals may warn us of potential danger and help to identify new ways to prevent cancer. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify potential carcinogenic chemicals, as well as non-carcinogenic chemicals. According to the current validated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals from the CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the candidate chemicals were searched in a weighted chemical network constructed according to chemical-chemical interactions. Then, the obtained candidate chemicals were further selected by a randomization test and information on chemical interactions and structures. The analyses identified several candidate carcinogenic chemicals, while those candidates identified as non-carcinogenic were supported by a literature search. In addition, several candidate carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals exhibit structural dissimilarity with validated carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic chemicals.

  1. Leadership potential analysis of elementary school headmaster candidates in trenggalek region, east java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, BS; Sulistinah

    2018-01-01

    Leadership is the important component that should be possessed by headmaster candidates. Headmaster with a strong leadership potential can make a better development for school so there are many people say that “school is headmaster itself”. This study was aimed to analyze leadership potential of elementary school headmaster candidates in Trenggalek region. The samples of this study were 46 teachers who followed headmaster selection. The measurement was conducted through Leadership Potential Assessment (LPA) and interview. The result showed that there were 24 of 46 teachers who followed the test and interview had a good leadership potential to lead the elementary school. Of 24 candidates who passed the test had a good result on leadership skill, as follows: 1) quick and urgent decision making, 2) critical decision making, 3) creative decision making, and decision making based on evident that implements the four leadership skill (influence, move, develop and empower).

  2. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  3. Vote Choice, Ideology, and Social Dominance Orientation Influence Preferences for Lower Pitched Voices in Political Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Humans are equipped with a psychological system of followership that evolved to regulate choices of leaders based partly on would-be leaders’ physiological features. One such feature is voice pitch, which is determined by the physiology of the throat. Recent studies find that political candidates...... among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict references for male candidate...... voices. We conclude with a discussion of the results in relation to followership psychology and general debates on the rationality of the public with respect to elections....

  4. Attitudes toward psychological assessment of candidates for obtaining and renewing driver’s license

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Augusto Matteo Ambiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to verify the attitudes of the traffic-psychologic evaluation process. There were 50 participants getting their first permission or renewing the license to drive. They answered to a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Psychologic Evaluation Service Scale. The Results indicated that the participants had a favorable attitude towards the evaluation. The candidates for the first driving license gave importance to the process while the candidates with undergraduate education reduced its value. There were no significances differences of sex or age. There were statistically significant and positive correlations between the factors: importance, efficiency and clarification of the process. Based on the results, it was possible to infer that despite complaints about the evaluation the candidates recognize its importance for the traffic.

  5. The Left and Minority Representation: The Labour Party, Muslim Candidates, and Inclusion Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela

    2013-10-01

    As ethnic diversity rises across Europe, the Left faces a trade-off between incorporating new minorities while retaining support from settled, working-class voters. Focusing on the Labour Party's selection of Muslims and employing a dataset containing over 42,000 local election candidates in England, this article argues that inclusion is less likely where core voters are most concerned about the representation of Muslims' material and religious interests: economically deprived areas with sizable Muslim populations. It shows that in these areas Muslim candidates underperform at the polls and Labour Parties are less likely to choose Muslim candidates here as a result. Selection thus varies based on the economic and cultural threats that Muslim representation poses to the Left's core constituency. These findings contribute to our understanding of the forces that shape ethnic minority political incorporation across contexts.

  6. Academic Dishonesty Tendencies and Values of Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül KADI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. The population of this study included teacher candidates who received pedagogic formation education during 2013-2014 academic semester at the Faculty of Education at Ege University. The study was conducted with 244 teacher candidates, who were chosen through convenient sampling method. Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire were used to collect data. It was a correlational study due to the investigation of the relationship between values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. It was also a survey study since the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates were examined in relation to demographic variables. The results suggested that there wass a significant difference between the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates for gender variable. The values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates did not differ for different fields of study. There was not a significant relationship between the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates.

  7. Elections, Private Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    is that candidate quality is state-dependent. Our main insight is that if the electorate is sufficiently well informed then there exists an equilibrium where the candidates' policy positions reveal their information and the policy outcome is the same as it would be if voters were fully informed (the median policy...

  8. Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selcuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was…

  9. Psychometric Personality Differences Between Candidates in Astronaut Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Justin M; Pecena, Yvonne; Oubaid, Viktor; Maschke, Peter

    This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146). Candidates completed the Temperament Structure Scales (TSS) and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R). Those candidates who failed in basic aptitude testing showed higher levels of Neuroticism (M = 49.8) than the candidates who passed that phase (M = 45.4 and M = 41.6). Additionally, candidates who failed in basic testing had lower levels of Agreeableness (M = 132.9) than recommended candidates (M = 138.1). TSS scales for Achievement (r = 0.19) and Vitality (r = 0.18) showed a significant correlation with the overall assessment rating given by a panel board after a final interview. Results indicate that a personality profile similar to Helmreich's "Right Stuff" is beneficial in astronaut selection. Influences of test anxiety on performance are discussed. Mittelstädt JM, Pecena Y, Oubaid V, Maschke P. Psychometric personality differences between candidates in astronaut selection. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):933-939.

  10. Examining Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher Candidates According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs of teachers are important factors on their perceptions of subject area and their classroom practices. This research aims to define epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates and investigates whether or not epistemological beliefs change according to teacher candidates' gender, fields of study, year of study, and…

  11. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  12. Chemical Literacy Levels of Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Turkish science and mathematics teacher candidates' levels of attainment in chemical literacy. These candidates had all studied the new Turkish chemistry curriculum in high school. The sample of the study consisted of 112 students, who were first-year students in the Department of Secondary Science and…

  13. Teacher Candidate Technology Integration: For Student Learning or Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia; Zhang, Shaoan; Strudler, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of instructional technology knowledge for student-centered learning by teacher candidates is investigated in this study. Using the transfer of learning theoretical framework, a mixed methods research design was employed to investigate whether secondary teacher candidates were able to transfer the instructional technology knowledge for…

  14. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  15. Candidate gene polymorphisms among North Indians and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knowledge of candidate gene polymorphisms in a population is useful for a variety of gene–disease association studies, particularly for some complex traits. A number of candidate genes, a majority of them from the monoaminergic pathway in the brain, have been very popular in association studies with schizophrenia, ...

  16. Methods That Matter in Addressing Cultural Diversity with Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Commins, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a combination of prior experience, theoretical stance, and intuition, along with pedagogical practices identified to be effective in addressing diversity with teacher candidates, a model for teaching multicultural education to teacher candidates was designed. This study examined how particular elements of this model were effective in…

  17. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets...

  18. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  19. Primary-Grade Teacher Candidates' Views on Museum Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ayse Mentis

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the primary-grade teacher candidates' views on museum education. The research is a descriptive research that used survey model. The study group is made up of 209 primary-grade teacher candidates who were seniors in the Primary-Grade Teaching Program. They were all attending Konya University's Faculty of Education. A survey…

  20. Facebook Connection Styles among Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook connection styles of physical education (PE) teacher candidates. The participants were composed of 626 (age = 21.21 ± 2.024) physical education teacher candidates from the departments of Physical Education and Sports. They teach in five different universities. It was done in 2014-2015 academic…

  1. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  2. Identifying Threshold Concepts and Proposing Strategies to Support Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In this article I argue that doctoral candidates undertake a form of rite of passage, generally incorporating several shorter rites of passage, during their candidature of three to five years. Furthermore, there are times during their research education when many candidates demonstrate through their writing, presentation, discussion, and even…

  3. Reranking candidate gene models with cross-species comparison for improved gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernando CN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most gene finders score candidate gene models with state-based methods, typically HMMs, by combining local properties (coding potential, splice donor and acceptor patterns, etc. Competing models with similar state-based scores may be distinguishable with additional information. In particular, functional and comparative genomics datasets may help to select among competing models of comparable probability by exploiting features likely to be associated with the correct gene models, such as conserved exon/intron structure or protein sequence features. Results We have investigated the utility of a simple post-processing step for selecting among a set of alternative gene models, using global scoring rules to rerank competing models for more accurate prediction. For each gene locus, we first generate the K best candidate gene models using the gene finder Evigan, and then rerank these models using comparisons with putative orthologous genes from closely-related species. Candidate gene models with lower scores in the original gene finder may be selected if they exhibit strong similarity to probable orthologs in coding sequence, splice site location, or signal peptide occurrence. Experiments on Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that reranking based on cross-species comparison outperforms the best gene models identified by Evigan alone, and also outperforms the comparative gene finders GeneWise and Augustus+. Conclusion Reranking gene models with cross-species comparison improves gene prediction accuracy. This straightforward method can be readily adapted to incorporate additional lines of evidence, as it requires only a ranked source of candidate gene models.

  4. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  5. Defining the Human Macula Transcriptome and Candidate Retinal Disease Genes UsingEyeSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Ebright, Jessica N.; Zavodni, Zachary J.; Yu, Ling; Wang, Tianyuan; Daiger, Stephen P.; Wistow, Graeme; Boon, Kathy; Hauser, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop large-scale, high-throughput annotation of the human macula transcriptome and to identify and prioritize candidate genes for inherited retinal dystrophies, based on ocular-expression profiles using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Methods Two human retina and two retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid SAGE libraries made from matched macula or midperipheral retina and adjacent RPE/choroid of morphologically normal 28- to 66-year-old donors and a human central retina longSAGE library made from 41- to 66-year-old donors were generated. Their transcription profiles were entered into a relational database, EyeSAGE, including microarray expression profiles of retina and publicly available normal human tissue SAGE libraries. EyeSAGE was used to identify retina- and RPE-specific and -associated genes, and candidate genes for retina and RPE disease loci. Differential and/or cell-type specific expression was validated by quantitative and single-cell RT-PCR. Results Cone photoreceptor-associated gene expression was elevated in the macula transcription profiles. Analysis of the longSAGE retina tags enhanced tag-to-gene mapping and revealed alternatively spliced genes. Analysis of candidate gene expression tables for the identified Bardet-Biedl syndrome disease gene (BBS5) in the BBS5 disease region table yielded BBS5 as the top candidate. Compelling candidates for inherited retina diseases were identified. Conclusions The EyeSAGE database, combining three different gene-profiling platforms including the authors’ multidonor-derived retina/RPE SAGE libraries and existing single-donor retina/RPE libraries, is a powerful resource for definition of the retina and RPE transcriptomes. It can be used to identify retina-specific genes, including alternatively spliced transcripts and to prioritize candidate genes within mapped retinal disease regions. PMID:16723438

  6. Exome Analyses of Long QT Syndrome Reveal Candidate Pathogenic Mutations in Calmodulin-Interacting Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Ozaki, Kouichi; Miya, Fuyuki; Satake, Wataru; Toda, Tatsushi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Wataru; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic disorder that can lead to sudden death. To date, mutations in 15 LQTS-susceptibility genes have been implicated. However, the genetic cause for approximately 20% of LQTS patients remains elusive. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing analyses on 59 LQTS and 61 unaffected individuals in 35 families and 138 unrelated LQTS cases, after genetic screening of known LQTS genes. Our systematic analysis of familial cases and subsequent verification by Sanger sequencing identified 92 candidate mutations in 88 genes for 23 of the 35 families (65.7%): these included eleven de novo, five recessive (two homozygous and three compound heterozygous) and seventy-three dominant mutations. Although no novel commonly mutated gene was identified other than known LQTS genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses revealed ten new pathogenic candidates that directly or indirectly interact with proteins encoded by known LQTS genes. Furthermore, candidate gene based association studies using an independent set of 138 unrelated LQTS cases and 587 controls identified an additional novel candidate. Together, mutations in these new candidates and known genes explained 37.1% of the LQTS families (13 in 35). Moreover, half of the newly identified candidates directly interact with calmodulin (5 in 11; comparison with all genes; p=0.042). Subsequent variant analysis in the independent set of 138 cases identified 16 variants in the 11 genes, of which 14 were in calmodulin-interacting genes (87.5%). These results suggest an important role of calmodulin and its interacting proteins in the pathogenesis of LQTS. PMID:26132555

  7. Whole exome sequencing identifies novel candidate genes that modify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Moreau, Michael; Bromberg, Yana; Jang, Jun-Ho; Wang, Nan; Ha, Hongseok; Picchi, Maria; Lin, Yong; Langley, Raymond J; Qualls, Clifford; Klensney-Tait, Julia; Zabner, Joseph; Leng, Shuguang; Mao, Jenny; Belinsky, Steven A; Xing, Jinchuan; Nyunoya, Toru

    2016-01-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an irreversible airflow limitation in response to inhalation of noxious stimuli, such as cigarette smoke. However, only 15-20 % smokers manifest COPD, suggesting a role for genetic predisposition. Although genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to COPD, effect sizes of the identified variants are modest, as is the total heritability accounted for by these variants. In this study, an extreme phenotype exome sequencing study was combined with in vitro modeling to identify COPD candidate genes. We performed whole exome sequencing of 62 highly susceptible smokers and 30 exceptionally resistant smokers to identify rare variants that may contribute to disease risk or resistance to COPD. This was a cross-sectional case-control study without therapeutic intervention or longitudinal follow-up information. We identified candidate genes based on rare variant analyses and evaluated exonic variants to pinpoint individual genes whose function was computationally established to be significantly different between susceptible and resistant smokers. Top scoring candidate genes from these analyses were further filtered by requiring that each gene be expressed in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). A total of 81 candidate genes were thus selected for in vitro functional testing in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed HBECs. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing experiments, we showed that silencing of several candidate genes augmented CSE-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Our integrative analysis through both genetic and functional approaches identified two candidate genes (TACC2 and MYO1E) that augment cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cytotoxicity and, potentially, COPD susceptibility.

  8. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    -2005) and 2010.0 (IGRF-2010), and predictive linear secular variation for the interval 2010.0–2015.0 (SV-2010-2015) were derived from weighted averages of candidate models submitted by teams led by DTU Space, Denmark (team A); NOAA/NGDC, U.S.A. (team B); BGS, U.K. (team C); IZMIRAN, Russia (team D...... coefficients is also reported. Maps of differences in the vertical field intensity at Earth’s surface between the candidates and weighted mean models are presented. Candidates with anomalous aspects are identified and efforts made to pinpoint both troublesome coefficients and geographical regions where large...

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  10. Gender influence on specialists' ratings of residency program candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhauser, P; Smith, C J; Markert, R J

    1992-09-01

    Sexism has been perceived at all levels of medical education. Although specialty training has been scrutinized from various perspectives, there have been few objective assessments of sexual discrimination in the selection of candidates. This study evaluates the responses of board-certified physicians to fictional residency applicants' personal statements, which were identical except for gender. Male and female physicians from six specialties in which women were overrepresented and six specialties in which women were underrepresented all favored female candidates. Female physicians in both groups rated male candidates as less hardworking than did male physicians. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.

  11. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional...

  12. Nanoformulations and Clinical Trial Candidates as Probably ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid daily dosing, application of nanotechnology is a promising solution by virtue of sustained drug release. Nanotechnology-based rational targeting may improve therapeutic success by limiting adverse drug effects and requiring less frequent administration regimens, ultimately resulting in higher patient compliance, ...

  13. XForms 1.1 candidate recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Boyer

    2007-01-01

    textabstractXForms is an XML application that represents the next generation of forms for the Web. XForms is not a free-standing document type, but is intended to be integrated into other markup languages, such as XHTML, ODF or SVG. An XForms-based web form gathers and processes XML data using an

  14. Humans Need Not Apply: Robotization of Kepler Planet Candidate Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Kepler Team

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the vast majority of Kepler planet candidate vetting has been performed by a dedicated team of humans. While human expertise has been invaluable in understanding the nuances of Kepler data, human vetting is very time-consuming and can be inconsistent. Over 20,000 threshold crossing events have been produced by the latest pipeline run on all 17 quarters of Kepler mission data, and many more artificial planet transits have been injected to estimate completeness. Given these large numbers, human vetting is no longer feasible on a reasonable time-scale, and would be difficult to characterize. We have created automated vetting programs known as "robovetters" that are specifically designed to mimic the decision-making process employed by the humans. They analyze both the light curve and pixel-level data in order to produce specific reasons for identifying false positives. We present benchmark tests on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet catalog, which was vetted by humans, and present preliminary robovetter results based on a recent transit-search of the newly reprocessed Q1-Q17 data set.

  15. Lap Shear Testing of Candidate Radiator Panel Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Briggs, Maxwell; McGowan, Randy

    2013-01-01

    During testing of a subscale radiator section used to develop manufacturing techniques for a full-scale radiator panel, the adhesive bonds between the titanium heat pipes and the aluminum face sheets failed during installation and operation. Analysis revealed that the thermal expansion mismatch between the two metals resulted in relatively large shear stresses being developed even when operating the radiator at moderate temperatures. Lap shear testing of the adhesive used in the original joints demonstrated that the two-part epoxy adhesive fell far short of the strength required. A literature review resulted in several candidate adhesives being selected for lap shear joint testing at room temperature and 398 K, the nominal radiator operating temperature. The results showed that two-part epoxies cured at room and elevated temperatures generally did not perform well. Epoxy film adhesives cured at elevated temperatures, on the other hand, did very well with most being sufficiently strong to cause yielding in the titanium sheet used for the joints. The use of an epoxy primer generally improved the strength of the joint. Based upon these results, a new adhesive was selected for the second subscale radiator section.

  16. Tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum: A new drug target candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. The disease is fatal without treatment, which has been based on antimonial pentavalents for more than 60 years. Due to resistances, relapses and toxicity to current treatment, the development of new drugs is required. The structure of the L. infantum tyrosine aminotransferase (LiTAT has been recently solved showing important differences with the mammalian orthologue. The characterization of LiTAT is reported herein. This enzyme is cytoplasmic and is over-expressed in the more infective stages and nitric oxide resistant parasites. Unlike the mammalian TAT, LiTAT is able to use ketomethiobutyrate as co-substrate. The pharmacophore model of LiTAT with this specific co-substrate is described herein. This may allow the identification of new inhibitors present in the databases. All the data obtained support that LiTAT is a good target candidate for the development of new anti-leishmanial drugs.

  17. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  18. Photometry of some neglected bright cataclysmic variables and candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Albert

    2017-04-01

    As part of an effort to better characterize bright cataclysmic variables (CVs) which have received little attention in the past light curves of four confirmed systems (CZ Aql, BO Cet, V380 Oph and EF Tuc) and one candidate (Lib 3) are analyzed. For none of these stars time resolved photometry has been published previously. While no variability was found in the case of Lib 3, which thus cannot be confirmed as a CV, the light curves of all other targets are dominated by strong flickering. Modulations on hourly time scales superimposed on the flickering can probably be related to orbital variations in BO Cet and V380 Oph, but not in CZ Aql and EF Tuc. Variations on the time scale of 10 min in CZ Aql, while not yet constituting convincing evidence, together with previous suspicions of a magnetically channeled accretion flow may point at an intermediate polar nature of this star. Some properties of the flickering are quantified in an effort to enlarge the data base for future comparative flickering studies in CVs and to refine the classification of the target stars.

  19. Identification of candidate genes for phenolics accumulation in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Antonio; Ruggieri, Valentino; Sacco, Adriana; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Carriero, Filomena; Bolger, Anthony; Fernie, Alisdair R; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2013-05-01

    Phenolics are antioxidants present in tomato fruit that confer healthy benefits and exhibit crucial roles for plant metabolism and response to environmental stimuli. An approach based on two genomics platforms was undertaken to identify candidate genes associated to higher phenolics content in tomato fruit. A comparative transcriptomic analysis between the S. pennellii Introgression Line 7-3, which produced an average higher level of fruit phenolics, and the cultivated variety M82, revealed that their differences are attributed to genes involved in phenolics accumulation into the vacuole. The up-regulation of genes coding for one MATE-transporter, one vacuolar sorting protein and three GSTs supported this hypothesis. The observed balancing effect between two ethylene responsive factors (ERF1 and ERF4) was also hypothesized to drive the transcriptional regulation of these transport genes. In order to confirm such model a TILLING platform was explored. A mutant was isolated harbouring a point mutation in the ERF1 cds that affects the protein sequence and its expected function. Fruits of the mutant exhibited a significant reduced level of phenolics than the control variety. Changes in the expression of genes involved in sequestration of phenolics in vacuole also supported the hypothesized key-role of ERF1 in orchestrating these genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on Theileria lestoquardi antigens as potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavari, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mohammad H; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Lotfi, Mohsen; Shirazi, Ali; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2008-12-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is the causative agent of malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats, causing morbidity and mortality in these animals worldwide. Western blot analysis based on T. lestoquardi schizont antigens was carried out using sera collected from Iranian sheep, which had been immunized with T. lestoquardi schizont-infected cells. The results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that schizont-immunized animals produced antibodies reacting with protein bands at 73, 42, 20, 14, and 12 kDa. Comparison of the results of the current Western blotting test with earlier studies of Theileria spp. revealed two immunogenic schizont proteins with molecular weights of 73 and 42 kDa shared between T. annulata and T. lestoquardi. Two other proteins with molecular weights of 14 and 12 kDa have not been previously found in other Theileria species. Our results suggest that the 73-kDa protein could be a potential vaccine candidate and that the 14- and 12-kDa proteins could be considered as diagnostic antigens.

  1. Identification of putative candidate gene markers for grain zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of putative candidate gene markers for grain zinc content using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population of IRRI38 X Jeerigesanna. Naveen Kumar Gande, Pavan J Kundur, Rakhi Soman, Rajeswari Ambati, R Ashwathanarayana, Berhanu Dagnaw Bekele, HE Shashidhar ...

  2. Campaigning on the Internet: 2008 Presidential General Election Candidate Webpage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92% were more common than attacks (98%; defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82% was addressed more than character (18%. When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by general goals and then past deeds; on character, candidates discussed ideals, then personal qualities, and then leadership ability. This study shows that as candidates use the Internet to reach voters, their webpages conform to theoretical expectations.

  3. Update on the Clinical Development of Candidate Malaria Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballou, W. R; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Carucci, Daniel; Richie, Thomas L; Corradin, Giampietro; Diggs, Carter; Druilhe, Pierre; Giersing, Birgitte K; Saul, Allan; Heppner, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ... powerful driver for stimulating clinical development of candidate vaccines for malaria. This new way forward promises to greatly increase the likelihood of bringing a safe and effective vaccine to licensure...

  4. How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of Twitter during an election campaign, and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates. Thereby, it provides a better

  5. 11 CFR 106.1 - Allocation of expenses between candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compared to the total receipts by all candidates. In the case of a phone bank, the attribution shall be... campaign seminars, for training of campaign workers, and for registration or get-out-the-vote drives of...

  6. The News Magazines and Minority Candidates--Campaign '76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, E. F.; Bibbee, M. Jane

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the election stories about presidential candidates that appeared in three major news magazines during the 1976 presidential campaign reveals that coverage of Eugene McCarthy's candidacy was unbiased but meager. (GT)

  7. Generating Genome-Scale Candidate Gene Lists for Pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niclas Tue; Brunak, Søren; Altman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    A critical task in pharmacogenomics is identifying genes that may be important modulators of drug response. High-throughput experimental methods are often plagued by false positives and do not take advantage of existing knowledge. Candidate gene lists can usefully summarize existing knowledge, bu...... method achieves an overall area under the curve of 0.82. To showcase our method, we found novel gene candidates for warfarin, gefitinib, carboplatin, and gemcitabine, and we provide the molecular hypotheses for these predictions....

  8. TEACHER CANDIDATES' ETHICAL APPROACHES RELATED TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Karakaya; Sakine Serap Avgin

    2017-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine about the preferences and point of view of teacher candidates ethical approaches related to animal experiment. Obesity disease, cancer disease, cosmetics industry, product tests created the sub subjects of scenarios with dilemmas. The research was carried out in 2015-2016 academic year with 322 teacher candidates. As a data collection tool, “Bioethical Value Inventory” and “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher were used. Preferen...

  9. Almost All of Kepler's Multiple-planet Candidates Are Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Adams, Elisabeth; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detect...

  10. PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Picard, Alyssa; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ma, Bo [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jek, Kian J.; LaCourse, Daryll; Simister, Dean Joseph; Grégoire, Boscher; Babin, Sean P.; Poile, Trevor; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-12-20

    The census of exoplanets is incomplete for orbital distances larger than 1 AU. Here, we present 41 long-period planet candidates in 38 systems identified by Planet Hunters based on Kepler archival data (Q0–Q17). Among them, 17 exhibit only one transit, 14 have two visible transits, and 10 have more than three visible transits. For planet candidates with only one visible transit, we estimate their orbital periods based on transit duration and host star properties. The majority of the planet candidates in this work (75%) have orbital periods that correspond to distances of 1–3 AU from their host stars. We conduct follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations to validate and characterize planet host stars. In total, we obtain adaptive optics images for 33 stars to search for possible blending sources. Six stars have stellar companions within 4″. We obtain high-resolution spectra for 6 stars to determine their physical properties. Stellar properties for other stars are obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Kepler Stellar Catalog by Huber et al. We validate 7 planet candidates that have planet confidence over 0.997 (3σ level). These validated planets include 3 single-transit planets (KIC-3558849b, KIC-5951458b, and KIC-8540376c), 3 planets with double transits (KIC-8540376b, KIC-9663113b, and KIC-10525077b), and 1 planet with four transits (KIC-5437945b). This work provides assessment regarding the existence of planets at wide separations and the associated false positive rate for transiting observation (17%–33%). More than half of the long-period planets with at least three transits in this paper exhibit transit timing variations up to 41 hr, which suggest additional components that dynamically interact with the transiting planet candidates. The nature of these components can be determined by follow-up radial velocity and transit observations.

  11. From QTL to candidate gene: Genetical genomics of simple and complex traits in potato using a pooling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vos Ric

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of the natural genetic variation in traditional breeding programs remains a major challenge in crop plants. The identification of candidate genes underlying, or associated with, phenotypic trait QTLs is desired for effective marker assisted breeding. With the advent of high throughput -omics technologies, screening of entire populations for association of gene expression with targeted traits is becoming feasible but remains costly. Here we present the identification of novel candidate genes for different potato tuber quality traits by employing a pooling approach reducing the number of hybridizations needed. Extreme genotypes for a quantitative trait are collected and the RNA from contrasting bulks is then profiled with the aim of finding differentially expressed genes. Results We have successfully implemented the pooling strategy for potato quality traits and identified candidate genes associated with potato tuber flesh color and tuber cooking type. Elevated expression level of a dominant allele of the β-carotene hydroxylase (bch gene was associated with yellow flesh color through mapping of the gene under a major QTL for flesh color on chromosome 3. For a second trait, a candidate gene with homology to a tyrosine-lysine rich protein (TLRP was identified based on allele specificity of the probe on the microarray. TLRP was mapped on chromosome 9 in close proximity to a QTL for potato cooking type strengthening its significance as a candidate gene. Furthermore, we have performed a profiling experiment targeting a polygenic trait, by pooling individual genotypes based both on phenotypic and marker data, allowing the identification of candidate genes associated with the two different linkage groups. Conclusions A pooling approach for RNA-profiling with the aim of identifying novel candidate genes associated with tuber quality traits was successfully implemented. The identified candidate genes for tuber flesh color

  12. Supernova remnant candidates in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, T.; Becker, W.

    2014-07-01

    Radio supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy comprise an incomplete sample of the SNR population due to various selection effects. ROSAT performed the first All-Sky Survey (RASS) with an imaging X-ray telescope and thus provided another window for finding SNRs. Schaudel (2003) searched the RASS for unknown SNRs and pinpointed about 210 candidates. Meanwhile, 14 new SNRs of his list were identified (cf. Prinz & Becker 2013 for a summary). Revisiting the RASS SNR candidates and applying more stringent selection criteria as well as taking archival XMM-Newton, Chandra and Fermi data into account the current list of RASS SNR candidates still comprises 73 sources. These sources are promising SNR candidates and studying them with e.g. eRosita will help to reveal their true nature. eRosita is an X-ray telescope which is supposed to be launched in 2016. It will perform an X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of more than 10 times of what was available with ROSAT. It supports to continue the previous SNR identification campaign and may reveal other candidates not seen with ROSAT. We report on the current status of our supernova identification campaign, characterize the most promising candidates and give prospects for eRosita.

  13. Vote Choice, Ideology, and Social Dominance Orientation Influence Preferences for Lower Pitched Voices in Political Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Laustsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are equipped with a psychological system of followership that evolved to regulate choices of leaders based partly on would-be leaders’ physiological features. One such feature is voice pitch, which is determined by the physiology of the throat. Recent studies find that political candidates in modern elections with lower-pitched voices are generally more successful. As lower-pitched voices are perceived as stronger and more dominant, these findings have been taken to indicate a general preference for dispositional abilities in leaders to protect and prevail in conflicts. Here we extend upon these findings by demonstrating that conservatives and Republicans tend to view the world as much more competitive and threatening than liberals and Democrats. We utilize two existing data sources to show that political candidates with lower-pitched voices are preferred more among conservative Republicans than among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO. Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict preferences for male candidate voices. We conclude with a discussion of the results in relation to followership psychology and general debates on the rationality of the public with respect to elections.

  14. Avoiding honest feedback: discordance between formal evaluations and candid assessments of Kuwaiti PBL students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadan, Laila; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Ayed, Adel; Huang, Grace

    2013-06-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) allows faculty to observe students interact and solve problems. Thus, it represents a prime opportunity to provide authentic feedback on learners' knowledge, skills, and attitudes. However, we are concerned that PBL faculty do not accurately convey feedback to students. To assess the difference between formal evaluations and candid assessments of student performance, we conducted a study of 178 preclinical medical students at Kuwait University. We quantitatively compared PBL evaluations of students with candid assessments of students' competence as obtained from structured interviews with 19 PBL facilitators. We also compared facilitators' comments on the module evaluations with candid comments solicited during the interviews. We did not find a strong quantitative or qualitative correlation between faculty feedback and their candid impressions of student performance. Thematic analysis of the comments disclosed multiple factors that influenced the accuracy and specificity of faculty feedback. Systematic discrepancies between feedback given to students and actual assessments of their performance can result in false reassurance of competence, which undermines our curricular efforts and prevents the trainee from achieving his or her full potential.

  15. A systematic review of public health-aligned recommendations for preparing physical education teacher candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical education teacher candidates (PETCs) from a public health perspective. Eight online databases (e.g., Educational Resources Information Center, Google Scholar) served as data sources for the study. Multiple combinations of key terms (e.g., physical education teacher education [PETE], public health, health-oriented) were used to identify relevant literature meeting search criteria. A content analysis was used to identify 47 distinct recommendations from 25 included articles and to synthesize these recommendations into major areas of focus. Three major areas of focus were identified: (a) candidate profile (e.g., PETCs should be physically active and fit role models), (b) candidate knowledge (e.g., PETCs should know about behavior change theories), and (c) candidate skills (e.g., PETCs should be able to advocate for school-based physical activity). This review can serve as a blueprint for PETE programs seeking to align professional preparation with public health goals.

  16. Using Social Media Data to Identify Potential Candidates for Drug Repurposing: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liu, Hongfang; Nambisan, Priya

    2016-06-16

    Drug repurposing (defined as discovering new indications for existing drugs) could play a significant role in drug development, especially considering the declining success rates of developing novel drugs. Typically, new indications for existing medications are identified by accident. However, new technologies and a large number of available resources enable the development of systematic approaches to identify and validate drug-repurposing candidates. Patients today report their experiences with medications on social media and reveal side effects as well as beneficial effects of those medications. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of using patient reviews from social media to identify potential candidates for drug repurposing. We retrieved patient reviews of 180 medications from an online forum, WebMD. Using dictionary-based and machine learning approaches, we identified disease names in the reviews. Several publicly available resources were used to exclude comments containing known indications and adverse drug effects. After manually reviewing some of the remaining comments, we implemented a rule-based system to identify beneficial effects. The dictionary-based system and machine learning system identified 2178 and 6171 disease names respectively in 64,616 patient comments. We provided a list of 10 common patterns that patients used to report any beneficial effects or uses of medication. After manually reviewing the comments tagged by our rule-based system, we identified five potential drug repurposing candidates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to consider using social media data to identify drug-repurposing candidates. We found that even a rule-based system, with a limited number of rules, could identify beneficial effect mentions in patient comments. Our preliminary study shows that social media has the potential to be used in drug repurposing.

  17. Assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of Rhodococcus equi-secreted proteins combined with either a liquid nanoparticle (IMS 3012) or a polymeric (PET GEL A) water-based adjuvant in adult horses and foals--identification of promising new candidate antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchard, S; Bertrand, F; Barrier-Battut, I; Jacquet, S; Laurentie, M; Barbey, C; Laugier, C; Deville, S; Cauchard, J

    2014-02-15

    Rhodococcus equi is the most common infectious cause of mortality in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. Because of an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains, the optimization of a prophylactic strategy is a key factor in the comprehensive management of R. equi pneumonia. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and immunogenicity of R. equi-secreted proteins (ReSP) co-administered with either the nanoparticular adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 3012 VG, or a new polymeric adjuvant Montanide™ PET GEL A, and to further investigate the most immunogenic proteins for subsequent immunization/challenge experiments in the development of a vaccine against rhodoccocal pneumonia. The approach involved two phases. The first phase aimed to investigate the safety of vaccination in six adult horses. The second phase aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in twelve 3-week-old foals. We set out to develop a method based on ultrasound measurements for safety assessment in adult horses in order to evaluate any in situ changes at the injection site, in the skin or the underlying muscle, with quantitative and qualitative data revealing that administration of ReSP combined with the Pet Gel A adjuvant led to an increase in local inflammation, associated with 4- to 7-fold higher levels of anti-R. equi IgGa, IgGb and IgGT, compared to administration of ReSP associated with IMS 3012 adjuvant, but without any impact on animal demeanor. Investigations were then performed in foals with serological and clinical follow-up until 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed in foals a much lower incidence of adverse local tissue reactions at the injection site than in adult horses, with transient and moderate swelling for the group that received ReSP combined with Pet Gel A. Immunized foals with Pet Gel A adjuvant exhibited a similar response in both IgGa and IgGT levels, but a lower response in IgGb levels, compared to adult horses, with a

  18. What is the viva experience of phase 2 Radiation Oncology examination candidates? Survey and advice for future candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Hilde M; Tejani, Neetu; Sullivan, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Medical speciality examination is a very stressful event in medical careers. We aimed to determine the subjective experience of Radiation Oncology Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) oral examination candidates. It was hoped the results would provide reassurance and advice for future candidates. We distributed an anonymous online survey through the RANZCR membership database to Radiation Oncology Trainees and fellows who may have sat their oral examination within the last 3 years. There were 21 responses, yielding a response rate of 21%. Nineteen percent of respondents were moderately or very surprised during their viva and the most frequently noted cause was the demeanour of the examiners. The clinical cases and clinical examination station were rated very fair by over 80% of responders while the planning cases were rated very fair by 57%. During the viva, 33% thought they passed and 71% of these candidates were successful. Forty-three percent felt they were borderline, and all of these respondents passed. Five participants (24%) failed in the first attempt and four described being unable to convey their actual knowledge. Candidates found mock examinations to be the most useful examination preparation activity. The most frequently given advice was to focus on the planning examination. The majority of this select group of candidates indicated that the oral examination cases were very fair. Candidates rated the planning exam as least fair, indicating this may be the area that would benefit most from better preparation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Classification of Variable Objects for Search for GRB Candidates on Bamberg Photographic Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on an ongoing study based on blink-comparison of more than 5000 Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Patrol Plates performed within a continuation of a student high school project (Jugend Forscht. After a detailed analyses and classification, 6 non-classified objects were identified as emulsion defects, 19 as asteroids, 37 as variable stars, and 6 as real OT-GRB candidates.

  20. The cardiac atrial appendage stem cell: a new and promising candidate for myocardial repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Koninckx, Remco; Daniels, Annick; Windmolders, Severina; Mees, Urbain; Macianskiene, Regina; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Steels, Paul; Jamaer, Luc; Dubois, Jasperina; Robic, Boris; Hendrikx, Marc; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Hensen, Karen

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Considerable shortcomings in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) still exist and therefore mortality remains high. Cardiac stem cell (CSC) therapy is a promising approach for myocardial repair. However, identification and isolation of candidate CSCs is mainly based on the presence or absence of certain cell surface markers, which suffers from some drawbacks. In order to find a more specific and reliable identification and isolation method, we investigated whether CSCs can b...

  1. Prioritizing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) candidate genes in COPD-related networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yihua; Li, Wan; Feng, Yuyan; Guo, Shanshan; Zhao, Xilei; Wang, Yahui; He, Yuehan; He, Weiming; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-factor disease, which could be caused by many factors, including disturbances of metabolism and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In this paper, a weighted COPD-related metabolic network and a weighted COPD-related PPI network were constructed base on COPD disease genes and functional information. Candidate genes in these weighted COPD-related networks were prioritized by making use of a gene prioritization method, respectively. Liter...

  2. Tacrine-allyl/propargylcysteine-benzothiazole trihybrids as potential anti-Alzheimer's drug candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Hiremathad, Asha; Chand,Karam; Esteves, A. Raquel; Cardoso, Sandra M.; Ramsay, Rona R.; Chaves, Sílvia; Keri, Rangappa S.; Santos, M. Amélia

    2016-01-01

    The authors acknowledge the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for the project UID/QUI/00100/2013, postdoctoral fellowships (RSK and KC). We also thank the doctoral fellowship from Erasmus Namaste program (AH). On continuing our research on new drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have designed, synthesized and evaluated a series of multifunctional trihybrid agents. The design strategy was based on the incorporation of a benzothiazole (BTA) moiety on a series...

  3. Targeted resequencing of candidate genes reveals novel variants associated with severe Beh?et's uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seungbok; Park, Changho; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Il; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2013-01-01

    Beh?et's disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by four major manifestations: recurrent uveitis, oral and genital ulcers and skin lesions. To identify some pathogenic variants associated with severe Beh?et's uveitis, we used targeted and massively parallel sequencing methods to explore the genetic diversity of target regions. A solution-based target enrichment kit was designed to capture whole-exonic regions of 132 candidate genes. Using a multiplexing strategy...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-mass starless clump candidates from ATLASGAL (Yuan+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Wu, Y.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Evans, N. J., II; Henkel, C.; Wang, K.; Liu, H.-L.; Liu, T.; Li, J.-Z.; Zavagno, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work is based on data from several Galactic plane surveys covering wavelengths from mid-IR to submillimeter. The sample of dense clumps from the ATLASGAL survey (Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S) provides the basis for our investigation. The ATLASGAL survey mapped 420 square degrees of the Galactic plane between -80°PACS and -SPIRE) have been used to further constrain the starless clump candidates and investigate their dust properties. (2 data files).

  5. A search for candidate radio supernova remnants in the nearby irregular starburst galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for new candidate radio su­pernova remnants (SNRs in the nearby starburst irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395 using archived radio observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA at the wavelengths of 3.5 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4214 and 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4395. These observations were analyzed as part of our ongoing search for candidate radio SNRs in nearby galaxies: the goal of this search is to prepare a large sample of candidate radio SNRs for the purpose of a robust statistical study of the properties of these sources. Based on our analysis, we have confirmed the nonthermal nature of the discrete radio sources α and β in NGC 4214 and classify these sources as candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with HII regions in that galaxy. We have measured the flux densities of the two candidate radio SNRs at each wavelength and calculated corresponding spectral indices: we have also measured flux densities of two other discrete radio sources in these galaxies - ρ in NGC 4214 and #3 in NGC 4395 which we suspect to be additional candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with other HII regions in these galaxies. However, the radio data presently available for these sources can­not confirm such a classification and additional observations are needed. We have also calculated the radio luminosities Lradio at the wavelength of 20 cm for these two candidate radio SNRs as well as the corresponding values for the minimum total energy Emin required to power these radio sources via synchrotron emission and the corresponding magnetic field strength Bmin. We have compared our mean calculated values for these properties with the mean values for populations of candidate radio SNRs in other starburst galaxies: while the values for Lradio and Bmin are roughly comparable to the values seen in other starburst galaxies, the mean value for Emin is higher than the mean value of any

  6. The pivotal impact of center characteristics on survival of candidates listed for deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Harman, Jeffrey S; Chumbler, Neale R; Duncan, R Paul; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf

    2009-02-01

    There are currently over half a million end-stage renal disease patients and >70,000 patients listed to receive a deceased donor kidney transplant in the United States. To receive a deceased donor transplant, patients are placed on a waiting list at one of approximately 240 centers. Although candidate decisions to list at a particular center may often be made passively (based on proximity or physician referral), the important question remains as to whether the center of listing has a significant impact on patient outcomes. The study evaluated adult kidney transplant candidates in the United States listed from 1995 to 2000 (n = 108,928) with follow-up through 2006. The primary outcome of patient survival was investigated with survival models evaluated with respect to 4 center characteristics (volume, donor quality, waiting time, past performance). Center characteristics derived from years preceding listing, simulating information that could be attainable for prospective candidates. Center waiting time had a marked association with survival (Adjusted hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-1.38 for the longest waiting times). Past performance and donor quality also had significant association with survival; center volume was not a significant factor. The cumulative impact of center factors resulted in an average 4-year difference in life expectancy. Center characteristics at listing were strongly correlated with levels at the time of transplantation and centers with the "best" characteristics were located in every region of the country. Center characteristics have significant impact on kidney transplant candidate survival. Information regarding the variability and importance of center factors should be clearly disseminated to transplant candidates.

  7. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others

    2017-11-10

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  8. Computational prediction of candidate proteins for S-nitrosylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Chaki

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important signaling molecule that regulates many physiological processes in plants. One of the most important regulatory mechanisms of NO is S-nitrosylation-the covalent attachment of NO to cysteine residues. Although the involvement of cysteine S-nitrosylation in the regulation of protein functions is well established, its substrate specificity remains unknown. Identification of candidates for S-nitrosylation and their target cysteine residues is fundamental for studying the molecular mechanisms and regulatory roles of S-nitrosylation in plants. Several experimental methods that are based on the biotin switch have been developed to identify target proteins for S-nitrosylation. However, these methods have their limits. Thus, computational methods are attracting considerable attention for the identification of modification sites in proteins. Using GPS-SNO version 1.0, a recently developed S-nitrosylation site-prediction program, a set of 16,610 candidate proteins for S-nitrosylation containing 31,900 S-nitrosylation sites was isolated from the entire Arabidopsis proteome using the medium threshold. In the compartments "chloroplast," "CUL4-RING ubiquitin ligase complex," and "membrane" more than 70% of the proteins were identified as candidates for S-nitrosylation. The high number of identified candidates in the proteome reflects the importance of redox signaling in these compartments. An analysis of the functional distribution of the predicted candidates showed that proteins involved in signaling processes exhibited the highest prediction rate. In a set of 46 proteins, where 53 putative S-nitrosylation sites were already experimentally determined, the GPS-SNO program predicted 60 S-nitrosylation sites, but only 11 overlap with the results of the experimental approach. In general, a computer-assisted method for the prediction of targets for S-nitrosylation is a very good tool; however, further development, such as including

  9. Multiplicity and properties of Kepler planet candidates: High spatial imaging and RV studies*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceituno J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler space telescope is discovering thousands of new planet candidates. However, a follow up program is needed in order to reject false candidates and to fully characterize the bona-fide exoplanets. Our main aims are: 1./ Detect and analyze close companions inside the typical Kepler PSF to study if they are the responsible of the dim in the Kepler light curves, 2./ Study the change in the stellar and planetary parameters due to the presence of an unresolved object, 3./ Help to validate those Kepler Objects of Interest that do not present any object inside the Kepler PSF and 4./ Study the multiplicity rate in planet host candidates. Such a large sample of observed planet host candidates allows us to do statistics about the presence of close (visual or bounded companions to the harboring star. We present here Lucky Imaging observations for a total amount of 98 Kepler Objects of Interest. This technique is based on the acquisition of thousands of very short exposure time images. Then, a selection and combination of a small amount of the best quality frames provides a high resolution image with objects having a 0.1 arcsec PSF. We applied this technique to carry out observations in the Sloan i and Sloan z filters of our Kepler candidates. We find blended objects inside the Kepler PSF for a significant percentage of KOIs. On one hand, only 58.2% of the hosts do not present any object within 6 arcsec. On the other hand, we have found 19 companions closer than 3 arcsec in 17 KOIs. According to their magnitudes and i − z color, 8 of them could be physically bounded to the host star. We are also collecting high-spectral resolution spectroscopuy in order to derive the planet properties.

  10. Clustering and Candidate Motif Detection in Exosomal miRNAs by Application of Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pallavi; Chaturvedi, Anoop

    2017-07-22

    The clustering pattern and motifs give immense information about any biological data. An application of machine learning algorithms for clustering and candidate motif detection in miRNAs derived from exosomes is depicted in this paper. Recent progress in the field of exosome research and more particularly regarding exosomal miRNAs has led much bioinformatic-based research to come into existence. The information on clustering pattern and candidate motifs in miRNAs of exosomal origin would help in analyzing existing, as well as newly discovered miRNAs within exosomes. Along with obtaining clustering pattern and candidate motifs in exosomal miRNAs, this work also elaborates the usefulness of the machine learning algorithms that can be efficiently used and executed on various programming languages/platforms. Data were clustered and sequence candidate motifs were detected successfully. The results were compared and validated with some available web tools such as 'BLASTN' and 'MEME suite'. The machine learning algorithms for aforementioned objectives were applied successfully. This work elaborated utility of machine learning algorithms and language platforms to achieve the tasks of clustering and candidate motif detection in exosomal miRNAs. With the information on mentioned objectives, deeper insight would be gained for analyses of newly discovered miRNAs in exosomes which are considered to be circulating biomarkers. In addition, the execution of machine learning algorithms on various language platforms gives more flexibility to users to try multiple iterations according to their requirements. This approach can be applied to other biological data-mining tasks as well.

  11. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  12. Identification and characterization of antigens as vaccine candidates against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Urban; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schüler, Wolfgang; Meinke, Andreas; Hanner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial infections, also called “hospital acquired infections,” occur worldwide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries, thus having a major impact on their health care systems. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, is responsible for causing pneumonia, urinary tract infections and septicemia in immune compromised hosts such as neonates. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine or mAb available for prophylactic or therapeutic use against K. pneumoniae infections. For this reason, we sought for a protein-based subunit vaccine capable of combating K. pneumoniae infections, by applying our ANTIGENome technology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates, focusing on conserved protein antigens present in strains with different serotypes. We identified numerous novel immunogenic proteins using genomic surface display libraries and human serum antibodies from donors exposed to or infected by K. pneumoniae. Vaccine candidate antigens were finally selected based on animal protection in a murine lethal-sepsis model. The protective and highly conserved antigens identified in this study are promising candidates for the development of a protein-based vaccine to prevent infection by K. pneumoniae. PMID:23250007

  13. Expeditious screening of candidate proteins for microbial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Rahat; Klima, Cassidy L; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-09-01

    Advancements in high-throughput "omics" technologies have revolutionized the way vaccine candidates are identified. Now every surface expressed protein that an organism produces can be identified in silico and possibly made available for the rapid development of recombinant/subunit vaccines. However, evaluating the antigenicity of a large number of candidate proteins is an immense challenge, typically requiring cloning of several hundred candidates followed by immunogenicity screening. Here we report the development of a rapid, high-throughput method for screening candidate proteins for vaccines. This method involves utilizing a coupled, cell-free transcription-translation system to screen tagged proteins that are captured at the C-termini using appropriate ligand coated wells in 96 well ELISA plates. The template DNA for the cell-free expression is generated by two sequential PCRs and includes gene coding sequences, promoter, terminator, other necessary cis-acting elements and appropriate tag sequences. The process generates expressible candidate proteins containing two different peptide tags at the N- and the C-termini of the protein molecules. Proteins are screened in parallel for their quantity and immunoreactivity with N-terminal tag antibodies and antisera raised against the pathogen of interest, respectively. Normalization against the total detectable bound protein in the control wells allows for the identification of highly immunoreactive candidates. For this study we selected 30 representatives of >300 potential candidate proteins from Mannheimia haemolytica, a bacterial agent of pneumonia in feedlot cattle for expression with N-terminal Strep-II and C-terminal His(x6)-tag and evaluated their relative immunoreactivities using Strep-tactin-HRP and rabbit antisera generated against M. haemolytica. Using this system we were able to swiftly and quantitatively analyze and rank the suitability of proteins to identify potentially viable vaccine candidates, with

  14. Evaluation of proteinuria in healthy living kidney donor candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, M P; Naratadam, G O; Hou, S H; Singh, A K; Leehey, D J

    2006-11-01

    Evaluation of living kidney donor candidates includes careful assessment for the presence or absence of kidney disease. Kidney donation has been considered to be at least relatively contraindicated if urinary total protein excretion is above the normal range. However, at the present time, there is no uniformly accepted level of urine total protein excretion that would exclude donation. Albumin excretion instead of total protein excretion as a criterion has not previously been evaluated. This was a prospective observational study over a 3-year period in a single tertiary care center designed to assess current selection criteria for kidney donation with respect to urine total protein and albumin excretion. Twenty four percent (25 of 105) of healthy adult kidney donor candidates had elevated urinary total protein excretion rates (150 to 292 mg/24 h). Of these 105 candidates, 39 had simultaneous measurements of both urinary total protein and albumin. Although one-third (13/39) had elevated 24-hour urine total protein values, none had elevated urine albumin excretion. Measurement of albumin, the most common single protein found in urine, appears to be helpful in the evaluation of proteinuria in donor candidates. Many healthy adult kidney donor candidates have mildly elevated total protein excretion but normal albumin excretion. We believe that such patients should not be excluded from donation.

  15. Recruitment of Live Donors by Candidates for Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P.; Shea, Judy A.; Berns, Jeffrey S.; Simon, Maureen K.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Bloom, Roy D.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about efforts that renal transplant candidates make to recruit live donors. It was hypothesized that preference for live donor kidney transplantation and greater knowledge about live donor transplantation are associated with candidates’ initiating conversations about donation with potential donors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A cross-sectional study of renal transplant candidates was performed at initial transplant evaluation. Candidates completed a questionnaire that specified whether they had initiated conversations about donation with any potential donors. The questionnaire also measured preference for live donor transplantation, knowledge about transplantation, concern about donor harm, willingness to ask for help in coping with kidney disease, and social support. Results: Ninety-six candidates participated. Forty-nine (51%) reported initiating a conversation with at least one potential donor. In multivariable logistic regression, domains associated with initiating a conversation included: preference for live donor transplantation, willingness to ask for help, and female gender. Older age was associated with a lower odds of initiating a conversation. Knowledge, concern about donor harm, social support, and ethnicity were not associated with initiating a conversation with a donor. Conclusions: Attempts at donor recruitment by kidney transplant candidates are common. These findings suggest that interventions that influence preferences about transplantation and willingness to ask others for help are logical targets to enhance access to live donor transplantation. PMID:18385392

  16. Regional Autonomy and Local Democracy: Independent Candidates Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to achieve local democracy is through the participation of independent candidates in the Direct General Election in the region. The presence of independent candidates in the Direct General Election gives a great hope to change the political structure of the shackles of the old forces. This paper aims to discuss the implication of regional heads coming from independent candidates on the effectiveness of local governance and the implementation of substantive democracy in the region. The method used is a qualitative approach using descriptive research method. The data collection is done through literature approach. Processing data uses Milles and Huberman interactive models, which includes data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The study concluded three things: First, the presence of independent candidates in the Direct General Election gives the opportunities to achieve local democracy that is getting bigger, Second, Regional Heads elected from independent candidates face the challenges of the ineffectiveness of regional government, and Third, within certain limits, the power of elected regional heads from independent lane leads to the realization of democracy that is not substantial.

  17. Lyman continuum leaking galaxies. Search strategies and local candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, N.; Leitet, E.; Zackrisson, E.; Marquart, T.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Star-forming dwarf galaxies may have played an important role in the reionization of the Universe, provided that some fraction of their ionizing radiation were able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Local galaxies exhibiting such Lyman-continuum (LyC) leakage could potentially shed light on the escape mechanisms involved, but only two low-redshift cases of LyC leakage have been identified so far. Here, we argue that this meager harvest may be caused by unsuitable selection criteria. Candidates for LyC leakage are normally selected by indicators of starburst activity, one of which is a high equivalent width in Hα. Such a criterion will guarantee a high production of LyC photons but will also bias the selection in favour of a high column density in the neutral gas, effectively ruling out LyC escape. Aims: In this work we want to investigate whether the lack of local LyC emitters can be caused in part by biased selection criteria, and we present a novel method of selecting targets with high escape fractions. By applying these criteria, we assemble a sample of observation targets to study their basic properties. Methods: We introduce a new selection strategy here where the potential LyC leakers are selected by their blue colours and weak emission lines. The selection is based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also take a closer look at the properties of 8 LyC leaking candidates at z ~ 0.03 which we have observed with ESO/NTT in broadband B and Hα. Results: We find that 7 of the 8 target galaxies are involved in interaction with neighbours or show signs of mergers. In 7 cases the young stellar population is clearly displaced relative to the main body of these galaxies, often directly bordering the halo region. In about half of our targets the absorption spectra show young post-starburst signatures. Comparing the scale lengths in Hα with those of the stellar continua shows that the scale lengths in Hα typically are 30% smaller

  18. Revised selection criteria for candidate restriction enzymes in genome walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ali; Robinson, Stephen J; Parkin, Isobel; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2012-01-01

    A new method to improve the efficiency of flanking sequence identification by genome walking was developed based on an expanded, sequential list of criteria for selecting candidate enzymes, plus several other optimization steps. These criteria include: step (1) initially choosing the most appropriate restriction enzyme according to the average fragment size produced by each enzyme determined using in silico digestion of genomic DNA, step (2) evaluating the in silico frequency of fragment size distribution between individual chromosomes, step (3) selecting those enzymes that generate fragments with the majority between 100 bp and 3,000 bp, step (4) weighing the advantages and disadvantages of blunt-end sites vs. cohesive-end sites, step (5) elimination of methylation sensitive enzymes with methylation-insensitive isoschizomers, and step (6) elimination of enzymes with recognition sites within the binary vector sequence (T-DNA and plasmid backbone). Step (7) includes the selection of a second restriction enzyme with highest number of recognition sites within regions not covered by the first restriction enzyme. Step (8) considers primer and adapter sequence optimization, selecting the best adapter-primer pairs according to their hairpin/dimers and secondary structure. In step (9), the efficiency of genomic library development was improved by column-filtration of digested DNA to remove restriction enzyme and phosphatase enzyme, and most important, to remove small genomic fragments (enzymes, NsiI and NdeI, fit these criteria for the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Their efficiency was assessed using 54 T(3) lines from an Arabidopsis SK enhancer population. Over 70% success rate was achieved in amplifying the flanking sequences of these lines. This strategy was also tested with Brachypodium distachyon to demonstrate its applicability to other larger genomes.

  19. Unexpected marked seizure improvement in paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Mathiasen, René; Uldall, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy surgery is performed based on the assumption that medical refractory epilepsy will continue. Rarely seizure freedom occurs before surgery is performed, while the patient is being evaluated as an epilepsy surgery candidate. The aim of this study was to describe the number of children withdrawn from an epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected seizure improvement. We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015. At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number of years they had had seizures was 3.4 years (range 0.6-6.2 years) and the number of seizures at inclusion was 209 per month (range 6-750 per month). The duration of follow-up was 6.6 years after inclusion into the epilepsy surgery programme (range 4.0-13.0 years). The aetiology of the epilepsy for these patients was heterotopia (n=1), focal cortical dysplasia (n=3), infarction (n=1) and unknown, with normal MRI (n=1). They all had an IQ in the normal range. Two of the remaining 7 children were operated later. Unexpected seizure control may occur during epilepsy surgery evaluation. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Stephan H.K.; Cadiou, Hervé; Muhamad, Airina; McNaughton, Peter A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Winklhofer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 y, behavioral experiments have produced a large body of evidence for the existence of a magnetic sense in a wide range of animals. However, the underlying sensory physiology remains poorly understood due to the elusiveness of the magnetosensory structures. Here we present an effective method for isolating and characterizing potential magnetite-based magnetoreceptor cells. In essence, a rotating magnetic field is employed to visually identify, within a dissociated tissue preparation, cells that contain magnetic material by their rotational behavior. As a tissue of choice, we selected trout olfactory epithelium that has been previously suggested to host candidate magnetoreceptor cells. We were able to reproducibly detect magnetic cells and to determine their magnetic dipole moment. The obtained values (4 to 100 fAm2) greatly exceed previous estimates (0.5 fAm2). The magnetism of the cells is due to a μm-sized intracellular structure of iron-rich crystals, most likely single-domain magnetite. In confocal reflectance imaging, these produce bright reflective spots close to the cell membrane. The magnetic inclusions are found to be firmly coupled to the cell membrane, enabling a direct transduction of mechanical stress produced by magnetic torque acting on the cellular dipole in situ. Our results show that the magnetically identified cells clearly meet the physical requirements for a magnetoreceptor capable of rapidly detecting small changes in the external magnetic field. This would also explain interference of ac powerline magnetic fields with magnetoreception, as reported in cattle. PMID:22778440

  1. Novel Candidate Genes Underlying Extreme Trophic Specialization in Caribbean Pupfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher H

    2017-04-01

    The genetic changes responsible for evolutionary transitions from generalist to specialist phenotypes are poorly understood. Here we examine the genetic basis of craniofacial traits enabling novel trophic specialization in a sympatric radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas. This recent radiation consists of a generalist species and two novel specialists: a small-jawed "snail-eater" and a large-jawed "scale-eater." We genotyped 12 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by whole-genome resequencing of 37 individuals of all three species from nine populations and integrated genome-wide divergence scans with association mapping to identify divergent regions containing putatively causal SNPs affecting jaw size-the most rapidly diversifying trait in this radiation. A mere 22 fixed variants accompanied extreme ecological divergence between generalist and scale-eater species. We identified 31 regions (20 kb) containing variants fixed between specialists that were significantly associated with variation in jaw size which contained 11 genes annotated for skeletal system effects and 18 novel candidate genes never previously associated with craniofacial phenotypes. Six of these 31 regions showed robust signs of hard selective sweeps after accounting for demographic history. Our data are consistent with predictions based on quantitative genetic models of adaptation, suggesting that the effect sizes of regions influencing jaw phenotypes are positively correlated with distance between fitness peaks on a complex adaptive landscape. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Candidate driver genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhopuro, Pia; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Niittymäki, Iina; Biström, Mia; Raitila, Anniina; Saharinen, Juha; Nousiainen, Kari; Lehtonen, Heli J; Heliövaara, Elina; Puhakka, Jani; Tuupanen, Sari; Sousa, Sónia; Seruca, Raquel; Ferreira, Ana M; Hofstra, Robert M W; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Järvinen, Heikki; Ristimäki, Ari; Orntoft, Torben F; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri A

    2012-04-01

    Defects in the mismatch repair system lead to microsatellite instability (MSI), a feature observed in ∼ 15% of all colorectal cancers (CRCs). Microsatellite mutations that drive tumourigenesis, typically inactivation of tumour suppressors, are selected for and are frequently detected in MSI cancers. Here, we evaluated somatic mutations in microsatellite repeats of 790 genes chosen based on reduced expression in MSI CRC and existence of a coding mononucleotide repeat of 6-10 bp in length. All the repeats were initially sequenced in 30 primary MSI CRC samples and whenever frameshift mutations were identified in >20%, additional 70 samples were sequenced. To distinguish driver mutations from passengers, we similarly analyzed the occurrence of frameshift mutations in 121 intronic control repeats and utilized a statistical regression model to determine cut-off mutation frequencies for repeats of all types (A/T and C/G, 6-10 bp). Along with several know target genes, including TGFBR2, ACVR2, and MSH3, six novel candidate driver genes emerged that harbored significantly more mutations than identical control repeats. The mutation frequencies in 100 MSI CRC samples were 51% in G8 of GLYR1, 47% in T9 of ABCC5, 43% in G8 of WDTC1, 33% in A8 of ROCK1, 30% in T8 of OR51E2, and 28% in A8 of TCEB3. Immunohistochemical staining of GLYR1 revealed defective protein expression in tumors carrying biallelic mutations, supporting a loss of function hypothesis. This is a large scale, unbiased effort to identify genes that when mutated are likely to contribute to MSI CRC development. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. On security arguments of the second round SHA-3 candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) announced a call for the design of a new cryptographic hash algorithm in response to vulnerabilities like differential attacks identified in existing hash functions, such as MD5 and SHA-1. NIST received many submissions, 51...... of which got accepted to the first round. 14 candidates were left in the second round, out of which five candidates have been recently chosen for the final round. An important criterion in the selection process is the SHA-3 hash function security. We identify two important classes of security arguments...... for the new designs: (1) the possible reductions of the hash function security to the security of its underlying building blocks and (2) arguments against differential attack on building blocks. In this paper, we compare the state of the art provable security reductions for the second round candidates...

  4. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellenstein, J.A. [Ohio Aerospace Inst. Cleveland, Ohio (United States); DellaCorte, C. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  5. Machine-learning approaches to select Wolf-Rayet candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, A. P.; Morello, G.; Morris, P.; van Dyk, S.; Mauerhan, J.

    2017-11-01

    The WR stellar population can be distinguished, at least partially, from other stellar populations by broad-band IR colour selection. We present the use of a machine learning classifier to quantitatively improve the selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. These methods are used to separate the other stellar populations which have similar IR colours. We show the results of the classifications obtained by using the 2MASS J, H and K photometric bands, and the Spitzer/IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0μm. The k-Nearest Neighbour method has been used to select Galactic WR candidates for observational follow-up. A few candidates have been spectroscopically observed. Preliminary observations suggest that a detection rate of 50% can easily be achieved.

  6. Reintroducing resurrected species: selecting DeExtinction candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Philip J; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Ewen, John

    2014-03-01

    Technological advances have raised the controversial prospect of resurrecting extinct species. Species DeExtinction should involve more than the production of biological orphans to be scrutinized in the laboratory or zoo. If DeExtinction is to realize its stated goals of deep ecological enrichment, then resurrected animals must be translocated (i.e., released within suitable habitat). Therefore, DeExtinction is a conservation translocation issue and the selection of potential DeExtinction candidates must consider the feasibility and risks associated with reintroduction. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Guidelines on Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations provide a framework for DeExtinction candidate selection. We translate these Guidelines into ten questions to be addressed early on in the selection process to eliminate unsuitable reintroduction candidates. We apply these questions to the thylacine, Yangtze River Dolphin, and Xerces blue butterfly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health and environmental concerns associated with lead usage. Unfortunately, limited choices are available as high-temperature lead-free solders. This work outlines...... the criteria for the evaluation of a new high-temperature lead-free solder material. A list of potential ternary high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives based on the Au-Sn and Au-Ge systems is proposed. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the high-temperature stability of microstructures...... and mechanical properties of these potential candidate alloys with respect to the currently used high-lead content solders is made. Finally, the paper presents the superior characteristics as well as some drawbacks of these proposed high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives....

  8. Aeromedical Evaluation for an F-16 Candidate with Incomplete Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal-Kummen, Monica; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Owe, Jan Ove; Gulliksen, Eigil; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window. The CT scans showed luxation of the 12 th thoracic vertebra with fracture and dislocation of the 1 st lumbar vertebra. He went for surgery, where fixation of the 12 th thoracic vertebra to the 1 st lumbar vertebra was performed. He developed syringomyelia 1 yr postoperatively and was re-operated on twice in the following years. He was now in a wheelchair, but engaged himself in several sport activities such as sledge-hockey and sit-skiing, participating in several Paralympics. With respect to the general principles of aviation medicine, several considerations had to be taken into account before a medical certification could be given. The risks associated with an F-16 flight in relationship to the candidate's general health and the fixation of his spinal cord had to be evaluated. Also, his ability to perform required tasks during the flight and in case of an emergency was an important issue discussed. Finally, the candidate's medical and physical condition should not present a considerable risk to flight safety. After extensive specialist consultations and in-depth discussions, the candidate was given medical certification to fly back seat in a F-16. Chahal-Kummen M, Strand T-E, Owe JO, Gulliksen E, Wagstaff AS. Aeromedical evaluation for an F-16 candidate with incomplete paraplegia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):968-971.

  9. The attitudes of classroom teacher candidates towards physical education lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Tekkurşun Demir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is aimed to determine the attitudes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade classroom teacher candidates towards the physical education lesson according to various variables. Material and Methods: For the current study, the screening method, one of the quantitative research models, was used. The research consists of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade, totally164 university students, 106 (%64,6 females, 58 (%35,4 males, attending Uşak University, Classroom Teaching Program in 2016-2017 academic year. The first-grade students were not included in this research, because the physical education and play teaching lessons are given to classroom student candidates in the second-grade at Uşak University, Classroom Teaching Program. “Personal information form" and “Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Classroom Teacher Candidates" were used as data collection tools. Before analysis, the data were evaluated using the values of Skewness and Skewness (normal distribution of the data and Levene (equality of variance tests. In the analysis of the data; frequency, arithmetic mean, standard deviation; t-test, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used. Results: When examined the total score of the teacher candidates obtained from Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Classroom Teacher Candidates and age variable by the Pearson Moment Correlation analysis, it was found that there was a statistically significant negative relationship between the received scores at low level. It was determined that the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates towards the physical education lessons did not show any significant difference according to the gender variable, but there was a significant difference when examined their class levels. While no significant difference was found in the attitudes of the classroom teacher candidates, who played and did not play sports in their past life, towards physical education lessons, no significant difference was found

  10. Dark matter candidates and methods for detecting them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments employing Ge and Si ionization detectors have excluded large regions in the plane of masses and scattering cross-sections for weakly-interacting dark matter (DM) candidates. It is judged that, before a realistic detection experiment for supersymmetric DM candidates can be conducted, significant development efforts will have to be completed for suitable cryogenic or ionization detectors. Pilot experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of axion searches with microwave cavities, but these are at least two orders of magnitude too low in sensitivity.

  11. Candidate gene association studies in syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daack-Hirsch, S.; Basart, A.; Frischmeyer, P. [Univ. of Iowa, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using ongoing case ascertainment through a birth defects registry, we have collected 219 nuclear families with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate and 111 families with a collection of syndromic forms. Syndromic cases include 24 with recognized forms and 72 with unrecognized syndromes. Candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide searches for evidence of microdeletions and isodisomy are currently being carried out. Candidate gene association studies, to date, have made use of PCR-based polymorphisms for TGFA, MSX1, CLPG13 (a CA repeat associated with a human homologue of a locus that results in craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in the mouse) and an STRP found in a Van der Woude syndrome microdeletion. Control tetranucleotide repeats, which insure that population-based differences are not responsible for any observed associations, are also tested. Studies of the syndromic cases have included the same list of candidate genes searching for evidence of microdeletions and a genome-wide search using tri- and tetranucleotide polymorphic markers to search for isodisomy or structural rearrangements. Significant associations have previously been identified for TGFA, and, in this report, identified for MSX1 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (p = 0.04, uncorrected). Preliminary results of the genome-wide scan for isodisomy has returned no true positives and there has been no evidence for microdeletion cases.

  12. Multiple Leader Candidate and Competitive Position Allocation for Robust Formation against Member Robot Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jin Hyo; Seo, Jiwon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a Multiple Leader Candidate (MLC) structure and a Competitive Position Allocation (CPA) algorithm which can be applicable for various applications including environmental sensing. Unlike previous formation structures such as virtual-leader and actual-leader structures with position allocation including a rigid allocation and an optimization based allocation, the formation employing the proposed MLC structure and CPA algorithm is robust against the fault (or disappearance) of the member robots and reduces the entire cost. In the MLC structure, a leader of the entire system is chosen among leader candidate robots. The CPA algorithm is the decentralized position allocation algorithm that assigns the robots to the vertex of the formation via the competition of the adjacent robots. The numerical simulations and experimental results are included to show the feasibility and the performance of the multiple robot system employing the proposed MLC structure and the CPA algorithm. PMID:25954956

  13. Fusible heat sink materials - Evaluation of alternate candidates. [for PLSS cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.; Lomax, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. Materials with greater thermal storage capability than water could enable both an extension of time between recharging and/or a reduction in size and/or mass. An extensive literature search identified 1,215 candidates with a solid-liquid transformation within the temperature range of -13 C to 5 C. Based on data available in the literature, several candidates with a cooling capacity significantly greater than water were identified. Measurements of the transformation temperature and enthalpy of transformation were then undertaken with a differential scanning calorimeter in order to confirm the accuracy of the literature. Laboratory measurements have thus far not been able to corroborate the extremely high values found from the literature. This paper presents the approach for materials selection utilized in this study, the experimental procedure, and the results of the measurements thus far undertaken.

  14. Examination of the Beck Depression Inventory-II Factor Structure Among Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Stoeckel, Nina; Napolitano, Melissa A; Collins, Charlotte; Wood, G Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Grunwald, Heidi E; Foster, Gary D; Still, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is frequently used to evaluate bariatric patients in clinical and research settings; yet, there are limited data regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II with a bariatric surgery population. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring with oblimin rotation was employed with data from 1228 consecutive presurgical bariatric candidates. Independent t tests were used to examine potential differences between sexes. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with the next 383 consecutive presurgical patients to evaluate the proposed model based on EFA results. EFA revealed three factors: negative perceptions, diminished vigor, and cognitive dysregulation, each with adequate internal consistency. Six BDI-II items did not load significantly on any of the three factors. CFA results largely supported the proposed model. Results suggest that dimensions of depression for presurgical bariatric candidates vary from other populations and raise important caveats regarding the utility of the BDI-II in bariatric research.

  15. Multiple Leader Candidate and Competitive Position Allocation for Robust Formation against Member Robot Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jin Hyo; Seo, Jiwon

    2015-05-06

    This paper proposes a Multiple Leader Candidate (MLC) structure and a Competitive Position Allocation (CPA) algorithm which can be applicable for various applications including environmental sensing. Unlike previous formation structures such as virtual-leader and actual-leader structures with position allocation including a rigid allocation and an optimization based allocation, the formation employing the proposed MLC structure and CPA algorithm is robust against the fault (or disappearance) of the member robots and reduces the entire cost. In the MLC structure, a leader of the entire system is chosen among leader candidate robots. The CPA algorithm is the decentralized position allocation algorithm that assigns the robots to the vertex of the formation via the competition of the adjacent robots. The numerical simulations and experimental results are included to show the feasibility and the performance of the multiple robot system employing the proposed MLC structure and the CPA algorithm.

  16. Computational Vaccinology: An Important Strategy to Discover New Potential S. mansoni Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina S. Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. Several papers on Schistosoma mansoni vaccine and drug development have been published in the past few years, representing an important field of study. The advent of technologies that allow large-scale studies of genes and proteins had a remarkable impact on the screening of new and potential vaccine candidates in schistosomiasis. In this postgenomic scenario, bioinformatic technologies have emerged as important tools to mine transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic databases. These new perspectives are leading to a new round of rational vaccine development. Herein, we discuss different strategies to identify potential S. mansoni vaccine candidates using computational vaccinology.

  17. Human Rights in the World Health Organization: Views of the Director-General Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2017-06-01

    Before the 2017 election of the Director-General of WHO, and given the importance of human rights to global health governance through WHO, Health and Human Rights asked the three final candidates for their views on human rights, WHO's human rights mandate, and the role of human rights in WHO programming. These questions were developed by the author in collaboration with Audrey Chapman, Lisa Forman, Paul Hunt, Dainius Pūras, Javier Vasquez and Carmel Williams. Based on responses to these questions from each of the three candidates, this Perspective was originally published online on April 26, 2017. On May 23, 2017, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was elected Director-General and will begin his five-year term on July 1, 2017.

  18. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  19. Análise das habilidades cognitivas requeridas dos candidatos ao cargo de contador na Administração Pública Federal, utilizando-se indicadores fundamentados na visão da Taxonomia de Bloom Analysis of cognitive skills required from candidate accountants in the brazilian Federal Public Administration, using indicators based on Bloom's Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Barros de Santana Junior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva detectar, através dos seis níveis de conhecimento da Taxonomia de Bloom, qual a tendência das habilidades cognitivas requeridas, quando da demanda por profissionais contadores pela Administração Direta e Indireta da União, utilizando-se da análise das questões de algumas recentes provas de concursos (1999 a 2006, o que evidenciará um perfil de desempenho intelectual delineado por esse setor público. A partir dessa análise, busca-se fazer uma reflexão sobre os caminhos a serem percorridos, para que o profissional contador possa atingir as demandas de desempenho intelectual exigidas pelo atual cenário de desenvolvimento tecnológico e econômico mundial. O artigo foi desenvolvido utilizando-se do método indutivo, mediante pesquisas bibliográficas e documentais, além de técnicas de investigação estatística. Aborda-se o histórico das últimas mudanças ocorridas no mercado profissional, em especial do setor público, e o entendimento dos fundamentos da Taxonomia de Bloom, apresentando como proposta alguns indicadores de aprendizagem mais voltados para uma realidade atual. O resultado da pesquisa demonstrou que não se está exigindo dos candidatos ao cargo de contador (ou com especialidade em contabilidade os mais altos indicadores de habilidades cognitivas. Verifica-se, portanto, a necessidade de mudanças efetivas nos rumos dessa profissão, para que se possa garantir o espaço almejado para todos aqueles que optaram em trabalhar e desenvolver as Ciências Contábeis.This study aims to detect, by means of the six knowledge levels in Bloom´s Taxonomy, tendencies in the cognitive abilities required when professional accountants are demanded by the Brazilian Direct and Indirect Administration, using the analysis of questions posed during some recent selection exams (1999 to 2006, to evidence the intellectual performance profile outlined by the public sector. Based on this analysis, attempts are made to

  20. A Data-Driven Voter Guide for U.S. Elections: Adapting Quantitative Measures of the Preferences and Priorities of Political Elites to Help Voters Learn About Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bonica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based voter advice applications have experienced tremendous growth across Europe in recent years but have yet to be widely adopted in the United States. By comparison, the candidate-centered U.S. electoral system, which routinely requires voters to consider dozens of candidates across a dizzying array of local, state, and federal offices each time they cast a ballot, introduces challenges of scale to the systematic provision of information. Only recently have methodological advances combined with the rapid growth in publicly available data on candidates and their supporters to bring a comprehensive data-driven voter guide within reach. This paper introduces a set of newly developed software tools for collecting, disambiguating, and merging large amounts of data on candidates and other political elites. It then demonstrates how statistical methods developed by political scientists to measure the preferences and expressed priorities of politicians can be adapted to help voters learn about candidates.