WorldWideScience

Sample records for au-cu skarn deposits

  1. Characteristics of melt inclusions in skarn minerals from Fe,Cu(Au) and Au(Cu) ore deposits in the region from Daye to Jiujiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 赵劲松; 李兆麟; 张重泽; 彭卓伦

    2003-01-01

    A vast amount of the melt inclusions and fluid-melt inclusions have been found in skarn minerals from Fe, Cu(Au) and Au(Cu) ore deposits distributed from Daye to Jiujiang along the Yangtze River besides vapor-liquid inclusions. The melt inclusions are many and varied in shape. They mainly consist of crystallized silicate phases (CSi), iron phases (Fe), amorphous silicate phases (ASi) and vapor (V) with different volume percentages, and some of them contain several crystallized silicate phases. These melt inclusion sizes are commonly (10-46)×(6-15) μm2. A difference between the fluid-melt inclusions and melt inclusions is that the liquid phase appears in the former and their homogenization temperatures are lower than the latter. We measured the homogenization temperatures of the melt inclusions, fluid-melt inclusions and fluid inclusions in ten thin sections from eight ore deposits on Leitz microscope heating stage 1350 which was made in Germany. Forty-eight homogenization temperature values have been obtained. Among them, thirty-nine values are homogenization temperatures of the melt inclusions in garnet and pyroxene from skarns, two values are homogenization temperatures of fluid-melt inclusions, others belong to the fluid inclusions. Melt inclusions in garnet and pyroxene have homogenization temperatures of 890-1115℃. Fluid-melt inclusions have homogenization temperatures of 745-750℃. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 580℃ and 675℃. The average of thirty- nine homogenization temperatures for the melt inclusions is 1029.9℃. Wethink studied skarns to be magmatic genesis on the basis of available data relative to the characteristic features of phase states within the melt inclusions and the fluid melt inclusions and their homogenization temperatures.

  2. Transitional adakite-like to calc-alkaline magmas in a continental extensional setting at La Paz Au-Cu skarn deposits, Mesa Central, Mexico: metallogenic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Porfirio J. Pinto Linares; Gilles Levresse; Jordi Tritlla; Víctor A. Valencia; José M. Torres Aguilera; Manuel González; David Estrada

    2008-01-01

    The granodiorite intrusions with associated Cu-Au skarn mineralization of La Paz district are located in the east part of the Mesa Central of Mexico. The skarn developed at the contact between a middle Cretaceous calc-argillaceous sedimentary sequence and the magmatic intrusions. A Ag-Pb-Zn vein system postdates the intrusive-skarn assemblage. Two well defined fault systems (N-S and E-W) divide the La Paz district. The N-S Dolores fault, with a normal vertical displacement estimated between 5...

  3. Structural control and (remobilization of the extinct Haveri Au-Cu deposit, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nironen, M.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The extinct Haveri Au-Cu deposit is located within mafic metalavas and mafic/ intermediate banded rocks of the Haveri Formation, in the western part of the Paleoproterozoic Tampere Schist Belt. The sulfide-bearing banded rocks display a large E-W trending fold structure in magnetic and electromagnetic maps. Field evidence suggest that the Au-Cu deposit is in a F1/F2 fold interferrence pattern in the western core of the large fold. The ore-forming elements concentrated into the F1 fold closure during D1 deformation. Sulfide-bearing fractures subparallel to S2 spaced cleavage indicate slight remobilization during D2.

  4. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  5. Genesis of Yangla Banded Skarn-Hosted Copper Deposit in Tethys Orogenic Belt of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Yangla copper deposit is the largest banded skarn-hosted copper deposit found recently in the Tethys orogenic belt of Southwestern China. On the basis of the study of distribution, petrology and mineralogy as well as major element, REE and isotope geochemistry, the authors find that the banded skarn, which hosts the deposit, was precipitated from hydrothermal solutions in the form of exhalate sediment. Therefore, the banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is a Sedex-type deposit, with a series of stacked, conformable lenses underlain by at least one stringer zone. The deposit, intercalated at the contact of lower clastic rock and upper carbonate rock of Gajinxueshan Group, was formed in the Carboniferous ((296.1±7.0) Ma), contemporary to the host Gajinxueshan Group. The interpretation of the genesis of Yangla banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is of fundamental exploration significance for the discovery of Sedex-type copper deposit in the region.

  6. Chronology and origin of Au-Cu deposits related to Paleozoic intracontinental rifting in West Tianshan Mountains, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芹; 陈富文

    2002-01-01

    Located between the Tarim platform and Junggar massif, the West Tianshan intracontinental rift abuts against the China-Kazakhstan boundary in the west part, borders on the Yilianhabierga late Paleozoic relic ocean basin and the South Tianshan late Paleozoic ocean basin respectively in the northeast separated by the Aibi Lake fault and in the southeast by the fault along the southern margin of the Yili massif. During the development and after the close of the West Tianshan intracontinental rifting in the Carboniferous-Permian period, a series of nonferrous and precious metal mineralizations occurred with the Au-Cu deposits being the most important. Isotopic chronologic study of representative deposits of different types shows that gold-copper mineralization in the West Tianshan intracontinental rift zone mainly happened during the middle-late Hercynian Period, among which the Axi volcanic hydrothermal type gold deposit was formed during the Carboniferous with a fluid inclusion Rb-Sr isochron age of (339 ± 28) Ma; the Qiabukanzhuota quartzolite type gold deposit has a Rb-Sr isochron age of (312 ± 46) Ma; the Tawuerbieke porphyry type gold deposit has a Rb-Sr isochron age of (295 ± 16) Ma; the Jingbulak magmatic liquation Cu-Ni deposit and the Musizaote porphyry type Cu deposit have the forming ages of 300 Ma ± and 250 Ma ±, respectively. Analyses of crustal evolution and metallogenetic geological backgrounds of Au-Cu mineralizations in the studied area shows a close correlation with the rifting.

  7. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  8. Garnetization as a ground preparation process for copper mineralization: evidence from the Mazraeh skarn deposit, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh Somarin, Alireza

    2010-03-01

    The Mazraeh Cu-Fe skarn deposit, NW Iran is the result of the intrusion of an Oligocene-Miocene granitic pluton into Cretaceous calcareous rocks. The pluton ranges in composition from monzonite to quartz monzonite, monzogranite, tonalite and granodiorite with I-type, calc-alkaline, and weakly peraluminous characteristics. The Mazraeh pluton was emplaced in a volcanic arc setting in an active continental margin at a depth of ~8 km. Pyroxene skarn, garnet skarn, and epidote skarn zones were formed during the intrusive phase. The garnet skarn developed as exoskarn and endoskarn from the calcareous wall rocks and the pluton, respectively, prior to mineralization. Garnet skarn from the exoskarn zone is identified by relict layering inherited from the precursor calcareous lithologies. Mass balance calculation of garnet skarn in the endoskarn zone indicates that hydrothermal fluids originating from the cooling magma introduced Si, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, Ag, Cu, Zn, La, Pb, Cd, Mo, and Y. The main mass loss in the garnet skarn was due to destruction of feldspars in the Mazraeh plutonic rocks and leaching of K2O and Na2O. Released Ca has been fixed in the andraditic garnet. Garnetization of the Mazraeh pluton was accompanied by mass and volume increase. The magnitude of these changes depends mainly on the degree of alteration and composition of the precursor. The brittle behavior of the endoskarn zone was increased due to formation of massive garnet which subsequently fractured. These fractures not only facilitated movement of hydrothermal fluids but also provided new locations for Cu mineralization. Therefore locating strongly garnetized zones may be a vector to ore in skarn deposits.

  9. High and intermediate sulphidation environment in the same hydrothermal deposit: the example of Au-Cu Palai???Islica deposit, Carboneras (Almer??a)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Ros??a, Javier; Morales-Ruano, Salvador; Boyce, Adrian J.; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2003-01-01

    Two epithermal environments have been identified in the Miocene Palai???Islica Au???Cu deposit: A) Intermediate sulphidation, hosted mainly in quartz veins, comprises pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena as the major sulphides, which are accompanied by a variety of Ag-bearing accessory minerals. Au???Ag alloys are the only gold-bearing phase. The veins are enclosed by sericitic and chloritic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz, sphalerite and calcite give Th between 118???453 ??C, a...

  10. Manganiferous pyroxenes and pyroxenoids from three Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, Jürgen

    1985-05-01

    Samples from the Pb-Zn-Cu skarns of M. Ci-villina (Italy), Valle del Temperino (Italy), and Empire Mine (New Mexico, USA) have been analysed for their pyroxenes and pyroxenoids. The samples were collected immediately adjacent to the marble-skarn replacement front. All contain manganiferous pyroxenoids and manganeserich Ca-pyroxenes. The pyroxenes from each deposit form distinct groups of compositions within the diopside-hedenbergite-johannsenite triangle, with no apparent miscibility gap. Diopside contents usually are below 15 mole percent. Fibrous bustamite occurs as monomineralic zones in the Empire and in the Temperino deposit. Although rhodonite may be a primary phase in some samples from the Empire Mine, it is commonly of secondary origin in the Empire Mine and in the Civillina deposit. Its formation from manganiferous clinopyroxenes is either due to increasing Mn activity in the hydrothermal skarn solution or to higher X(CO2) in the vapour phase. When rhodonite is formed within clinopyroxenes as submicroscopic lamellae that eventually replace the whole host crystal, resulting compositions lie in the miscibility gap between rhodonite and bustamite. Textural relations indicate the replacement reaction: johannsenite + CO2 = rhodonite + calcite + quartz. Equilibrium temperatures for this reaction have been calculated by using estimated thermochemical data for johannsenite, giving a T(eq)=385° C for X(CO2)=0.1 at P(tot)= 1 kbar. Taking into consideration the reduced activity of Mn in rhodonite and of Ca in calcite, both buffered by the johannsenite, the temperature is increased for about 15° C at X(CO2)=0.01. At lower temperatures, where johannsenite is stable, the X(CO2) is confined to values below 0.01. Despite the mineralogical similarities of the three deposits differences in the development of the manganiferous skarns can be depicted.

  11. Characteristics of SIP Response for Rock Specimens in the Gagok Skarn Deposit, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Mi Kyung, P.; Park, S.; Shin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method was conducted to develop mineral exploration technique in the Gagok skarn deposit, Korea. The Gagok mine was once abandoned and recently reopened. The Gagok stratabound skarn deposit is originated from the Cretaceous granite intrusion into the Paleozoic limestone and slate formations. The ore minerals of the Gagok deposit include sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc. The characteristics of SIP response for the rock specimens were examined to re-evaluate mineral resources. Total 104 rock specimens were obtained from the mine shafts at the various elevations, and were modified in cylindrical shape for the measurement of SIP response, along with other physical properties such as porosity, density, DC electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and seismic velocity. The SIP measurement system consists of electrical current transmitter and receiver (model GDP-32 system, Zonge Co. USA), and measures amplitude for resistivity, and phase at 14 steps of frequencies ranging from 0.125 to 1,024 Hz. The results of the SIP measurement shows that the rock specimens from ore bodies accompanied with sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite produce large phase differences with frequencies applied. The results also show that the rock specimens at the lower elevation of the mine shaft have stronger SIP response and mineralization. The rock specimens with large phase differences of strong SIP response were classified into three phase curve types, based on the range of critical frequency from the SIP measurement. (1) Curve type 1: critical frequency of less than 1 Hz with decreasing phase curve (2) Curve type 2: critical frequency of 1 to 10 Hz with bell shape, (3) Curve type 3: critical frequency of larger than 10 Hz with mixture of curve type 1 and 2. It is believed that the graphitic components and sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite are dominant in the rock

  12. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  13. Fluid-melt Inclusions in Fluorite of the Huanggangliang Skarn Iron-Tin Deposit and Their Significance to Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娟; 王京彬; 王玉往; 毛骞

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, fluid-melt inclusions are found in fluorite of the Huanggangliang skarn iron-tin deposit (HSID). The fluorite was formed in the main stage of mineralization, named the hydro-skarnization stage. The inclusions contain various components such as Fe, Mg and Cr from deep sources. The melts of primary inclusions are mainly Ca- and F-rich and those of secondary inclusions tend to become Si-rich. During this evolution process, the melts and iron daughter minerals decreased and even vanished. These facts reveal that the evolution of the primary mineralizing fluids and the differentiation of the fluids and melts are the main factors leading to the deposition of Fe, Sn and other elements. This discovery confirms the magmatic genesis of the HSID and has filled in the gaps in the research of magmatogenic skarn deposits and furnished new methods for such research. Furthermore, it has enlarged the scope of the research on fluid inclusions.

  14. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    . Molybdenum, W, and Sn display excellent co-correlation and shared zonation patterns on LA-ICP-MS maps of garnet, indicating substitution in the crystal lattice. As well as assisting in interpreting skarn evolution in time and space, and providing constraints on ore genesis, the trace element data for garnet explain the range of colours observed. The discovery of garnets carrying significant concentrations of W, Sn and Mo is a valuable finding that deserves evaluation in post-collisional skarns elsewhere, and is potentially of critical significance in prospecting. Together with a conspicuous trace ore mineral signature, garnet compositions at Zhibula support a genetic connection and sharing of ore-forming fluids between the skarn and the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, 2 km to the north. Within the Gangdese belt, or in analogous settings elsewhere, the presence of deep-seated porphyry mineralization beneath exposed skarns could be tested for by studying garnet chemistry. As more data become available, such trace element signatures could be viable tools for distinguishing barren from mineralized skarn systems.

  15. Petrogenesis of skarn related Cu-porphyry intrusion deposit, Ali-Abad- Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Taghipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is a part of Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, which is located in the West of Yazd porovince. Contact metamorphism and skarn occurred in conglomerate part of Sngestan Formation. The Oligocene intrusion bodies of Ali-Abad-Darreh Zereshk are leucocerate and have the chemical composition of granite to granodiorite with calc-alkaline affinity from volcanic arc geological setting. The main mineral assemblage of skarn in order of imprtance is as follow: Garnet + epidote + quartz + calcite + pyrite + iron oxides. Brown garnets are the skarn characteristic mineral. EPMA analysis has shown that the chemical composition with garnet belong to andradite-grossular solid-solution (And 65, Gross 30 with more andradite component. The high permeability and presence of carbonate pebbles in conglomerate are two important factors for fluid flow and genesis of garnets. Distinct oscillatory zoning in garnets is resulted from the change of fO2 in fluids. The evolution of Ali-Abad skarn is took place in the range of 380 to 530 ºC, 0.5 Kbar pressure and high fO2. Also close association of this skarn with Ali-Abad intrusive with Cu-porphyry mineralization shows that this skarn is a Cu-porphyry type skarn.

  16. Recent Advances in Skarn Forming Models and the Yamansu Skarn Related Deposits%矽卡岩成因模式研究进展:兼论新疆雅满苏铁矿的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎广荣; 吴昌志

    2013-01-01

    Skarn has been scientifically recognized as a distinct class of rock for more than 100 years. However, the definition of skarn is loose. Recently, mineralogy was proposed to be the key to define a skarn:a mineral assemblage including a wide variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, but is usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene;it was formed in almost all ages and a variety of tectonic settings. This pure“descriptive”definition is not genetic and does not account for processes such as“metasomatism”and“replacement”. As for the genetic aspect, diverse models have been proposed:from a general dictionary definition of contact metamorphic-metasomatic interactions with intruding granitic magma in early times to interactions with mafic-ultramafic magma and high temperature magmatic skarn in recent years. It seems that genetic geological domain of skarn could be controversial and is also expanding with time. Melt inclusion in skarn minerals and assimilation experiments studies provides new insight on the skarn. Skarn-related iron deposits are of the most abundant types among the others, which may reach 5000 Mt with a grade of 45%. Skarn-related iron deposits are mostly associated with mafic-ultramafic magmatism, alkaline alteration extensively developed, and were low in Au compared to IOCG. These deposits of Precambrian age are rare. This paper also summarizes some features of skarn-related iron deposits which promote our understanding of different iron ore deposits. In addition, the skarnization processes in Yamansu skarn deposit were illustrated..%矽卡岩在地壳中分布广泛,其研究历史超过一百年。然而,矽卡岩的定义却相对模糊。直到近年来,具有特征性矽卡岩矿物组合被认为是确认矽卡岩的关键。对于矽卡岩的成因亦长期缺乏统一认识。从花岗岩与灰岩的接触交代成因拓展到基性-超基性岩与碳酸盐岩接触成因,再到其岩浆成因,反映出矽卡岩所包

  17. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Miocene granitic intrusions related to the Zhibula Cu skarn deposit in the Gangdese belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zheng, You-ye; Sun, Xiang; Shen, Ya-hui

    2016-04-01

    The Zhibula Cu skarn deposit (19.5 Mt ore @ 1.64%), near the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, is located in the Gangdese porphyry copper belt in southern Tibet. The deposit is a typical metasomatic skarn that is related to the interaction of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and calcareous host rocks. Stratiform skarn orebodies are mainly distributed in the contact between tuff and marble in the lower part of the Jurassic Yeba Formation. Endoskarn zonations for an outward trend are observed in the granodiorite, which grade from a fresh granodiorite to a weakly chlorite-altered granodiorite, a green diopside-bearing granodiorite, and a dark red-brown garnet-bearing granodiorite. The Zhibula granodiorite and monzogranite have similar secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb ages of 16.9 ± 0.3 Ma and 17.0 ± 0.2 Ma, respectively. They exhibit different fractional crystallization from granodiorite (SiO2 = 64.8-69.3 wt.%) to monzogranite (SiO2 = 72.3-76.8 wt.%). Both the granodiorite and monzogranite are characterized by high Al2O3 (12.6-16.7 wt.%) and K2O (1.5-5.5 wt.%) contents, high Sr/Y (35-151) and La/Yb (19-48) ratios, and variable MgO (0.16-3.91) and Mg# (31-61) values. They display features of enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, e.g., Rb, Ba, Sr, and K), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and moderate negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.98). They show restricted in situ zircon Hf isotopic compositions (+6.7 to +8.8; only one sample is +4.5) and consistent δ18O values (+6.0‰ to +6.6‰). The geochemical data indicated that the Miocene Zhibula granitic intrusions formed by the magma that were characterized by high Sr/Y ratios and were derived from the partial melting of the thickened juvenile lower crust, which may have been metasomatized by the slab melts during subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust and were induced by the convective removal of the thickened lithosphere. In addition, the

  18. The origin and evolution of skarn-forming fluids from the Phu Lon deposit, northern Loei Fold Belt, Thailand: Evidence from fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamvong, Teera; Zaw, Khin

    2009-05-01

    The Phu Lon skarn Cu-Au deposit is located in the northern Loei Fold Belt (LFB), Thailand. It is hosted by Devonian volcano-sedimentary sequences intercalated with limestone and marble units, intruded by diorite and quartz monzonite porphyries. Phu Lon is a calcic skarn with both endoskarn and exoskarn facies. In both skarn facies, andradite and diopside comprise the main prograde skarn minerals, whereas epidote, chlorite, tremolite, actinolite and calcite are the principal retrograde skarn minerals. Four types of fluid inclusions in garnet were distinguished: (1) liquid-rich inclusions; (2) daughter mineral-bearing inclusions; (3) salt-saturated inclusions; and (4) vapor-rich inclusions. Epidote contains only one type of fluid inclusion: liquid-rich inclusions. Fluid inclusions associated with garnet (prograde skarn stage) display high homogenization temperatures and moderate salinities (421.6-468.5 °C; 17.4-23.1 wt% NaCl equiv.). By contrast, fluid inclusions associated with epidote (retrograde skarn stage) record lower homogenization temperatures and salinities (350.9-399.8 °C; 0.5-8 wt% NaCl equiv.). These data suggest a possible mixing of saline magmatic fluids with external, dilute fluid sources (e.g., meteoric fluids), as the system cooled. Some fluid inclusions in garnet contain hematite daughters, suggesting an oxidizing magmatic environment. Sulfur isotope determinations on sulfide minerals from both the prograde and retrograde stages show a uniform and narrow range of δ34S values (-2.6 to -1.1 ‰ δ34S), suggesting that the ore-forming fluid contained sulfur of orthomagmatic origin. Overall, the Phu Lon deposit is interpreted as an oxidized Cu-Au skarn based on the mineralogy and fluid inclusion characteristics.

  19. Caracterización geológica del skarn "El Abuelo" Alto Río Senguerr, Chubut Geological characterization of "El Abuelo" skarn deposit, Alto Rio Senguerr, Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Lanfranchini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El skarn "El Abuelo" está situado en el extremo sudoccidental de la Provincia del Chubut, República Argentina. Se desarrolla en un ambiente tectónico de arco magmático, en corteza continental. Está emplazado en sedimentitas silicoclásticas con intercalaciones carbonáticas y se vincula a cuerpos intrusivos riodacíticos, conjunto atribuido al Cretácico inferior. En esta manifestación se reconocieron anomalías en elementos metalíferos (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag que le confieren interés como guía para la exploración de recursos minerales en esta región. La presente contribución tiene por finalidad tipificar al skarn a través de una caracterización geológica y mineralógica. La asociación paragenética de minerales reconocidos permitió identificar dos episodios: uno metasomático y otro hidrotermal, ambos desarrollados en las sedimentitas (exoskarn. El primero fue originado por fluidos de derivación magmática, que provocaron la formación de minerales calcosilicáticos. Posteriormente la incorporación de agua en el sistema facilitó el desarrollo de minerales hidratados, retrogradando parcialmente al skarn, proceso que fue seguido por la depositación de hematita, magnetita y sulfuros, acompañados de sílice. La asociación de minerales calcosilicáticos, junto a la variación en la composición química de piroxenos y granates y la mineralización identificada, permiten tipificar al skarn "El Abuelo" como cálcico, con hierro como metal dominante."El Abuelo" skarn deposit is located in southwest Chubut province. It was formed in a magmatic arc tectonic environment, developed in continental crust. The skarn is hosted in low cretaceous silicoclastic sands interbedded with limestones, and it is related to small rhyodacitic sub-volcanic bodies. Anomalous contents of metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag provide an interesting exploration guide. This paper is devoted to give a geological and a mineralogical characterization of the skarn, in order

  20. Geological, geochronological, and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Chengchao skarn Fe deposit, Edong ore district, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Lü, Zhicheng; Zhao, Caisheng; Zheng, Xianwei; Ding, Ning

    2015-04-01

    The Edong ore district is located within the westernmost Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt (MLYRB), and hosts the largest concentration of skarn Fe deposits in China, although the origin of these deposits remains controversial. The Chengchao deposit is the largest skarn Fe deposit so far discovered within the MLYRB, and provides a good opportunity to address the debate surrounding the origin of these skarn Fe deposits. Here, we present geological, geochronological, and mineralogical data from the Chengchao skarn deposit and associated intrusions, and discuss the relationships between granitoids and mineralization in the Chengchao deposit. The NW-SE-striking orebodies in the study area have porphyritic quartz monzonite and/or granite footwalls, and Triassic marble or diorite hangingwalls, indicating a spatial relationship between these intrusions and Fe mineralization. Zircon U-Pb data from the granite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, diorite, and porphyritic diabase dike within the deposit show ages of 129 ± 1, 128 ± 1, 140 ± 1, and 126 ± 1 Ma, respectively. These ages and the previously reported ages on the timing of mineralization suggest that the porphyritic quartz monzonite and granite are coeval with the formation of the skarn Fe deposit. Our data confirm that the granitic rocks are temporally associated with Fe mineralization. The prograde substage of skarn development is characterized by two stages of andradite (Adr98-38Grs61-2Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0) and diopside (Di95-61Hd37-5Jo3-0), including an early stage of garnet and pyroxene formation that is genetically associated with the mineralization. The early stage garnets are more andradite-rich (Adr98-50Grs49-2Prp1-0Sps1-0Alm0) than the late veinlet garnets characterized by intermediate grandite compositions (Adr67-37Grs61-31Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0). The early stage pyroxenes (Di95-74Hd26-5Jo1-0) are compositionally distinct from the late stage pyroxenes (Di84-61Hd37-16Jo3-0). Compositional

  1. Geochemical Behaviors of REE and Other Trace Elements during the Formation of Strata-bound Skarns and Related Deposits:A Case Study of the Dongguashan Cu(Au) Deposit,Anhui Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Qicong; LIU Congqiang

    2003-01-01

    REE and other trace elements in the altered marbles, massive skarns and ores, as well as garnet and quartz were determined in order to examine the behaviors of trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. It is demonstrated that the high-field-strength (HFS) elements Zr, Hf, Th and Nb were immobile while other trace elements were mobile during the formation of skarns and related deposits. REE and ore-forming elements such as Cu and Ag in hydrothermally-altered marbles and skarns were provided primarily by hydrothermal fluids. In the direction transverse of the strata, the more deeply the marbles were altered, the higher the total REE abundance and the larger the negative Eu anomalies would be. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of skarns are similar to those of the marbles, but the former are distinguished by much higher REE contents and more remarkable negative Eu anomalies. Those patterns were apparently not inherited from the marble protolith, but were controlled by garnets, which were determined by the hydrothermal solutions involved in the infiltration metasomatism. The hydrothermal fluids are characterized by having slightly right-hand dipping REE patterns, being enriched in LREE and having strongly negative Eu anomalies. The uptake of REE from hydrothermal fluids during the growth of garnet crystals resulted in the garnets having similar REE patterns to the hydrothermal fluids. Based on the spatial variation of REE in skarns and the structures of the hosting strata, we can get a better understanding of the transport path and pattern of the fluids involved in the formation of skarns and their related deposits. REE geochemistry investigation can help elucidate the genesis of skarns and skarn-related deposits.

  2. Fluid inclusion and H-O isotope evidence for immiscibility during mineralization of the Yinan Au-Cu-Fe deposit, Shandong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Gu, X. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, S. Y.; Li, K.; Li, B. H.; Lv, P. R.

    2011-07-01

    The fluid inclusion and H-O isotope studies have provided the evidences for the source of ore-forming fluids, and helped to recognize two types of immiscibility and their relationships with mineralization. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic geochemistry shows that the earlier ore-forming fluids during the anhydrous skarn stage (I) and the hydrous skarn-magnetite stage (II) were mainly derived from magmatic water, while the later fluids during the quartz-sulfide stage (III) and the carbonate stage (IV) were mainly from magmatic water mixed with small amounts of meteoric water. Various types of fluid inclusions, including abundant vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions, CO 2-H 2O inclusions, and less abundant liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions and melt inclusions, are present in hydrothermal minerals of different stages. The liquid-vapor fluid inclusions are mainly composed of H 2O, with significant amounts of CO 2 and a small amount of CH 4. In the opaque-bearing fluid inclusions, the hematite and fahlore (tetrahedrite) were identified. The homogenization temperature of the aqueous fluid inclusions decreases from Stage I (520-410 °C), through Stage II (430-340 °C) and III (250-190 °C), to Stage IV (190-130 °C). The coexistence of melt inclusions with simultaneously trapped vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions and daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions in garnet, diopside and epidote of Stages I and II suggests an immiscibility between silicate melt and hydrothermal fluid. It is an effective mechanism on scavenging and transporting ore-forming components from magmas. The aqueous fluid inclusions with various vapor/liquid ratios (from 65%) commonly coexist with simultaneously trapped liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions and CO 2-H 2O inclusions in the quartz of Stage III, and the different kinds of the fluid inclusions have similar

  3. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan

    2016-07-01

    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  4. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Baba Ali magnetite skarn deposit, western Iran – a key to determine conditions of mineralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baba Ali skarn deposit, situated 39 km to the northwest of Hamadan (Iran, is the result of a syenitic pluton that intruded and metamorphosed the diorite host rock. Rare earth element (REE values in the quartz syenite and diorite range between 35.4 and 560 ppm. Although the distribution pattern of REEs is more and less flat and smooth, light REEs (LREEs in general show higher concentrations than heavy REEs (HREEs in different lithounits. The skarn zone reveals the highest REE-enriched pattern, while the ore zone shows the maximum depletion pattern. A comparison of the concentration variations of LREEs (La–Nd, middle REEs (MREEs; Sm–Ho and HREEs (Er–Lu of the ore zone samples to the other zones elucidates two important points for the distribution of REEs: 1 the distribution patterns of LREEs and MREEs show a distinct depletion in the ore zone while representing a great enrichment in the skarn facies neighbouring the ore body border and decreasing towards the altered diorite host rock; 2 HREEs show the same pattern, but in the exoskarn do not reveal any distinct increase as observed for LREEs and MREEs. The ratio of La/Y in the Baba Ali skarn ranges from 0.37 to 2.89. The ore zone has the highest La/Y ratio. In this regard the skarn zones exhibit two distinctive portions: 1 one that has La/Y >1 beingadjacent to the ore body and; 2 another one with La/Y < 1 neighbouring altered diorite. Accordingly, the Baba Ali profile, from the quartz syenite to the middle part of the exoskarn, demonstrates chiefly alkaline conditions of formation, with a gradual change to acidic towards the altered diorite host rocks. Utilising three parameters, Ce/Ce*, Eu/Eu* and (Pr/Ybn, in different minerals implies that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for epidote and garnet were mostly of magmatic origin and for magnetite, actinolite and phlogopite these were of magmatic origin with low REE concentration or meteoric water involved.

  5. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Baba Ali magnetite skarn deposit, western Iran - a key to determine conditions of mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Hassan; Radmard, Kaikosrov

    2016-03-01

    The Baba Ali skarn deposit, situated 39 km to the northwest of Hamadan (Iran), is the result of a syenitic pluton that intruded and metamorphosed the diorite host rock. Rare earth element (REE) values in the quartz syenite and diorite range between 35.4 and 560 ppm. Although the distribution pattern of REEs is more and less flat and smooth, light REEs (LREEs) in general show higher concentrations than heavy REEs (HREEs) in different lithounits. The skarn zone reveals the highest REE-enriched pattern, while the ore zone shows the maximum depletion pattern. A comparison of the concentration variations of LREEs (La-Nd), middle REEs (MREEs; Sm-Ho) and HREEs (Er-Lu) of the ore zone samples to the other zones elucidates two important points for the distribution of REEs: 1) the distribution patterns of LREEs and MREEs show a distinct depletion in the ore zone while representing a great enrichment in the skarn facies neighbouring the ore body border and decreasing towards the altered diorite host rock; 2) HREEs show the same pattern, but in the exoskarn do not reveal any distinct increase as observed for LREEs and MREEs. The ratio of La/Y in the Baba Ali skarn ranges from 0.37 to 2.89. The ore zone has the highest La/Y ratio. In this regard the skarn zones exhibit two distinctive portions: 1) one that has La/Y >1 beingadjacent to the ore body and; 2) another one with La/Y < 1 neighbouring altered diorite. Accordingly, the Baba Ali profile, from the quartz syenite to the middle part of the exoskarn, demonstrates chiefly alkaline conditions of formation, with a gradual change to acidic towards the altered diorite host rocks. Utilising three parameters, Ce/Ce*, Eu/Eu* and (Pr/Yb)n, in different minerals implies that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for epidote and garnet were mostly of magmatic origin and for magnetite, actinolite and phlogopite these were of magmatic origin with low REE concentration or meteoric water involved.

  6. Ore-forming fluid and metallization of the Huanggangliang skarn Fe-Sn deposit, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of inclusions, fluid-melting inclusion and gas-liquid inclusion, are present in the Huanggangliang deposit in eastern Inner Mongolia. Temperature ranges from 1050℃ of fluid-melting inclusion to 150℃ of liquid inclusion. Away from intrusion, the inclusions of orebodies in-tend to be characterized by simpler type, lower temperature and lower salinity, as well as weakened relation to intrusion. The metallization of the Huanggangliang deposit is characterized by multiple activities of ore-forming fluid, multi-source, multi-stage accumulation of ore-forming material, F-rich environment, enrichment of F, organic gas, CO2 and N2, and involving of residual magma.

  7. Petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks from the high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2007-10-01

    The Chelopech deposit is one of the largest European gold deposits and is located 60 km east of Sofia, within the northern part of the Panagyurishte mineral district. It lies within the Banat-Srednegorie metallogenic belt, which extends from Romania through Serbia to Bulgaria. The magmatic rocks define a typical calc-alkaline suite. The magmatic rocks surrounding the Chelopech deposit have been affected by propylitic, quartz-sericite, and advanced argillic alteration, but the igneous textures have been preserved. Alteration processes have resulted in leaching of Na2O, CaO, P2O5, and Sr and enrichment in K2O and Rb. Trace element variation diagrams are typical of subduction-related volcanism, with negative anomalies in high field strength elements (HFSE) and light element, lithophile elements. HFSE and rare earth elements were relatively immobile during the hydrothermal alteration related to ore formation. Based on immobile element classification diagrams, the magmatic rocks are andesitic to dacitic in compositions. Single zircon grains, from three different magmatic rocks spanning the time of the Chelopech magmatism, were dated by high-precision U-Pb geochronology. Zircons of an altered andesitic body, which has been thrust over the deposit, yield a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 92.21 ± 0.21 Ma. This age is interpreted as the crystallization age and the maximum age for magmatism at Chelopech. Zircon analyses of a dacitic dome-like body, which crops out to the north of the Chelopech deposit, give a mean 206Pb/238U age of 91.95 ± 0.28 Ma. Zircons of the andesitic hypabyssal body hosting the high-sulfidation mineralization and overprinted by hydrothermal alteration give a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 91.45 ± 0.15 Ma. This age is interpreted as the intrusion age of the andesite and as the maximum age of the Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit. 176Hf/177Hf isotope ratios of zircons from the Chelopech magmatic rocks, together with published data on the

  8. Mineral inclusions and SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from the Alamas nephrite and granodiorite: Implications for the genesis of a magnesian skarn deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Rongqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Guanghai; Zhang, Qichao; Abuduwayiti, Maituohuti; Liu, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Extending approximately 1300 km and located in the Western Kunlun Mountains, the Hetian nephrite belt is the largest nephrite belt in the world and contains approximately 11 major deposits and more than 20 orebodies including the Alamas deposit. Hetian nephrite deposits can be classified as Mg-skarn deposits with Precambrian dolomitic marble host rock and green, green-white and white nephrite zones are distributed gradually in the zone of a granodiorite pluton. The green nephrite is mainly predominately composed of tremolite with generally minor to trace constituents of diopside, grossularitic garnet, actinolite and other minerals. Also green nephrite has higher content of TFe2O3, than green-white and white nephrites have. We subdivided the zircons from the green nephrites into four types, depending on their internal textures, mineral inclusions, and SHRIMP U-Pb ages. Type I zircons are round instead of idiomorphic in shape and lack obvious zoning. Type II and IV zircons have broad, clear oscillatory zoning and are hypidiomorphic or idiomorphic in shape; they contain inclusions of diopside, tremolite, chlorite and calcite. Most Type III zircons are narrow rims (nephrite deposit. The partially recrystallization of zircons during skarn formation possibly lead to some younger individual ages (406.5 to 308 Ma). In the Western Kunlun Mountain, both Buya granite and Alamas grandiorite are high Ba-Sr granites and crystallized in Western Kunlun Orogen. The Buya granite formed at about 430 Ma in a post-orogenic tectonic environment. Considering Alamas granodiorite formed at about 12 Ma younger than that of Buya granite and it is convincible that Alamas granodiorite also formed at a post-orogenic tectonic environment. Together with the evolution of Western Kunlun Mountain, it is also possible that high Ba-Sr Alamas granodiorite and the nephrite deposit formed in the post-orogenic stage. Most zircons in the Alamas granodiorite and green nephrite have high Th/U ratios (> 0

  9. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zafar-abad iron ore deposit, situated in the NW part of Divandarreh (lat. 36°01'14" and long. 46°58'22". The ore body is located on the northern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. The Zafar-abad Fe-skarn deposit is one of the important, medium- size mineral deposits in western Iran. REE patterns of skarn magnetite were among others studied in Skarn deposit by (Taylor, 1979 Hydrothermal alteration and fluid-rock interaction significantly affect total contents of REE and their patterns in fluids. Moreover, fractionation of REE by chemical complication, adsorption effects and redox reactions are characteristic processes determining REE behavior during crystallization. Stable isotope data for oxygen and sulfur have been widely used with great success to trace the origin and evolution history of paleo-hydrothermal fluids of meteoric, magmatic, and metamorphic. Materials and methods The present study investigates REE and stable Isotope geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Zafar-abad deposit and temperature of trapped fluid inclusions based on geothermometry analysis. In order to study the major, trace and REE compositions of Zafar-abad magnetite, twelve samples were collected from surface of ore exposures. The emphasis during sampling was on ores with primary textures. Discussion The Zafar-abad district is situated in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. Sedimentary sequences dominantly composed of calcareous and conglomerate rocks. Various meta-sedimentary rocks are intercalated with the sedimentary rocks, and comprise biotite and muscovite-rich schist, calc-schist, calc-silicate rock. Several distinct ductile tectonic fabrics have been identified around the Zafar-abad deposit. The main ore body at Zafar-abad is in the form of a roughly horizontal, discordant, lens to tabular-shaped body plunging 10° NW, where it appears to

  10. Genetic relationship of high-Mg dioritic pluton to iron mineralization: A case study from the Jinling skarn-type iron deposit in the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ziliang; Zhang, Zhaochong; Hou, Tong; Santosh, M.; Han, Liu

    2015-12-01

    The Jinling complex is spatially and temporally associated with the Jinling skarn-type iron deposit. The complex is composed of biotite diorite, hornblende diorite, monzonite and quartz diorite. U-Pb dating of zircons from the biotite diorite and monzonite using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yields ages of 126 ± 1.9 Ma and 128 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The unaltered rocks in the complex are characterized by variable contents of SiO2 (54.6-65.3 wt.%), MgO (2.7-9.2 wt.%), total FeO (3.5-8.8 wt.%), Na2O + K2O (5.2-8.9 wt.%), high Mg# values (73-88), Cr (103-452 ppm) and Ni (49-212 ppm) contents. The altered monzonite has lower MgO (2.1-3.7 wt.%), total FeO (1.2-2.6 wt.%) and higher Na2O + K2O (8.5-9.9 wt.%) contents. The initial (87Sr/86Sr)t ranges from 0.70450 to 0.70555 and εNd(t) shows a range of -3.0 to -8.0. The geochemical characteristics suggest that the primary magma witnessed the interaction between the partial melts of relatively oxidized delaminated ancient crust and mantle peridotite. Fractional crystallization and crustal contamination during the magmatic ascent and emplacement are also indicated. The Jinling skarn-type Fe deposit is of hydrothermal origin and the Fe enrichment can be ascribed to multiple factors. The delaminated ancient crustal source contributed to the high oxygen fugacity of the primary magma. Two-stage Fe-enrichment process involving fractional crystallization of the primary magma giving rise to high Cl and Fe contents in the magmatic hydrothermal fluid and later Fe-leaching process, accounts for the high-grade ore bodies.

  11. Geochronology of the Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn Cu deposit, northwestern Yunnan province, China: Implications for mineralization of the Zhongdian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Mao, Jing-wen; Pei, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chang-qing; Tian, Guang; Zhou, Yunman; Li, Jianxin; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry and skarn copper deposit is located in the Triassic Zhongdian island arc, northwestern Yunnan province, China. Single-zircon laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb dating suggests that the diorite porphyry and the quartz monzonite porphyry in the deposit area formed at 200 Ma and 77 Ma, respectively. A Re-Os isotopic date of molybdenite from the ore is 78.9 Ma, which indicates that in addition to the known Triassic Cu-(Au) porphyry systems, a Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization event also exists in the Zhongdian arc. The quartz monzonite porphyry shows characteristics of a magnetite series intrusion, with a high concentration of Al, K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, low amount of Ta, Ti, Y, and Yb, and a high ratio of Sr/Y (average 26.42). The Cretaceous porphyry also shows a strong fractionation between light and heavy rare earth elements (average (La/Yb)N 37.9), which is similar to those of the Triassic subduction-related diorite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit and the porphyry hosting the Pulang copper deposit. However, in contrast to the older intrusions, the quartz monzonite porphyry contains higher concentrations of large ion lithophile elements and Co, and lesser Sr and Zr. Therefore, whereas the Triassic porphyry Cu-(Au) mineralization is related to slab subduction slab in an arc setting, the quartz monzonite porphyry in the Hongniu-Hongshan deposit formed by the remelting of the residual oceanic slab combined with contributions from subduction-modified arc lithosphere and continental crust, which provided the metals for the Late Cretaceous mineralization.

  12. MINERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SKARNS IN THE ANQING COPPER DEPOSIT OF ANHUI AND THEIR GEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE%安徽安庆铜铁矿床矽卡岩岩相学和矿物学特征及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕传耀; 杜杨松; 张智宇; 龙旺生; 董玉翠; 李湘莲

    2012-01-01

    安庆铜铁矿床系长江中下游铁铜成矿带中一典型矽卡岩型矿床.矿体产于月山岩体与下三叠统南陵湖组碳酸盐岩之间的接触带,外接触带矽卡岩中透辉石富集,以铁铜矿化为主;内接触带矽卡岩中石榴子石富集,以铜矿化为主.岩相学研究表明研究区含铜矽卡岩演化经历了矽卡岩期和热液蚀变期,其中,矽卡岩期包括早期矽卡岩阶段、磁铁矿阶段和晚期矽卡岩阶段;热液蚀变期包括早期热液交代阶段、石英-硫化物阶段和石英-碳酸盐阶段.大规模的黄铜矿化发生于石英-硫化物阶段.矿物学研究表明,石榴子石均为钙铁榴石,早期矽卡岩阶段的粒状石榴子石发育韵律环带,其FeO和Al2O3含量表现为振荡变化.与粒状石榴子石相比,晚期矽卡岩阶段脉状石榴子石的And组分更高.早期矽卡岩阶段的粒状辉石为透辉石,具有环带结构,由核部到边部MgO含量减少,FeO含量增加;晚期矽卡岩阶段的脉状辉石为钙铁辉石.空间上,从外接触带到内接触带,辉石的MgO含量与石榴子石的Al2O3含量分别减少,而FeO含量均分别增加.岩相学、矿物学,结合已有地球化学研究成果综合表明,安庆铜铁矿矽卡岩为岩浆热液接触交代成因,Mg来自碳酸盐岩,由外带向内带迁移;Fe来自岩浆热液,由内带向外带迁移,由于磁铁矿阶段的温压条件改变,Fe在外接触带以磁铁矿的形式沉淀富集.%Anqing copper-iron deposit is a typical skarn-type deposit along the middle and lower Yangtze River iron-copper metallogenic belt. The ore bodies located in the contact zone between Yueshan pluton and carbonate rock of Nanlinghu Formation of Lower Triassic. Skarns in exocon-tact zone are rich in diopside with iron-copper mineralization and skarns in internal contact zone are rich in garnet with copper mineralization. Petrographic studies show that the evolution of the copper silicon skarn in the area

  13. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Nambija Au-skarn and Pangui porphyry Cu deposits, Ecuador: implications for the Jurassic metallogenic belt of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluis; Stein, Holly; Schaltegger, Urs; Coder, Joshua; Richards, Jeremy; Villeneuve, Mike; Gendall, Ian

    2009-05-01

    New U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar dates are presented for magmatic and hydrothermal mineral phases in skarn- and porphyry-related ores from the Nambija and Pangui districts of the Subandean zone, southeastern Ecuador. Nambija has been one of the main gold-producing centers of Ecuador since the 1980s due to exceptionally high-grade ores (average 15 g/t, but frequently up to 300 g/t Au). Pangui is a recently discovered porphyry Cu-Mo district. The geology of the Subandean zone in southeastern Ecuador is dominated by the I-type, subduction-related, Jurassic Zamora batholith, which intrudes Triassic volcanosedimentary rocks. The Zamora batholith is in turn cut by porphyritic stocks, which are commonly associated with skarn formation and/or porphyry-style mineralization. High precision U-Pb and Re-Os ages for porphyritic stocks (U-Pb, zircon), associated prograde skarn (U-Pb, hydrothermal titanite), and retrograde stage skarn (Re-Os, molybdenite from veins postdating gold deposition) of the Nambija district are all indistinguishable from each other within error (145 Ma) and indicate a Late Jurassic age for the gold mineralization. Previously, gold mineralization at Nambija was considered to be Early Tertiary based on K-Ar ages obtained on various hydrothermal minerals. The new Jurassic age for the Nambija district is slightly younger than the 40Ar/39Ar and Re-Os ages for magmatic-hydrothermal minerals from the Pangui district, which range between 157 and 152 Ma. Mineralization at Nambija and Pangui is associated with porphyritic stocks that represent the last known episodes of a long-lived Jurassic arc magmatism (˜190 to 145 Ma). A Jurassic age for mineralization at Nambija and Pangui suggests that the Northern Andean Jurassic metallogenic belt, which starts in Colombia at 3° N, extends down to 5° S in Ecuador. It also adds a new mineralization style (Au-skarn) to the metal endowment of this belt.

  14. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of the Monzonitic Granite from Kateba’ asu Au-Cu Deposit and Its Geological Implications in XinJing%新疆卡特巴阿苏金铜矿区二长花岗岩锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年龄及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢令; 杨维忠; 藏梅; 林泽华; 陈威

    2015-01-01

    新疆卡特巴阿苏金铜矿床是在那拉提中天山构造带内发现的首个特大型金铜矿床,矿床赋存于二长花岗岩体的脆性断裂破碎带内。通过对二长花岗岩的锆石进行SHRIMP U-Pb测年,获得25粒锆石加权平均值为(359.3±5.3)Ma,表明该岩体侵位时间为晚泥盆世末期,同时限定了卡特巴阿苏金矿金铜矿床的形成年龄上限为(359.3±5.3)Ma。%The Au-Cu deposit of Kateba’asu Located in the nalati tectonic belt of Western Tianshan Mountains was the first discovered superlarge Au deposit in nalati tectonic belt.The ore-controlling strata is brittle fracture zone in monzonit-ic granite,zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monzonitic granite intrusion yield apparent 206Pb/238U age of(359.3 ± 5.3)Ma. Meanwhile,the age limits the deposit formed in the end of late Devonian.

  15. Microstructure-property relationship in highly ductile Au-Cu thin films for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nanocrystalline AuCu alloy thin films were co-sputter deposited on polyimide. →In situ SEM tensile tests were performed. → The most ductile films did not crack up to 30% applied tensile strain. → Deformation localizes in periodic and oriented shear bands. → Shear bands are the precursors for cracks. - Abstract: The new and fast emerging field of flexible electronic devices requires highly ductile materials. Deposition of thin metal films on flexible substrates is a suitable method to create highly ductile interconnects. In this study, thin films consisting of a graded composition of Au-Cu were co-deposited by direct-current magnetron sputtering on polyimide (Kapton) substrate for in situ SEM tensile testing, while silicon wafer supported thin film spreads were characterized by nanoindentation, XRD and EDX. Substrate quality turned out to be extremely important for strain delocalization to allow for uniform deformation characterized by high ductility. No cracking was observed up to the maximal strain of 30% for films consisting of pure gold and alloys with a low copper content up to 10 at.%, while cracking was more prevalent in films with higher copper contents and with applied heat treatment. In the most ductile thin films shear bands are the precursors of ductile cracks.

  16. 甘肃北山金、铜矿床红沙的植物地球化学特征及其找矿意义%BOTANICAL GEOCHEMISTRY OF REDWOOD OF THE Au-Cu DEPOSITS IN BEISH AN, GANSU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慈安; 雷良奇; 杨启军; 王德润; 杨云松

    2001-01-01

    Beishan is a gubi area. Its flora is mainly redwood. The contents of the most elements especially the ore-forming elements and their various index are higher than background area. The element contents are charact erized by logarithm normal distribution pattern in the background area, but by l ogarithm normal distribution pattern with multi-peak in the ore area. The elemen t assemblage of redwood is Au,Cu,Pb,Zn,As,Sb,Mo,V,Mn and Ag,S n,Sr,Ba as wll as Ti,Cr,Co,Ni in the background area. The element assemblage of redwood in the go ld ore areas is Au,Ag,As,Sb,Mo,Mn,Sr and Cu,Pb,Zn,Sn,Ba as well as Co,Ni,Ti,V,Cr . In the copper area the element assemblage is Cu,Pb,Zn,Mo,Au,Ag,Ba and As,Sb,Sn ,Mn as well as Ti,V,Cr,Co,Ni,Sr. The elementary concentrative parameter of redwo od is high where that of rocks is high in the ore area. The typical elements of redwood and rocks in the gold and copper deposits are Au,Ag,As,Sb,Mo,(Mn) and Cu ,Pb,Zn, (Ba,Ti,V, Cr)respectively. The Au and Cu botanical geochemical anomaly a nd composed zonation are respectively developed over orebodies in gold deposits and copper deposits. According to the botanicl geochemistry of redwood, the gold and copper mineralization can be identified and the concealed ore bodes be pred icted.%北山地区植被属戈壁荒漠植被类型,主要植物群落为红沙。红沙中多数元素特别是成矿元素及其伴生元素的含量和变化系数矿区大于背景区;元素含量背景区呈对数正态分布,矿区呈偏对数正态或多峰分布。红沙中的元素组合分类背景区为Au,Cu,Pb,Zn,As,Sb,Mo,V,Mn 和Ag,Sn,Sr,Ba及Ti,Cr,Co,Ni; 金矿区为Au,A g,As,Sb,Mo,Mn,Sr和Cu,Pb,Zn,Sn,Ba及Co,Ni,Ti,V,Cr;铜矿区为 Cu,Pb,Zn,Mo,Au,Ag,Ba 和 As,Sb,Sn,Mn及Ti,V,Cr,Co,Ni,Sr。矿区红沙中浓集系数较大的元素多数在矿区岩石中的浓集系数亦较大,金、铜矿床红沙和岩石中的特征元素分别都有Au,Ag,As,Sb,Mo,(Mn)和Cu,Pb, Zn,(Ba,Ti,V,Cr)。在金、铜矿床(体)上

  17. Structured Pd-Au/Cu-fiber catalyst for gas-phase hydrogenolysis of dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Han, Lupeng; Zhao, Guofeng; Chai, Ruijuan; Zhang, Qiaofei; Liu, Ye; Lu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Galvanic co-deposition of 0.5 wt% Au and 0.1 wt% Pd on a microfibrous-structure using 8 μm Cu-fibers delivers a Pd-Au/Cu-fiber catalyst, which is highly active, selective and stable for the hydrogenolysis of dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol. Au and Pd synergistically promote the hydrogenolysis activity of Cu(+) sites, while Au also critically stabilizes Cu(+) sites to prevent deep reductive deactivation. PMID:26040855

  18. 西藏知不拉矽卡岩型铜矿床矿物学特征及地质意义%Mineralogical Characteristics of Zhibula Skarn-Type Cu Deposit in Tibet and Their Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐净; 郑有业; 孙祥; 姜军胜; 耿瑞瑞; 申亚辉

    2014-01-01

    西藏冈底斯知不拉矽卡岩型铜矿床位于驱龙超大型斑岩型铜钼矿床以南约2 km,矽卡岩及矿体主要呈层状-似层状赋存于下侏罗统叶巴组凝灰岩和大理岩中,具有凝灰岩-石榴子石化凝灰岩-石榴子石矽卡岩-辉石矽卡岩-(硅灰石化)大理岩的空间分带特征。石榴子石从早期到晚期以及从凝灰岩到大理岩方向均具有暗棕红色-棕红色-绿色(褐色)-淡黄褐色的变化特征,以钙铁榴石和钙铝榴石为主,辉石主要为透辉石,少量为锰钙辉石。靠近凝灰岩的石榴子石 Al、Ti 含量较高,靠近大理岩的石榴子石 Fe、Mn 含量较高。石榴子石环带特征明显,浅色环带富钙铁,暗色环带富钙铝,由核部向边缘整体显示钙铁组分逐渐增加、钙铝组分相对减少的趋势。知不拉层状-似层状矽卡岩型矿体是由深部隐伏岩浆结晶分异的含矿热液在温度与压力的驱动下沿凝灰岩和大理岩的岩性分界面选择性交代形成,属于岩浆热液接触交代型矿床而非层控或喷流成因层矽卡岩型矿床,应与驱龙斑岩铜钼矿床属于同一套斑岩成矿系统。%The Zhibula skarn-type Cu deposit is located about 2 km away from the south of Qulong super-large porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Gangdese metallogenic belt,Tibet.The skarn and ore body are mainly distributed as layer-stratoid in the tuff and marble of Yeba Group in Lower Jurassic,which show zoning characteristics:tuff-garnert tuff-garnet skarn-pyroxene skarn-(wollastonite)marble.From early to late stages,or from tuff to marble,the colors of garnets change from dark brownish red to brownish red,followed by green(brown),and pale brownish yellow These garnets are mainly grossular and andradite.The end members of pyroxenes are dominated by diopside,with minor johannsenite.Garnets near tuff have higher Al,Ti contents, whereas those nearthe marble have relatively more enriched Fe,Mn contents.Garnets show distinctive light and

  19. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  20. Potential energies of characteristic atoms on basis of experimental heats of formation of AuCu and AuCu_3 compounds (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE You-qing; LIU Xin-bi; LI Xiao-bo; PENG Hong-jian; NIE Yao-zhuang

    2009-01-01

    The systematic science of alloys(SSA) is a framework of the total energy and total volume able to be separated. The potential energy sequences of characteristic atoms at the central sites of the basic clusters in the fcc-based lattice Au-Cu system are separated out from smaller experimental heats of formation of L10-AuCu and L1_2-AuCu_3 compounds only, by nine potential energy E-functions and through the use of structural unit inversion method. From these potential energy sequences, the potential energies and heats of formation of the disordered Au1-xCux alloys at 0 K are calculated. The potential energies, heats of formation and Tc-temperatures of order-disorder transitions of the L1_0-AuCu, L1_2-Au_3Cu and L1_2-AuCu_3 compounds, as well as the Au_3Cu-, AuCu- and AuCu_3~- type ordered alloys with maximal ordering degrees are calculated too. The results show that the 5th E-function may be chosen for developing it into the free energy-, enthalpy-, vibrational energy- and vibrational entropy-functions for describing thermodynamic properties of the compounds, ordered and disordered phases and for establishing the phase diagram of the Au-Cu system in the future.

  1. Discussion of prospecting models for Skarn copper polymetallic deposit in Liushudi%柳树底矽卡岩型铜多金属矿找矿模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程培起

    2015-01-01

    柳树底铜多金属矿床地处胶辽隆起带的太子河‐浑江坳陷西部,是典型的矽卡岩铜矿床。在结合前人资料研究成果的基础上从其矿床地质特征、地球化学特征、矿床的成因等方面分析矿床的形成过程。从其铅、硫‐氢氧稳定同位素组成反映成矿物质来源于岩浆,流体包裹体数据反映了该矿床为中高温热液矿床,成矿流体以岩浆水为主。在岩浆及构造作用下矿床经历了三次构造热蚀变及矿化作用,建立了该矿床为花岗斑岩与灰岩接触带矽卡岩型矿床的成矿模式,结合矿区内的低阻、高激化体地球物理电性特征进而建立了找矿模式。矿床地质环境为灰岩及侵入其中的花岗斑岩,加上近东西向构造岩浆活动带,矿床内高激化的物性特征,其指示矿体的分布,为寻找盲矿体提供了方向。%Liushudi copper polymetallic deposit is a typical skarn copper deposit ,w hich is located in the western Taiz river‐ HunJiang depression ,Jiaoliao uplift belt .Based on the combination of previous data ,the paper analysed the process of forming deposit from its geological features of ore deposit ,geochemical characteristics and the genesis of ore deposit etc .Stable isotope composition of lead ,sulfur ,hydrogen and oxygen refect the ore‐forming material is derived from magma ,fluid inclusion data reflects the deposit is a meso‐hypothermal deposit ,ore‐forming fluid mainly from magmatic water .The deposit had experienced three times of tectonic thermal alteration and mineralization by the influence of magmatism and tectonism .We established skarn deposit metallogenic model ,which is in the contact zone between the granite porphyry and limestone .The author establish the prospecting model for the kind of deposits ,which is based on the geophysical electrical features of the geological bodies with lowr resistivity and higher activation .

  2. Isotopic Geochemistry of the Tonglushan Cu-Fe Skarn Type Deposit in Hubei Province%湖北铜绿山矽卡岩型铜铁矿床同位素地球化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦博; 顾雪祥; 张宗保; 董树义

    2011-01-01

    Located in the southeastern Hubei metallographic province of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Fe-Cu metallogenic belt, the Tonglushan Cu-Fe deposit is a typical skarn Cu-Fe deposit in the southeastern Hubei metallographic province. The ore bodies, in the lenticular forms, occur in the contact zone between the marble of 4th -7th Members of the Lower Triassic Daye Group. The ore-forming process can be divided roughly into five stages; the anhydrous skarn stage( I ) , the hydrous skarn stage( II ), the oxide stage( III), the quartz-sul-fide stage(IV) and the carbonate stage( V ). Ore minerals mainly include magnetite, chalcopyrite and hematite; gangue mineral include mainly garnet, quartz and carbonate mineral. This paper mainly studied sulfur, hydrogen , oxygen, carbon, lead isotopic compositions and analyzed the indicative meaning of these isotopes to chemistry of the ore fluids and the sources of the ore-forming materials and intrusions. The composition of H and 0 isotopes shows that ore fluids were most likely composed of magmatic water mixed with limited meteoric water at the early ore-forming stage and mixed with much meteoric water at the late ore-forming stage. Sulfur and carbon isotopic data suggest that the ore forming materials were mainly derived from the deep magma and the carbon was derived subordinately from the dissolution of wall rocks or the mantle. The Pb isotopic composition of ore sulfides are stable and they are ordinary common lead. Ore lead was derived from mantle magma which was subjected to the hybridization of crust materials in the course of intruding upward.%湖北铜绿山铜铁矿床处于长江中下游铁铜成矿带西部鄂东成矿区内,是鄂东南地区典型的矽卡岩型铜铁矿床.矿体呈透镜状产于下三叠统大冶群第3至第7岩性段大理岩与铜绿山岩体的接触带.矿床成矿过程大致划分为干矽卡岩阶段(Ⅰ)、湿矽卡岩阶段(Ⅱ)、氧化物阶段(Ⅲ)、石英硫化物阶段(Ⅳ)和碳酸

  3. The formation of heterointerface defects in Au/Cu films on Si substrates under direct current in a vacuum ultraviolet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai; Yao, Wenqing; Yang, Liping; Cao, Jiangli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Lixia; Zhu, Yongfa

    2016-02-01

    Au/Cu metallic films were deposited on p-Si(100) substrates with and without an Au upper layer by magnetron sputtering. The defect formation and nanoscale interfacial evolution at the Au/Cu and Cu/Si interfaces were studied by using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that an increase in defects at the heterointerfaces and in the surface layer was induced by the effect of a direct current (DC) in a vacuum ultraviolet (UV) environment, which could provide more channels for the removal of atoms. The directed migration of atomic clusters in the films was caused by the effect of the DC, which also aggravated the defects' expansion and led to the formation of Au-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs). In addition, the voids formed at the interface between the Au/Cu films and the Si substrates were found to be mainly related to the generation of the material Au2Cu3. PMID:26778294

  4. 青海省兴海县赛什塘铜矿床矽卡岩矿物学特征及地质意义%Mineralogical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Skarn in the Saishitang Copper Deposit, Xinghai County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 丰成友; 李大新; 丁天柱; 王洪庆; 刘建楠; 周建厚

    2015-01-01

    The Saishitang copper deposit is an important skarn deposit located in the Southeast of Ngola Mountain Area, Eastern margin of East Kunlun orogenic belt. The skarn occurs along the contact between Indosinian quartz diorite and middle-lower Triassic Tb21-2 lithologic section. The ore bodies which are stratoid or lenticular mainly occur in exoskarn. The Tb21-2 lithologic section consists of intermediate volcanic rocks, marble and metamorphic siltstone. Cu mineralization is adjacent to the metamorphic andesitic tuff and andesite spatially. Petrography studies of Cu-bearing skarn show four stages of skarn formation and ore development, including skarn stage, retrograde alteration stage, quartz-sulfide stage and quartz-carbonate stage. Skarn stage consists of garnet, pyroxene and wollastonite and retrograde alteration stage dominates by epidote, amphibole and magnetite. In quartz-sulfide stage a large amount of sulfides were precipitated. Electron microprobe analysis shows that components of garnet and pyroxene are Gro0.00~91.00And7.02~100.00(Pyr+Alm+Spe)0.00~4.27 and Di12.80~91.75Hd2.41~79.80(Jo+Jd+Opx)0.00~13.47, respectively. The result indicates that the skarn in Saishitang deposit belongs to typical calcic skarn. High concentrations of grossular and epidote are found in skarns located closer to the contact between quartz diorite and andesite. Andradite is richer near the marble with wollastonite and Mn-bearing hedenbergite. Mineralogical characteristics and compositional variations suggest:from skarn stage to quartz-sulfide stage, the property of fluid changed episodically with two redox fluctuations at least, probably resulting from the influx of meteoric waters in ore-forming fluid. Saishitang copper deposit is a skarn deposit. The quartz diorite-dominated intrusions carrying plenty of heat and fluids intrude into middle-lower Triassic strata. The materials exchange between intrusions and wall rocks may be the mechanism of the development of skarn and ore bodies

  5. Themal Expansion and Magnetostriction of YbAuCu4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkeuchi, Tetsuya; Hirose, Yusuke; Tsunoda, Ryoma; Honda, Fuminori; Settai, Rikio

    Precise thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements were performed on the heavyfermion compound YbAuCu4 in order to examine the crossover valence transition at TV which was proposed by the nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient α under magnetic fields shows a broad peak, which shifts to higher temperatures with increasing magnetic fields. The corresponding linear thermal expansion Δℓ/.ℓ parallel to the magnetic field of 7.0 T shows a marked decrease below about 10 K, indicating a contraction of sample length at low temperatures. These results are discussed in relation to the observed temperature dependence of the nuclear quadrupole frequency νQ under magnetic fields.

  6. Mechanical Spectroscopy Of Ordered Binary Au-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkalcec I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a binary Au-Cu single crystal by mechanical spectroscopy. Upon very slow cooling from high temperatures, additional relaxation peaks arise at lower frequencies in isothermal spectra after the disappearing of the Zener peak below 665 K due to ordering. A high transient peak is visible at 660 K and it progressively disappears on cooling until 625 K. Another high peak is clearly visible upon following heating until 660 K. Above that temperature it decreases in parallel with the increase of the Zener peak. If the ordered structure is obtained by slowly heating the sample that has been quenched from the disordered state, no low-frequency peak is visible in the isothermal spectra, only a much lower background, which further decreases in parallel with the reappearance of the Zener peak. The low frequency relaxations are possibly due to the movement of antiphase boundaries and twin interfaces in the ordered structures.

  7. Mineralogy of skarn and magnetite of the Yamansu iron deposit and its geological significance%新疆雅满苏铁矿床矽卡岩和磁铁矿矿物学特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红; 柴凤梅; 周刚; 耿新霞; 李强; 孟庆鹏; 徐璐璐

    2014-01-01

    雅满苏铁矿床位于东天山中段,矿体赋存于下石炭统雅满苏组安山质火山碎屑岩中,受近EW向断裂及环形断裂构造控制。矿体主要呈层状、似层状、透镜状,近矿围岩蚀变强烈,形成石榴石矽卡岩及复杂矽卡岩。电子探针分析结果表明,石榴石为钙铁榴石-钙铝榴石系列,其化学组成可表示为And45.68~100Gro0.67~57.95(A1m+Sps)11~29.03,与典型的矽卡岩型铁矿中石榴石端员组分相似。在磁铁矿Ca+Al+Mn-Ti+V图解中,大部分样品落入矽卡岩型铁矿区;TiO2-Al2O3-MgO图解中,大多数的样品落入沉积变质接触交代磁铁矿趋势区,部分早期磁铁矿落在岩浆趋势区内。结合矿床地质特征和矿物学研究,认为大多数样品经过了一个热液交代作用过程,表明雅满苏铁矿的形成与岩浆热液交代作用有关。%Located in the middle of Eastern Tianshan Mountains, the large-size Yamansu iron deposit is hosted in Andesitic volcanic clastic rock or andesitic tuff of the Lower Carboniferous Yamansu Formation, with a lenticular marble beneath the main ore body. The ore bodies occur as lamellar stratoids and lenses, controlled by EW-striking faults and circular faults. Wall rock alteration is strong, including garnet skarn and complex skarn. Electeon microprobe analyses show that the end member of garnet is andradite (And) with an average content of 63.59%, grossularite(Gro) with an average content of 34.11%, almandite(Alm) and spessartine (Sps) with an average content of 4.44%. Components of garnet and pyroxene are And45.68~100Gro0.67~57.95(A1m+Sps)11~29.03, which indicates that characteristics of this skarn minerals are quite similar to those in calcic skarn from the major large iron deposits, suggesting that they probably resulted from skarnization; In the Ca+Al+Mn versus Ti+V discriminant diagram showing spot analyses of magnetite and hematite, almost all data from the Yamansu ore

  8. Large extrinsic spin Hall effect in Au-Cu alloys by extensive atomic disorder scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L. K.; Wang, S. H.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, J. R.; Cai, J. W.; Kang, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Spin Hall angle, which denotes the conversion efficiency between spin and charge current, is a key parameter in the pure spin current phenomenon. The search for materials with large spin Hall angle is indeed important for scientific interest and potential application in spintronics. Here the large enhanced spin Hall effect (SHE) of Au-Cu alloy is reported by investigating the spin Seebeck effect, spin Hall anomalous Hall effect, and spin Hall magnetoresistance of the Y3F e5O12 (YIG)/A uxC u1 -x hybrid structure over the full composition. At the near equiatomic Au-Cu composition with maximum atomic disorder scattering, the spin Hall angle of the Au-Cu alloy increases by two to three times together with a moderate spin diffusion length in comparison with Au. The longitudinal spin Seebeck voltage and the spin Hall magnetoresistance ratio also increase by two to three times. More importantly, no evidence of anomalous Hall effect is observed in all YIG/Au-Cu samples, in contrast to the cases of other giant SHE materials Pt(Pd), Ta, and W. This behavior makes Au-Cu free from any suspicion of the magnetic proximity effect involved in the hybrid structure, and thus the Au-Cu alloy can be an ideal material for pure spin current study.

  9. Competitive diffusion of gold and copper in Cu/Au/Si and Au/Cu/Si annealed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.Thermal evaporation is used to deposit Au/Cu and Cu/Au bilayers on monocrystallin silicon substrates. The layers composition and surface morphology are performed as function of annealing temperature in the temperature range between 200 and 400 degre celsius using X-Ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Independantly to the sequence of copper and gold deposition, Cu3Si and Cu4Si copper silicides result to the interdiffusion and reaction at the different interfaces. The 1000 A and 1200 A thicknesses of gold and copper diffusion barriers are insufficient to prevent the diffusion of copper and gold atoms respectively after an annealing of only 200 degre celsius

  10. 青海野马泉矽卡岩铁锌多金属矿区侵入岩、交代岩及矿化蚀变特征%Characteristics of intrusive rock, metasomatites, mineralization and atteration in Yemaquan skarn Fe-Zn polymetallic deposit, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建楠; 丰成友; 赵一鸣; 李大新; 肖晔; 周建厚; 马永寿

    2013-01-01

    The Yemaquan Fe-Zn polymetallic deposit is located at the junction belt between Chaidamu basin and Qi-mantag area, Qinghai. There are some Hercynian and Indosinian intrusive rocks exposed in the ore dtstrict. The strata in the ore district are mainly Sijiaoyanggou Group. The skarn mainly occurs within the carbonate rocks and igneous conversion boundaries. The skarn minerals are mainly garnet, clinopyroxene, vesuvianite and epi-dote. Metallic minerals mainly include magnetite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrrhotite. Based on the detailed field geological investigation and the observation of geological sections and drill cores, the authors studied the petrogeochemical characteristics and mineralization of this deposit. The petrochemistry of diorite is characterized by low SiO2 (51.90% ~ 59.03%), high MgO (2.04% ~3.44%) and TFeO (11.39% ~ 11.67%), rich REE (318.57 x 10~6 -327.76 x 10~6), and low LREE/HREE ratios (7.36-7.48). The monzonitic granite is characterized by high SiO2>(77.36% ~77.41%), low MgO (0.04% ~0.10%), low TFeO (0.76% ~1.08%), and high LREE/HREE ratios (9.14-9.37). The diopside-alkali metasomatites show stronger Eu negative anomaly (Eu = 0.07-0.52) and lower LREE/HREE ratios(3.19-7.87)than its original rock. The diopside-sodic metasomatites have low MgO (0.36% ~ 0.92%), high TFeO (3.05% ~ 8.13%) than its original rock. The skarn from Yemaquan deposit can be further divided into two types: calcic skarn and magnesian skarn. The calcic skarn is mainly distributed in the contact zone and consists of garnet and clinopyroxene. The clinopyroxenes distributed near the intrusion have high content of diposide end-member, and the garnet has more andradite end-members at the edge. According to the mineral composition and mineral inter-growth association, the authors have inferred that the diorite possesses remarkable mineralization potentiality, and calcic skarn was formed at an oxidation stage, whereas the magnesian skarn was formed in a reduction state

  11. Fluids in distal Zn-Pb-Ag skarns: Evidence from El Mochito, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, I. M.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; Ault, K.; Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J.

    2009-05-01

    Zn-Pb-Ag mantos, chimneys, and skarns represent a spectrum of carbonate-hosted sulfide mineral deposits that have been collectively termed carbonate replacement deposits. Most such deposits cannot be related to plutons and, particularly for distal skarns, the role of magmatic versus other fluids (basinal brines and meteoric waters) has been uncertain. The El Mochito Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Honduras, is an example of a large distal skarn, and comprises mantos and chimneys hosted mainly by limestones of the Early Cretaceous Tepemechin Formation. Previous isotopic studies indicate a magmatic source for the S and Pb and involvement of both magmatic and meteoric fluids in ore formation. The ore is hosted by garnet, magnetite, and pyroxene skarns, which developed sequentially from grandite- to andradite- to magnetite- and hedenbergite- rich skarns. Sphalerite and argentiferous galena occur interstitially to, or replace, the skarn minerals, with Fe- poor sphalerite (S1) principally associated with garnet skarn and Fe-rich (S2) sphalerite associated with pyroxene. Data from primary fluid inclusions show that the salinity of the mineralizing fluids decreased from ˜10-18 wt. % during the formation of garnet skarn and S1 sphalerite to ˜2-13 wt. % during pyroxene skarn formation and S2 sphalerite precipitation. Early, high-salinity fluids (˜33 wt. %) are represented by rare halite-saturated inclusions in garnet. Temperature increased from ˜ 365°C to ˜ 365°C from garnet/S1 sphalerite to pyroxene/S2 sphalerite, assuming a pressure of 500 bars. GC analyses indicate that the total concentrations of COv(2), CH4, and N2 were < 1 mole %. LA-ICPMS analyses were conducted mainly on inclusions in grandite and S1 sphalerite. The principal dissolved elements in the inclusions are Ca and Na, followed by K and Mn. The ore metals, Zn, Pb, and Ag, are present in high concentrations, with median values of 6000, 900, and 50 ppm, respectively. Element concentrations in fluid inclusions hosted

  12. Band Structure and Optical Properties of Ordered AuCu3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Lengkeek, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    The optical spectra of ordered AuCu3 have been measured at low temperatures by a direct ellipsometric technique. We find several structural elements above the absorption edge as well as in the infrared. The measured spectra are interpreted in terms of the interband absorption calculated from an ab...... initio band structure obtained by the relativistic linear muffin-tin orbitals method. The band calculation reveals that ordered AuCu3 has distinct copper and gold d bands positioned in and hybridizing with an s band common to copper and gold. The calculated state density is found to be in good agreement...

  13. Laser Ablation ICP-MS Titanite U-Th-Pb Dating of the Tonglushan Cu-Fe-Au Skarn Deposit, Southeastern Hubei Province%Laser Ablation ICP-MS Titanite U-Th-Pb Dating of the Tonglushan Cu-Fe-Au Skarn Deposit,Southeastern Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-wei; DENG Xiao-dong; ZHOU Mei-fu; LIU Yong-sheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Titanite (CaTi_2SiO_5) is an important accessory mineral not only in magnatic and metamorphic rocks,but also commonly in hydrothermal mineral deposits.It incorporates appreciable amounts (usually 10 ×10~(-6) s to 100 × 10~(-6) s) of U and Th into its structure and has a closure temperature of Pb diffusion higher than 660 ~ 700 ℃ (Scott and St-Onge, 1995),making it an ideal U-Th-Pb geochronometer.

  14. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles design and development for the selective determination of Vitamin B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seed mediated growth of Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle. • Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle provided good peak current for pyridoxine. • Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC exhibited excellent vitamin B6 peak separation with other vitamin. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of gold (core)-copper oxide (shell) nanoparticles using a simple seed mediated growth method. Pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles were used as seed materials for copper oxide shell growth, which were shown to be effective for Au-CuO core-shell formation. The novelty of this assembly strategy is that the exploitation of the Cu-ligand, which is thermolyzed on the Au nanoseed surface, results in the formation of CuO. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as prepared Au-CuO was used to fabricate a Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode, which was applied to Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) determination by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The MWCNTs enhance the pyridoxine oxidation rate by increasing the peak current with Au-CuO, hence pyridoxine oxidized lower operating potentials. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards pyridoxine (PY) in the presence of other typical vitamins, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The linear calibration graph was obtained over the PY concentration range of 0.79 μM–18.4 μM and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.15 μM. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed good stability, repeatability and recovery of real sample analysis

  15. 鄂东南地区程潮大型矽卡岩型铁矿区岩体成因探讨%Genesis of the Intrusive Rocks in the Chengchao Large Skarn Iron Deposit,Southeastern Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 谢桂青; 姚磊; 朱乔乔; 孙洪涛; 王建; 王小雨

    2014-01-01

    The Chengchao iron deposit is the largest skarn iron deposit in the southeastern Hubei ore cluster,but the genesis of the intrusive rocks is poorly constrained.In this contribution,mineralogy, geochemistry and Sr Nd Pb isotope of different type intrusive rocks have been studied.The biotite in the granite,quartzmonzonite porphyry and diorite is high in Mg contents,indicating that they derived from the mixture of mantle and crust material.The oxygen fugacity of the primary biotite in the granite and quartzmonzonite porphyry associated with the iron mineralization is high,indicating that the granite and quartzmonzonite porphyry are more favorable for the iron mineralization.Different types of intrusive rocks dominantly exhibit high K2 O content and metaluminous,and characterized by enrichment in the large iron lithophile elements(e.g.Rb,Ba and K)and light rare earth elements,and depletion in the high field elements(e.g.Nb,Ta and Ti).They have moderately high initial Sr((87 Sr/86 Sr)i =0.705 0 0.709 1)and negtiveεNd (εNd (t)=-14.1 6 -6.95),and ratios of 206 Pb/204 Pb,207 Pb/204 Pb and 208 Pb/204 Pb are 17.636 18.91 9,15.45 1 15.613,37.833 39.556 respectively.Viewed comprehensively from mineralogical characteristics of minerals in and geochemical and Sr Nd Pb isotopic features of intrusive rocks,it can be concluded that the intrusive rocks in the deposit are originated from the partial melting of an enriched mantle source,and then followed by significant contamination of the lower crust material during the evolution of magma.140 Ma diorite probably contains more mantle components than the granite and quartz monzonite porphyry of 128 Ma.The average zircon saturation temperatures in the granite and quartz monzonite porphyry are 783℃ and 788℃,respectively,similar to that for the diorite (765℃).%湖北程潮铁矿是鄂东南矿集区内最大的矽卡岩型铁矿床。为了系统研究矿区内不同侵入体的成因,对程潮矿区内不同时代的侵入体进

  16. Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au-Cu-Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhongnan, E-mail: guozhongn@163.com [Institute of Inorganic chemistry/Material chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Biological engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Hindler, Michael [Institute of Inorganic chemistry/Material chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Yuan, Wenxia [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Biological engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Mikula, Adolf [Institute of Inorganic chemistry/Material chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: {yields} A full thermodynamic description of the liquid ternary Au-Cu-Sn system is reported. {yields} The electromotive force method with a liquid electrolyte was used to determine the activity of tin in the alloys. {yields} The partial free energies of tin in this system were calculated from the obtained EMF values. {yields} The Gibbs-Duhem integration was used to calculate the integral Gibbs free energy and integral enthalpy of the entire system. - Abstract: The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au-Cu-Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs-Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial.

  17. Size Control and Growth Process Study of Au@Cu2O Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyuan; Zheng, Min; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Zuoshan

    2016-12-01

    Au@Cu2O cuboctahedron with gold triangular nanoplate core and Cu2O shell was synthesized by a chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests demonstrated that the as-synthesis samples were consisted of gold triangular nanoplate core and Cu2O shell, and both of them were in good crystallization. The effective size control of the particles could be realized by controlling the amount of Au cores added in the synthetic process and Au@Cu2O particles with different shell thickness could be synthesized. The decrease of Cu2O shell thickness had a great difference in the optical performance, including blue shift of the resonant peaks and enhanced absorption intensity. The growth process from rough sheet structure to cuboctahedron was also explored. The results of photocatalytic degradation experiment showed that Au@Cu2O particles showed much better photocatalytic performance than that of pure Cu2O. The improved photocatalytic property of the Au@Cu2O particles was attributed to the comprehensive effect of the enhanced visible-light absorption and high separation rate of electron-hole pairs. PMID:27613067

  18. Multi-information-based metallogenic prediction of skarn-type copper polymetallic deposit in the middle segment of Nanjing-Zhenjiang Mesozoic magmatic belt%宁镇中段夕卡岩型铜多金属矿床多元信息成矿预测初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张术根; 余旭辉; 徐莺

    2011-01-01

    宁镇中段铜多金属矿床主要为接触交代型矿床.文章以地质环境和成矿规律研究为基础,采用逻辑信息法综合提取地质、遥感、地球物理和地球化学多层次成矿预测信息,构建逻辑信息法成矿预测要素组合.并以此为指导,按照地质成矿条件有利程度、物化探异常强度与规模、环形构造发育程度、遥感解译蚀变显现强度与规模,进行综合判别确定成矿有利位置,圈定区内夕卡岩型矿床重点找矿靶区.%In the middle segment of Nanjing-Zhenjiang Mesozoic magmatic belt, the copper polymetallic deposits are dominated by contact metasomatic type. Based on the geological environment and metallogenic regularity the logical-information method is used to extract multi-metallogenic prediction (geological,remote-sensing, geophysical and geochemical) information of skarn-type cooper polymetallic ores. With this method and comprehensively analyzing the favorable degree of geological metallogenetic conditions,intensity and scale of geophysical-geochemical anomalies, development degree of circular structure, intensity and scale of RS-interpretation alteration, the favorable positions of mineralization are determined, and the key prospecting target area of skarn-type copper deposits in the study area are also delineated. Finally,the potential of the key prospecting target area is discussed in detail.

  19. Study of thermodynamic properties of AuCu superlattice by the statistical moment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the thermodynamic quantities of AuCu superlattice using the statistical moment method in the statistical physics. The free energy, thermal lattice expansion coefficients, mean-square atomic displacements, and specific heats at the constant volume and those at the constant pressure, Cv and Cp, are derived in closed analytic forms in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. The present analytic formulas including the anharmonic effects of the lattice vibration give the predicted values of these quantities.

  20. Calculating model of mass action concentrations for Ag-Au-Cu melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on phase diagrams and measured activities, the calculating model of mass action concentrations for heterogeneous melts Ag-Au-Cu was formulated. Calculated results agree with the improved results of recent research work.showing that the model formulated can reflect the structural characteristics of these melts. In this model, without the help of any empirical parameters, only three equilibrium constants are used, hence it is simple, lear, and favorable to the simplification of calculation.

  1. Mesozoic In-situ and External Skarn Magmatic-Hydrothermal Mineralizationin the Anhui Segment of the Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt%安徽沿江地区中生代原地和异地矽卡岩岩浆-热液成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杨松; 曹毅; 张智宇; 庞振山; 李大鹏

    2011-01-01

    In the Anhui segment of the Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt are distributed not only a great numberof contact metasomatic and superimposed and composite skarn deposits, but also some magmatic skarndeposits. Definitions are given for different magmatic skarns and associated deposits, and discussions areheld on the characteristics of Mesozoic magmatic skarns and associated deposits in the area, with a focus onan analysis of Mesozoic skarn magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization. Based on emplacement location ofskarn magma, magmatic skarn can be divided into in-situ skarn and external skarn, and magmatic skarndeposit correspondingly into in-situ skarn deposit and external skarn deposit. Characteristics are evidentlydifferent between the two skarns and associated deposits. Geologically, an in-situ skarn body is closelyassociated with a crust-mantle syntactic magmatic intrusion and occurs in the contact belt between theintrusion and carbonate wall rock. This in-situ skarn body generally has no chilled or optalic border butcontains residuals of wall rock at its margin. These xenoliths were formed by incomplete assimilation ofcrust-mantle syntactic magma with the wall rock and mostly metamorphosed as hornfels or marble. Incontrast, an external skarn body is not associated with a crust-mantle syntactic magmatic intrusion andgenerally located in fault belt or detachment belt within strata. This external skarn body often has a chilledor optalic border, vesicular structure and garnet or pyroxene cumulate, but contains no residuals of wallrock at its margin. In addition, clear horizontal zoning occurs in both of the in-situ and external skarn bodies, but their style of zoning is evidently different. Granitoid, hybrid granitoid, rich-Fe skarn, rich-Ca skarn, hybrid carbonate, and carbonate occur in order from crust-mantle syntactic magmatic intrusion through in-situ skarn body to carbonate wall rock, indicating gradual weakening of assimilation and contamination. In contrast

  2. Fluid inclusions and U/Pb dating of the El Pilote Fluorite skarn occurrence: Metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levresse, Gilles; Tritlla, Jordi; Solorio-Munguía, Jose Gregorio; Valencia, Victor; Linares, Porfirio Julio Pinto

    2011-05-01

    The "El Pilote" deposit, located in the Coahuila State (NE Mexico), is a small fluorite-bearing calcic skarn we dated at 28.4 ± 0.4 Ma (U/Pb). Fluid inclusion studies, performed on fluorite, indicate the occurrence of hot, hypersaline fluids, trapped during the prograde stage. The retrograde fluids present progressively lower temperatures and salinities. All this fluid data depicts a coherent scenario where early magmatic-dominated fluids were progressively mixed up with low-temperature, low-salinity meteoric fluids whose predominance indicates the waning of the hydrothermal system.

  3. Theoretical study of AuCu nanoalloys adsorbed on MgO(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbelaud, M.; Barcaro, G.; Fortunelli, A.; Ferrando, R.

    2012-06-01

    The structures of AuCu clusters adsorbed on the (001) face of MgO are searched for by a two-step methodology. In a first step, the relevant structural motifs are singled out by global optimization searches within an atomistic model. In a second step, the lowest energy structures of each motif are relaxed by density-functional calculations. Three different sizes (30, 40 and 50 atoms) are considered. For each size, three compositions are analyzed. For size 30, a competition between fcc pyramids and a new motif (the daisy structure) is found. For 40 and 50 atoms, icosahedral fragments prevail. The results are discussed in connection with experimental data related to clusters of larger sizes.

  4. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  5. A DFT-based genetic algorithm search for AuCu nanoalloy electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Steen; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Hansen, Heine Anton;

    2015-01-01

    Using a DFT-based genetic algorithm (GA) approach, we have determined the most stable structure and stoichiometry of a 309-atom icosahedral AuCu nanoalloy, for potential use as an electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The identified core–shell nano-particle consists of a copper core interspersed...

  6. A Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Au/Cu2O Nanocomposites for Nonenzymatic Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Tian, Liangliang; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Bitao; Zhang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    Au/Cu2O nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot redox reaction without additional reducing agent under room temperature. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic performance of Au/Cu2O nanocomposites towards hydrogen peroxide was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The prepared Au/Cu2O nanocomposite electrode showed a wide linear range from 25 to 11.2 mM ( R = 0.9989) with a low detection limit of 1.05 μM ( S/ N = 3) and high sensitivity of 292.89 mA mM-1 cm-2. The enhanced performance for H2O2 detection can be attributed to the introduction of Au and the synergistic effect between Au and Cu2O. It is demonstrated that the Au/Cu2O nanocomposites material could be a promising candidate for H2O2 detection.

  7. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150904An Fang(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China);Wang Juli Skarn Mineral Assemblage in Representative Ore Districts of Sayak Copper Orefield,Kazakhstan,and Its Genetic Implications(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258-7106,CN11-1965/P,33(3),2014,p.521-540,

  8. A Au/Cu2O-TiO2 system for photo-catalytic hydrogen production. A pn-junction effect or a simple case of in situ reduction?

    KAUST Repository

    Sinatra, Lutfan

    2015-02-01

    Photo-catalytic H2 production from water has been studied over Au-Cu2O nanoparticle deposited on TiO2 (anatase) in order to probe into both the plasmon resonance effect (Au nanoparticles) and the pn-junction at the Cu2O-TiO2 interface. The Au-Cu2O composite is in the form of ∼10 nm Au nanoparticles grown on ∼475 nm Cu2O octahedral nanocrystals with (111) facets by partial galvanic replacement. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Cu2p and Auger L3M4,5M4,5 lines indicate that the surface of Cu2O is mainly composed of Cu+. The rate for H2 production (from 95 water/5 ethylene glycol; vol.%) over 2 wt.% (Au/Cu2O)-TiO2 is found to be ∼10 times faster than that on 2 wt.% Au-TiO2 alone. Raman spectroscopy before and after reaction showed the disappearance of Cu+ lines (2Eu) at 220 cm-1. These observations coupled with the induction time observed for the reaction rate suggest that in situ reduction from Cu+ to Cu0 occurs upon photo-excitation. The reduction requires the presence of TiO2 (electron transfer). The prolonged activity of the reaction (with no signs of deactivation) despite the reduction to Cu0 indicates that the latter takes part in the reaction by providing additional sites for the reaction, most likely as recombination centers for hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. This phenomenon provides an additional route for enhancing the efficiency and lifetime of Cu2O-TiO2 photocatalytic systems, beyond the usually ascribed pn-junction effect.

  9. Isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion study of skarns from Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, H.A.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    We present new mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion, stable carbon and oxygen, as well as Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope data of Ca-Mg-silicate-rich ejecta (skarns) and associated cognate and xenolithic nodules from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex, Italy. The typically zoned skarn ejecta consist mainly of diopsidic and hedenbergitic, sometimes "fassaitic" clinopyroxene, Mg-rich and Ti-poor phlogopite, F-bearing vesuvianite, wollastonite, gehlenite, meionite, forsterite, clinohumite, anorthite and Mg-poor calcite with accessory apatite, spinell, magnetite, perovskite, baddeleyite, and various REE-, U-, Th-, Zr- and Ti-rich minerals. Four major types of fluid inclusions were observed in wollastonite, vesuvianite, gehlenite, clinopyroxene and calcite: a) primary silicate melt inclusions (THOM = 1000-1050??C), b) CO2 ?? H2S-rich fluid inclusions (THOM = 20-31.3??C into the vapor phase), c) multiphase aqueous brine inclusions (THOM = 720-820??C) with mainly sylvite and halite daughter minerals, and d) complex chloride-carbonate-sulfate-fluoride-silicate-bearing saline-melt inclusions (THOM = 870-890??C). The last inclusion type shows evidence for immiscibility between several fluids (silicate melt - aqueous chloride-rich liquid - carbonate/sulfate melt?) during heating and cooling below 870??C. There is no evidence for fluid circulation below 700??C and participation of externally derived meteoric fluids in skarn formation. Skarns have considerably variable 206Pb/204Pb (19.047-19.202), 207Pb/204Pb (15.655-15.670), and 208Pb/204Pb (38.915-39.069) and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd (0.51211-0.51244) ratios. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of skarn calcites (??13CV-PDB = -5.4 to -1.1???; ??18OV-SMOW = 11.7 to 16.4???) indicate formation from a 18O- and 13C-enriched fluid. The isotope composition of skarns and the presence of silicate melt inclusion-bearing wollastonite nodules suggests assimilation of carbonate wall rocks by the alkaline magma at moderate depths (< 5

  10. ARXPS and DFT studies of thermally induced Pb surface segregation on Au/Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Völker, Edgar [Chemistry Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD (United Kingdom); Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Williams, Federico J., E-mail: fwilliams@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Jacob, Timo [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schiffrin, David J. [Chemistry Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface segregation of Pb impurities in AuCu alloys was studied by ARXPS and DFT. • ARXPS show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. • DFT calculations predict a ¼ ML coverage of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer. • The results show that bulk systems are affected while leaving nanoparticulate systems unaffected. -- Abstract: Surface segregation of Pb has been studied using angle resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling in a polycrystalline Au{sub 0.85}Cu{sub 0.15} alloy. Au surface enrichment was found in the alloy surface, whereas Pb surface enrichment was detected after annealing. ARXPS depth profiles show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. DFT calculations predict an approximate coverage of ¼ monolayer (ML) of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer, consistent with the experimental results. The results presented here are an example of the importance of low concentration of impurities in determining the surface composition of bulk alloys.

  11. ARXPS and DFT studies of thermally induced Pb surface segregation on Au/Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Surface segregation of Pb impurities in AuCu alloys was studied by ARXPS and DFT. • ARXPS show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. • DFT calculations predict a ¼ ML coverage of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer. • The results show that bulk systems are affected while leaving nanoparticulate systems unaffected. -- Abstract: Surface segregation of Pb has been studied using angle resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling in a polycrystalline Au0.85Cu0.15 alloy. Au surface enrichment was found in the alloy surface, whereas Pb surface enrichment was detected after annealing. ARXPS depth profiles show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. DFT calculations predict an approximate coverage of ¼ monolayer (ML) of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer, consistent with the experimental results. The results presented here are an example of the importance of low concentration of impurities in determining the surface composition of bulk alloys

  12. Cu2O and Au/Cu2O Particles: Surface Properties and Applications in Glucose Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ho Won; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigated the surface and facet-dependent catalytic properties of metal oxide particles as well as noble metal/metal oxide heterogeneous structures, with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and Au/Cu2O being selected as model systems. As an example of application, we explored the potential of these materials in developing electrocatalytic devices. Cu2O particles were synthesized in various shapes, then used for testing their morphology-dependent electrochemical properties applied to the d...

  13. Significant enhancement in photocatalytic reduction of water to hydrogen by Au/Cu2 ZnSnS4 nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Enna; Lee, Lawrence Yoon Suk; Wang, Jingchuan; Li, Fenghua; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic activities by Au core Novel Au/Cu2 ZnSnS4 core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized for the first time via wet chemistry approach. The insertion of Au core into CZTS NPs dramatically enhances light absorption due to surface plasmon resonance effect, especially in the Vis-NIR region. Au/CZTS core/shell NPs show much higher photocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution compared with other CZTS nanostructures. PMID:24644004

  14. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga

    2016-11-01

    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  15. Formation of CuxAu1−x phases by cold homogenization of Au/Cu nanocrystalline thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Tynkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, by using depth profiling with a secondary neutral mass spectrometer and structure investigations by XRD and TEM, that at low temperatures, at which the bulk diffusion is frozen, a complete homogenization can take place in the Cu/Au thin film system, which leads to formation of intermetallic phases. Different compounds can be formed depending on the initial thickness ratio. The process starts with grain boundary interdiffusion, which is followed by a formation of reaction layers at the grain boundaries that leads to the motion of the newly formed interfaces perpendicular to the grain boundary plane. Finally, the homogenization finishes when all the pure components have been consumed. The process is asymmetric: It is faster in the Au layer. In Au(25nm/Cu(50nm samples the final state is the ordered AuCu3 phase. Decrease of the film thicknesses, as expected, results in the acceleration of the process. It is also illustrated that changing the thickness ratio either a mixture of Cu-rich AuCu and AuCu3 phases (in Au(25nm/Cu(25nm sample, or a mixture of disordered Cu- as well as Au-rich solid solutions (in Au(25nm/Cu(12nm sample can be produced. By using a simple model the interface velocity in both the Cu and Au layers were estimated from the linear increase of the average composition and its value is about two orders of magnitude larger in Au (ca. 10−11 m/s than in Cu (ca. 10−13 m/s.

  16. 西秦岭谢坑矽卡岩型铜金矿床地质特征与矿区岩浆岩年代学研究%Geological characteristics and associated magmatic ages of the Xiekeng skarn-type Cu-Au deposit in the West Qinling terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭现轻; 闫臻; 王宗起; 王涛; 吴发富; 付长垒; 候可军; 李继亮

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite and pyrrhotine ore is mainly massive, but chalcopyrite ore is either veinlike or disseminated. Cold mineralization commonly occurs within the carbonate-quartz veins. The distinctive altered zone is marked on the outcrops, which varies from potassic alteration, prophyllitization to skamization toward marble spatially. The skarn alteration, which occurs at the contact zone between gabbroic diorite and limestone, is closely related to mineraliztion. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of gabbro-diorite and amphibole-andesite yields concordant ages of 243. 8 ± l.Oma and 242. 1 ± 1. 2Ma respectively, which indicates that the Xiekeng skam-type deposit should be formed in the mid-Triassic. Our results indicate the Xiekeng deposit should be formed in the process of the Triassic arc-magmatism in the West Qinling terrane.

  17. 西藏嘎拉勒夕卡岩型金(铜)矿床地球化学特征与锆石的LA-ICP-MS定年及意义%Geochemical characteristics and zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of Galale skarn gold(copper) deposit,Tibet and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕立娜; 崔玉斌; 宋亮; 赵元艺; 曲晓明; 王江朋

    2011-01-01

    嘎拉勒金(铜)矿床位于西藏班公湖—怒江缝合带的西段,为夕卡岩型金(大型)铜(小型)矿床。矿区主要岩石为巨斑状石英闪长岩、中细粒花岗闪长岩与闪长玢岩。该矿床岩石样品的REE分异程度较高,Eu呈弱负异常,w(Al2O3)为14.45%~15.84%,铝过饱和指数A/CNK为1.33~1.46,均大于1,表明为S型花岗岩。经微量元素的相关分析,该矿岩体为板内花岗岩,形成期接近于同碰撞期。锆石的LA-ICP-MS定年结果表明巨斑状石英闪长岩的年龄为(131±17)Ma,中细粒花岗闪长岩为(86.52±0.41)Ma,两个闪长玢岩的年龄分别为(88.59±0.45)和(88.09±0.41)Ma,其中巨斑状石英闪长岩为非成矿岩体,其测年数据代表了成岩时代下限;矿体只产在中细粒花岗闪长岩和闪长玢岩岩体与灰岩和粉砂岩夹硅质岩的接触带,为燕山期成矿。由测年结果可将该矿床的岩浆演化过程大致分为两个阶段,早白垩世非成矿岩体巨斑状石英闪长岩岩体的侵入和晚白垩世成矿岩体的形成,发生在白垩纪班公湖—怒江中特提斯洋构造演化的第4个阶段弧-陆碰撞造山阶段。%The Galale gold(copper) deposit is located in the west section of Bangong lake-Nujiang suture zone in Tibet.It is a gold(of large scale) and copper(of small scale) skarn deposit.There are mainly huge porphyritic quartz diorite,middle-fine grain granodiorite and diorite porphyrite in the mine area.The REE differential degree of rock sample in this ore deposit has a relatively higher value,and Eu negative anomaly is weak.The content of Al2O3 is 14.45%-15.84%.The aluminum supersaturation index(A/CNK) ranges between 1.33 and 1.46,which is greater than 1,indicating its being S-type granite.According to the analysis of trace elements,the magmatic body belongs to MPG.The forming stage is close to the collision stage.The result of zircon LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the age of

  18. Plasmon resonance enhanced photocatalysis under visible light with Au/Cu-TiO2 nanoparticles: Removal Cr (VI) from water as a case of study

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Gold modified copper doped titania (Au/Cu:TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified sol gel method and characterized using XRD, optical and TEM based techniques. The as-prepared material contained anatase phase particles with quasi-spherical morphology, showing enhanced absorption in the visible region and low photoluminescence emission intensity. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) in aqueous suspension with the Au/Cu:TiO2catalyst under 532 nm laser radiation and a visible broad band lamp source yielded 96% and 45% removal, respectively, without any additives. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the improved plasmonic effect due to gold modification and the expanded visible absorption due to copper doping. Moreover a comparative study of the material properties and catalytic activity of TiO2, Cu-TiO2and Au/Cu-TiO2 was carried out. © 2013 by American Scientific Publishers.

  19. Compositional Change of the Au-Cu2Te Contact for Thin-Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Seiji; Sonomura, Hajimu

    1990-03-01

    The stability of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells with evaporated Au-Cu2Te contacts to the CdTe film has been investigated. A decrease in conversion efficiency due to an increase in series resistance was observed in the solar cells stored in air at room temperature for 120 days. The increase in series resistance is caused by an increase in contact resistance resulting from the compositional change in the Au-Cu2Te contact to the CdTe film.

  20. 西藏班戈县多巴区矽卡岩型铁多金属矿床含矿花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年、地球化学及意义%LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of ore-bearing granite in skarn-type iron polymetallic deposits of Duoba area,Baingoin County, Tibet, and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    定立; 赵元艺; 杨永强; 崔玉斌; 吕立娜

    2012-01-01

    Located in northwestern Baingoin County of Tibet, Duoba area is near the middle of Bangong Co-Nujiang River metallogenic belt with the distribution of a large number of skarn iron-copper polymetallic deposits (mineralization spots) characterized by good prospecting potential. Due to high elevations, traffic inconvenience and less mining, only a small amount of work has been carried out. This research is based on the systematic field geological survey, indoor petrographic and ore microscopic studies, zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and analysis of major and trace elements. The authors chose Sousha skarn mineralization spot and Zai' a skarn iron polymetal-lic deposit to conduct researches on the relationship between the petrogenesis and the mineralization. There are mainly fine grained porphyritic granodiorites in Sousha area and fine grained granodiorites in Zai' a. Zircon' s LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the age of the fine grained porphyritic granodiorite is 77.37 ± 0.55 Ma, whereas that of the fine grained granodiorite is 79.78 ± 0.99 Ma, suggesting products of late Cretaceous magma-tism. Their A/CNK values change between 0.78 and 1.29, and A/NK values change in the range of 0.88~ 1.51. The rocks belong to weakly peraluminous. They are enriched in big ion incompatible elements Rb, Th, U and K, and depleted in Nb, identical overall with the same period granite in Bangong Co-Nujiang River metallo-genicbelt. ∑ REE range from 199.82× 10-6 to 274.64× 10-6, LREE/HREE = 3.552~7.199, δEu=0.20 ~0.82, with medium negative Eu anomalies. These data indicate that the separation of plagioclase crystallization might have occurred in magmatic evolution processes. The ore-forming processes of Sousha and Zai'a rock bodies might have had something to do with the southward subduction of the Bangong Co-Nujiang Ocean Basin and acted as the products of magmatic activity after closing. With favorable iron and bismuth polymetallic ore-forming geological and geochemical

  1. Intermixing of thin metallic structures Au/Cu and Cu/Mo under the action of powerful ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems of thin metallic layers Au/Cu and Cu/Mo, subjected to the action of powerful nanosecond ion beam, have been studied. Fair intermixing with the formation of metastable alloys Cu85Au15 ordered structures of the type Cu3Au has been observed. It is found thet intermixing of copper (in the system Cu/Mo) occurs in the liquid phase at intensive evaporation of copper, the formation of the phase Cu2Mo2 taking place. The main role in the formation of the surface metastable alloys uppon intermixing of the layers by means of pulsed ion beams of nanosecond duration is played by a vapour-plasma state of the metal and its interaction with the substrate surface layer

  2. Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, A.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico Abigail Jimenez-Franco1*, Pura Alfonso Abella2, Carles Canet3, Eduardo González-Partida4 1 Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 2 Departament d'Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av de Les Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa. 3Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico The Velardeña mining district is located in north-eastern part of the state of Durango, in northern of Mexico. The ore deposit is a lead-zinc, garnet-rich skarn developed at the contact between granite porphyry dikes (Eocene) and well-laminated limestones with interbedded chert (Albian-Cenomanian). A study of sulfur isotopes has been carried out in various sulfide minerals of the ores of Velardeña, in order to: (a) constrain the possible sources of sulfur and, therefore, better understand the sulfide mineralizing processes, and (b) to estimate the temperature of the ore-forming stage of the skarn. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed in 21 pure fractions of sulfide minerals of the ore mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena). The mineral separation was performed using a series of sieves, and the purity of the samples was verified under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were done on a Finnigan MAT Delta C flow elemental analyzer coupled to a TC-EA, according with the method of Giesemann et al. (1974). The δ34S values of the analyzed sulfides range mostly between -0.6 and +2.6 ‰ (relative to the CDT standard). These values are indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. A single analysis falls

  3. Re-Os molybdenite model age constraints on the petrogenesis of UTh-bearing late tectonic pegmatite and skarn mineralization in the southwestern Grenville Province, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province, molybdenite occurs in many late tectonic uraniferous and thoriferous granitic pegmatites, pegmatite-related skarns (e.g., Halo, Hunt, Spain, and Zenith deposits) and skarnoid rocks (e.g., Liedke, Kirkham (Quebec), and Bain deposits), and fluorite-apatite-calcite vein-dykes (e.g., Kirkham, Quebec). This study presents robust Re-Os determinations from the various molybdenite-bearing U-Th-rare-metal pegmatitic dykes, skarns, and vein-dykes from throughout the southwestern Grenville Province, in order to unravel their chronologic history relative to the late geotectonic evolution of the southwestern Grenville Province and re-evaluate the genesis of these interrelated deposits. The Re-Os single crystal molybdenite age dating method is promising. In fact, the robustness of the single crystal Re-Os method has been shown to surpass the effects of prolonged granulite grade metamorphism, if the molybdenite crystals are isolated from other sulfide minerals and do not suffer from late fluid reaction

  4. Origin of epithermal Ag-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Helen; Arehart, Greg; Oreskes, Naomi; Zantop, Half

    2014-01-01

    The Guanajuato epithermal district is one of the largest silver producers in Mexico. Mineralization occurs along three main vein systems trending dominantly northwest-southeast: the central Veta Madre, the La Luz system to the northwest, and the Sierra system to the east. Mineralization consists dominantly of silver sulfides and sulfosalts, base metal sulfides (mostly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite), and electrum. There is a broad zonation of metal distribution, with up to 10 % Cu+Pb+Zn in the deeper mines along the northern and central portions of the Veta Madre. Ore occurs in banded veins and breccias and as stockworks, with gangue composed dominantly of quartz and calcite. Host rocks are Mesozoic sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Most fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are between 200 and 300 °C, with salinities below 4 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid temperature and salinity decreased with time, from 290 to 240 °C and from 2.5 to 1.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Relatively constant fluid inclusion liquid-to-vapor ratios and a trend of decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature and with increasing time suggest dilution of the hydrothermal solutions. However, evidence of boiling (such as quartz and calcite textures and the presence of adularia) is noted along the Veta Madre, particularly at higher elevations. Fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for boiling of metal-bearing solutions is found in gold-rich portions of the eastern Sierra system; this part of the system is interpreted as the least eroded part of the district. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur isotope analysis of host rocks, ore, and gangue minerals and fluid inclusion contents indicate a hydrothermal fluid, with an initial magmatic component that mixed over time with infiltrating meteoric water and underwent exchange with host rocks. Mineral deposition was a result of decreasing activities of sulfur and oxygen, decreasing temperature, increasing p

  5. A comparative study on geometries, stabilities, and electronic properties between bimetallic AgnX (X=Au, Cu; n=1-8) and pure silver clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Li-Ping; Kuang Xiao-Yu; Shao Peng; Zhao Ya-Ru; Li Yah-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Using the meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange correlation TPSS functional,the geometric structures,the relative stabilities,and the electronic properties of bimetallic AgnX (X=Au,Cu; n=l-8) clusters are systematically investigated and compared with those of pure silver clusters.The optimized structures show that the transition point from preferentially planar to three-dimensional structure occurs at n =6 for the AgnAu clusters,and at n =5 for AgnCu clusters.For different-sized AgnX clusters,one X (X=Au or Cu) atom substituted Agn+1 structure is a dominant growth pattern.The calculated fragmentation energies,second-order differences in energies,and the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps show interesting odd-even oscillation behaviours,indicating that Ag2,4,6,8 and Ag1,3,5,7X (X=Au,Cu) clusters keep high stabilities in comparison with their neighbouring clusters.The natural population analysis reveals that the charges transfer from the Agn host to the impurity atom except for the Ag2Cu cluster.Moreover,vertical ionization potential (VIP),vertical electronic affinity (VEA),and chemical hardness (η) are discussed and compared in depth.The same odd-even oscillations are found for the VIP and ηof the AgnX (X=Au,Cu; n=1-8) clusters.

  6. Studies of petrography, metasomatic alteration, and genesis of Kamtal iron-copper skarn, northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Ferdowsi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kamtal skarn is located 15 km northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan. A quartz-monzonitic stock of Oligocene age intruded the upper Cretaceous sedimentary sequence (claystone, limestone, marl, and siltstone developing noticeable metamorphic (marble, hornfels and metasomatic (skarn alteration zones along the contact. Kamtal skarn is of calcic type and consists of both endoskarn and exoskarn zones. Exoskarn includes two zones of garnet skarn and epidote skarn. Skarnification processes are divided mainly in two major stages (1 prograde and (2 retrograde. During prograde stage, the emplacement of intrusive body caused isochemical metamorphism of the wall rocks and developed marble and hornfels units in enclosing rocks. Crystallization of intrusive body led to evolvement of hydrothermal fluid phase which infiltrated into enclosing rocks. Reaction of these fluids with the early-formed metamorphosed wall rocks brought about extensive progressive metasomatic alteration characterized by the formation of anhydrous calc-silicate minerals such as garnets and pyroxenes at a temperature range of 420-550°C and ¦O2=10-22-10-25. Retrograde stage was accompanied by some physicochemical changes (decrease in temperature to <420°C and increase in ¦S2 which caused the alteration of pre-existing anhydrous calc-silicates to hydrous calc-silicates (epidote, and tremolite-actinolite, silicates (quartz, chlorites, and other clay minerals, oxides (magnetite and hematite, sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite, and carbonate (calcite. Comparison of Kamtal skarn with some other ones of corresponding type from Iran and other countries shows that Kamtal skarn well resembles to Anjerd and Pahnavar skarns in East-Azarbaijan.

  7. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Li, X H; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R_AA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  8. Tolérance au Cu chez Agrostis capillaris L. : du phénotype vers les mécanismes moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Hego, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Des populations tolérante (métallicole: M) et sensible (non-métallicole: NM) d’Agrostis capillaris L. ont été exposées à des doses croissantes de Cu (1-50 μM) pour étudier la tolérance au Cu par une approche pluridisciplinaire. Selon les paramètres phénotypiques (biomasse, longueur des feuilles et symptômes visuels), les plantes M ont une meilleure croissance aux expositions supérieures à 10 μM Cu. Les concentrations en Cu des tissus reflètent une rétention racinaire (phénotype d’exclusion) e...

  9. Au plasmonics in a WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} photocatalyst for significantly enhanced hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongzhou [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; He, Jun, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Quanlin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Promoting the activities of photocatalysts is still the critical challenge in H{sub 2} generation area. Here, a Au plasmon enhanced photocatalyst of WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} is developed by inserting Au nanoparticles between WS{sub 2} nanotubes and CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles. Due to the localized surface plasmonic resonance properties from Au nanoparticles, WS{sub 2}-Au-CIS shows the best performance as compared to Au-CIS, CIS, WS{sub 2}-CIS, CIS-Au, WS{sub 2}-Au, and WS{sub 2}-CIS-Au. The surface plasmonic resonance effects dramatically intensify the absorption of visible light and help to inject hot electrons into the semiconductors. Our findings open up an efficient method to optimize the type-II structures for photocatalytic water splitting.

  10. Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/Glass Solar Cells with CdIn2O4 Obtained by Sol-Gel as TCO

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Marín, J.; Torres Delgado, G.; M. A. Aguilar Frutis; Castanedo Pérez, R.; Zelaya Ángel, O.

    2014-01-01

    An Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/glass heterostructure based superstrate solar cells with 2.5 mm2 of area, where the CdTe layer was prepared by means of closed spaced sublimation (CSS) and the CdS by chemical bath, reached an efficiency η value of 12.1%. As transparent conductive oxide (TCO), a thin film of cadmium-indium oxide (CdIn2O4:CIO), obtained by sol-gel technique, was used. A systematic optimization of the thermal activation of the CdTe/CdS/CIO central part of the device with a CdCl2 vapor a...

  11. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  12. Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/Glass Solar Cells with CdIn2O4 Obtained by Sol-Gel as TCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Márquez Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/glass heterostructure based superstrate solar cells with 2.5 mm2 of area, where the CdTe layer was prepared by means of closed spaced sublimation (CSS and the CdS by chemical bath, reached an efficiency η value of 12.1%. As transparent conductive oxide (TCO, a thin film of cadmium-indium oxide (CdIn2O4:CIO, obtained by sol-gel technique, was used. A systematic optimization of the thermal activation of the CdTe/CdS/CIO central part of the device with a CdCl2 vapor ambient made the conversion efficiency of the Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/CIO/glass heterostructure reaches 9.94% for the CdTe layer with thickness of 1.8 μm. This efficiency was reached only through an open circuit voltage VOC optimization. A maximum η of 12.1% was reached with the established procedure of optimization and when the CdTe layer thickness was increased to 3.1 ± 0.05 μm. The substitution of CIO by commercial ITO provoked in the cell a decrease of η from 12.1% to 7.2%, both devices prepared under the same conditions. Starting from these results, we can say that CIO was a better TCO than commercial ITO in our solar cell, with the advantage that CIO was obtained by sol-gel, which is a simple and economical technique.

  13. Mineralogical composition of Oravita calcic skarns as a function of the high-temperature contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinet, Cristina; Marincea, Stefan; Dumitras, Delia

    2014-05-01

    Insignificant in terms of mineralization, the skarns of Oravita are scientifically interested because of their mineralogical associations. The higher crystallinity and good natural conditions (they are generally barren) are two characteristics of this rocks that can provide the ideally system to understand the behavior of the mineralogical components in certain conditions of temperature and pressure, but also for the hydrated carbonate phases whose forming understanding may be useful in the applied mineralogy. The occurrence of skarns from Oraviţa includes, as representative species, gehlenite, calcic garnet, monticellite, ellestadite-(OH), vesuvianite, that means in the geochemically terms CaO - SiO2 - H2O - Al2O3 system, usually described as C-S-H-A phases by the cement researches, difficult to study because of the small dimensions of the compounds crystals. The inner skarn zone is dominated by the presence of the gehlenite, an aluminum calcium silicate whose formation involves, as conditions, high temperature (~ 750oC) and low pressure (up to 1kbar). Typically, it is associated with monticellite, ellestadite-(OH), wollastonite 2M, diopside and calcic garnets. As it is expected, the intensity of the contact metamorphism decreases from the innermost to the outermost parts of the aureole, reflected in the chemical activity of the cations that participated at the chemical reactions. In this respect, the observed garnets are zoned, being characterized by a peripheral rich in Al, while the centers of the crystals are characterized by a high content of Fe and Ti. The replacement of gehlenite with vesuvianite along the metasomtatic front, a process that was observed at the optical microscope, indicates the existence of late stage metasomatic mineral phases. The presence of the vesuvianite, frequently including partially chloritized clintonite slides, and its main associated minerals as wollastonite 2M and calcium garnet with an andradite composition, points out the

  14. Thermodynamic properties of andradite and application to skarn with coexisting andradite and hedenbergite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheru; Saxena, S. K.

    1991-04-01

    = - 20,441 - 1,342.8(1 - X_{Ad} )^2 - 1,312(1 - X_{Hd} )^2 . \\ For the assemblage andradite-hedenbergite-wollastonite-calcite: 1 410_2004_Article_BF00310711_TeX2GIFE10.gif begin{gathered} E = - 17.36;{text{ }}D = - 0.403; \\ A = 4log (X_{Ad} /X_{Hd} );{text{ C = 4;}} \\ B = - 11,720 - 1,342.8(1 - X_{Ad} )^2 - 1,312(1 - X_{Hd} )^2 \\ The oxygen fugacity of formation of those skarns where andradite and hedenbergite assemblage is typical can be calculated by using the above equations. The oxygen fugacity of formation of this kind of skarn ranges between carbon dioxide/graphite and hematite/magnetite buffers. It increases from the inside zones to the outside zones, and appears to decrease with the ore-types in the order Cu, Pb-Zn, Fe, Mo, W(Sn) ore deposits.

  15. Characteristic atom occupation patterns of Au3Cu, AuCu3, AuCuⅠ and AuCuⅡ based on experimental data of disordered alloys%以无序合金的实验数据为基础的Au3Cu,AuCu3,AuCuⅠ和AuCuⅡ的特征原子占据图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佑卿; 李艳芬; 刘心笔; 李晓波; 彭红建; 聂耀庄

    2011-01-01

    根据无序Au1-xCux合金的实验生成热和晶格常数得到只考虑近邻原子组态的特征原子的势能、体积和电子结构,计算L12-Au3Cu,L12-AuCu3和L10-AuCu化合物的特征原子占据(CAO)图、电子结构、能量和体积性质.Johasson-Linde(J-L)模型的CAO图表明,AuCuⅠ-AuCuⅡ转变是一个放热且体积缩小的反应,但正好与实验现象相反.根据Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L)模型的CAO图,AuCuⅡ晶胞由两个周期反相(PAD)的AuCuⅠ区域和两个PAD边界区域组成;从G-F-L模型的CAO图得出的公式可用来计算PAD AuCuⅠ区域和PAD边界区域的能量性质、体积性质和有序度及AuCuⅡ相的平均性质,计算结果与实验现象相吻合.%The potential energies, volumes and electronic structures of characteristic atoms coordinated by neighboring configurations were obtained from the experimental heats of formation and lattice parameters of disordered Au1-xCux alloys. From characteristic atom occupation (CAO) patterns of L12-Au3Cu, L12-AuCu3 and L10-AuCu compounds, their electronic structures, volumetric and energetic properties were calculated. The CAO pattern of Johasson-Linde(J-L) model shows that the transition AuCuⅠ→ AuCuⅡ is an exothermic and volume contraction reaction, which is opposite from experimental phenomena. According to CAO pattern of Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L) model, the AuCuⅡ cell consists of two periodic antidirection (PAD) AuCuⅠ regions and two PAD boundary regions. The equations derived from CAO pattern of G-F-L model can be used to calculate energetic properties, volumetric properties and ordering degrees of the PAD AuCul region and PAD boundary region, as well as corresponding average properties of the AuCuⅡ phase. The results are consistent with experimental phenomena.

  16. Physicochemical conditions of skarn formation in contact of the Alvand batholith with the meta-calcareous rocks, Hamedan, western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Saki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cheshin meta-calcareous rocks (Permo Triassic in southeast Hamedan outcrop in association with a variety of pelitic schists and hornfels rocks. The intrusion of the Alvand Batholith (Jurassic age into pelitic and calcareous host rocks has produced metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area (Cheshin village. On the basis of the dominance of calcite/dolomite, silicate and ore minerals, the calcareous rocks can be divided into two groups: a marbles and calc-silicates; b skarn rocks. The ore bodies occur in a contact zone between sillimanite-hornfels and calc-silicate rocks and formed the skarn rocks. Based on mineralogy, skarn rocks in the studied area consist mainly of diopside, garnet, tremolite, vesuvianite, epidote and ore minerals (magnetite and hematite. The skarnification processes occurred at two stages: (1 prograde metamorphism; and (2 retrograde metamorphism. The first stage involved prograde metasomatism and anhydrous minerals such as garnet and pyroxene formed. Second stage of retrograde skarn development is also recognized. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Fe, along with volatile components were added to the skarn system. Consequently, considerable amounts of hydrous minerals, oxides and carbonates replaced the anhydrous minerals in the host rocks and hydrous minerals such as epidote+chlorite+amphibole formed. Using multiple equilibria by THERMOCALC® program, temperature (~630 ºC, pressure (~4 kbar, and fluid composition (XCO2 as low as 0.17 have been calculated for the formation of the calc-silicate rocks. Skarn mineralogy shows good agreement with these calculations.

  17. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1

  18. Geochemistry blocks to predict significant mineral deposits in the Antioquia Department Republic of Colombia Au, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn elements

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ ARREDONDO, LUIS HERNÁN; Molina Escobar, Jorge Martín

    2007-01-01

    The geochemical sampling allows determining the geochemical provinces, defined as an “earth crust portion or segment that has a significant chemical composition different of the average (Rose et al., 1979)”. These researches involve the analysis of a great number of elements that are not commonly considered in traditional exploration studies making recognition of large areas, discovering potential areas for the mining prospection. From the environmental point of view, it is possible to detect...

  19. Spectral-induced polarization characteristics of rocks from Shinyemi deposit in Northeastern South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samgyu; Shin, Seung Wook; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Changryol

    2016-04-01

    Contact metasomatism between carbonate and igneous rocks leads to the formation of skarn deposits, and ore minerals are abundant. Geophysical methods that visualize the distributions of physical properties have been utilized to determine lithological boundaries in ore deposits. In particular, spectral-induced polarization (SIP) is the most effective of those methods for mineral exploration because it can obtain not only the boundaries but also the abundance and grain size of ore minerals. It is crucial to characterize the SIP responses of in situ rocks for a more realistic interpretation. Thus, typical rocks composed of igneous rock, skarn rock, skarn ore, and carbonate rock were sampled from drilling cores in the Shinyemi deposit, which is one of the well-known skarn deposits in Northeastern South Korea. The purpose of this study was to characterize the SIP responses of rocks by laboratory measurements. The characterization was performed by evaluating spectra and IP parameters. The IP properties were acquired from equivalent circuit analysis using a circuit model based on the electrochemical theory, and the analysis results of this circuit model were relatively well fit compared with those of the traditional Dias and Cole-Cole models. The frequency responses below 100 Hz in the spectra and the chargeability values of the skarn rocks and ores containing magnetite were relatively strong and high, respectively, compared with those of non-mineralized igneous and carbonate rocks. Therefore, it is considered that these characteristics are dependent on the abundance of magnetite. In case of the skarn ores with high magnetite content, the resistivity values were significantly low and the relaxation time values were influenced by the grain size of magnetite. On the other hand, it is considered that the DC resistivity and the relaxation time values of the igneous and carbonate rocks are slightly related to the porosity and the grade of hydrothermal alteration, respectively.

  20. Saltwater ecotoxicology of Ag, Au, CuO, TiO2, ZnO and C60 engineered nanoparticles: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, D; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Libralato, G

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examined 529 papers reporting experimental nanoecotoxicological original data. Only 126 papers referred to saltwater environments (water column and sediment) including a huge variety of species (n=51), their relative endpoints and engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) (n=38). We tried to provide a synthetic overview of the ecotoxicological effects of ENPs from existing data, refining papers on the basis of cross-cutting selection criteria and supporting a "mind the gap" approach stressing on missing data for hazard and risk assessment. After a codified selection procedure, attention was paid to Ag, Au, CuO, TiO2, ZnO and C60 ENPs, evidencing and comparing the observed nanoecotoxicity range of effect. Several criticisms were evidenced: i) some model organisms are overexploited like microalgae and molluscs compared to annelids, echinoderms and fish; ii) underexploited model organisms: mainly bacteria and fish; iii) exposure scenario variability: high species-specific and ENP scenarios including organism life stage and way of administration/spiking of toxicants; iv) scarce comparability between results due to exposure scenario variability; v) micro- and mesocosms substantially unexplored; vi) mixture effects: few examples are available only for ENPs and traditional pollutants; mixtures of ENPs have not been investigated yet; vii) effects of ions and ENPs: nAg, nCuO and nZnO toxicity aetiology is still a matter of discussion; viii) size and morphology effects of ENPs: scarcely investigated, justified and understood. Toxicity results evidenced that: nAu>nZnO>nAg>nCuO>nTiO2>C60. PMID:27107224

  1. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF) indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq.) de altatemperatura (670-400°C). Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.). Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibri...

  2. Archean high-Mg monzodiorite-syenite, epidote skarn, and biotite-sericite gold lodes in the Granny Smith-Wallaby district, Australia: U-Pb and Re-Os chronometry of two intrusion-related hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Gregory C.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Stein, Holly J.; Creaser, Robert A.; Mason, Douglas R.

    2008-03-01

    The Granny Smith (37 t Au production) and Wallaby deposits (38 t out of a 180 t Au resource) are located northeast of Kalgoorlie, in 2.7 Ga greenstones of the Eastern Goldfields Province, the youngest orogenic belt of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. At Granny Smith, a zoned monzodiorite-granodiorite stock, dated by a concordant titanite-zircon U-Pb age of 2,665 ± 3 Ma, cuts across east-dipping thrust faults. The stock is fractured but not displaced and sets a minimum age for large-scale (1 km) thrust faulting (D2), regional folding (D1), and dynamothermal metamorphism in the mining district. The local gold-pyrite mineralization, controlled by fractured fault zones, is younger than 2,665 ± 3 Ma. In augite-hornblende monzodiorite, alteration progressed from a hematite-stained alkali feldspar-quartz-calcite assemblage and quartz-molybdenite-pyrite veins to a late reduced sericite-dolomite-albite assemblage. Gold-related monazite and xenotime define a U-Pb age of 2,660 ± 5 Ma, and molybdenite from veins a Re-Os isochron age of 2,661 ± 6 Ma, indicating that mineralization took place shortly after the emplacement of the main stock, perhaps coincident with the intrusion of late alkali granite dikes. At Wallaby, a NE-trending swarm of porphyry dikes comprising augite monzonite, monzodiorite, and minor kersantite intrudes folded and thrust-faulted molasse. The conglomerate and the dikes are overprinted by barren (1,600-m-long replacement pipe, which is intruded by a younger ring dike of syenite porphyry pervasively altered to muscovite + calcite + pyrite. Skarn and syenite are cut by pink biotite-calcite veins, containing magnetite + pyrite and subeconomic gold-silver mineralization (Au/Ag = 0.2). The veins are associated with red biotite-sericite-calcite-albite alteration in adjacent monzonite dikes. Structural relations and the concordant titanite U-Pb age of the skarn constrain intrusion-related mineralization to 2,662 ± 3 Ma. The main-stage gold-pyrite ore

  3. Caracterización geológica del skarn "El Abuelo" Alto Río Senguerr, Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Lanfranchini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El skarn "El Abuelo" está situado en el extremo sudoccidental de la Provincia del Chubut, República Argentina. Se desarrolla en un ambiente tectónico de arco magmático, en corteza continental. Está emplazado en sedimentitas silicoclásticas con intercalaciones carbonáticas y se vincula a cuerpos intrusivos riodacíticos, conjunto atribuido al Cretácico inferior. En esta manifestación se reconocieron anomalías en elementos metalíferos (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag que le confieren interés como guía para la exploración de recursos minerales en esta región. La presente contribución tiene por finalidad tipificar al skarn a través de una caracterización geológica y mineralógica. La asociación paragenética de minerales reconocidos permitió identificar dos episodios: uno metasomático y otro hidrotermal, ambos desarrollados en las sedimentitas (exoskarn. El primero fue originado por fluidos de derivación magmática, que provocaron la formación de minerales calcosilicáticos. Posteriormente la incorporación de agua en el sistema facilitó el desarrollo de minerales hidratados, retrogradando parcialmente al skarn, proceso que fue seguido por la depositación de hematita, magnetita y sulfuros, acompañados de sílice. La asociación de minerales calcosilicáticos, junto a la variación en la composición química de piroxenos y granates y la mineralización identificada, permiten tipificar al skarn "El Abuelo" como cálcico, con hierro como metal dominante.

  4. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq. de altatemperatura (670-400°C. Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.. Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibrio con el granate (δ18O 7,2-8,5‰ y conla magnetita (4,8-7,9‰ confirman el origen magmático de estos fluidos.Debido a la interacción con la caja y a la formación del exoskarn degranate-clinopiroxeno, los fluidos redujeron isobáricamente sus temperaturas(hasta ~250°C. La continua exsolución de volátiles del magma y el sellado delos conductos de circulación de los fluidos por la precipitación de lossilicatos (magnetita del exoskarn y de la alteración del borde delplutón, generaron sobrepresiones, el fracturamiento de las rocas y laebullición del fluido. Bajo condiciones hidrostáticas, el aumento de lapermeabilidad permitió el ingreso de las aguas externas al sistema que semezclaron con los fluidos magmáticos provocando el reemplazo de los silicatospor minerales hidratados, cuarzo (con valores δ18O del fluidode -0,55 a 4,5‰ y la precipitación masiva de óxidos de hierro. Losregistros en inclusiones fluidas señalan temperaturas de 420° a 320°C,presiones hidrostáticas de 325 a 125 bares y fluidos menos salinos (41,6-23%NaCl eq. para este estadio. La disminución de la temperatura y de la salinidadfueron los factores principales que favorecieron la precipitación de la mena deFe. Las venillas tardías que cortan a las alteraciones anteriores se formaron alas temperaturas (165-315°C y salinidades (8,41 y 13,51% NaCl eq. más bajasdel sistema. Los valores δ18O del agua en equilibrio con elepidoto (-4,66 a 0,19‰ y con la calcita

  5. NEAR-ABSOLUTE EQUATIONS OF STATE OF DIAMOND, Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Mo, Nb, Pt, Ta, AND W FOR QUASI-HYDROSTATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. Dorogokupets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified formalism of [Dorogokupets, Oganov, 2005, 2007], equations of state are developed for diamond, Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Mo, Nb, Pt, Ta, and W by simultaneous optimization of shock-wave data, ultrasonic, X-ray, dilatometric and thermochemical measurements in the temperature range from ~100 K to the melting temperature and pressures up to several Mbar, depending on the substance. The room-temperature isotherm is given in two forms: (1 the equation from [Holzapfel, 2001, 2010] which is the interpolation between the low pressure (x≥1 and the pressure at infinite compression (x=0; it corresponds to the Thomas-Fermi model, and (2 the equation from [Vinet et al., 1987]. The volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter is calculated according to equations from [Zharkov, Kalinin, 1971; Burakovsky, Preston, 2004] with adjustable parameters, t and δ. The room-temperature isotherm and the pressure on the Hugoniot adiabat are determined by three parameters, K', t and δ, and K0 is calculated from ultrasonic measurements. In our study, reasonably accurate descriptions of all of the basic thermodynamic functions of metals are derived from a simple equation of state with a minimal set of adjustable parameters.The pressure calculated from room-temperature isotherms can be correlated with a shift of the ruby R1 line. Simultaneous measurements of the shift and unit cell parameters of metals are conducted in mediums containing helium [Dewaele et al., 2004b; 2008; Takemura, Dewaele, 2008; Takemura, Singh, 2006], hydrogen [Chijioke et al., 2005] and argon [Tang et al., 2010]. According to [Takemura, 2001], the helium medium in diamond anvil cells provides for quasi-hydrostatic conditions; therefore, the ruby pressure scale, that is calibrated for the ten substances, can be considered close to equilibrium or almost absolute. The ruby pressure scale is given as P(GPa=1870⋅Δλ/λ0⋅(1+6⋅Δλ/λ0. The room-temperature isotherms corrected with regard

  6. Multistage Carbonatization and Mineral Geochemistry of a Skarn—type Copper Deposit at Tongshan ,Guichi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑞龙

    1991-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit at Guichi can be considered as a skarn-type copper deposit.Mul-ti-stage carbonatization was well developed in the skarn zone and copper-bearing orebodies,Mineralogy,mineral chemistry and stable isotope data allow it to be divided into five stages:(1)carbonatization of single calcite crystals in the skarn stage;(2)calcite carbonatization in the oxide stage;(3)carbonatization in the early sulfide stage;(4)carbonatization in the late sulfide stage;and (5)carbonatization in the post-sulfide stage.Carbonatization in the early sulide stage is ,among other things,closely related to copper mineralization and is one of the alteration indicators of copper mineralization of this type.C.O,Rb and Sr isotopic studies indicate that the cakites of skarn and oxide stages were formed from hydrothermal solutions predominated by magmatic water,and those of sulfide stage were formed from hydrothermal solutions mainly involving heated meteoric warer.The former was formed in the environment where ?o2(?o2>10-33and 10-33>?o2>10-36)(pH=7-8)is high as compared with the latter(10-35>?o2>10-38;pH=5.7).

  7. Geochemical Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements in Gejiu Tin Polymetallic Deposits,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾润幸; 方维萱; 赫英; 高振敏; 李红阳

    2004-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of metallogeny,the geochemical characteristics of REE and trace element for Gejiu tin polymetallic deposits were studied by comparing concentrations of REE and trace elements in different type ores and rocks,including skarn-type ore,bedded-type ore,vein-type ore,altered granite,country rocks. Results of this study indicated that the metallogenic matters for different type ores in the study area might be derived from the same origin source,which may be mainly related to granitic activities. Furthermore,there are some differences in concentrations of REE in different ores due to their different depositional mechanism during that time. LREE concentrations were enriched relatively in the vein-type ores and the bedded-type ores with relatively low total REE concentrations,whereas total REE concentrations were higher in the skarn-type ores with LREE and HREE concentrations in wide variation ranges.

  8. Near-side azimuthal and pseudorapidity correlations using neutral strange baryons and mesons in \\dAu, \\Cu and \\Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$~=~200~GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Barnby, L S; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bombara, M; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Geurts, D Garand F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, T; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, Y; Li, W; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, R; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, A; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, Z; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæ, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, Q H; Xu, N; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, J; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J B; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the near-side of triggered di-hadron correlations using neutral strange baryons ($\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$) and mesons ($K^0_S$) at intermediate transverse momentum (3~$<$~$p_T$~$<$~6~GeV/$c$) to look for possible flavor and baryon/meson dependence. This study is performed in $d$+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The near-side di-hadron correlation contains two structures, a peak which is narrow in azimuth and pseudorapidity consistent with correlations due to jet fragmentation, and a correlation in azimuth which is broad in pseudorapidity. The particle composition of the jet-like correlation is determined using identified associated particles. The dependence of the conditional yield of the jet-like correlation on the trigger particle momentum, associated particle momentum, and centrality for correlations with unidentified trigger particles are presented. The neutral strange particle composition in jet-like ...

  9. Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kotuła, J.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2011-02-01

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions over a wide energy range have been measured using the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of both the charged particle distributions and the multiplicity at midrapidity were measured. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted with |η|<5.4, which account for between 95% and 99% of the total charged-particle emission associated with collision participants, are presented for different collision centralities. Both the midrapidity density dNch/dη and the total charged-particle multiplicity Nch are found to factorize into a product of independent functions of collision energy, sNN, and centrality given in terms of the number of nucleons participating in the collision, Npart. The total charged particle multiplicity, observed in these experiments and those at lower energies, assumes a linear dependence of (lnsNN)2 over the full range of collision energy of sNN=2.7-200 GeV.

  10. Centrality, Rapidity And Transverse-Momentum Dependence of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/Psi Production in D Au, Cu Cu And Au Au Collisions at S(NN)**(1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-11

    We have carried out a wide study of Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects on J/{Psi} = production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parameterizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/{Psi} is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2 {yields} 2 process, namely g + g {yields} J/{psi} + g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its anti-shadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parameterization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of a 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of RCP in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  11. Isotope geology characteristics and genesis of the Qiwan zinc deposits, Zhejiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic characteristics, ore-controlling factors, mineralization age and sources are studied for the Qiwan zinc deposits in Zhuji County, Zhejiang Province. A skarns type mineralization of magmatic hydrothermal percolation genesis is proposed. The ore-forming hydrothermal solution was derived from the remelted magma at the crystalline basement. Mineralization was determined as Caledonian, and the Variscan-Early Indosinian events caused its further activation and enrichment

  12. Zonación mineral vinculada a procesos geoquímicos en el skarn San Miguel, sierras septentrionales de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Lajoinie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El skarn San Miguel, situado en cercanías de la localidad de Barker, es uno de los dos skarns reconocidos en el ámbito de las Sierras Septentrionales de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se formó por la intrusión de un magma, de composición tonalítica, en un mármol de grano grueso, dicho depósito asoma en afloramientos reducidos. El cuerpo intrusivo rodeó y asimiló parcialmente al mármol, dejando núcleos relícticos. Este proceso favoreció el desarrollo de paragénesis minerales calcosilicáticas, con un patrón zonal caracterizado por las zonas de: (1 wollastonita-vesubianita, (2 granate-clinopiroxeno, (3 clinopiroxeno, en facies de exoskarn, y las zonas de (1 granate-clinopiroxeno, (2 clinopiroxeno-plagioclasa cálcica, en facies de endoskarn. Datos isotópicos δ13C y δ18O indican una procedencia marina del carbonato, el cual fue posteriormente sometido a procesos de metamorfismo y metasomatismo que modificaron sus relaciones isotópicas iniciales. El análisis detallado de esta zonación tiene implicancias genéticas que contribuyen al desentramado de la compleja historia evolutiva del skarn.

  13. Stable isotope (C, O, H) characteristics and genesis of the Tazheran brucite marbles and skarns, Olkhon region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, Anna; Sklyarov, Eugene; Starikova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Vladimir; Ripp, German; Izbrodin, Ivan; Posokhov, Viktor

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope compositions are examined for brucite marble and Mg-skarn that occur in the southern part of the Tazheran massif, Olkhon region, Russia. Brucite marble exhibits a narrow range in δ18O of +23.3 to +26.2 ‰ and shows carbon isotope depletion of -1.9 to -4.4 ‰) as compared with the country dolomite isotope compositions (+2.0 to +2.4 ‰) which is explained by both decarbonation processes and participation of fluids depleted in 13C. The emplacement of brucite marble was accompanied by the formation of endo- and exoskarn at the contact between syenite and brucite marble. δ18O profiles across the contact show a typical decrease towards the syenite side interpreted as the result of fluid/rock interaction and influx of magmatic fluids. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms of brucite marble emplacement and consider three possible ways of producing these rocks: (1) injection of dolomite with subsequent transformation to periclase marble and then to brucite marble; (2) injection of periclase marble with a following replacement of periclase by brucite or injection of brucite marble; (3) crustal water-rich carbonate melt. We favor models 2 and 3 and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Remote Sensing Technology for Identification of Alteration Information of Gold Deposits in the Eastern Tianshan Area, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shuixing; ZHANG Shoulin; LI Chunxia; FENG Jianzhong; FANG Tonghui; SUN Baosheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on specific well-exposed rocks useful for high-quality remote sensing interpretation in the goldprospecting area in the eastern Tianshan, this paper gives a detailed description of a remote sensing model for metallogenic prediction. The model reveals that multi-spectral remote sensing data are integrated with high-resolution remote sensing data, and enhanced extraction and visual description of weak remote sensing information are used for prospecting. This model has tested in the given gold deposit, and used successfully in Au-Cu prospecting in the Kalatage area.

  15. Metallogenic tectonic geochemical harrier and metalloogenic egularity of Dongdusitai Au-Cu deposit%东杜斯泰金铜矿成矿构造地球化学障及成矿规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪涛

    2001-01-01

    @@东杜斯泰含金铜矿位于精河县境内,为第七地质大队2000年在进行1:5万化探普查、异常查证时发现,经初步地质评价认为该含矿构造-岩浆活动频繁,构造地球化学控矿特征明显,具金铜找矿意义。

  16. Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Zafarabad iron deposit based on REE and trace elements of magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zafarabad iron deposit is located northwest of Divandareh, in the northern margin of Sanandaj-Sirjan plutonic-metamorphic zone. The deposit is in lentoid to tubular shape, within a shear zone and occrrued in host rocks of calc-schist and limestone. Magnetite with massive, cataclastic and replacement textures are the main phases, while pyrite and other sulfide minerals are found. Major and trace elements are measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Based on some ratios of trace elements in the ore samples and (Ti+V vs. Cal+Al+Mn and Ti+V vs. Ni/(Cr+Mn diagrams which are used for classification of iron deposit types, Zafarabad iron deposit fall in the range of skarn deposits. Spider diagrams show a steady decline from LREE to HREE elements with Eu (mean value of 0.06 ppm and Ce (mean value of 0.94 ppm negative anomalies. Comparing the distribution patterns of REE for the Zafarabad magnetites with those of various types of iron deposits shows that the REE pattern for Zafarabad is similar to these deposits. Analysis of calculated parameters for REE shows that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for mineralization are mainly of magmatic origin through fractionation and crystallization processes of a deep iron rich fluid phase and its emplacement within the carbonate rocks, forming iron skarn.

  17. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  18. Stable Isotopic Composition for Hydrothermal Vein Deposits, Southeastern Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The southeast of Korea has attracted considerable attention in the geologic community because of its extensive igneous activity and associated mineralizations from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Tertiary (Cu, Pb-Zn, W-Mo, Bi and Au-Ag hydrothermal-vein deposits, porphyry, skarn and altered clay deposits). The southeast of Korea is composed of Cretaceous sedimentary Gyeongsan basin, volcanic and plutonic rocks. Most of the mines are either closed or incapable of producing more ores because of their poor reserves. The south of the Gyeongsang basin is famous for its hydrothermal altered clay deposits associated with volcanism. In order to locate more metal resources, many researches have been conducted into the gold-silver mineralization within hydrothermai-altered deposits in the past several years. The age of plutonism ranges from 112 Ma to 44 Ma, and that of volcanism from 74 Ma to 47 Ma.

  19. Geochemical characteristics and significance of major elements,trace elements and REE of NM copper polymetal deposit in Laos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾润幸; 方维萱; 胡瑞忠

    2010-01-01

    The NM copper polymetal deposit is located in the middle north part of the Truong Son metallogenic belt in Laos,which is the skarn-typed deposit and located in the contact between Indosinian granite and Lower Carboniferous limestone.All the ore-bodies in NM deposit can be divided into four types according to their occurrences:I copper ore-body as the massive restite developed in inner contact near the granite in north part;Ⅱ-1 zinc-copper ore body and Ⅱ-2 copper-iron ore body developed within contact betwee...

  20. Re-Os isotopic data for molybdenum from Hejiangkou tungsten and tin polymetallic deposit in Chenzhou and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德波; 杨柳; 邓湘伟; 戴雪玲; 王雄军; CHONGkhaiyuen; 杜高峰; 魏和平

    2016-01-01

    Hejiangkou W−Sn-polymetallic deposit is a newly found deposit in Xitian ore field, one of the important and large scale W−Sn-polymetallic ore fields in the middle segment of Nanling metallogenic zone. Re−Os isotope dating was used on three molybdenite samples from Hejiangkou deposit to determine the ore forming period. The result is (224.9±2.6)Ma−(225±3.1)Ma and isochron age is (225.5±3.6)Ma. The field geological observations, geochronological data and optical petrography indicated that Hejiangkou deposit underwent multi-period of superimposed mineralization. It can be differentiated into three periods composed of six mineralization stages. The first period is the initial period for hydrothermal metasomatism and metal element enrichment during Indosinian Epoch. Further enrichment, strong brittle fracturing and hydrothermal metasomatism, remobilization and superimposition happened in the second period, during early Yanshanian. It is the major mineralization period of Hejiangkou deposit and can be subdivided into four mineralization stages, namely the skarn stage, oxide stage, high-temperature sulfide stage and low-temperature sulfide stage. And the third period is the mineralization period of a porphyry-skarn system related to the emplacement of the granite porphyry dyke. As minerogenic epoch of Hejiangkou deposit is similar with Hehuaping deposit, they show the possibility of Indosinian mineralization event in Nanling metallogenic zone. It can be an important perspective in any future mineral exploration in the same metallogenic zone.

  1. Late Paleozoic base and precious metal deposits,East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: Characteristics and geodynamic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingwenMao; RichardJ.Goldfarb; YitianWang; CraigJ.Hart; ZhiliangWang; JianminYang

    2005-01-01

    The East Tianshan is a remote Gobi area located in eastern Xinjiang, northwestern China. In the past several years, a number of gold, porphyry copper, and Fe(-Cu) and Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn skarn deposits have been discovered there and are attracting exploration interest.The East Tianshan is located between the Junggar block to the north and early Paleozoic terranes of the Middle Tianshan to the south. It is part of a Hercynian orogen with three distinct E-W-trending tectonic belts: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous Tousuquan-Dananhu island arc on the north and the Carboniferous Aqishan -Yamansu rift basin to the south, which are separated by rocks of the Kanggurtag shear zone. The porphyry deposits, dated at 322 Ma, are related to the late evolutionary stages of a subduction-related oceanic or continental margin arc. In contrast, the skarn, gold, and magmatic Ni-Cu deposits are associated with post-colli-sional tectonics at ca. 290-270 Ma. These Late Carboniferous - Early Permian deposits are associated with large-scale emplacement and eruption of magmas possibly caused by lithosphere delamination and rifting within the East Tianshan.

  2. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza Genetic model of the Vegas PeladasFe-sakarns, Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    María Josefina Pons; Marta Franchini; Graciela Mas; FranciscoJavier Ríos

    2009-01-01

    Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF) indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq.) de altatemperatura (670-400°C). Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.). Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibri...

  3. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements of Anqing Copper Deposit in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 周涛发; 刘晓东; 岳书仓

    2002-01-01

    The geochemical features of REE were studied by comparing the copper ore with the skarn, the diorite and the stratum, to trace the source of metallogenic materials in Anqing copper deposit, Anhui. The origin of metallogenic hydrothermal fluids was studied through simulating REE pattern of the balanceable hydrothermal fluids. The results indicate that the metallogenic materials come from the diorite and the metallogenic hydrothermal fluids come from the dioritic magma. The results also show that the rare earth elements are relatively mobile during metallization.

  4. Proton induced X-ray emission and proton induced gamma ray emission analysis in geochemical exploration for gold and base metal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwa, Aung E-mail: a_pwa@postoffice.utas.edu.au; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D.D.; Stelcer, E.; Moort, J.C. van

    2002-05-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGME) analysis has been used in geochemical exploration to determine various elements in rocks and regolith in relation to gold and base metal mineralisation. Elements analysed by PIXE include K, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, Cl, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, As, V and Mo, and those by PIGME are Al, Na, Mg, F and Li. One of our research areas is Cobar, northwest of New South Wales, Australia. The study areas include the McKinnons and Peak gold deposits, the Wagga Tank base metal deposit and Lower Tank prospect, northeast of the CSA mine. Au, Cu, Zn, Pb, As and Ni are elevated as ore indicators near and around the ore deposits while K, Al, Ca, Na, Ti, Rb, Sr, Ga and V are depleted due to feldspar and mica destruction during alteration.

  5. Proton induced X-ray emission and proton induced gamma ray emission analysis in geochemical exploration for gold and base metal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGME) analysis has been used in geochemical exploration to determine various elements in rocks and regolith in relation to gold and base metal mineralisation. Elements analysed by PIXE include K, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, Cl, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, As, V and Mo, and those by PIGME are Al, Na, Mg, F and Li. One of our research areas is Cobar, northwest of New South Wales, Australia. The study areas include the McKinnons and Peak gold deposits, the Wagga Tank base metal deposit and Lower Tank prospect, northeast of the CSA mine. Au, Cu, Zn, Pb, As and Ni are elevated as ore indicators near and around the ore deposits while K, Al, Ca, Na, Ti, Rb, Sr, Ga and V are depleted due to feldspar and mica destruction during alteration

  6. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  7. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza Genetic model of the Vegas PeladasFe-sakarns, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq. de altatemperatura (670-400°C. Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.. Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibrio con el granate (δ18O 7,2-8,5‰ y conla magnetita (4,8-7,9‰ confirman el origen magmático de estos fluidos.Debido a la interacción con la caja y a la formación del exoskarn degranate-clinopiroxeno, los fluidos redujeron isobáricamente sus temperaturas(hasta ~250°C. La continua exsolución de volátiles del magma y el sellado delos conductos de circulación de los fluidos por la precipitación de lossilicatos (magnetita del exoskarn y de la alteración del borde delplutón, generaron sobrepresiones, el fracturamiento de las rocas y laebullición del fluido. Bajo condiciones hidrostáticas, el aumento de lapermeabilidad permitió el ingreso de las aguas externas al sistema que semezclaron con los fluidos magmáticos provocando el reemplazo de los silicatospor minerales hidratados, cuarzo (con valores δ18O del fluidode -0,55 a 4,5‰ y la precipitación masiva de óxidos de hierro. Losregistros en inclusiones fluidas señalan temperaturas de 420° a 320°C,presiones hidrostáticas de 325 a 125 bares y fluidos menos salinos (41,6-23%NaCl eq. para este estadio. La disminución de la temperatura y de la salinidadfueron los factores principales que favorecieron la precipitación de la mena deFe. Las venillas tardías que cortan a las alteraciones anteriores se formaron alas temperaturas (165-315°C y salinidades (8,41 y 13,51% NaCl eq. más bajasdel sistema. Los valores δ18O del agua en equilibrio con elepidoto (-4,66 a 0,19‰ y con la calcita

  8. Re sbnd Os dating of molybdenites from ore deposits in Japan: Implication for the closure temperature of the Re sbnd Os system for molybdenite and the cooling history of molybdenum ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Masuda, Akimasa

    1996-08-01

    Rhenium and Osmium abundances were determined on molybdenites from eighteen ore deposits in Japan; fifteen vein-type, a skarn-type, a greisen-type, and a pegmatite-type deposit. Re sbnd Os ages obtained for molybdenites from northeastern, central, and southwestern Japan are 100-130 Ma, 50-75 Ma, and ca. 10 Ma, respectively, reflecting the ages of regional igneous activities in individual areas. For vein-type ore deposits, Re sbnd Os ages for molybdenites agree with Rb sbnd Sr whole-rock ages of host granitoids, while they are 3-12 Ma older than K sbnd Ar mineral ages of the host rocks. On the other hand, Re sbnd Os ages of molybdenites from skarn-, pegmatite-, and greisen-type ore deposits agree with K sbnd Ar ages of the host rocks. The comparison of Re sbnd Os ages for molybdenites with Rb sbnd Sr and K sbnd Ar ages of host rocks in vein-type deposits suggests that Re sbnd Os closure temperature for vein molybdenite is close to whole-rock Rb sbnd Sr closure temperature for host granitic rocks, i.e., roughly estimated to be around 500°C, and higher than K sbnd Ar closure temperature for host granodiorites, i.e., 230-370°C, if the thermal history of vein molybdenites is essentially equivalent to that of host rocks. One possible explanation for age discrepancies of 3-12 Ma between Re sbnd Os ages for molybdenites and K sbnd Ar ages for the wall rocks, observed in vein-type molybdenum deposits, is that later thermal events after formation of molybdenum ores may reset K sbnd Ar ages. Hydrothermal alteration might have occurred in such a temperature condition as to disturb K sbnd Ar mineral systems in wall rocks and made them younger but not the Re sbnd Os system in molybdenite. The other explanation might be that the age discrepancies correspond to a cooling interval from ca. 500 to 300°C of host granitoid. On the other hand, the agreement of Re sbnd Os ages of molybdenites and K sbnd Ar ages of host rocks in skarn-, pegmatite-, and greisen-type deposits in this

  9. Geologic map of Kundelan ore deposits and prospects, Zabul Province, Afghanistan; modified from the 1971 original map compilations of K.I. Litvinenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2015-10-26

    This map and cross sections are redrafted modified versions of the Geological map of the Kundelan ore deposit area, scale 1:10,000 (graphical supplement no. 18) and the Geological map of the Kundelan deposits, scale 1:2,000 (graphical supplement no. 3) both contained in an unpublished Soviet report by Litvinenko and others (1971) (report no. 0540). The unpublished Soviet report was prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Royal Government of Afghanistan in Kabul during 1971. This redrafted map and cross sections illustrate the geology of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit, located within the Kundelan copper and gold area of interest (AOI), Zabul Province, Afghanistan. Areas of interest (AOIs) of non-fuel mineral resources within Afghanistan were first described and defined by Peters and others (2007) and later by the work of Peters and others (2011a). The location of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit (area of this map) and the Kundelan copper and gold AOI is shown on the index map provided on this map sheet.

  10. Daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside from Tongguanshan Copper Deposit by SEM/EDS and LRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Zengqian Hou; Zhusen Yang; Wenyi Xu; Yifeng Meng; Baohua Wang

    2004-01-01

    Tongguanshan copper deposit of Tongling large ore belt is one of the typical skarn copper deposits. Based on careful observation under microscope many daughter minerals including transparent ones and opaque ones have been distinguished in the fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside. The results of SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer) and LRM (laser Raman microprobe) analysis show that these daughter minerals in garnet are sylvite, halite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and carbonate. Sylvite daughter mineral is very popular in garnet and diopside. The existence of so much sylvite daughter mineral and other daughter minerals in the fluid inclusions indicates that the ore-forming fluid is of supper-high salinity and high potassium concentration. High potassium concentration in the fluid inclusions agrees with K-rich mesotype-acid rock and K-silicate alteration that occurred widely in this area. The daughter mineral assemblage in garnet and diopside is similar to the mineral assemblage of oreforming stage that followed skarn stage.

  11. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  12. Structure Characteristics of Dickites in Copper-Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xianghua; LIU Yu; LIU Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Dickite as a type of clay mineral that is utilized in industries such as papers, ceramics, paints, cosmetics and fillers is widely distributed in Zijinshan (ZJS) Au-Cu deposit in southeastern China. In this paper, three types of dickites (i.e., transparent, translucent and opaque), which were selected by optical microscopy, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)-Rietveld method based on the EVA and TOPAS softwares. The results show that transparent dickite is lowly ordered and poorly crystallized. Compared to other two dickites, the transparent one has a lower value of DC in-dex and thinner average flake thickness alongc-axis. Furthermore, the crystal structure of transparent dickite has a greater number of distortions of [SiO4] tetrahedron and [AlO6] octahedron, compared to that of translucent and opaq-uedickites. The results by the XRD-Rietveld method were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Therefore, transparent dickite with low degree of order and ir-regular particle shape is not suitable for use in ceramic industry.

  13. Magmatic and tectonic processes related to the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1993-04-01

    Hydrothermal mineral deposits along the Rocky Mountain trend from Montana to New Mexico occur along distinct northeasterly linear trends, reflecting first order structural control on localization of the deposits. The Great Falls Tectonic Zone, Colorado Mineral Belt, and Jemez Zones have localized hydrothermal mineral deposits from Late Cretaceous to the late Tertiary. The deposits range from porphyry-related Climax-and Leadville-types of deposits to epithermal vein and breccia system that have some magmatic component. Local skarn development is important in some districts, typically exhibiting retrograde effects. Less common north and northwest trends localized mineral deposits. Notably, the Wyoming Archean terrane was less favorable than the Proterozoic basement terrane elsewhere along the Rocky Mountains. Magmas associated with the hydrothermal mineral deposits range from subduction-related calc-alkaline systems to back-arc alkaline systems. The two magma types are temporally-separated but spatially associated. The alkaline systems developed with the inception of extensional tectonics. Areas with thin (<40 km) continental crust were important in localizing the alkaline magmas and associated mineral deposits. The limited Nd- and Sr-isotopic data indicate that Late Cretaceous to Tertiary intrusive-volcanic systems exhibit increased [epsilon][sub Nd] and initial Sr values with decreasing age, interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contamination. S, O, H, and Pb isotopic- and fluid inclusion-data from many of the Rocky Mountain ore systems exhibit a wide range of sources, but reflect the importance of igneous activity in the ore-forming process.

  14. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is an iron mining complex called Shahrak 60 km east of Takab town, NW Iran. The exploration in the Shahrak deposit (general name for all iron deposits of the area started in 1992 by Foolad Saba Noor Co. and continued in several periods until 2008. The Shahrak deposit comprising 10 ore deposits including Korkora-1, Korkora-2, Shahrak-1, Shahrak-2, Shahrak-3, Cheshmeh, Golezar, Sarab-1, Sarab-2, and Sarab-3 deposits Sheikhi, 1995 with total 60 million tons of proved ore reserves. The Fe grade ranges from 45 to 65% (average 50%. The ore reserves of these deposits vary and the largest one is Korkora-1 with 15 million tons of 55% Fe and 0.64% S. The Korkora-1 ore deposit is located in western Azarbaijan and Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic zone, at the latitude of 36°21.8´, and longitude of 47°32´. Materials and methods Six thin-polished sections were made on magnetite, garnet, and amphibole for EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analysis. EPMA was performed using a JEOL JXA-733 electron microprobe at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, with wavelength-dispersive spectrometers. Results and discussion Outcropped units of the area are calc-alkaline volcanics of rhyolite, andesite and dacite and carbonate rocks of Qom Formation in which intrusion of diorite to granodiorite and quartzdoirite caused contact metamorphism, alteration plus skarnization and formation of actinolite, talc, chlorite, phlogopite, quartz, calcite, epidote and marblization in the vicinity of the ore deposit. Iron mineralization formed at the contacts of andesite and dacite with carbonates in Oligo-Miocene. The study area consists of skarn, metamorphic rocks, and iron ore zones. The shape of the deposit is lentoid to horizontal with some alteration halos. The ore occurred as replacement, massive, disseminated, open-space filling and breccia. The ore minerals of the deposit include low Ti-magnetite (0.04 to 0.2 wt % Ti, minor apatite, and sulfide minerals such as pyrite

  15. Process Mineralogy of a Skarn Tungsten-Molybdenum Ore%夕卡岩型钨钼伴生矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪秋阳; 梁冬云; 张莉莉

    2013-01-01

    The researches on a skarn tungsten-molybdenum ore by the internationally advanced MLA testing technology and traditional process mineralogy show that the grade of W and Mo is low with high comprehensive recycling value. The tungsten mainly occurs in the form of scheelite while the molybdenum principally exists as molybdenite, and the molybdenum as isomorphous addition existing in the lattice of scheelite accounts for 16.89%of the total molybdenum. The liberation degree of scheelite is close to 90%while that of molybdenite is less than 80%at the grinding fineness 62%-0.074 mm. The tungsten and molybdenum contained in the magnetic gangue minerals accounts for 2.8 % and 5.8 % respectively. Considering that the magnetic gangue minerals including andradite tremolite, diopside, etc account for about two-thirds of the total and are not closely intergrown with scheelite or molybdenite, pre-discarding these magnetic gangue minerals by high intensity magnetic separation is available so as to simplify the cleaning process of tungsten as well as molybdenum.%采用国际先进的MLA检测技术,结合传统工艺矿物学研究表明,某夕卡岩型钨钼伴生矿虽品位低,但综合回收价值较高。矿石中钨主要以含钼白钨矿矿物形式存在,以类质同象进入白钨矿晶格的钼占原矿总钼的16.89%。钼主要以辉钼矿矿物形式存在。当磨矿细度-0.074 mm占62%左右时,白钨矿单体解离近90%,而辉钼矿解离不到80%。钨、钼与本矿石中约占矿物总量三分之二的钙铁榴石、透辉石、透闪石等电磁性脉石连生关系不密切,分布于其中的钨、钼金属量分别仅2.8%、5.8%。因而可采用强磁选预先丢废而达到简化钨、钼精选。

  16. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tetrahedrite-Group Minerals in the Jinjitai Gold Deposit, Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are quite a few tetrahedrite-group minerals in the Jinjitai gold deposit, western Sichuan, which occur in an interstratified fractured zone of Middle Devonian carbonate rock series. The gold ore consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-group minerals, galena, sphalerite and gold-silver series minerals, with an element association of Au-Cu-Ag-Pb-As-Sb-Bi. Electron microprobe analyses of the tetrahedrite-group minerals gave the following results: copper 40.04 to 42.27% (average 40.04%), iron 1.24 to 7.78% (average 4.13%), zinc 0.39 to 7.06% (average 3.58%), arsenic 5.41 to 17.40% (average 8.84%), antimony 2.70 to 20.46% (average 15.87%), and silver 0.02 to 0.73% (average 0.28%). The mineral varieties include zinc-antimony-tetrahedrite, iron-antimony-tetrahedrite, iron-tennatite and zincotennatite. These data show that there is a complete isomorphous series between Sb and As. From above downwards tetrahedrite varies from zinc- and antimony-rich to iron- and arsenic-rich compositions. Their occurrence and zonal features are very important for exploration of the same type of gold deposits in western Sichuan.

  18. Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Fallick, Anthony; Rakotondrazafy, Michel; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Andriamamonjy, Alfred; Ralantoarison, Théogène; Rakotosamizanany, Saholy; Razanatseheno, Marie; Offant, Yohann; Garnier, Virginie; Dunaigre, Christian; Schwarz, Dietmar; Mercier, Alain; Ratrimo, Voahangy; Ralison, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of gem corundum was measured from 22 deposits and occurrences in Madagascar to provide a gemstone geological identification and characterization. Primary corundum deposits in Madagascar are hosted in magmatic (syenite and alkali basalt) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss, cordieritite, mafic and ultramafic rocks, marble, and calc-silicate rocks). In both domains the circulation of fluids, especially along shear zones for metamorphic deposits, provoked in situ transformation of the corundum host rocks with the formation of metasomatites such as phlogopite, sakenite, and corundumite. Secondary deposits (placers) are the most important economically and are contained in detrital basins and karsts. The oxygen isotopic ratios (18O/16O) of ruby and sapphire from primary deposits are a good indicator of their geological origin and reveal a wide range of δ18O (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) between 1.3 and 15.6‰. Metamorphic rubies are defined by two groups of δ18O values in the range of 1.7 to 2.9‰ (cordieritite) and 3.8 to 6.1‰ (amphibolite). “Magmatic” rubies from pyroxenitic xenoliths contained in the alkali basalt of Soamiakatra have δ18O values ranging between 1.3 and 4.7‰. Sapphires are classified into two main groups with δ18O in the range of 4.7 to 9.0‰ (pyroxenite and feldspathic gneiss) and 10.7 to 15.6‰ (skarn in marble from Andranondambo). The δ18O values for gem corundum from secondary deposits have a wide spread between -0.3 and 16.5‰. The ruby and sapphire found in placers linked to alkali basalt environments in the northern and central regions of Madagascar have consistent δ18O values between 3.5 and 6.9‰. Ruby from the placers of Vatomandry and Andilamena has δ18O values of 5.9‰, and between 0.5 and 4.0‰, respectively. The placers of the Ilakaka area are characterized by a huge variety of colored sapphires and rubies, with δ18O values between -0.3 and 16.5‰, and their origin is debated. A

  19. Re—Os Isotope Ages of Molybdenum Deposits in East Qinling and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄典豪; 杜安道; 等

    1995-01-01

    Dating of metallic ore deposits has been one of the problems concerned with by ore geologists for many years.The establishment of the Re-Os Isotope Laboratory at the Institute of Rock and Mineral Analysis,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, has provided us with a new technique to carry out geochronological studies of molybdenum ores.As one of the most important Re-bearing minerals, molybdenite contains almost no common osmium, but 187Os was derived completely from decay of 187Re, with 187Os content as the function of Re content in the mineral .An ID-ICP-MS technique has been used in this study,and Re-Os isotopic ages of several large molybdenum deposits of differ-ent types from the East Qinling molybdenum belt have been determined.It is indicated that the Huanglongpu carbonatite vein-type molybdenum-(lead) deposit has a Re-Os age corresponding to Indosinian,while the rest porphyry-type molybdenum deposits and porphyry-skarn-type molybdenum-(tungsten) deposits have Re-Os ages corresponding to Yenshanian.

  20. Variation of Mo isotopes from molybdenite in high-temperature hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ryan; Brantley, S.; Anbar, A.; Munizaga, F.; Maksaev, V.; Newberry, R.; Vervoort, J.; Hart, G.

    2010-01-01

    Measurable molybdenum isotope fractionation in molybdenites from different ore deposits through time provides insights into ore genesis and a new technique to identify open-system behavior of Re-Os in molybdenites. Molybdenite samples from six porphyry copper deposits, one epithermal polymetallic vein deposit, four skarns, and three Fe-oxide Cu-Au deposits were analyzed. The δ97Mo‰ (where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) for all samples varied from 1.34 ± 0.09‰ to -0.26 ± 0.04‰. This is the largest molybdenum isotopic variation in molybdenite from high-temperature ore deposits recorded to date. δ97Mo‰ of molybdenite varies as a function of the deposit type and the rhenium and osmium concentrations of the samples. Isotope values for Mo also vary within the individual deposits. In general, molybdenites from porphyry copper deposits have the lightest values averaging 0.07 ± 0.23‰ (1 σ). Molybdenites from the other deposit types average 0.49 ± 0.26‰ (1 σ). The variations could be related to the fractionation of Mo into different mineral phases during the ore-forming processes. A comparison of the Mo isotope ratios and the Re-Os ages obtained from the same aliquot may possess a geochronological evaluation tool. Samples that yielded robust ages have different Mo isotopic compositions in comparison to samples that yielded geologically unreasonable ages. Another observed relationship between the Re-Os and Mo isotope data reveals a weak correspondence between Re concentration and Mo isotope composition. Molybdenites with higher concentrations of Re correspond to lighter Mo isotope values.

  1. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  2. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  3. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  4. The Comprehensive Utilization of Wollastonite in Skarn Type Ore of Jiama Copper Polymetallic Deposit in Tibet%甲玛铜多金属矿矽卡岩型矿石中硅灰石的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷传扬; 汪雄武; 苟正彬; 张强

    2012-01-01

    Many polymetallic components such as Cu、Mo、Pb、Zn、Au、Ag exist in the Jiama copper polymetallic ore in Tibet. At the same time the resources reserves of wollastonite are abundant,but it cannot be used synthetically, causing the economical loss and environmental pollution. According to the ore properties of the Jiama copper poly metallic ore and characteristics of mineral compositions of the tailings, the flowsheet of hand-sorting separation screening separating-flotation separation-ultrafine grinding was adopted for comprehensive recovery of wollastonite from the raw ore and tailings. According to the study it is believed that great economic and social benefit would be achieved by beneficiation tests, and degrading and practical application research to make full use of the advantage of mineral resources and develop products with high technological content and added value. The geologic character of wollasonite, the benefit, demand of market, the optional argument, the process and other aspects are roughly dis cussed in this paper. Also, some suggestions were offered for the comprehensive utilization of wollasonite.%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿赋存着Cu、Mo、Pb、Zn、Au、Ag等多种金属组分,同时伴生硅灰石,资源储量十分丰富,但尚未综合利用,造成经济损失且污染环境.根据甲玛铜多金属矿矿石性质和选矿尾砂矿物组成的特点,可采用手选-筛选分离-浮选分离-超细粉碎工序从原矿和尾砂中综合回收硅灰石.研究结果认为,加强硅灰石的选矿试验、精选分级、实际应用研究,充分利用资源优势,开发生产技术含量和附加值高的新产品,将为企业创造良好的经济效益和社会效益.本文就该矿床硅灰石的地质特征,硅灰石综合利用产生的效益、市场需求,可选性论证及大致流程等方面进行初步探讨,并提出了硅灰石综合利用建议.

  5. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  6. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  7. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  8. 东天山红云滩铁矿床矿物学、矿物化学特征及矿床成因探讨%Mineralogy, mineral chemistry and genesis of the Hongyuntan iron deposit in East Tianshan Mountians, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立成; 王义天; 陈雪峰; 马世青; 王志华; 余长发

    2013-01-01

    symmetrical zoning,and the alteration colors change from dark to light from ore bodies outwards.On the basis of observed mineral assemblages and ore fabrics,two periods of ore deposition were recognized,i.e.,skarn period and hydrothermal ore-forming period,which could be further subdivided into four metallogenic stages,namely skarn stage,retrograde alteration stage (main oreforming stage),early hydrothermal stage and quartz-sulfide stage.Electron microprobe analyses show that the end member of garnet is mainly andradite-grossularite.The composition of pyroxene is mainly diopside-asteroite.The amphiboles is composed mainly of actinolite and tremolite with minor magnesiohornblende.The composition of these skarn minerals suggests that skarn in the Hongyuntan iron deposit is calcic skarn,belonging to metasomatic skarn.The characteristics of main and trace elements suggest that the formation of magnetite was closely related to the skarn.In combination with geological characteristics,the authors suggest that the skarn might have resulted from interaction between Ca-rich pyroclastic and Fe-rich magmatic hydrothermal fluid which was transported along the fault system.The formation of magnetite was hence related to the regressive metamorphism of the skarn.

  9. Compositional Variability of Rutile in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. R.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    Rutile is a relatively common accessory phase in many geological environments, and although it is almost always composed dominantly of TiO2, it is also associated with a wide range of minor and trace element substitutions. The most prominent minor elements that occur in rutile are Fe, Cr, V, Nb and Ta. Like Ti, the latter two elements are essentially immobile in most non-magmatic metallic ore deposits, and their concentrations in rutile are largely influenced by precursor mineral compositions. Iron, Cr and V concentrations vary considerably in rutile hosted by ore deposits, and reflect combinations of precursor mineral composition and the bulk chemistry of the local mineralized or altered rock environment. However, in hydrothermal alteration zones, rutile compositions are clearly anomalous compared to those in unaltered host rocks, and have distinctive elemental associations and substitutions in different types of ore deposits. We have evaluated the mineral chemistry of rutile in >40 ore deposits worldwide. In general, rutile in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits contains Sn (and locally W, Sb and/or Cu). Rutile from mesothermal and related gold deposits invariably contains W, and in some of the larger and more important deposits, also contains Sb and/or V. Tungsten-bearing detrital rutile grains from the Witwatersrand suggest that paleoplacer mineralization may have had a mesothermal/orogenic gold source. In some magmatic-hydrothermal Pd-Ni-Cu deposits, rutile contains Ni and Cu. Rutile associated with granite-related Sn deposits has strongly elevated concentrations of Sn and W, and granite-pegmatite W-Sn deposits contain rutile with these elements plus Nb and Ta. The Olympic Dam deposit hosts rutile that is enriched in W, Sn and Cu. Rutile associated with porphyry and skarn Cu and Cu-Au deposits tends to contain elevated W, Cu (and sometimes V). Although many ore deposits have well-defined and diagnostic rutile compositions, there are some compositional

  10. 晋东北地区银矿床类型及成矿机制%Silver Ore Deposit Type and Its Metallogenic Mechanism in Northeast Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英福; 张连营; 李兆龙

    2011-01-01

    Research on silver ore deposit type and geological characteristics of the ore deposit shows that the main genetic types of silver deposits in northeast Shanxi are medium to lower temperature hydrothermal deposit type associated with volcanic process including quartz-vein type silver deposit, volcanic type silver deposit, cryptoexplosion breccia type silver deposit), and contact metasomatism skarn type silver deposit, stratabond silver and manganese ore deposit including oxidation leaching type manganese and silver deposit and iron-manganese stain silver and manganese deposit. The major metallogenic period is Yanshanian. A series of silver deposits were formed through volcanic to sub-volcanic hydrothermal process and oxidation and leaching process on the earth surface.%银矿床类型和矿床地质特征研究表明,晋东北地区银矿王要成因类型为与火山作用有关的中低温热液银矿床(包括石英脉型银矿、火山岩型银矿、(隐)爆破角砾岩型银矿),其次为接触交代矽卡岩型银矿、层控银锰矿床(包括氧化淋滤型锰银矿和铁锰帽型银锰矿).银的主要成矿期为燕山期.在沉积作用、火山一次火山热液作用和地表氧化淋滤作用条件下形成了系列银矿床.

  11. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  12. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  13. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  14. Oxygen, carbon and sulphur isotope studies in the Keban Pb-Zn deposits, eastern Turkey: An approach on the origin of hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Leyla

    2011-03-01

    Pb-Zn deposits are widespread and common in various parts of the Taurus Belt. Most of the deposits are of pyrometasomatic and hydrothermal origin. The Keban Pb-Zn deposits are located along the intrusive contact between the Paleozoic - Lower Triassic Keban Metamorphic Formation and the syenite porphyry of the Upper Cretaceous Keban igneous rocks. Various studies have already been carried out; using fluid inclusion studies on fluorite, calcite and quartz on the pyrite-chalcopyrite bearing Keban ore deposits. This study focuses on the interpretation of stable isotope compositions in connexion with fluid inclusion data. Sulphur isotope values (δ 34S) of pyrite are within the range of -0.59 to +0.17‰ V-CDT ( n = 10). Thus, the source of sulphur is considered to be magmatic, as evidenced by associated igneous rocks and δ 34S values around zero"0". Oxygen isotope values δ 18O of quartz vary between +10.5 and +19.9‰ (SMOW). However, δ 18O and δ 13C values of calcite related to re-crystallized limestone (Keban Metamorphic Formation) reach up to +27.3‰ (SMOW) and +1.6‰ (PDB), respectively. The δ 34S, δ 13C and δ 18O values demonstrate that skarn-type Pb-Zn deposits formed within syeno-monzonitic rocks and calc-schist contacts could have developed at low temperatures, by mixing metamorphic and meteoric waters in the final stages of magmatism.

  15. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry on Magmatic Rocks and Gold Deposits in Shizishan Ore-Field of Tongling, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    REE geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks and gold deposits in Shizishan ore-field of Tongling were studied. Three types of the magmatic rocks have almost the same chondrite-normalized REE patterns, Eu and Ce anomalous values, and ΣREE, ΣLREE/ΣHREE regular changes, which indicates that their magmas come from the same source and their digenetic mechanism is fractional crystallization. In three gold deposits, the mineral ores and related altered rocks have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns and sharp Eu positive anomalous values. The REE contents reduced from the magmatic rocks to skarnization or alteration magmatic rocks, skarn type ores, sulphide type ores, wall-rocks limestone or marble. The REE geochemical characteristics of the ores and related rocks show that primary fluids originated from magmatic differentiation in lower pressure of shallow crust, ore-forming hydrothermal solutions gained REE and mineralization elements further from leaching the magmatic rocks, then superimposed and reformed the limestones or marbles and deposited ore-forming material.

  16. Mineral potential tracts for polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposits (phase V, deliverable 71): Chapter I in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-01-01

    In Mauritania, mineral occurrences of the polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposit type are found near the Florence-El Khdar shear zone in northeast Mauritania. The deposits visited were deemed representative of other similar occurrences and consist of quartz veins with trace sulfides. The low sulfide and Pb-Zn-Cu content in the quartz veins is unlike producing polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposits, such that the veins are not considered to belong to this deposit type. Mineral potential tracts for polymetallic Pb-ZnCu veins are highly speculative considering the lack of known mineralization belonging to this deposit type. Mineral potential tracts for polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu veins are associated with and surround major shear zones in the Rgueïbat Shield and zones of complex faulting in the southern Mauritanides, at the exclusion of the imbricated thrust faults that are not considered favorable for this deposit type. No skarn and replacement deposits have been documented in Mauritania and the low mineral potential is indicated by lack of causative Mesozoic and Cenozoic mafic to felsic stocks.

  17. Mineral potential tracts for orogenic, Carlin-like, and epithermal gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 69): Chapter H in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric D.; Horton, John D.; Finn, Carol A.; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The gold resources of Mauritania presently include two important deposits and a series of poorly studied prospects. The Tasiast belt of deposits, which came into production in 2007, is located in the southwestern corner of the Rgueïbat Shield and defines a world-class Paleoproterozoic(?) orogenic gold ore system. The producing Guelb Moghrein deposit occurs along a shear zone in Middle Archean rocks at the bend in the Northern Mauritanides and is most commonly stated to be an iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) type of deposit, although it also has some important characteristics of orogenic gold and skarn deposits. Both major deposits are surrounded by numerous prospects that show similar mineralization styles. The Guelb Moghrein deposit, and IOCG deposit types in general are discussed in greater detail in a companion report by Fernette (2015). In addition, many small gold prospects, which are probably orogenic gold occurrences and are suggested to be early Paleozoic in age, occur along the length of Southern Mauritanides. Existing data indicate the gold deposits and prospects in Mauritania have a sulfide assemblage most commonly dominated by pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, and have ore-related fluids with apparently high salinities.

  18. 江西永平铜多金属矿床流体包裹体及硫同位素研究%Fluid Inclusions and Sulfur Isotope of the Yongping Copper-polymetallic Deposit in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军军; 曹殿华; 杨昔林; 邱昌容; 王训军; 阚迎松

    2016-01-01

    永平铜多金属矿床位于华南地区十杭裂谷带南侧,是一个与晚侏罗世二长花岗斑岩侵入体有关的斑岩-矽卡岩矿床。矿区存在斑岩型钼矿和矽卡岩型铜矿两种矿化类型。其中,斑岩型钼矿含矿石英脉中主要发育I型气液两相包裹体、II型CO2三相包裹体和III型含子矿物多相包裹体,早期石英-硫化物阶段流体包裹体的形成温度介于202~359℃之间,盐度介于4.62~36.68 wt%NaCl之间;晚期石英-碳酸盐-硫化物阶段均一温度介于211~318℃之间,盐度范围为2.07~11.47 wt%NaCl。矽卡岩铜矿主要发育I型气液两相包裹体,早期矽卡岩阶段均一温度达到406~486℃,盐度为9.21~9.89 wt%NaCl;石英-硫化物阶段均一温度介于137~335℃之间,盐度值范围为4.98~13.20 wt%NaCl;晚期碳酸盐阶段包裹体均一温度只有89~151℃,盐度范围介于2.07~19.13 wt%NaCl之间。激光拉曼结果显示两者流体包裹体中具有相似的气相成分,都以CO2和H2O为主,成矿流体总体上属于H2O-CO2-NaCl体系。含Mo成矿流体中存在CH4,具有低氧逸度特征,在流体演化早期形成Mo矿化中心,石英-硫化物阶段含Mo流体相对于含Cu流体具有更高的温度和压力。矿石中金属硫化物的δ34S值变化于–0.2‰~+1.9‰之间,这表明成矿物质硫源主要来自深源岩浆。结合地质特征,认为该矿床是与晚侏罗世花岗质岩浆密切相关的斑岩钼-矽卡岩铜矿床,铜和钼矿化存在分带现象,岩浆系统的中心部位具有斑岩型钼矿化,外围及和碳酸盐岩的接触带形成斑岩-矽卡岩型铜钨铅锌矿化。%The Yongping copper-polymetallic deposit, located in the southern segment of Shi-Hang rift zone, is a porphyry-skarn type deposit related to the late Jurassic monzogranite intrusions. The mineralization at Yongping can be divided into two types: porphyry type and skarn type. Petrographic study of fluid inclusions suggests that three dominant types

  19. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  20. Transverse Momentum Spectra of KS0 and K*0 at Midrapidity in d + Au, Cu + Cu, and p+p Collisions at sNN=200  GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Chun Li; Guo-Xing Zhang; Yuan-Yuan Guo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze transverse momentum spectra of KS0 and K*0 at midrapidity in d + Au, Cu + Cu, and p+p collisions at sNN=200  GeV in the formworks of Tsallis statistics and Boltzmann statistics, respectively. Both of them can describe the transverse momentum spectra and extract the thermodynamics parameters of matter evolution in the collisions. The parameters are helpful for us to understand the thermodynamics factors of the particle production.

  1. THE GOLD MINERALIZATION AND PGE CONCENTRATION OF BAGUAMIAO GOLD DEPOSIT IN QINLING TECTONIC BELT%秦岭八卦庙金矿金的矿化与铂族金属的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瑞侠; 刘平; 郭健

    2001-01-01

    On systematic works, this paper reports geology,petrology,mineralogy and characteristics of the newly found W-Ru mineral.Research on the mineralization and wall-rock alteration reveal that PGE were concentrated in the late thermal-fluid stage and the concentration is correlated with gold.The ore was formed at 140-500℃ and depth>3.7km. The deposit is characterized by complex both in chemistry and mineralogy.Au,Cu,As,Ag,Ni,Co,Sb,S and PGE in Ru,Ir and Os show anomaly. This type gold deposit provides a probe for PGE in Qinlin tectonic belt.%文章报道了八卦庙特大型金矿床中伴生的铂族金属矿化的地质特征、岩石矿物学特征和新发现矿物——自然(钨)钌矿的基本矿物学特征。铂族金属矿化与金矿化及围岩蚀变的关系研究表明,八卦庙金矿中伴生的铂族金属富集于后期岩浆热液改造期,成矿物质主要来源于后期改造的热液;铂族金属的富集与金的富集呈明显的正消长关系;成矿的温度为140~500℃,矿化深度>3.7km,成矿流体是以中酸性岩浆热液为主的多成因热卤水;矿物组成以复杂的高温硫化物、合金类为主要特征;化学成分也比较复杂,以Au,Cu,As,Ag,Ni,Co,Sb,S和铂族金属Ru,Ir,Os异常等为特点。这类伴生铂族金属的金矿床将为秦岭成矿带寻找铂族金属提供了典型实例。

  2. Multi-episode fluid boiling in the Shizishan copper-gold deposit at Tongling, Anhui Province: its bearing on oreformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Shizishan copper-gold deposit at Tongling, Anhui Province consists of two magmato-hydrothermal mineralization types: the crypto-explosive breccia type and the skarn type. At least four episodes of boiling occurred to the ore-forming fluids in this deposit. The first episode took place in accompany with the formation of the crypto-explosive breccias. The melt-fluid inclusions giving temperatures above 600℃ and salinities higher than 42% NaCl equiv represent a residual magma related to this episode. The second episode occurred during skarnization, giving fluid temperatures of 422℃-472℃, averaging 458℃, and salinities of 10.2%-45.1% NaCl equiv. The third episode corresponds to the main mineralization stage, i.e., the quartz-sulphide stage. Fluid temperatures of this episode vary in a range of 337℃-439℃ with an average of 390℃, and salinities in a range of 3%-30% NaCl equiv. The forth episode happened at the waning stage of mineralization, giving fluid temperatures below 350℃ with an average of 265℃ and salinities of 2.1%-40.4% NaCl equiv.

  3. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  4. 新疆阿尔泰铁矿:地质特征、时空分布及成矿作用%Iron deposits in Altay, Xinjiang: Geological characteristics, time-spacedistribution and metallogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富全; 刘锋; 柴凤梅; 张志欣; 耿新霞; 吕书君; 姜丽萍; 欧阳刘进

    2011-01-01

    This paper has dealt with the geological characteristics of iron deposits in Altay of Xinjiang in their metallo-genic-tectonic contexts. The main host rocks for iron deposits in that region are the Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian Kangbutiebao Formation, Middle-Upper Devonian Altaizhen Formation and Upper Devonian Beitashan Formation, with minor Lower Carboniferous strata. These iron deposits can be divided into such types as volcanic rocks, skarn, pegmatite, granite-related hydrothermal solution, basic pluton-related V-Ti-magnetite and placer, with the volcanic rocks and skarn types being predominant. The volcanic rocks type iron deposits are mainly located in the Upper Kangbutiebao Formation in the Kelan volcano-sedimentary basin. The skarn type iron deposits occur primarily in the Lower Kangbutiebao Formation in the Maizi volcano-sedimentary basin, Al-taizhen Formation in Jiaerbasidao-Kekebulake and Beitashan Formation in Qiaoxiahala-Laoshankou. The granite-related hydrothermal iron deposits occur primarily along the Ertix shear belt. Based on isotopic age data, the authors hold that iron deposits in Altay were essentially formed in four periods: Early Devonian (410~386 Ma), Middle Devonian (380-377 Ma), Early Permian (287~274 Ma), and Early Triassic (244 Ma). Sulfur isotopic compositions from the iron deposits in Altay imply that the sulfur was derived from volcanic rocks, diorite, granite and bacteria reduction of sulfate from seawater. REE geochemistry of rocks and ores from the iron deposits in Altay suggests that the ore-forming material was derived from the basic volcanic rocks.%在前人工作基础上,文章综述了新疆阿尔泰铁矿地质特征和成矿背景.新疆阿尔泰铁矿赋矿地层主要为上志留统一下泥盆统康布铁堡组、中上泥盆统阿勒泰镇组和中泥盆统北塔山组,少数为下石炭统和下古生界.成因类型可划分为火山岩型、矽卡岩型、伟晶岩型、与花岗岩有关的热液型、与基性岩

  5. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  6. 安徽池州铜山铜矿床元素地球化学分带特征及意义%Element geochemistry zoning of Tongshan copper deposit in Chizhou, Anhui Province, and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智宇; 杜杨松; 庞振山; 张静; 滕传耀

    2012-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit is a medium-sized skam deposit, which is located in the Anqing-Guichi ore concentration area along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. Ore bodies occur in the contact zone between the Tongshan intrusion and carbonate of the Qixia Formation of the Lower Permian series. Element analyses of the samples systematically collected along a typical section show zoning with gradual variation in elements from magmatic rocks through skams to carbonates. Skarns near the intrusion are rich in Si, Fe, Mg, siderophile element Co, chalcophile elements Cu and Ag, while those far from the intrusion are rich in Ca, Mn, Al, Ti, REE, chalcophile elements Pb and Zn. Strongly silicated rock far from the marble zone is enriched in Si, Fe, Li and Co, but strongly depleted in Ca, Sr and REE. This zoning may be explained based on the element remobilization theory. During the formation of skarns, Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Li, REE, LJLEs (e.g., Rb and Cs) , siderophile elements (Co and V), chalcophile element Zn, and HFSEs (e.g., Ta, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ga and Be) carried by magmatic-hydrothermal fluids might be transferred into the marble and enriched in skarns, while Ca in the marble activated and enriched in skarns, with moving out of Sr, K and Pb. Weakly altered and mineralized skam is enriched in REE( XREE = 122. 0 × 10 -6 ) , especially LREE [ ( La/Sm) N = 3. 99 ] , but depleted in HREE [ (Gd/Yb) N = 2. 85 ] , with a negative Eu anormaly ( δEu = 0. 69). Chondrite-normalized HREE pattern of skarn is similar to that of fresh quartz-monzonite-porphyry, but it is relative low in LREE ( e. g., La, Ce). The variation of elements along the section and REE pattern of skarns indicate a contact metasomatic origin of the Tongshan skam copper deposit. The data mentioned above combined with H-0 isotopic analyses indicate the derivation of ore-forming fluids is mainly from magmatic hydrothermal solution, with addition of meteoric water into the fluids at the stage of

  7. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  8. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  9. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  10. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part VI. Maximum duration for mineralization of the OH vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.R.; Barton, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    The rate at which ore deposits form is one of the least well established parameters in all of economic geology. However, increased detail in sampling, improved technology of dating, and sophistication in modeling are reducing the uncertainties and establishing that ore formation, at least for the porphyry copper-skarn-epithermal base and precious metals deposit package, may take place in surprisingly brief intervals. This contribution applies another approach to examine the duration of mineralization. The degree to which compositional gradients within single crystals has flattened through solid-state diffusion offers a measure of the thermal dose (that is temperature combined with time) that the crystals have been subjected to since deposition. Here we examine the steepness of gradients in iron content within individual single sphalerite crystals from the epithermal silver-lead-zinc deposit in the OH vein at Creede, Colorado. Two initial textures are considered: growth-banded crystals and compositionally contrasting overgrowths that succeed crosscutting dissolution or fractured surfaces. The model used estimates the maximum possible time by assuming a perfectly sharp original compositional step, and it asks how long it would take at a known temperature for the gradient measured today to have formed. Applying the experimentally determined diffusion rates of Mizuta (1988a) to compositional gradients (ranging from 0.4-2.2 mol % FeS/??m) measured by the electron microprobe in 2-??m steps on banded sphalerite formed early in the paragenetic history yields a maximum duration of less than ???10,000 yr. Sphalerite from a solution unconformity in a position midway through the paragenetic sequence is indistinguishable from instantaneous deposition, supporting the conclusion of rapid ore formation. While this formation interval seems very brief, it is consistent with less well constrained estimates using entirely different criteria. ?? 2005 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  11. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    of small to mid-sized vein, replacement, and skarn intrusion-related metal deposits in lower Paleozoic rocks that contain TDS sedimentary pyrite S and Pb reflect (1) prolific Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary magmatism, (2) a regional, substrate reservoir of S and Pb in permeable and homogeneous siliciclastic strata, and (3) relatively small scale concentration of substrate and magmatic components. Large intrusion-related metal deposits in the central and eastern Great Basin acquired S and most Pb from thicker lithospheric sections. ?? 2011 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  12. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian, Jilin Province, China: Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JingGui; ZHAO JunKang; CHEN JunQiang; KEISUKE Nagao; HIROCHiKA Sumino; SHEN Kun; MEN LanJing; CHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45-0.08 Ra, 10.2-8.8 and 306-430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123-102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition- crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as: (1

  13. 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Stephens, Michael B.; Weihed, Pär

    2016-06-01

    Altered and mineralized rocks at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore district in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, have been metamorphosed at low-pressure, amphibolite-facies conditions and affected by ductile deformation. Using combined surface mapping of lithology and structure, drill core logging and microstructural work, the polyphase (D1 and D2) ductile deformation is demonstrated and a 3D model for the deposit created. Mineral associations include quartz, biotite, cordierite, anthophyllite, and minor almandine, andalusite and chlorite in silicate-rich altered rock, calcite or dolomite in marble and tremolite-actinolite or diopside-hedenbergite in skarn. The silicate minerals show varying growth patterns during the different phases of the tectonothermal evolution, with considerable static grain growth occurring between D1 and D2, and even after D2. F2 sheath folding along axes that plunge steeply to the SSE, parallel to a mineral stretching lineation and the dip direction of the S2 foliation, is suggested as a key deformation mechanism forming steeply plunging, cone- to rod-shaped mineralized bodies. This contrasts with a previous structural model invoking fold interference. A major shear zone with talc-chlorite-(quartz-biotite) mineral association separates the northern and southern structural domains at the deposit and bounds the polymetallic massive sulphides to the north.

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  16. Re-Os age of molybdenite from the Baoshan copper polymetallic deposit in the Jiurui ore concentration area along the middle-lower Yangtze River region and its geological significance%长江中下游九瑞矿集区宝山铜多金属矿床辉钼矿Re-Os年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正华; 聂龙敏; 雷天浩; 胡文洁; 张芳荣; 吴施金; 沙珉; 龚良信; 谢瑞丰; 文亮先; 王先广; 李永明; 刘善宝; 张家菁; 陈毓川; 曾庆权; 王艺云; 蒋金明

    2015-01-01

    九瑞地区斑岩-矽卡岩型矿床是长江中下游地区Cu-Au-Mo(Fe)多金属成矿带的重要组成部分,宝山铜多金属矿床是江西省实施找矿突破战略以来,在九瑞矿集区界首—大桥背斜核部新发现的首个中型以上斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床。本文利用辉钼矿Re-Os同位素定年方法对宝山矿床进行了成矿时代的研究,获得了6件辉钼矿Re-Os同位素模式年龄为(147.2±3.6) Ma~(150.5±2.7) Ma,加权平均年龄为(148±1) Ma, MSWD=1.03。6件样品其等时线年龄为(148.6±2.6) Ma, MSWD=1.9,代表了宝山矿床的成矿时代,与九瑞矿集区其他斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床(武山、城门山、湖北丰山洞、鸡笼山、宋家冲、邓家山、通江岭)以及长江中下游地区鄂东南、铜陵矿集区斑岩-矽卡岩铜多金属矿床的形成时代高度一致,它们均为中国东部EW特堤斯构造域向NE古太平洋构造域大转折背景下,软流圈上涌和玄武质岩浆底侵而导致壳幔同熔所引起的燕山期花岗质岩浆岩活动的产物。%Porphyry-skarn deposits in Jiurui area constitute an important part of the middle-lower Yangtze River Cu-Au-Mo (Fe) polymetallic ore belt. Since the implementation of the prospecting breakthrough strategy, the Baoshan deposit has been the first medium-size porphyry-skarn copper polymetallic deposit discovered at the core of Jieshou-Daqiao anticline in Jiurui area. In this paper, molybdenite Re-Os dating was used to study the mineralization time of the Baoshan deposit and, as a result, six molybdenite Re-Os model ages of 147.2±3.6 Ma to 150.5±2.7 Ma and weighted average age of 148±1 Ma (MSWD=1.03) were obtained. These six molybdenite Re-Os model ages yielded an isochron age of 148.6±2.6 Ma (MSWD=1.9), which represents the ore-forming age of the Banshan deposit. The ore-forming age of the Baoshan deposit is similar to ages of other porphyry-skarn type copper polymetallic deposits in Jiurui area (e

  17. Airfoil deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology to predict deposit evolution (deposition rate and subsequent flow of liquid deposits) as a function of fuel and air impurity content and relevant aerodynamic parameters for turbine airfoils is developed in this research. The spectrum of deposition conditions encountered in gas turbine operations includes the mechanisms of vapor deposition, small particle deposition with thermophoresis, and larger particle deposition with inertial effects. The focus is on using a simplified version of the comprehensive multicomponent vapor diffusion formalism to make deposition predictions for: (1) simple geometry collectors; and (2) gas turbine blade shapes, including both developing laminar and turbulent boundary layers. For the gas turbine blade the insights developed in previous programs are being combined with heat and mass transfer coefficient calculations using the STAN 5 boundary layer code to predict vapor deposition rates and corresponding liquid layer thicknesses on turbine blades. A computer program is being written which utilizes the local values of the calculated deposition rate and skin friction to calculate the increment in liquid condensate layer growth along a collector surface.

  18. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  19. 安徽新桥矿床矿相学与 Fe 同位素特征及其对矿床成因的制约%Ore Microscopy & Fe Isotope of the Xinqiao Deposit and Their Constraints on the Ore Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃; 朱祥坤; 程彦博; 李志红

    2013-01-01

    Systematical field work and ore microscopy studies have been carried out in the Xinqiao deposit.The fact that the skarn-associated magnetite is cut by the colloidal pyrite in the stratiform ore body provides a new constraint on the ore genesis of the stratiform sulfide ore body in Xinqiao deposit. The Fe isotope compositions of siderite minerals from the siderite ore bodies in Xinqiao and Fenghuagnshan skarn Fe Cu ore bodies were analyzed and compared.Fe isotope compositions of the siderite from Xinqiao deposit are different from those from sedimentary and hydrothermal vein-type deposits,but similar to those from the Fenghuanghsan skarn Fe Cu deposit.Moreover,the fact that the heavy Fe isotope enrichment in magnetite related to siderite and colloidal pyrite indicates that the siderite and colloidal pyrite cannot be altered to be magnetite.Fe isotope compositions in sulfide ores, quartz-monzodiorite stock and limestone wall-rock in Xinqiao strata bound sulfide and skarn ore were examined.Theδ57 Fe values of endoskarn and the earliest formed magnetite are lower than those of the quartz-monzodiorite,while δ57 Fe values of limestone wall-rock are higher than those of the igneous stock.Moreover,such features as spatial and temporal zoning,evolution of Fe isotope are consistent with fluid exsolutionary and evolutionary theory, also accordant with basic theory of Fe isotopic fractionation,which suggests that two types of ores be resulted from the same hydrothermal fluid system and Fe element came from the same magmatic source.The Fe isotope characteristics,together with ore minerals paragenesis relationship,demonstrate that the Xinqiao Cu S Fe Au deposit is a typical hydrothermal skarn deposit,rather than the multi-stage syngenetic-hydrothermal compound deposit.%对安徽新桥矿床进行系统的野外地质调查和矿相学研究发现,层状矿体中的胶状黄铁矿交代矽卡岩磁铁矿矿体,为探讨层状硫化物矿床是早期沉积成因还是岩

  20. 广东省阳山县石寨铅锌多金属矿地质特征%Geological characteristics of Shizhai Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit in Yangshan of Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼源宏; 郭华; 占达积; 王灿松

    2016-01-01

    阳山县石寨矿区隶属南岭钨锡多金属成矿带,属矽卡岩型铅锌多金属矿,是武警黄金九支队首次针对此类型矿床进行勘查。矿区内花岗岩体广泛与石炭系地层接触,接触带长度延伸较长,具有较好的成矿条件。已发现的矽卡岩带,受接触带构造影响,在走向与倾向上整体呈“S”型舒缓波状,铅锌矿体主要赋存于矽卡岩带中。通过物化探基础性工作,并利用钻探及槽探工程进行查证,物化探异常与已发现矿脉吻合度较高,且深部呈现铅锌多金属元素富集增高的趋势,显示了较好的找矿前景。通过对区内多金属矿床地质特征、成矿规律分析与找矿前景分析总结,为在该区深部进一步开展找矿勘探,扩大其远景规模提供了明确方向和详实的地质资料。%Shizhai mining area of Yangshan is a skarn-type Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit which is located in Nan-ling W-Sn polymetallic metallogenic belt.It’s the first time that No.9 Gold Geological Team of CAPF has conducted exploration works on this type of deposits.The metallogenic conditions are favorable because the contact between granite body and Carboniferous stratum is extensive and long in length in this mining area. Under the influence of the structure of contact zone,the discovered skarn belt shows S-shaped gentle wave-forms in strike and trend.The Pb-Zn orebodies mainly occur in the skarn belt.Through geophysical and geo-chemical exploration as well as drilling and trenching works ,it is verified that the geophysical and geoche-mical anomalies match very well with the discovered ore veins,and elements like Pb and Zn are enriched and increased in the deeper part.It is indicated that the mining area has great prospecting potential.This paper analyzed and summarized the geological characteristics,metallogenic regularity and prospecting potential of the poly-metallic deposits in the area,and provided a clear direction

  1. Deposition patterns with Turbuhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, L

    1994-01-01

    The degree of lung deposition is an important factor in the evaluation of different inhalation flow driven dry powder inhalers. A number of studies using radioactive and non-radioactive methods have been performed with Turbuhaler to assess lung deposition under different conditions. Mean total lung deposition of terbutaline sulfate or budesonide via Turbuhaler in healthy volunteers ranged from 21-32% of the dose when a normal inhalation flow (60L/min) was used. At a low flow (30L/min) a mean 15% of the dose was deposited in the lungs, a similar value as for a well-performed inhalation via a pressurized metered dose inhaler. Regional deposition of inhaled drug can be expressed as the ratio between the amount of drug deposited in the more peripheral parts of the lung relative to the more central parts. In a comparative study, budesonide and terbutaline sulfate were given by inhalation via Turbuhaler to healthy volunteers. The ratio of peripheral to central deposition was 2.03 for terbutaline and 1.72 for budesonide. Thus, both the water-soluble terbutaline sulfate and the non-water soluble budesonide seemed to behave in the same way when inhaled via Turbuhaler. In conclusion, Turbuhaler delivers over 20% of a metered dose to the lungs when inhaled at a normal inhalation flow rate. The regional deposition pattern in the lungs was the same for terbutaline sulfate and budesonide, in spite of differences in water solubility. PMID:10147081

  2. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  3. Extreme variation of sulfur isotopic compositions in pyrite from the Qiuling sediment-hosted gold deposit, West Qinling orogen, central China: an in situ SIMS study with implications for the source of sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Xian-hua; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Liu, Yu; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-08-01

    High spatial resolution textural (scanning electron microscope (SEM)), chemical (electron microprobe (EMP)) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)), and sulfur isotopic (secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)) analyses of pyrite from the Qiuling sediment-hosted gold deposit (232 ± 4 Ma) in the West Qinling orogen, central China were conducted to distinguish pyrite types and gain insights into the source and evolution of sulfur in hydrothermal fluids. The results reveal an enormous variation (-27.1 to +69.6 ‰) in sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite deposited during three paragenetic stages. Pre-ore framboidal pyrite, which is characterized by low concentrations of As, Au, Cu, Co, and Ni, has negative δ34S values of -27.1 to -7.6 ‰ that are interpreted in terms of bacterial reduction of marine sulfate during sedimentation and diagenesis of the Paleozoic carbonate and clastic sequences, the predominant lithologies in the deposit area, and the most important hosts of many sediment-hosted gold deposits throughout the West Qinling orogen. The ore-stage hydrothermal pyrite contains high concentrations of Au, As, Cu, Sb, Tl, and Bi and has a relatively narrow range of positive δ34S values ranging from +8.1 to +15.2 ‰. The sulfur isotope data are comparable to those of ore pyrite from many Triassic orogenic gold deposits and Paleozoic sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Pb-Zn deposits in the West Qinling orogen, both being hosted mainly in the Devonian sequence. This similarity indicates that sulfur, responsible for the auriferous pyrite at Qiuling, was largely derived from the metamorphic devolatization of Paleozoic marine sedimentary rocks. Post-ore-stage pyrite, which is significantly enriched in Co and Ni but depleted in Au and As, has unusually high δ34S values ranging from +37.4 to +69.6 ‰, that are interpreted to result from thermochemical reduction of evaporite sulfates in underlying Cambrian sedimentary rocks with very

  4. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  5. Mineralogical characteristics and geologi-cal significance of the Zhuxi Cu-W polymetallic ore deposit, Jiangxi Province%江西朱溪铜钨多金属矿床矽卡岩矿物学特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苗; 潘小菲; 李岩; 陈国华; 张诚; 康川; 魏锦; 张天福; 刘茜

    2015-01-01

    Abstact:The Zhuxi Cu-W polymetallic ore deposit is located in the northwest of Gandongbei faulted zone. The orebodies mainly occur in the skarn and skarnized marble at the contact zone between Yanshan intrusive rock and carbonate. Typical skarn minerals consist mainly of garnet, diopside, tremolite, wollastonite, serpentine, phlogopite, vesuvianite and chlorite. According to the associa⁃tion and metasomatism relationship of the minerals, the authors infer that the ore-forming fluid might have experienced five evolu⁃tionary stages, i.e., skarn stage, degenerate alteration stage, quartz sulfide stage, quartz carbonate stage, and supergene oxide stage. Elec⁃tron microprobe analyses show that the garnet is mainly composed of grossularite-andradite, the pyroxenes mainly belong to diop⁃side-andradite series, the amphiboles show characteristics of calciferous amphibole, and the chlorites are mainly pycnochlorite and clinochlorite. It is also inferred that after the intrusion ore-forming the fluid was under the medium-acid to acid and weak oxidizing conditions at the skarn stage. At the degeneration alteration stage, the scheelite was separated out after the rise of the oxygen fugacity and the pH. The metal sulfides precipitated along with the drop of the oxygen fugacity. The class of the metal mineralization was also inferred according to its mineral compositions.%朱溪铜钨多金属矿床位于赣东北深大断裂北西侧。矿体主要产于燕山期侵入岩与碳酸盐岩接触带的矽卡岩或矽卡岩化大理岩中,代表性矽卡岩矿物有石榴子石、透辉石、透闪石、硅灰石、蛇纹石、金云母、符山石、绿泥石等。根据矿物共生组合及交代关系推断流体经历了5个阶段,分别为矽卡岩阶段、退化蚀变阶段、石英硫化物阶段、石英碳酸盐阶段和表生氧化阶段。特征矿物的电子探针分析结果表明,石榴子石主要为钙铝榴石—钙铁榴石;辉石以透辉石—

  6. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan

    2016-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  7. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian,Jilin Province,China:Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEISUKE; Nagao; HIROCHIKA; Sumino

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45―0.08 Ra, 10.2―8.8 and 306―430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123―102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition-crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as

  8. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  9. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  10. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  11. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  12. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  13. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  14. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  15. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  16. 滇西北红山铜矿床成矿流体地球化学特征及矿床成因%Geochemical characteristics of ore-forming fluids and genesis of Hongshan copper deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文昌; 王可勇; 尹光侯; 秦丹鹤; 余海军; 薛顺荣; 万多

    2013-01-01

    The Hongshan copper deposit is a large porphyry-skarn type polymetallic deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province. It occurred in quartz diorite porphyry of Indo-Chinese Period and quartz monzonite porphyry of Yanshanian Period as well as their neighbouring wall rocks. The formation of it experienced superimposition of mutiphases/stages hydrothermal mineralization. Comprehensive study on petrography, microthermometry and carbon-hydrogen-oxygen isotope of fluid inclusions showed that the ore-forming fluids of early metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-H2 O type solutions and mainly came from arc magmatism of Indo-Chinese Period, they were responsible for the formation of skarn type mineralization. The ore-forming fluids of later metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-CO2 -H2 O type solutions and mainly came from the buried granitic magmatism of post orogenic extension environment, and they played important role in the formation of porphyry type Cu, Mo and relevant Pb, Zn mineralization. So the Hongshan copper deposit is of superimposed poyphyry-skarn type deposit that originated from the metallogenic superimposition of two phases of magmatic hydrothermal fluids.%红山铜矿床为滇西北地区一大型斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床,它产于印支期石英闪长玢岩及燕山期石英二长斑岩体内及其周边地层中,其形成经历了多期次热液叠加成矿作用过程.流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温及碳、氢、氧稳定同位素综合研究表明,矿区早期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-H2O体系热液,主要来源于印支晚期岛弧型岩浆活动,对区内矽卡岩型矿化形成起了重要作用;晚期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-CO2-H2O体系热液,主要来源于隐伏的燕山期后造山伸展型花岗质岩浆侵入体,形成了区内斑岩型Cu、Mo及相关的Pb、Zn多金属矿化.因此,红山铜矿床是

  17. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  18. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  19. Characteristics of stable isotopic compositions and its geological significances of the Yangla copper deposit, northwestern Yunnan Province%滇西北羊拉铜矿床稳定同位素特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思尧; 顾雪祥; 程文斌; 章永梅; 郑硌; 彭义伟; 刘瑞萍

    2013-01-01

    The Yangla copper deposit is locate in the middle part of the Jinshajiang belt. It was formed due to the westward subduction of the Jinshajiang oceanic basin and collisional orogeny during Mid-Late Triassic. Ore bodies are typically layered or bedded and closely related to the acidic plutons. Ore bodies are trinity controlled by the pluton, stratum and structure and have obvious feature of the skarn deposit. The stable isotopic compositions of marble and various kinds of minerals in different stages have been analyzed respectively. The results show that the δ18OSMOW values of the garnet which is the major mineral of the skarn is 6.1‰, indicating that the oxygen isotopic compositions of skarn may inherit directly from the acidic plutons. The δD values of the quartz in main mineralization are varied from — 112‰ ~-77‰ and the δ180H2O values are varied from -2. 42‰ ~4. 85‰, which reflects that the main compositions of ore-forming fluids was magmatic water and accompanied with input of meteoric water. The δ13 CPDB values of — 5.1‰ ~ — 1. 7‰ and the δ18OSMOW values of 12. 7‰ ~20.1‰ for the calcite shows that the carbon and oxygen of calcite are sourced mainly from magma and less from marble. The δ13CPDB values of 3. 6‰ ~5. 0‰ and the δ18OSMOW values of 21. 2‰ -25. 4‰ for marble indicate that the marble was re-crystallized from the oceanic carbonate. And as the distance between marble and ore-body decreases, the δ13C values and δ18O values have a trend reducing constantly, which shows that during the process which the ore-forming fluids metasomatiled marble, the fluids with low δ13C values and δ18O values occurred isotope exchange with marble and made the δ13C values and δ18 0 values of marble decrease, and the nearer distance between marble and ore-body was, the more intense the isotope exchange was. The δ34S value of ore sulfides varied from -6. 9‰ ~ 2. 5‰ and were focused from - 2‰ ~ 1‰, showing that the sulfur of

  20. Gaseous transport and deposition of gold in magmatic fluid: evidence from the active Kudryavy volcano, Kurile Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovskaya, Marina A.; Distler, Vadim V.; Chaplygin, Ilya V.; Mokhov, Andrew V.; Trubkin, Nikolai V.; Gorbacheva, Sonya A.

    2006-03-01

    The distribution of gold in high-temperature fumarole gases of the Kudryavy volcano (Kurile Islands) was measured for gas, gas condensate, natural fumarolic sublimates, and precipitates in silica tubes from vents with outlet temperatures ranging from 380 to 870°C. Gold abundance in condensates ranges from 0.3 to 2.4 ppb, which is significantly lower than the abundances of transition metals. Gold contents in zoned precipitates from silica tubes increase gradually with a decrease in temperature to a maximum of 8 ppm in the oxychloride zone at a temperature of approximately 300°C. Total Au content in moderate-temperature sulfide and oxychloride zones is mainly a result of Au inclusions in the abundant Fe-Cu and Zn sulfide minerals as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Most Au occurs as a Cu-Au-Ag triple alloy. Single grains of native gold and binary Au-Ag alloys were also identified among sublimates, but aggregates and crystals of Cu-Au-Ag alloy were found in all fumarolic fields, both in silica tube precipitates and in natural fumarolic crusts. Although the Au triple alloy is homogeneous on the scale of microns and has a composition close to (Cu,Ni,Zn)3(Au,Ag)2, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that these alloy solid solutions consist of monocrystal domains of Au-Ag, Au-Cu, and possibly Cu2O. Gold occurs in oxide assemblages due to the decomposition of its halogenide complexes under high-temperature conditions (650-870°C). In lower temperature zones (behavior is related to sulfur compounds whose evolution is strongly controlled by redox state. Other minerals that formed from gas transport and precipitation at Kudryavy volcano include garnet, aegirine, diopside, magnetite, anhydrite, molybdenite, multivalent molybdenum oxides (molybdite, tugarinovite, and ilsemannite), powellite, scheelite, wolframite, Na-K chlorides, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, greenockite, pyrite, galena, cubanite, rare native metals (including Fe, Cr, Mo, Sn, Ag, and

  1. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  2. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  3. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  4. Molybdenite occurrences in Greece: mineralogy, geochemistry and depositional environment

    OpenAIRE

    Voudouris, P.; Melfos, V.; Moritz, Robert; Spry, P. G.; Ortelli, Mélissa; Kartal, T.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenite occurs mainly in three mineralization types in Greece: (a) porphyry Mo-Cu-(±Te-Ag-Au), (b) reduced intrusion-related Mo-W systems (skarn, intrusion-hosted) and (c) shear zone-related Cu-Au-Bi-Mo. In porphyry-Mo-Cu prospects the molybdenite is the main ore constituent together with pyrite in quartz stockworks crosscutting sericite±carbonate altered porphyry stocks (dacite at Pagoni Rachi/Kirki, Myli/Esymi, Konos/Sapes, Melitena/Rhodopi and Stypsi/Lesvos; microgranite at Ktismata/Ma...

  5. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  6. 新疆西天山查岗诺尔铁矿床矿物学特征及其地质意义%Mineralogy of the Chagangnuoer iron deposit in Western Tianshan Mountains,Xinjiang, and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪为; 张作衡; 赵军; 王志华; 李凤鸣; 石福品; 刘兴忠

    2012-01-01

    Located in the eastern Awulale metallogenic belt of Western Tianshan Mountains, the large-size Cha-gangnuoer iron deposit is hosted in andesitic volcaniclastic rocks or andesitic tuff of the Lower Carboniferous Da-halajunshan Formation, with a lenticular marble beneath the main ore body. The ore bodies occur as lamellar, stratoids and lenses, controlled by NW-, NWW- and NEE- striking faults and circular faults. Mineralizations occur along the fissures and fractures in the wall rocks. This ore deposit is composed of two major ore bodies, I. E., FeI and FeII. The FeI ore body strikes NE-SW, about 2 900 m in length, 63 m in average thickness, with Fe average grade of 36.87% and ore reserves of more than 190 million tons. Wall rock alterations includechiefly garnetization, actinolitization, chloritization, epidotization etc. Ore minerals consist mainly of magnetite and subordinated pyrite and chalcopyrite while gangue minerals are composed of garnet, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, tremolite, and calcite. Electron microprobe analyses show that the end member of garnet is andradite (Adr) with an average content of 61.58 %, grossularite (Grs) with an average content of 35.45 %, and alman-dite (Alm) with an average content of 2.48%. The composition of pyroxene is dominated by diopside (Di, 54.22% on average) and hedenbergite (Hd, 44.22% on average), with a small amount of johannsenite (Jo, less than 5.53%). Components of garnet and pyroxene are Adr37.97~97.89Grs0.19~57.21 (Aim + Sps)0.84~4.38, Di28.68~87.46Hd10.46~70.13.Jo0.24~5.53, which indicates that 0 characteristics of these two skam minerals are quite similar to those in calcic skam from the major large iron deposits, suggesting that they probably resulted from skarnization; (2) their wide and different compositions reveal that skarns were not formed under a wholly closed equilibrium condition. Epidote is rich in Al and Ca but poor in Fe and Mg, implying that Fe and Mg were separated from each other at the time when

  7. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.)

  8. Geological features and geochemical characteristics of Laoyaling copper deposit in Tongling,Anhui province%安徽省铜陵老鸦岭铜矿床地质特征及地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐方颖; 赖健清; 王雄军

    2015-01-01

    老鸦岭铜矿床是冬瓜山矿区内一个层控矽卡岩型矿床。区内主要出露三叠系地层,青山背斜是主要褶皱构造,侵入岩以燕山期中酸性岩体为主。矿体呈多层产在下二叠统至下三叠统的远离主接触带的大理岩地层中。矿区内的地层和岩体可能受同一流体的影响;地层和燕山期流体均为成矿提供稀土元素;矿床不同的元素异常组合对成矿有不同的指示作用。%The Laoyaling copper deposit,located in the Dongguashan mining area,is a stratabound skarn type deposit.The main outcropped strata are limestone and dolomite of Triassic.Qingshan anticline is the main fold structure and Yanshanian intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks are the major intrusive rocks in the mining area.Orebodies mainly occur in Lower Permain-Lower Triassic marbles,far from the main contact zone. The formation and diorite in the mining area may be affected by the same fluid.Both formation and forming fluid of Yanshanian magmatic rocks provide REE for orebody.The different element anomaly combination of the deposit play different role of metallogenic environment.

  9. 广东梅子冲银多金属矿床地质特征及找矿方向%Geological characteristics and prospecting direction of Meizichong silver-polymetallic deposit in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑

    2015-01-01

    韶关梅子冲银多金属矿床位于南岭成矿带中部一六矿田内,矿体赋存于下石炭统孟公坳组不纯灰岩中,属于典型的矽卡岩型矿床,矿床成矿元素地表分带和钻孔中的垂向分带现象明显。主成矿元素银主要以独立矿物和类质同象混入物形式赋存于方铅矿等硫化物中。文章通过矿床地质特征的分析,对矿床成因进行了初步的探讨,并提出了下一步本区的找矿方向。%Meizichong silver-polymetallic deposit belongs to typical skarn type which located inner Yiliu ore field of central Naling metallogenic belt and its ore bodies occur in impure limestone of Menggongao group of Lower Carboniferous Series.The horizontal zoning in surface and vertical zoning in drill hole of metallogenic elements in this deposit are clear.Main metallogenic element of silver is occurrence in sulfide such as galena with independent minerals and isomorphous addition.Base on analysis to geological characteristics,the de-posit genesis has carried on the preliminary discussion,and prospecting direction for further exploration has been pointed out.

  10. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  11. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 digC to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  12. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  13. MOF作模板制备多孔Au/CuxO催化剂及其CO氧化性能%MOF-templated preparation of porous Au/CuxO catalysts with octahedral structures for CO oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋飞; 张所瀛; 杨祝红; 陆小华

    2016-01-01

    采用MOF材料作模板,通过在Cu-BTC材料表面预先负载贵金属Au再热解的方法,成功制备了具有正八面体结构的新型多孔Au/CuxO负载型催化剂。通过降低热解环境中的O2浓度,调节氧化时间,实现了Au/Cu-BTC氧化产物组分的调节,分别制得了Au/Cu2O、Au/Cu2O-CuO、Au/CuO复合催化材料。将其用于CO催化氧化,发现所有Au/CuxO催化剂都表现出比Cu-BTC和Au/Cu-BTC更优异的催化性能,其中由于拥有较高的比表面积、Cu2O含量以及更好的Au的分散性,Au/Cu2O的CO氧化活性最佳,180℃即能实现CO的完全转化。%More recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as a excellent sacrificial template, have been widely used to fabricate a variety of porous metal oxides with special structures and performances. To take full advantage of MOFs in composition regulation, herein a novel method to prepare porous Au/CuxO composites with octahedral structures inherited from MOFs was introduced. Au/Cu-BTC was firstly prepared by the traditional deposition-precipitation method. Subsequently, pyrolysis of Au/Cu-BTC was conducted in 2% (volume fraction) O2 balanced with helium. By varying the time of heating, Au/CuxO composites including Au/Cu2O, Au/Cu2O-CuO and Au/CuO were successfully achieved. When tested in CO oxidation, these supported catalysts exhibited much better catalytic performances than Cu-BTC and Au/Cu-BTC due to the more active support of metal oxides. Thus, Au/Cu2O showed the best catalytic activity since the high surface area, Cu2O content and better dispersion of Au.

  14. Fluid inclusion and phase equilibrium studies at the Cannivan Gulch molybdenum deposit, Montana, USA: Effect of CO 2 on molybdenite-powellite stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    The molybdenum deposit at Cannivan Gulch is characterized by both stockwork- and skarn type mineralization. The vein mineral assemblages, however, differ considerably between the various host rocks. In the Cannivan stock, molybdenite occurs in typical quartz + K-feldspar or quartz + muscovite veins. In the country rocks, molybdenite occurs in chlorite + pyrite + magnetite veins containing variable amounts of quartz, calcite, and epidote. Primary fluid inclusions in quartz and fluorite contain aqueous liquid, CO 2 liquid, and CO 2 vapor (average XCO2 = 0.05). Microthermometric and Laser Raman microspectrographic analyses indicate CO 2 is the principal volatile phase. First melting temperatures in the aqueous portion indicate the dissolved salt is principally NaCl. Final CO 2-clathrate melting temperatures indicate NaCl contents ranging from 2 to 7 wt% relative to H 2O. Homogenization temperatures range from 196 to 272°C. Four chlorite temperatures from two samples range from 296 to 319°C. In P- T space, the four chlorite univariants intersect four fluid inclusion isochores (from the same samples) at temperatures of 300 ± 20° C and 1500 ± 300 bars, which are the inferred P and T of molybdenite formation. Mineral equilibria in vein assemblages from country rocks at Cannivan Gulch indicate fO2 and fS2 conditions of molybdenite formation between the pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite and pyrite-magnetite-hematite buffers. Formation of a calcite-molybdenite assemblage over powellite suggests that even small amounts of CO 2 ( XCO2 = 0.05) in an ore fluid greatly extend the stability field of molybdenite to higher oxygen fugacities.

  15. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  16. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  17. 40Ar-39Ar Dating of Sericite in the Nongruri Gold Deposit of Tibet and its Geological Significance%西藏弄如日金矿床蚀变绢云母40Ar-39Ar年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瀚霄; 李光明; 董随亮; 石洪召; 刘波; 张智林

    2012-01-01

    The Nongruri gold deposit is located in Gangdise-Himalaya metallogenio belt, southern Qinghai-Tibet plateau- The mineralization was strictly controlled by the SN fault. The Nongruri gold deposit is the first epithermal Au deposit discovered in the Gangdese metallogenic belt. The ore-forming age of the Nongruri gold deposit is still in dispute. In order to obtain the ore-forming age, the authors measured the sericites separated from the altered granite-porphyry which hosts the gold deposit. The Ar- Ar analyses yield weighted average age and isochron age of (19.87 ±0.96) Ma and (19.70 ±0. 30) Ma, respectively. It is held that the Au mineralization in the Nongruri deposit took place in Miocene, which is consistent with the ore-forming epoch of the porphyry copper ore deposits in the adjacent regions. This suggests that the Nongruri epithermal Au deposit, the skarn polymetallic copper deposits, and the porphyry copper ore deposits were formed in the same magma-fluid mineralization system controlled by an extensional dynamic setting in the Gangdise belt.%西藏弄如日金矿是冈底斯成矿带发现的第一个浅成低温热液型金矿床.为确定金矿床的成矿时代,对该矿床与金矿化有关的蚀变花岗斑岩中绢云母进行了40Ar-39Ar年龄测试,获得绢云母的加权平均年龄和等时线年龄分别为19.87±0.96 Ma和19.70±0.30 Ma.结果表明,弄如日金矿床金矿化的主要成矿时代为中新世.该成果的获得对于进一步认识弄如日金矿成因机制、地球动力学背景以及区域找金突破具有重要意义.

  18. Some characteristics of electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnjak, A. [Q-Techna, Krsko (Sierra Leone); Tusek, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Sierra Leone)

    2003-11-01

    The paper deals with some characteristics of electrospark deposition. A relevant device and the process are described, the material transfer is shown schematically, and the average droplet mass, the thickness of deposited layer, and the layer roughness are determined. Two types of substrate (tool steel, austenitic stainless steel), two types of shielding gas, (Ar, He), and three types of filler material, (WC, TiC, Stellite 6) were used. With some deposit, chemical analyses of deposit surfaces were performed and with some others through-thickness chemical analyses. Among the final conclusions the most important one is that the addition of a shielding gas results in a considerable increase in deposit quality. The device manufacturer, however, recommends deposition without the addition of a shielding gas. (orig.)

  19. Self-generated etchant for synthetic sculpturing of Cu 2O-Au, Cu 2O@Au, Au/Cu 2O, and 3D-Au nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2012-10-09

    Structures of Gold: A simple transformative method for nanoscale sculpturing has been developed. Five different types of complex nanocomposites of cuprite and gold have been formed by using this self-etching approach (see figure). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Kelly Glen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings were deposited onto titanium substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) fromethanol. The results indicated that the addition of very small amount of HCI resulted in a decrease in the aging timeas well as the suspension concentration required to obtain a coating. In addition, the results revealed the existenceof a critical saturated voltage (Vsat), which had significant effect on the quality of deposition. The mean interfacialshear strengths of HAP coatings after sintering were found to be greater than 13 MPa.

  2. Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzain, A. [Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, H.-Q.; Volk, M.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States); Apte, M.S. [Shell Technology EP (United States); Creek, J.L. [Chevron Petroleum Technology (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern dependent and occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with the waxy crude oil. The deposition buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal intermittent flow tests. Thicker and harder deposits were observed at low liquid superficial velocity than at high liquid superficial velocity annular flow tests. No wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe in stratified flow tests. A semi-empirical kinetic model tailored for the wax deposition tests predicted wax thickness with an acceptable accuracy, especially at high oil superficial velocity. Deposition rate reduction due to shear stripping and rate enhancement due to entrapment of oil and other mechanisms not accounted for by the classical Fick's mass diffusion theory were incorporated through the use of dimensionless variables and empirical constants derived from the wax deposition data. The kinetic model, although semi-empirical, provides an insight for future model development. (author)

  3. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... U.S. bank under deposit agreements governed by non-U.S. law to take advantage of a large bank's... 330 Bank deposit insurance, Banks, Banking, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Savings and Loan... of U.S. insured depository institutions (``IDI'' or ``U.S. bank''). The Final Rule clarifies...

  4. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  5. Large magnetic anisotropy in strained Fe/Co multilayers on AuCu and the effect of carbon doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giannopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A tetragonally distorted FeCo structure is obtained in Fe/Co multilayers epitaxially grown on Au50Cu50 buffer using MgO single crystal substrates as a result of the lattice mismatch between the buffer and the FeCo ferromagnetic layer. The presence of large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE of the order of 1 MJ/m3 has been confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance. Furthermore, the effect of carbon (C doping to maintain the tetragonal distortion throughout the thickness of 3 nm FeCo has been investigated. Our study shows that FeCo alloys maintain large magnetic moment and possess high MAE properties that are required for designing permanent magnets.

  6. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Schenke, Bjoern; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for central collisions, while fluctuation driven odd moments vary little between systems. Event-by-event distributions of eccentricities in mid-central collisions are wider in Cu+Au relative to Au+Au and U+U systems. An anti-correlation between multiplicity and eccentricity is observed in ultra central U+U collisions which is weaker in the IP-Glasma model than the two-component MC-Glauber model. In ultra central Au+Au collisions the two models predict opposite signs for the slope of this correlation. Measurements of elliptic flo...

  7. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for cen...

  8. Features and genesis of bornite in Jiama copper-polymetallic deposit of Tibet%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床斑铜矿特征及其成因意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕; 王立强; 应立娟; 郑文宝

    2011-01-01

    甲玛矿床是中国国内少见的以斑铜矿为主要含铜矿物的产于斑岩成矿系统内的铜多金属矿床.斑铜矿是该矿床内普遍存在的重要铜矿物之一,广泛分布于矽卡岩型矿石、(矽卡岩化)大理岩型矿石中,有少量产于角岩型矿石中.在硅灰石矽卡岩型矿石内,斑铜矿分布最广,含量也最高,部分矿段中斑铜矿的含量高达7596以上,并与硅灰石呈共生或伴生关系.斑铜矿矿石以细(网)脉状、浸染状、块状构造为主,斑铜矿与黄铜矿普遍构成固溶体分离结构.在不同类型矿石中,斑铜矿具有不同的颜色,角岩中的斑铜矿以蓝色为主,矽卡岩中以锖紫色、棕红色为主,大理岩中以紫红色为主.研究表明,斑铜矿颜色的多样性主要是由Fe含量、形成温度及固溶体出溶的黄铜矿的含量多少造成的.斑铜矿固溶体分离结构及矿床中硫铋铜矿形成条件的研究表明,甲玛矿床中的斑铜矿多形成于中-高温(225~450℃)阶段,少数形成于中温(175~225℃)阶段.金属硫化物硫同位素组成研究表明,该矿床内的硫主要为岩浆来源.斑铜矿矿物学研究成果表明,甲玛矿床的形成与中新世岩浆活动有关,是典型的斑岩型-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床.%As one of the most important copper minerals, bornite extensively occurs in the Jiama Cu-polymetallic deposit.Being rare in China, bornite serves as the main copper-bearing mineral in the porphyry mineralization system.Bornite is widely distributed in skarn-type ores and skarnized marble-type ores in this ore deposit, with a small amount of bornite existent in the hornfels-type ore bodies.Bornite most widely occurs in the wollastonite skarn-type ores, characterized by the highest content, with the highest content of bornite in some ore blocks being up to 75 %.Bornite has a accompanying or paragenetic relationship with wollastoniue.Bornite ores mainly show fine veinlike (stock veinlet

  9. Evolution of Ore-forming Fluids in the Anqing Copper-iron Deposit, Anhui Province, and Its Ore-forming Implications%安徽安庆铜铁矿床成矿流体演化特征及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      安庆铜铁矿床是长江中下游成矿带内重要的矽卡岩型矿床之一。本文对该矿床中的成矿流体进行了系统研究,分析了成矿流体性质、来源及其演化过程,探讨了成矿机制。流体包裹体岩相学观察显示,矿床中的包裹体类型有Ⅰ型含子矿物三相包裹体(L+V+S)、Ⅱ型气液两相包裹体(L+V)及少量Ⅲ型气相包裹体(V);气成-高温热液期的透辉石与石榴子石中流体包裹体数量相对较少,以Ⅰ型包裹体为主;而热液期的石英与方解石中流体包裹体大量发育,以Ⅱ型包裹体为主。激光拉曼探针分析和流体包裹体显微测温结果表明,成矿流体可近似地看作不饱和的NaCl-H2O体系。从早矽卡岩阶段至碳酸盐阶段,成矿流体经历了从高温(456.1~578.1℃)、高盐度(39.37%~54.58% NaCleq)向低温(112.3~312.4℃)、低盐度(7.59%~31.75% NaCleq)的持续演化。演化过程中经历了流体沸腾作用和岩浆热液与大气降水的混合作用,其中,早矽卡岩阶段的水-岩作用、沸腾作用与矽卡岩成岩作用有关,水-岩作用,而石英-硫化物阶段的沸腾作用与混合作用可能是铜矿形成的重要机制。氢、氧同位素研究表明气成-高温热液期的成矿流体以岩浆水为主,而在热液期中石英-硫化物阶段至碳酸盐阶段大气降水在成矿流体中的比重逐渐增大。%Anqing copper-iron deposit is one of the most important skarn-type deposits along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. In this study, the ore-forming fluids of this deposit are systematically researched by analyzing their properties, and evolution, and discussing the ore-forming mechanism. The petrographic observation of fluid inclusions shows that inclusions of the deposit consist of I-type daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L+V+S), II-type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions (L+V), and a few

  10. 西藏冈底斯多金属成矿带铅锌矿定位预测与资源潜力评价%Regional metallogenic predication and mineral reserves evaluation of lead and zinc deposits in the Gangdise polymetallic ore-forming belt,Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钢; 佘宏全; 常帼雄; 李光明; 董英君; 潘桂棠; 李进文; 张德全; 丰成友

    2011-01-01

    矽卡岩型和热液脉型铅锌多金属矿是冈底斯地区铅锌资源量的主要来源.本文在全面收集冈底斯成矿带及其周边(主要包括冈底斯及其以南的喜马拉雅带)地质、矿产、物探、化探、遥感等基础地质资料的基础上,建立了GIS 平台基础上的资源预测评价系统.运用特征分析模型和数理统计方法,分别确定了预测区内矽卡岩型和热液脉型铅锌多金属矿定位预测的找矿模型和定量化标志,其中对铅锌矿预测比较重要的地质变量(变量权重>0.2)有中酸性花岗质侵入岩体,其他类型矿床(点),Cu、Pb、Zn、Ag、Cd、Au、Bi 单元素化探异常,Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag、Pb-Zn、Pb-Zn-Ag-Cd 组合化探异常,磁异常正负场变化,中低负重力异常场等.在此基础上,利用 MRAS 资源评价系统,圈定了铅锌矿成矿远景区共 57 处,总体上预测成果与实际地质情况及已知矿床(点)分布吻合较好.采用面金属量法估算了各远景区的铅锌矿资源量.统计结果表明,预测区内 1000 m 以浅潜在铅锌资源总量可达 2.9 亿吨,指示了冈底斯成矿带及其周边仍具有良好的铅锌矿找矿远景和资源潜力.%Skarn and hydrothermal vein deposits constitute the main resources of lead and zinc in the Gangdise metallogenic belt.In recent years, especially since the beginning of the Geological Survey Project in 1999, great progress in geological survey and resource exploration has been made, several large-size lead and zinc ore deposits have been discovered, and many important regional geological data have been accumulated in Gangdise region.Based on detailed collection of geological, ore deposits, minerals, geophysical and geochemical data and remotesensing information in this region, the authors established a mineral resources evaluation system based on GIS technology.The basic data of the mineral resources evaluation system cover a wide range of information, which includes geology (stratigraphy

  11. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.;

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms, there is a...

  12. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  13. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  14. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  15. Geological Characteristics of the Handeni Gold Deposit in Tanzania and Its Ore-search Direction%坦桑尼亚汉德尼金矿床地质特征与找矿方向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 朱谷昌

    2012-01-01

    The Handeni gold mine is a large gold deposit recently discovered in a Proterozoic greenstone belt in Tanzania. The ore body is located in the fault zone of Proterozoic amphibolite rocks (its protolith is mafic volcanic rocks). The most ore bodies are of vein- and bedded-looking, and locally of vein network and dissemination forms. The ore-bearing country rock is garnet quartzite. The ore contains pyritization,chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and arseno- pyrite and so on. Gold minerals are mainly the natural gold and silver,which have generally big grains. Our study found that this ore deposit is controlled by a S-shaped ductile shear zone which extends from north to south. And ore bodies are concentrated at the turning points of the ductile shear zone. The future prospecting direction should focus on the sites with high-anomalies of Au, Cu,As,Zn and other elements as well as the turning loci on the ductile shear zone.%汉德尼(Handeni)金矿是近来在坦桑尼亚绿岩带中发现的大型金矿床。该金矿床产在坦桑尼亚元古宙绿岩带中,矿体位于元古代斜长角闪岩(原岩为基性火山岩)的断裂带中,矿体多呈脉状、似层状,局部网脉状和浸染状,其容矿围岩为石榴石英岩,矿化主要发育黄铁矿化、黄铜矿化、磁黄铁矿化和毒砂化等,金矿物主要为自然金和金银矿,一般颗粒较粗大。研究发现该矿为构造控矿,矿体沿韧性剪切带从北到南呈“S”型分布,且矿体在韧性剪切带的转折端处富集。今后的找矿重点应在Au、Cu、As、Zn等多元素组合高异常部位以及韧性剪切带的转折部位。

  16. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  17. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Vitousek, Peter; Erisman, Jan Willem; Goulding, Keith; Christie, Peter; Fangmeier, Andreas; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P effects on human health and the environment.

  18. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  19. 澳大利亚 Hillside 铁氧化物型铜-金矿床地质特征%Geological Characteristics of Hillside Iron Oxide Copper Gold Deposit in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁绍磊; 鲁文华; 阳正熙; 梁学玉

    2016-01-01

    Hillside 铁氧化物型铜-金(Iron oxide copper gold,IOCG)矿床是近年来在南澳大利亚奥林匹克铜-金成矿省中发现的又一大型 IOCG 矿床。区内出露 Hiltaba 辉长岩体及花岗岩体,SN走向的矿体赋存于岩体与 Moonta-Wallaroo 地层的接触带内。SN 向的 Pinepoint 构造断裂带为区内主要的控矿构造,为成矿物质提供了运移通道和富集场所。区内主要矿石矿物有黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁铁矿、赤铁矿等,矿化阶段可分为早期矽卡岩阶段、晚期矽卡岩阶段、成矿阶段,热液蚀变可分为早期高温蚀变阶段、进变质蚀变阶段、退变质蚀变阶段。基于区内已有的大量勘探资料,在详细分析矿区地质特征、矿床地质特征的基础上,对区内控矿因素进行了探讨,并分别从地层岩性、构造、岩浆岩、围岩蚀变、重磁异常等方面归纳了找矿标志,为区内找矿工作提供参考。%The hillside iron oxide copper gold (IOCG)deposit is another large-size IOCG deposit, which is discovered recently in Olympic copper and gold metallogenetic province in southern Australia. The outcrop of Hiltaba gabbros and granites can be observed in the mining area.SN striking ore-body is hosted by the contacted zone of intrusive and rocks of Mount Wallaroo group.SN striking Pinepoint fault zone is the main ore-controlling structure in the mining area,which supply the metallogenic materials transporting aisle and metallogenic convergence.The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite,pyrite,magne-tite,hematite etc,the mineralization stages can be divided into three stages:early skarn stage,late skarn stage and metallogenic stage,the hydrothermal alteration can be divided into three stages:early high tem-perature alteration,prograde alteration and retrograde alteration.Combing with the large amount of the geological exploration data of the mining area,based on analyzing the geological characteristics of the mining area

  20. Characteristics and potential forecast of ultramafic magmatite type Poyi Cu-Ni deposit in Ruoqiang of Xinjiang%新疆若羌县坡一超镁铁岩浆岩型铜镍矿床特征及远景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鸿飞; 王恒; 王鹏; 邓刚

    2016-01-01

    A large number of outcropped mafic-ultramafic rocks exist in Beishan rift valley zone of Xinjiang, and Poyi Cu-Ni deposit is located at the western part of Beishan rift valley Au-Cu-Ni metallogenic belt and the southwestern part of Pobei mafic-ultramafic rock belt.According to the ongoing exploration in this area from 1 989 to 2014,the scale of Poyi Cu-Ni deposit in Pobei rock belt is up to above 1 million tons.Based on previous works of predecessors,and combined with the diagenetic model in the environment of rift valley, this paper analyzed the mineralization environment of Poyi Cu-Ni deposit and evolution characteristics of mine-ralization,and it also set up a unique multi-phase magmatic mineralization model and summarized some clues for prospecting.The author established a metallogenic model for mafic-ultramafic magma sulfide type Cu-Ni deposit in the metallogenic belt,and put forward the prospecting prospect.%新疆北山裂谷带中出露有数量众多的镁铁-超镁铁岩,坡一铜镍矿位于北山裂谷金铜镍成矿带西部、坡北镁铁-超镁铁岩带西南部。经1989~2014年的持续勘查,坡北岩带中的坡一铜镍矿规模达到100万吨以上。笔者在前人工作的基础上,结合裂谷环境下成岩机制,分析了坡一铜镍矿成矿环境及成矿作用演化特征,树立了独特的多期岩浆成矿模式,建立了找矿标志,为成矿带镁铁-超镁铁岩浆硫化物型铜镍矿床建立了成矿模型,且对成矿远景做了探讨。

  1. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  2. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two

  3. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiayong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Wei Junqi, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa et al., Geochemistry of granitoid from the Yangla ore district, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1997 (4): 50.[2]He Longqing, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Division of sequence stratigraphy and study on ore-bearing beds in the Yangla copper orefield, western Yunnan, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1998 (3): 37.[3]Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Chen Shifang et al., Formation condition and type of the Yangla large scale copper deposit, Western Yunnan, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1998, 17 (supplement): 183.[4]Lu Yuanfa, Chen Kaixu, Zhan Mingguo et al., Geochemical evidence of exhalative-sedimentary ore-bearing skarns in Yangla copper mineralization concentrated Area, Earth Science (in Chinese), 1999, 24(3): 298.[5]Yomamoto, K., Geochemical characteristics and depositional environments of cherts and associated rocks in the Franciscan and Shimanto terranes, Sedimentary Geology, 1987, 52: 65.[6]Zhou, Y. Z., Geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks originated from a fossil hydrothermal system in the upper Devonian strata, Guangxi, southern China, Acta Sedimentologia, 1990, 8 (3): 75.[7]Zhou Yongzhang, Geology and Geochemistry of Hetai Gold Field, Southern China, Guangzhou: South China University of Technology Press, 1993, 53-107.[8]Bostroem, K., Harold, R., Oiva, J., Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Fe, Tl, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in Pacific pelagic sediment, Chem. Geol., 1973, 11: 123.[9]Herzig, P. M., Becker, K. P., Stoffers, P. et al., Hydrothermal silica chimney field in the Galapagos rift center at 81°W, Earth Pla. Sci. Lett., 1987, 52: 65.[10] Douthitt, C. B., The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of the silicon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1982, 16: 129.[11] Ying Hanlong, Cai Xinping, Liu Bingguang, Geochemical features and formation of auriferous cherts in Mojiang Gold Mine, Yunnan, Geochemistry (in Chinese), 1999

  4. MINERALIZATION CHARACTERISTICS AND METALLOGENETIC MODEL OF DUSHAN SN DEPOSIT IN THE EASTERN PART OF THE SOUTH TIANSHAN MOUNTAIN%南天山独山锡矿床的成矿特征及成矿模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子敏; 马汉峰; 蔡根庆

    2001-01-01

    Based on micro and macro-scopic researches, the pre-existinghypothesis that the genesis of Shenshashui Sn deposit belongs to skarn-type is denied. It is proposed that the Sn mineralizations are linked to the intrusion of the early Permian alkali granite and filling of thermal solutions, and are also controlled by faults and fracture zones. Directed by this new viewpoint, we discovered the Dushan Sn deposit which is related to early Permian K-feldspar granite porphyry in the eastern part of the south Tianshan Mountain for the first time. Though detailed researches have been done on alterations, activities of metallogenic period and existing forms of Sn in ores,three metallogenic stages of the deposit have been determined, namely cassiterite-and carbonate metasomatism-filling stage, cassiterite-quartz-iron minerals filling stage, and cassiterite-quartz - sulfides filling stage. According to the features of stable isotopes and rare earth elements, the genesis of the deposit is discussed and the metallogenic model for the deposit is established.%通过对渗沙水锡矿点宏、微观研究,否定了原矽卡岩型锡矿的成因观点,提出锡矿化与早二叠世末碱长花岗岩侵入和热液充填交代有关,矿化受断裂破碎构造控制。以此新观点为指导,我们在南天山东段首次发现了与早二叠世末钾长花岗斑岩有关的成型锡矿床--独山锡矿床。从蚀变、矿期活动及矿石中锡的存在形式等方面对该矿床进行了详细研究,确定了该矿床的形成包括锡石-泥晶碳酸盐充填交代、锡石-石英-铁矿物充填及锡石-石英-硫化物充填3个成矿阶段。根据稳定同位素、稀土特征对矿床成因进行了探讨,并建立了矿床成矿模式。

  5. Geochemical characteristics of Au-Sb poly-metallic ore deposits in Tuoleshan area at middle of the North Qilianshan Mountains and the ore potential%青海省北祁连中段托勒山地区金锑等多金属矿地球化学特征及其找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝建中; 杨钻云; 林秦安

    2013-01-01

    青海省北祁连中段托勒山地区金锑多金属矿属北祁连中段托勒山成矿带.岩石地球化学分析表明,岩石中金含量最高的为石英脉,其次是石英碳酸盐岩、二云石英片岩、玄武岩、橄榄岩、硅质白云岩和糜棱岩等,且与破碎蚀变带关系密切,地层岩性和次级断裂构造对于Au及各元素的富集(或成矿)起着重要作用;土壤地球化学测量共圈出土壤异常6个,各异常中Au,Cu,As,Sb元素异常套合性较好,各元素曲线在具有矿化蚀变的硅质白云岩中峰值相对其他岩性较大,且Au,As,Sb元素具有较强的相关性.从地质角度来看,区域上金多金属矿化主要与地层、断裂构造和侵入岩有关,而起决定作用的是火山活动及火山岩.测区充分具备这些条件的地区目前地表揭露能有良好的成矿显示,这些成矿有利区域,尤其是深部岩体接触边界附近是成矿的重点和金、铜、锑多金属矿前景突破的关键.%At middle of the North Qilianshan Mountains there is the Tuoleshan ore belt in which Au-Sb poly-metallic ore deposits occur. Petrochemistry shows that gold is highest in quartz vein, then quartz-carbonate rock, biotite-muscovite quartz schist, basalt, peridotite, siliceous dolomite and myllonite etc. Concentration of gold is closely related to altered cataclastic rock zone. Lithology and sub-fractures play important role in enrichment of Au and ore elements. Soil geochemical survey shows 6 anomlies and Au, Cu,As,Sb element anomlies are well coincided. Peak value of each elements of altered, mineralized siliceous dolomite is higher than other lithologies and Au, As,Sb highly correlated. Geologically, the regional poly-metallic mineralization is related to strata and fractures and volcanism and volcanic rocks play important role in mineralization. In the survey area some localities possess such conditions with well revealed ore indication. In the favorable mineralization localities

  6. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    Strongly adhering films of silicon are deposited directly on such materials as Pyrex and Vycor (or equivalent materials) and aluminum by a non-equilibrium plasma jet. Amorphous silicon films are formed by decomposition of silicon tetrachloride or trichlorosilane in the plasma. Plasma-jet technique can also be used to deposit an adherent silicon film on aluminum from silane and to dope such films with phosphorus. Ability to deposit silicon films on such readily available, inexpensive substrates could eventually lead to lower cost photovoltaic cells.

  7. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  8. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  9. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  10. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  11. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  12. Uranium deposits in volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight papers were presented at the meeting and two additional papers were provided. Three panels were organized to consider the specific aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits in volcanic rocks, recognition criteria for the characterization of such deposits, and approaches to exploration. The papers presented and the findings of the panels are included in the Proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  13. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  14. 12 CFR 19.170 - Discovery depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery depositions. 19.170 Section 19.170... PROCEDURE Discovery Depositions and Subpoenas § 19.170 Discovery depositions. (a) General rule. In any... deposition of an expert, or of a person, including another party, who has direct knowledge of matters...

  15. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Hime, A; Rielage, K; Westerdale, S

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to depos...

  16. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  17. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  18. 江西省九瑞矿集区宝山铜多金属矿床地质特征及其成因探讨%Discussion on the Geological Characteristics of Baoshan Cu Polymetallic Deposit and Its Genesis in Jiujiang-Ruichang Ore Concentration Area, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 王先广; 李吉明; 曾庆权; 胡正华; 王德亮; 王木顺

    2015-01-01

    Baoshan copper polymetallic deposit is located in the town of Ruichang City, Jiangxi Province,Xia fan is the first as large or medium-sized copper polymetallic deposit newly found in Baoshan-Jiujiang Ruichang ore metallogenic belt in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Bridge in areas dorsal nucleus of department. Mainly by the porphyry copper(silver) deposit, contact skarn type copper, molybdenum (silver) deposit, hornfels andmetamorphic siltstone hydrothermal filling type copper (molybdenum, silver and gold) ore bodies. The miner-alization is closely related with the North East to the F1 fault and the NW trending F2 fault. The Baoshan deposit of porphyry copper ore bodies are veinletdisseminated-dense, sparse contaminated products out of granodiorite porphyry, orebody shape stratoid, lenticular. Skarn type copper polymetallic ore with disseminated and veinlet-net vein in the granodiorite porphyry and the Ordovician carbonate rocks in the contact zone and fractured sur-rounding rock, stratoid, lenticular output. Hornfels and hydrothermal fillingsilty sandstone copper polymetallic ore, ore body in the smaller scale, with thin vein stockworkchalcopyrite, molybdenite quartz veins in the form of distribution to and granodiorite porphyrycontact zone near the temple back group, water group of Silurian argilla-ceous siltstone, alens occurrence. Three types of ore bodies are associated in genesis, the mineralization is mainly controlled by the granodiorite porphyry, is just the space position of ore-forming material precipitation difference. The Baoshan deposit metallogenic mechanism of tectonicand high potassium calc alkaline remelting type granodi-orite porphyry origin closely relatedmagmatic rocks"Trinity", that is, the ore bodies are hosted in the porphyry and skarnhornfels formed rocks, argillaceous siltstone in the porphyry skarn hydrothermal filling"composite type deposit.%经过对宝山铜多金属矿床的野外地质调查,认为该矿床主要由斑

  19. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  20. Nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强斌; 高芒来; 张嗣伟

    2000-01-01

    The nanofriction properties of Au substrate and monolayer molecular deposition film and multilayer molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the molecular deposition films modified with alkyl-terminal molecule have been investigated by using an atomic force microscope. It is concluded that ( i ) the deposition of molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the modification of alkyl-terminal molecule to the molecular deposition films can reduce the frictional force; (ii) the molecular deposition films with the same terminal exhibit similar nanofriction properties, which has nothing to do with the molecular chain-length and the layer number; (iii) the unstable nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films are contributed to the active terminal of the molecular deposition film, which can be eliminated by decorating the active molecular deposition film with alkyl-terminal molecule, moreover, the decoration of alkyl-terminal molecule can lower the frictional force conspicuously; (iv) the relat

  1. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.;

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (2)NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082329 Chen Wang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Control Factors on Distribution of Carboniferous Bauxite Deposits in Western Henan Province (Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001—1552,CN44—1595/P,31(4),2007,p.452—456,1 illus.,10 refs.) Key words:bauxite,mineralization con- trols,Henan Province

  3. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.;

    2012-01-01

    environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  4. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  5. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  6. Systems for Guaranteeing Bank Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Untaru

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the financial crisis and the latest event that occurred in Cyprus bring new light to how states intervene when commercial banks are facing the risk of bankruptcy. While until now institutions had a clear traditional role to protect depositors, currently there is a trend to transfer damage to companies and individuals that hold deposits.

  7. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  8. 东秦岭秋树湾铜钼矿流体包裹体和稳定同位素特征及其地质意义%Fluid inclusions and stable isotopes of Qiushuwan copper-molybdenum deposit in East Qinling orogenic belt and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦臻; 戴雪灵; 邓湘伟

    2012-01-01

    The Qiushuwan copper-molybdenum deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt is atypical skarn-por-phyry breccia pipe controlled by the porphyry. Ore bodies occur in the biotite granite porphyry, skarn and breccia pipes. According to mineral paragenesis, ore fabrics, wall-rock alteration and intersecting relationship of the veins, the formation of the ore deposit can be divided into three periods, i.e., high-temperature alteration-skarn period ( Ⅰ ), sulfide precipitation period ( Ⅱ ) and low-temperature mineral-free period ( Ⅲ ), composed of six ore-forming stages: dry skarn -K-feldspar-quartz stage ( Ⅰ1), explosion breccia stage ( Ⅰ 2). wet skarn stage ( Ⅰ3), magnetite stage ( Ⅰ4), porphyry copper (molybdenum) ore stage ( Ⅱ b) and quartz sulfide mineralization ( Ⅱ s), and calcite, barite, quartz stage (Ⅲ ). Mineral-forming fluids in quartz, garnet and calcite can be divided into five types, i.e., S-type multi-phase inclusions containing daughter minerals, L-type pure liquid inclusions, C-type three-phase CQ2-bearing inclusions, W-type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions, and G type pure gas inclusions. Ore-forming fluid temperature, salinity and redox environment are characterized by regular evolution: homogenization temperature values of I period, Ⅱ period and Ⅲ period are 222 ~ 406℃, 152~315℃, and 119~189X3 respectively, whereas salinities ω(NaCleq) of I period, Ⅱ period and Ⅲ period are 4.2% ~ 36.5%, 3.3%~34.8% and 4.2% ~ 11.9%, respectively; Raman spectroscopy and analysis of group inclusions show that the fluid compositions are mainly H2O, CO2, CH4, H2S in Ⅰ period, implying a reduction environment, H2O, CO2, N2, O2, (SO4,2-) Cl-, F- in Ⅱ period, suggesting an oxidation environment and the derivation of fluid from the magma. Inclusions petrography and thermometry shows that the fluid was originally high temperature, high salinity, CO2-bearing H2O-NaCl-CO2 system magmatic fluid, and experienced boiling and phase

  9. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  10. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  11. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  12. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation. PMID:27464305

  13. Atmosfærisk deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Kemp, K.;

    Kvælstofdepositionen til danske havområder, fjorde, vige og bugte er for 2001 blevet beregnet til 118 ktons N, hvilket er ca. 20 % lavere end i 2000. Tilsvarende er depositionen til landområderne beregnet til 87 ktons N, hvilket svarer til deposition i 2000. Den primære årsag til den højere...... deposition for 1999-2001, i forhold til tidligere år, er ændringer i beregningsmetoden. Den samlede kvælstofdeposition til farvandene er faldet svagt i perioden 1989-2001. Depositionen til landoverflader skønnes ikke ændret betydeligt. Depositionen af svovlforbindelser til danske landområder er for 2001...

  14. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  15. Electrochemical Depositions in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    De Vreese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, several aspects of the electrodeposition of metals and alloys in ionic liquids were investigated. First, the deposition of brass from choline acetate was studied. Secondly, the electrodeposition of pure molybdenum from ionic liquids based on phosphonium chloride and zinc chloride was treated. In each case, the influence of water, either as a main constituent of the electrolyte or an impurity, was investigated. When comparing electrochemical processes such as electrodeposit...

  16. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated as one of the enabling technologies for advanced energy systems. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that promises an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Since this regime borders on and exceeds the normal operating limits of existing ESD electronic equipment, development is in progress to produce equipment that can consistently and reliably achieve these conditions for a broad range of materials. Progress so far has resulted in a consistent 500% increase in deposition rates, and greater rates still are anticipated. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, the incorporation of the process into the operations of a major gas turbine manufacturer, major new applications in gas turbine blade and steam turbine blade protection and repair, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  17. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cu-Au-Mo ore deposits along the western Tethyan convergent margin: a link with the 3D subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, A.; Bertrand, G.; Loiselet, C.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Jolivet, L.

    2012-12-01

    Emplacement conditions of mineralized systems in subduction and post-subduction environments and the sources of metals such as Cu, Mo and Au have been considered in the past. However, despite their importance in exploration strategies at the continental scale, interrelationships between distribution of ore systems and subduction dynamics are still partly unclear. Along the western Tethyan convergent margin, where Tertiary subduction history is well constrained, porphyry, epithermal and skarn ore deposits show a variable evolution of their spatial distribution. Using different and complementary database on European and Middle East ore deposits, three metallogenic episodes have been highlighted: (1) a late Cretaceous - Paleocene phase characterized by a copper mineralization within the Balkan chain and in the Kaçkar mountains (eastern Turkey), (2) an Eocene phase with a few copper ore deposits in eastern Turkey and small Caucasia and (3) an Oligocene - Neogene phase with a more southern distribution along the margin and mainly constituted by epithermal Au systems in the west (Carpathians, Rhodope, Aegean and western Turkey) and by porphyry copper deposits in the east (Zagros). These changes are suspected to be controlled by complex and evolving subduction dynamics. Using paleogeographic tools, it turned out that, in the eastern Mediterranean area, the late Cretaceous - Paleocene and Oligocene - Neogene metallogenic episodes are coeval with a significant decrease of the Africa - Eurasia convergence rate, from about 1.5 to 0.4 cm/yr. Indeed, compressional tectonics in the volcanic arc domain, associated with a high convergent rate, promote the storage of large volumes of metal-rich magma and the development of an extensive MASH (melting, assimilation, storage and homogenization) zone. When this convergence rate decreases, a stress relaxation occurs in the overriding crust, inducing the ascent of a sufficient flux of this fertile magma and allowing the formation of

  19. Crediting Tritium Deposition in Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    2001-06-20

    This paper describes the major aspects of tritium dispersion phenomenology, summarizes deposition attributes of the computer models used in the DOE Complex for tritium dispersion, and recommends an approach to account for deposition in accident analysis.

  20. Isotropic metal deposition technique for metamaterials fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this work we will present the first steps taken towards isotropic deposition of thin metallic layers on dielectric substrates. The deposition takes place in aqueous environment thus making it both cheap and easy to be implemented....

  1. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  2. 西藏洞中松多铅锌多金属矿床地质特征及成因%A preliminary study of the geologic characteristics and genesis of the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛存林; 都卫东; 张育平; 魏明; 陈世伟

    2013-01-01

    The Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit is located in the east part of the eastern Gangdese polymetallic mineralization belt. The ore body has mainly occurred as strumiform and stratoid structures in the carbonatite within the skarns of the pre-Ordovician Songduo group complex and the mid-permian Luobadui formation. Wall rock is made up of carbonatite and has strongly altered. Two alterations and nine main ore zones have been delineated. Lead and zinc are the main useful elements in the ore, and silver, iron, copper, sulfur as beneficial groups in the ore. The length of the layered ore-bodies is between 2 620 and 4 100 m, 50∼150 m and the thickness is between the Songduo group complex and the Luobadui formation. The ore is 120∼2 881 m long and 2.1∼13.1 m thick. The footwall of the ore are limestone and tuff and the hanging wall is crystal tuff. The ore minerals include pyrrhotine, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite, etc. The gangue minerals include quartz, diopside, garnet, chlorite, epidote, calcite and feldspar, etc. The mineralization of lead and zinc was closely related to magmatic activity and meteoric, especially related to the magmatic hydrothermalism which had intruded into carbonatite in the period of late Yanshan-early Himalayas. Presumably, the formation of lead and zinc deposit has been related closely to the plate collision of the Indian-Eurasian Plate and the uplift zone in the Tibetan Plateau. This is the first study of the causes of the deposit. Through an analysis and discussion of the geological characteristics and metallogenic source materials, we believe that the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit has been related to the tectonic and magmatic activities. The structure has provided motive channels and accumulated space for the deposit. And the deep magma of late Yanshan period-early Himalayas has provided the main ore-forming materials and energy for the deposit. Therefore, it is considered that the

  3. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao; Bøjer, M.; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdowns. Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study in...

  4. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request....Fawcett@uspto.gov . Include ``0651-0022 Deposit of Biological Materials comment'' in the subject line of....Hanlon@uspto.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part...

  5. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  6. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  7. Depositing Materials on the Micro- and Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mar, Mikkel Dysseholm; Herstrøm, Berit; Shkondin, Evgeniy;

    2014-01-01

    that can be used separately or in combination to give the micro/nano system the properties needed. These techniques and film properties are presented. ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) is good for very thin films (down to monolayers) with extremely good stepcoverage and extremely good control of the layer...... is good for high quality thin film metal deposition e.g. for electrical leads or surfaceplasmonic devices. MVD (Molecular Vapor Deposition) is used for making anti stiction coating. Below is shown an example of Atomic Layer Deposition which is a self-terminating chemical vapor deposition technique based...

  8. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  9. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author)

  10. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  11. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  13. An exploration model for Jiama copper polymetallic deposit in Maizhokunggar County, Tibet%西藏墨竹工卡县甲玛铜多金属矿床勘查模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐菊兴; 唐晓倩; 钟裕峰; 彭慧娟; 邓世林; 郑文宝; 应立娟; 汪雄武; 钟康惠; 秦志鹏; 丁枫; 黎枫佶

    2011-01-01

    The Jiama copper polymetallic deposit in Tibet is a significant ore deposit serving as a nonferrous metal base in central Tibet.This paper deals emphatically with the ore bodies in such aspects as its metallogenic geological conditions, prospecting indicators, geochemical exploration model, geophysical exploration model and spatialframework.Studies show that the ore-controlling strata are sandy slate and hornfels of Linbuzong Formation (K1l) and marble and limestone of Duodigou Formation (J3d), and that hornfels controls the distribution of hornfels-type ore bodies, and inter-layer structure between hornfels and marble controls skarn-type ore bodies due to the good trap formed by the hornfels which caused good magrnatic hydrothermal mineralization.There are nine types of exposed magrnatic rocks, such as granite porphyry, biotite monzonite granite porphyry, granite diorite porphyrite, quartz diorite porphyry and diorite porphyryp.Granite of high-K calc-alkaline series is related to the passive filling of mineralization into the collapse space caused by the structure.The ore-forming structure is the Niumatang complex anticline in the center of the Jiama-Kajunguo nappe structure controlling the generation of skarn and porphyry type ore bodies.The geochemical exploration model at the scale of 1:10 000 indicates that Cu-Mo-Au-Ag-Bi-Sn, and Mo are concentrated in the anomaly center, Bi and Sn as the high temperature elements exist in the internal circle and As, Sb, Hg, Pb, Zn, Co and Ni as the lower temperature elements are present in the external circle.Co and Ni anomalies suggest that the original rocks were carbonaceous and argillaceous sandy slate, As, Sb and Hg anomalies imply the wide distribution of pyrite in hornfels and represent the external alteration of porphyry metallogenic system.Cu, Mo, Au, Ag, Sn and Bi assume “M"-shaped distribution along the cross section.The geophysical exploration model at the scale of 1:10 000 indicates that the high precision

  14. Digital electrospray for controlled deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Waits, C Mike; Gomez, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Many novel functional structures are now fabricated by controlled deposition as a maskless, bottom-up fabrication technique. These applications require rapid and precise deposition of minute amounts of solutions/suspensions or their ultimate particle products in predefined patterns. The electrospray is a promising alternative to the commonly used inkjet printing because it can easily handle highly viscous liquid, avoid high shear rates, and has low risk of clogging. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept digital electrospray. This system consists of a 61-nozzle array microfabricated in silicon and a 61-element digital extractor fabricated using flexible polyimide substrates. "Digital" refers to the state of each electrospray source that can be tuned either on or off independently and responsively. We showed a resolution of 675 mum and a response frequency up to 100 Hz. With similar design and industry standard fabrication procedures, it is feasible to scale up the system to O(1000) sources with spatial resolution better than 250 mum and a O(kHz) response frequency. The latter is controlled by the viscous damping time. PMID:20370220

  15. Nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The nanofriction properties of Au substrate and monolayer molecular deposition film and multilayer molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the molecular deposition films modified with alkyl-terminal molecule have been investigated by using an atomic force microscope. It is concluded that (ⅰ) the deposition of molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the modification of alkyl-terminal molecule to the molecular deposition films can reduce the frictional force; (ⅱ) the molecular deposition films with the same terminal exhibit similar nanofriction properties, which has nothing to do with the molecular chain-length and the layer number; (ⅲ) the unstable nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films are contributed to the active terminal of the molecular deposition film, which can be eliminated by decorating the active molecular deposition film with alkyl-terminal molecule, moreover, the decoration of alkyl-terminal molecule can lower the frictional force conspicuously; (ⅳ) the relative humidity affects the frictional force; the higher the RH, the lower the frictional force.

  16. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  17. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history of...... lower limit to erosion rate in source areas of the respective sedimentary bodies. The lower limit arises because some erosional products are transported out of the mapped area, and some erosion is caused by chemical dissolution. The development of the source areas will be modelled using surface process...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  18. UFOMOD - atmospheric dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives an introduction into the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and deposition which has been implemented in the new program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences after nuclear accidents. According to the new structure of UFOMOD, different trajectory models with ranges of validity near to the site and at far distances are applied. Emphasis is laid on the description of the segmented plume model MUSEMET and its affilated submodels, being the removal of activity from the cloud by dry and wet deposition, and special effects like plume rise and the behaviour of plumes released into building wakes. In addition, the evaluation of γ-dose correction factors to take account of the finite extent of the radioactive plume in the near range (up to about 20 km) are described. Only brief introductions are given into the principles of the other models available: the puff model RIMPUFF, the long-range puff model MESOS, and the special straight-line Gaussian model ISOLA which are used if low-level long-duration releases are considered. To define starting times of weather sequences and the probabilities of occurrence of these sequences, it is convenient to perform stratified sampling. Therefore, the preprocessing program package METSAM has been developed to perform for generic ACAs a random sampling of weather sequences out off a population of classified weather conditions. The sampling procedure and a detailed input/output (I/O) description is presented and an additional appendix, respectively. A general overview on the I/O structure of MUSEMET as well as a brief user guide to run the KfK version of the MESOS code are also given in the appendix. (orig.)

  19. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  20. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  1. Review of cooling tower drift deposition models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.

    1977-05-04

    The behavior, basic assumptions, and limitations of ten different models for calculating the drift deposition rate from wet cooling towers are reviewed and then their predicted results for such deposition with a common set of input parameters are compared. The predicted maximum deposition differs among the models by two orders of magnitude with a wide range in peak location. Comments and suggestions to improve the models are included.

  2. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...

  3. CPI Overruns Deposit Reserve Rate Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The People's Bank of China has announced its intention to raise the deposit reserve rate again,less than one month after the last rate increase, this means that the deposit reserve rate has increased a total of ten times this year. However, this time the central bank increased the deposit reserve rate by a full 1 percent, a bigger increase than the last nine adjustments of 0.5 percent.

  4. FTIR analysis of aviation fuel deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, L. S.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Five modes of operation of the Nicolet 7199 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer have been evaluated for application in analysis of the chemical structure of accelerated storage/thermal deposits produced by jet fuels. Using primarily the absorption and emission modes, the effects of fuel type, stress temperature, stress time, type of spiking agent, spiking agent concentration, fuel flow, and post-depositional treatment on the chemical nature of fuel deposits have been determined.

  5. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  6. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    . The asphaltene content of the different oil samples were determined by the TP 143 method. The standard asphaltenes and the solid organic deposit recovered from the swelling tests were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC-SEC and H-1 NMR. The aim of these analyses is to reveal the molecular nature of the deposits formed...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  7. DETERMINATION METHODS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefi BAYRAKTAR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition is defined as the turning back of pollutants to the earth, emitted either from natural or anthropogenic sources, after the some transformation stages of pollutants in the atmosphere. Because the atmospheric deposition (wet and dry deposition damages water, plants, soil, historical and other structures, it is one of the popular subject to study in recent years. However, it is difficult to study the determination of atmospheric deposition because it has a lot of various and changeable parameters. So, there is a need for various systems and surfaces for sampling. As wet deposition can be sampled by manual and automatic systems, the different developed sampling surfaces which minimize the effect of various topographic and meteorological conditions are used to sample dry deposition. Studies show that sampling with water surfaces is more suitable to collect both dry and bulk deposition. In this study, atmospheric deposition and its determination methods were explained and sampling surfaces that were developed to collect deposition of different air pollutants compared each other.

  8. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase

  9. Mass deposition from inspired polydisperse aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, G.; Gebhart, J.; Heyder, J.; Scheuch, G.; Stahlhofen, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Frankfurt (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung)

    1988-01-01

    Mass deposition of polydisperse hydrophobic aerosol particles in various regions of the human respiratory tract has been calculated using a semi-empirical deposition model and assuming lognormal particle size distributions. The effects of polydispersity, breathing mode (nose versus mouth breathing), breathing pattern, particle size and density upon mass deposition are discussed. Significant differences are found from the model predictions of the ICRP TASK GROUP ON LUNG DYNAMICS (1966) and later ICRP recommendations. The influence of the geometric standard deviation of the size distribution upon mass deposition depends on particle size, and a simple explanation of this effect is introduced. (author).

  10. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  11. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J Narayan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  13. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m2, corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 103. Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  14. Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C

    2015-10-20

    Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.

  15. The mechanical properties of thin alumina film deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Gellings, P.J.; Vendel, van de D.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.

    1995-01-01

    Amorphous alumina films were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The MOCVD experiments were performed in nitrogen at low and atmospheric pressures. The effects of deposition temperature, growth rate and film thickness on the mechanical pro

  16. Yangshan Gold Deposit: The Largest Carlin and Carlin-like Type Gold Deposit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fengzeng; LI Qiangzhi

    2008-01-01

    Gold Headquarter of the CAPF has discovered the Yangshan super large-scale gold depositin Gansu Province, which is a great breakthrough of gold exploration and prospecting in WesternQiniing Mountains of China. The gold resources of this deposit achieved 308 tons with increasingpotentials. Preliminary geological investigations indicate that the Yangshan gold deposit is located inthe intra-continental collision orogenic belt; and the deposit was formed during the continent-continentcollision orogenic processes. The geological characteristics of the deposit are similar to that of thetypical Carlin-type gold deposits, while differences still exist. The ore-forming background is notablydifferent from the Carlin gold deposit province in the United States; and the ore-forming fluids aresimilar with that of the orogenic-type gold deposit. Accordingly, the Yangshan gold deposit is atransitional type between the Carlin-type and the orogenic type gold deposits. At present, the Yangshangold deposit is the largest Carlin and Carlin-like type gold deposit that is ever discovered in China.Researches on metaliogeny, metaliogenic model and ore-enrichment regularities of the Yangshan golddeposit are crucial to meet the pressing needs of the current geological investigation and oreexploration of the deposit.

  17. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiluo Hao; Kwunlun Leung; Rucheng Wang; Weidong Sun; Yiliang Li

    2010-01-01

    Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and "bacteriopyrites" that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium ptagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecologyof such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub) surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  18. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of a patent application is... use the invention as specified by 35 U.S.C. 112. The term ``biological material'' is defined by 37...

  19. Review of Gaussian diffusion-deposition models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    The assumptions and predictions of several Gaussian diffusion-deposition models are compared. A simple correction to the Chamberlain source depletion model is shown to predict ground-level airborne concentrations and dry deposition fluxes in close agreement with the exact solution of Horst.

  20. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  1. Plasma Deposition of Doped Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Pair of reports present further experimental details of investigation of plasma deposition of films of phosphorous-doped amosphous silicon. Probe measurements of electrical resistance of deposited films indicated films not uniform. In general, it appeared that resistance decreased with film thickness.

  2. A Simplified Diffusion-Deposition Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1980-01-01

    The use of a simple top hat plume model facilitates an analytical treatment of the deposition problem. A necessary constraint, however, is that the diffusion velocity (e.g., in terms of the plume growth-rate) is large compared to the deposition velocity. With these limitations, explicit formulae...

  3. Fuzzy Comprehensive Appraisal of Concealed Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the transformation from the fuzzy to the accurate process is exemplified by the Jiaodong gold ore deposits concentrated region where the mathematical analysis is used to appraise and forecast regional concealed gold ore deposits. In this sense, this paper presents a new way to the appraisal of the non-traditional mineral resources.

  4. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Resource assessment of copper deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; GU De-sheng; T. Shoji; H. Kaneda

    2005-01-01

    Copper-bearing deposits of China are statistically analyzed in terms of ore grade, metal amount and ore tonnage. Each of grade and metal amount shows more or less a lognormal distribution. Analysis gives 10 copper metallogenic districts, each having specific densities of deposit numbers and copper reserves larger than 3. Based on the ratio of copper in ore value (Rcu), Chinese copper deposits are classified into two groups: mainly copper-producing deposits (MC: Rcu≥0.5) and accessorily copper-producing deposits (AC: Rcu<0. 5). The grade-tonnage relation of MC deposits can be combined by two exponential functions approximating high grade (> 3.0 %) and low grade (<2.0%) parts. The critical copper grade, which is obtained from the low grade part of the relation, is 0. 34 %. Chinese copper resources are concluded to become pessimistic, because some mines are working with grades close to this critical value. Taking account of the fact that many copper deposits are actually polymetallic, Cu-equivalent grades, which are converted from ratios of metal prices to the copper price, are also introduced. The critical Cu-equivalent grade of MC deposits (0. 43 % ) also suggests that Chinese copper resources are pessimistic.

  6. 24 CFR 891.775 - Security deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security deposits. 891.775 Section 891.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.775 Security deposits. The general requirements for security...

  7. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  8. 37 CFR 2.208 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Fees and Payment of Money in Trademark Cases § 2.208 Deposit... replenish a deposit account may be submitted by electronic funds transfer through the Federal Reserve... electronic funds transfer over the Office's Internet Web site (www.uspto.gov). (3) A payment to replenish...

  9. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  10. Assessment of Global Mercury Deposition through Litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Bao, Zhengduo; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-16

    There is a large uncertainty in the estimate of global dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg). Hg deposition through litterfall represents an important input to terrestrial forest ecosystems via cumulative uptake of atmospheric Hg (most Hg(0)) to foliage. In this study, we estimate the quantity of global Hg deposition through litterfall using statistical modeling (Monte Carlo simulation) of published data sets of litterfall biomass production, tree density, and Hg concentration in litter samples. On the basis of the model results, the global annual Hg deposition through litterfall is estimated to be 1180 ± 710 Mg yr(-1), more than two times greater than the estimate by GEOS-Chem. Spatial distribution of Hg deposition through litterfall suggests that deposition flux decreases spatially from tropical to temperate and boreal regions. Approximately 70% of global Hg(0) dry deposition occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions. A major source of uncertainty in this study is the heterogeneous geospatial distribution of available data. More observational data in regions (Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America) where few data sets exist will greatly improve the accuracy of the current estimate. Given that the quantity of global Hg deposition via litterfall is typically 2-6 times higher than Hg(0) evasion from forest floor, global forest ecosystems represent a strong Hg(0) sink. PMID:27418119

  11. Diamond deposition on thin cylindrical substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. RISTIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond coatings were deposited onto different cylindrical substrates (Cu, SiC, W and Mo by the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Continuous, adhered and well-faceted crystalline coatings of diamond were obtained on Cu-wire using a special pretreatment with a mixture of diamond and metal powders as well as carefully controlled deposition at lower power. Diamond deposition on SiC-fiber gave continuous and uniform coatings when only the filament power was properly selected. Uniform, homogeneous, euchedral diamond coatings on W- and Mo-wires, attained at a higher filament power, confirmed once more the convenience of refractory metals as substrates for diamond deposition by the CVD technique. Characterization of the obtained coatings was realized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. Differences are discussed with regard to the chemical nature of the substrates as well as their thermophysical characteristics.

  12. A Complexity View of Acid Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建林; 方见树

    2003-01-01

    We show that acid deposition is analogous to complex systems composed of a series of interconnected components.Frequency-size distributions of weekly hydrogen deposition (WHD) of precipitation are consistent with double power-law in two different regimes separated by a crossover WHD. The distribution of variations in acid deposition over a week interval is remarkably symmetrical, with long tail extending over eight orders of magnitude. The acid deposition fluctuations exhibit fractal Brown motion with two different temporal scaling regimes and long-range correlation exists in the series. The power-laws in the acid deposition dynamics are considered to be indicators of seff-organization of atmosphere under environmental pollution stress.

  13. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc. materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix. Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.

  14. FRACTION-DIMENSIONAL TIME-SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MULTI-METALLIC DEPOSIT IN SHIZHUYUAN: MINERALIZED Sn AND OTHER ELEMENTS IN GARNET AS AN EXAMPLE%柿竹园多金属矿床的分形时-空结构 ——以矽卡岩矿物中Sn等成矿元素分布特征为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琦; 刘惠芳

    2001-01-01

    湖南柿竹园W,Sn,Mo,Bi多金属矿床是一个特大型矿床,其成矿系统极其复杂,表现为多层次、多子系统.通过微区成分分析等手段,详细地研究了该矿床块状矽卡岩石榴子石等矿物中Sn,W,Bi等元素的分布,证实了Sn等元素的质量分数在矿床宏观分布上和矿物内部微观分布上,均具幂律分布规律,即具分形时-空结构.Sn元素在石榴子石中分布的分形维为1.7;在符山石中的分形维为1.8;在后期绿帘石中的分形维为1.9.从矿物晶体微观成矿元素的分布特征来看,成矿巨系统常处于临界状态,当其受到扰动,就产生响应,通过间断性阵发-平衡(相对静止)的往复而复归临界状态,这种自组织的临界状态是该矿床动力学的最基本特点.%The W, Sn, Mo, Bi multi-metallic deposit in Shizhuyuan, Hunan isa very large deposit. Its mineralized system is very complex, containing multilayers and many subsystems. By micro-area chemical analysis, the distribution of Sn, W, Bi in the garnet of massive skarn is studied. It is confirmed that the contents of Sn and other elements possess the characteristics of power-rate in macro-scale and micro-scale, i.e. fraction-dimensional time-spatial structure. The fraction-dimension of Sn is 1.7 in garnet, 1.8 in vesuvianite, and 1.9 in anaphase epidote. From the micro-distribution characteristics of mineralized elements in mineral crystals, mineralized large-system was always critical, when it was disturbed, it would return to critical state by discontinuously reacting-equilibrating, this type of self building-up critical state is the fundamental dynamic characteristics of the deposit.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  16. Ore-Forming Fluid Geochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Pb-Zn Deposit in Hongling,Inner Mongolia%内蒙古红岭铅锌矿床成矿流体地球化学特征及矿床成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑锋; 王可勇; 陆继胜; 张雪冰; 权鸿雁; 王承洋; 魏良民

    2015-01-01

    Hongling lead-zinc deposit is one of the representative large deposits in southeastern Inner Mongolia.Presently,there’s very little research on geochemical characteristics and evolution of ore-form fluids,and ore genesis.The fluid inclusions are systemly re-searched in this paper,The results show that there are three types of primary fluid inclusions in garnet of garnet-skarn stage (Ⅰ)inclu-ding halite-bearing three-phase,aqueous two-phase as well as vapor-rich two-phase;there are two types of primary fluid inclusions in quartz of stage (Ⅱ)including aqueous two-phase as well as vapor-rich two-phase.It is found in our microthermometric study that the ore-forming fluid is of high temperature,high salinity and immiscible NaCl-H2 O type solutions and the boiling process plays important role in the precipitation of Pb,Zn,and Cu.Quartz of mineralization stage Ⅲ to Ⅳ of quartz-sulfide epochs contains only aqueous two-phase of fluid inclusions.The homogenization temperature of this type of fluid inclusions is obviously lower than that of skarn epoch, while the salinity does not obviously change.The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions show a rising trend with salinities dis-playing a dropping trend of stage Ⅳ,and it may be caused by adding of high temperature,low salinity type fluid.The dropping of homogenization temperatures and salinities of ore-forming fluids from mineralization stages Ⅴ to Ⅵ suggests that meteoric water contin-uously joining into the ore-forming fluid.Overall,the ore-forming fluids of quartz-sulfide epoch is of medium-low temperature and low salinity NaCl-H2 O type solutions.C,H,O isotope study of fluid inclusions shows that the ore-forming fluids of skarn epoch mainly came from magmatic water and that of quartz-sulfide epoch came from mixed magmatic water and meteoric water,whereas at the latest stage of mineralization,the ore-forming fluids mainly came from meteoric water.The study of S,Pb isotopes implies that the ore

  17. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model: Chapter M in Mineral deposit model for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Cox, Dennis P.; Bliss, James D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2015-01-01

    This report contains a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper (SSC) deposits that supersedes the model of Cox and others (2003). This model is for use in assessments of mineral resource potential. SSC deposits are the second most important sources of copper in the world behind porphyry copper deposits. Around 20 percent of the copper in the world is produced from this class of deposits. They are also the most important sources of cobalt in the world, and they are fourth among classes of ore deposits in production of silver. SSC deposits are the basis of the economies of three countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Poland, and Zambia. This report provides a description of the key features of SSC deposits; it identifies their tectonic-sedimentary environments; it illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics of SSC deposits; it reviews and evaluates hypotheses on how these deposits formed; it presents exploration and assessment guides; and it lists some gaps in our knowledge about the SSC deposits. A summary follows that provides overviews of many subjects concerning SSC deposits.

  18. Research on depositing Ni45 alloy on titanium alloy surface by electrospark deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tao; Zhang Chunhui; Su Guiqiao; Yan Ping

    2008-01-01

    Taking Ni45 bar as electrode, a strengthened layer of thickness up to 50 pm was built up on BT20 titanium alloy matrix by means of electrospark deposition. Results of phase analysis by using of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposition layer was composed mostly of three phases, NiTi, NiTi2layer was up to 910 HV0.05, about 2.7 times as high as that of the matrix. The hardness at the cross-section of the entire deposition layer showed a gradient distribution. The effects of capacitance and deposition time on thickness of deposition layer were also studied, and results showed that with relatively low capacity and short deposition time the deposition layer without cracks can be obtained.

  19. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  20. Deposition of large particles in human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies

  1. Deposition of large particles in human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartengren, M; Falk, R; Linnman, L; Philipson, K; Camner, P

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies. PMID:3102217

  2. Deposition of large particles in human lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svartengren, M.; Falk, R.; Linnman, L.; Philipson, K.; Camner, P.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with /sup 111/In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies.

  3. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  4. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  5. Depositional process for the Triassic-Jurassic stratiform manganese deposits in the Chichibu Belt, Southwest Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Y.; Onoue, T.

    2015-12-01

    The chert-hosted manganese deposits have been known to occur in the Triassic to Jurassic chert or chert-greenstone complex within a Jurassic accretionary complex in Japan. In order to reveal the origin of these manganese deposits, we investigated the stratigraphy, age and geochemistry of manganese deposits from the Triassic to Jurassic bedded chert succession of the Chichibu Belt, defined as a Jurassic subduction-generated accretionary complex in Southwest Japan. The Triassic to Jurassic bedded cherts in the Chichibu Belt are considered to be deep-sea sediments that accumulated in an open-ocean realm of the Panthalassa Ocean. Our biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarians reveals that the stratiform manganese deposits intercalated in the bedded cherts were deposited in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. Upper Triassic manganese deposit occurs associated with the massive cherts which appear to have been formed by hydrothermal activity. The red bedded chert above the manganese deposit yields radiolarian fossils, including Trialatus longicornutus and Poulpus carcharus. These radiolarians indicate that age of manganese deposits can be correlated with the late Carnian age. Lower Jurassic manganese deposit occurs intercalated within the gray to dark gray bedded cherts. Detailed biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarians reveals that manganese deposit is embedded in the upper Pliensbachian to Toarcian (Trillus elkhornensis Zone). Chemical compositions of Upper Triassic deposits are characterized by enrichments in Mn and depletion of Co, Ni and Zn. These geochemical features are similar to those of modern submarine hydrothermal manganese deposits from hydrothermal activity. In contrast, lower Jurassic manganese deposits were triggered by an influx of warm, saline and oxic water into a stagnant deep ocean floor basin. It is likely that the deposits are considered to have formed by oceanic anoxic event.

  6. 24 CFR 886.315 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) Amount of deposits. If at the time of the initial execution of the Lease the Owner... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b)...

  7. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  8. TEOS-based oxides: deposition dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the effects of three important parameters, deposition temperature, TEOS concentration and RF power in the plasma enhanced CVD of TEOS-based oxides on the resulting film characteristics such as impurity incorporation, film density, moisture absorption, intrinsic and thermal stresses. Ion-bombardment induced desorption of reactive precursor species is suggested to occur under certain conditions. Further, it is shown that the film properties continue to evolve until the film thickness exceeds 3000A. For 1 μm films deposited using typical settings of deposition parameters, the average TCE is estimated to be 0.9 ppm/ C using the stress-temperature characteristics. (orig.)

  9. Characteristics that distinguish types of epithermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Foley, N.K.; Heald-Wetlaufer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three distinctive groupings of epithermal deposits were recognized from a literature study of fifteen well-described precious- and base-metal epithermal districts, supplemented by L. J. Buchanan's 1981 compilation of data from 47 less completely documented deposits. The three groups are distinguished primarily by the type of alteration and the sulfur fugacity indicated by the vein mineral assemblage. Additional discriminating criteria include composition of the host rock, timing of ore deposition relative to emplacement of the host, and relative abundances of gold, silver, and base metals.

  10. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  11. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.;

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...... to this variation. Part of the variation was found to be caused by differences between individuals, whereas another part was found to be related to environmental factors, The identification of major influences on skin contaminant deposition is important in estimating health effects as well as in identifying means...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and deposition of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article does not pretend to be an exhaustive review of all publications in which a thermodynamic analysis has been used to analyse the chemical vapour deposition of refractory materials. It simply covers a certain number of experiments in which the present authors made use of various aspects of this method: overall or partial optimization of a process, determination of the deposition material most suited to fulfilling a given role and approach to mechanisms governing the chemical deposition reaction. A thermodynamic analysis is presented here from a more unusual angle, by examples of localized and varied intervention, in order to demonstrate the multiple uses of the method. (orig.)

  13. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  14. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkinski, Leszek M. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: lmalkins@uno.edu; Chalastaras, Athanasios [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Vovk, Andriy [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Jung, Jin-Seung [Department of Chemistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210702 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Eun-Mee [Department of Chemistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210702 (Korea, Republic of) ; Jun, Jong-Ho [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kunkuk University, Chungju 151747 (Korea, Republic of) ; Ventrice, Carl A. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si.

  15. 2.8-Ma ash-flow caldera at Chegem River in the northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), contemporaneous granites, and associated ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Bogatikov, O.A.; Tsvetkov, A.A.; Gazis, C.; Gurbanov, A.G.; Hon, K.; Koronovsky, N.V.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Marchev, P.

    1993-01-01

    Diverse latest Pliocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the north-central Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia are newly interpreted as components of a large caldera system that erupted a compositionally zoned rhyolite-dacite ash-flow sheet at 2.83 ?? 0.02 Ma (sanidine and biotite 40Ar/39Ar). Despite its location within a cratonic collision zone, the Chegem system is structurally and petrologically similar to typical calderas of continental-margin volcanic arcs. Erosional remnants of the outflow Chegem Tuff sheet extend at least 50 km north from the source caldera in the upper Chegem River. These outflow remnants were previously interpreted by others as erupted from several local vents, but petrologic similarities indicate a common origin and correlation with thick intracaldera Chegem Tuff. The 11 ?? 15 km caldera and associated intrusions are superbly exposed over a vertical range of 2,300 m in deep canyons above treeline (elev. to 3,800 m). Densely welded intracaldera Chegem Tuff, previously described by others as a rhyolite lava plateau, forms a single cooling unit, is > 2 km thick, and contains large slide blocks from the caldera walls. Caldera subsidence was accommodated along several concentric ring fractures. No prevolcanic floor is exposed within the central core of the caldera. The caldera-filling tuff is overlain by andesitic lavas and cut by a 2.84 ?? 0.03-Ma porphyritic granodiorite intrusion that has a cooling age analytically indistinguishable from that of the tuffs. The Eldjurta Granite, a pluton exposed low in the next large canyon (Baksan River) 10 km to the northwest of the caldera, yields variable K-feldspar and biotite ages (2.8 to 1.0 Ma) through a 5-km vertical range in surface and drill-hole samples. These variable dates appear to record a prolonged complex cooling history within upper parts of another caldera-related pluton. Major W-Mo ore deposits at the Tirniauz mine are hosted in skarns and hornfels along the roof of the Eldjurta Granite

  16. Platinum-ruthenium bimetallic clusters on graphite: a comparison of vapor deposition and electroless deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhenage, Randima P; Xie, Kangmin; Diao, Weijian; Tengco, John Meynard M; Seuser, Grant S; Monnier, John R; Chen, Donna A

    2015-11-14

    Bimetallic Pt-Ru clusters have been grown on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces by vapor deposition and by electroless deposition. These studies help to bridge the material gap between well-characterized vapor deposited clusters and electrolessly deposited clusters, which are better suited for industrial catalyst preparation. In the vapor deposition experiments, bimetallic clusters were formed by the sequential deposition of Pt on Ru or Ru on Pt. Seed clusters of the first metal were grown on HOPG surfaces that were sputtered with Ar(+) to introduce defects, which act as nucleation sites for Pt or Ru. On the unmodified HOPG surface, both Pt and Ru clusters preferentially nucleated at the step edges, whereas on the sputtered surface, clusters with relatively uniform sizes and spatial distributions were formed. Low energy ion scattering experiments showed that the surface compositions of the bimetallic clusters are Pt-rich, regardless of the order of deposition, indicating that the interdiffusion of metals within the clusters is facile at room temperature. Bimetallic clusters on sputtered HOPG were prepared by the electroless deposition of Pt on Ru seed clusters from a Pt(+2) solution using dimethylamine borane as the reducing agent at pH 11 and 40 °C. After exposure to the electroless deposition bath, Pt was selectively deposited on Ru, as demonstrated by the detection of Pt on the surface by XPS, and the increase in the average cluster height without an increase in the number of clusters, indicating that Pt atoms are incorporated into the Ru seed clusters. Electroless deposition of Ru on Pt seed clusters was also achieved, but it should be noted that this deposition method is extremely sensitive to the presence of other metal ions in solution that have a higher reduction potential than the metal ion targeted for deposition. PMID:26018140

  17. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  18. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  19. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  20. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  1. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  2. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  3. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  4. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  5. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  6. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...... by more than 40% with most of the response occurring in two quarters immediately before and after the source tax was introduced. The estimates imply an elasticity of Swiss deposits with respect to the net-of-source-tax-rate in the range 2.5-3....

  7. The neutron characteristics of coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron parameters of coal vs. its hydrogen content are calculated. The strong dependences observed point the possibilities of neutron analytical methods for determining hydrogen content in coal deposits. (author)

  8. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  9. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  10. Tolérance au Cu chez Agrostis capillaris L. : du phénotype vers les mécanismes moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Hego, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Cu-tolerant (metallicolous: M) and sensitive (non-metallicolous: NM) populations of Agrostis capillaris L. were exposed to increasing Cu concentrations (1-50 μM) to investigate Cu tolerance by a pluridisciplinary approach. Phenotypic parameters (biomass production, shoot length, and visual symptoms) indicated a higher growth and a better fitness of M plants over 10 μM Cu. Plant Cu concentrations indicated root Cu retention (‘excluder’ phenotype) and a reduced root-to-shoot translocation with ...

  11. Surface effects on the mechanical elongation of AuCu nanowires: De-alloying and the formation of mixed suspended atomic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, M. J. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, R. Sergio B. de Holanda 777, 13083-859 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia-LNNANO, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Autreto, P. A. S.; Galvao, D. S., E-mail: galvao@ifi.unicamp.br; Ugarte, D. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, R. Sergio B. de Holanda 777, 13083-859 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia-LNNANO, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sato, F.; Dantas, S. O. [Departamento de Física, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil)

    2015-03-07

    We report here an atomistic study of the mechanical deformation of Au{sub x}Cu{sub (1−x)} atomic-size wires (nanowires (NWs)) by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to obtain deeper insights on the dynamical properties of stretched NWs. The mechanical properties are significantly dependent on the chemical composition that evolves in time at the junction; some structures exhibit a remarkable de-alloying behavior. Also, our results represent the first experimental realization of mixed linear atomic chains (LACs) among transition and noble metals; in particular, surface energies induce chemical gradients on NW surfaces that can be exploited to control the relative LAC compositions (different number of gold and copper atoms). The implications of these results for nanocatalysis and spin transport of one-atom-thick metal wires are addressed.

  12. Surface effects on the mechanical elongation of AuCu nanowires: De-alloying and the formation of mixed suspended atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here an atomistic study of the mechanical deformation of AuxCu(1−x) atomic-size wires (nanowires (NWs)) by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to obtain deeper insights on the dynamical properties of stretched NWs. The mechanical properties are significantly dependent on the chemical composition that evolves in time at the junction; some structures exhibit a remarkable de-alloying behavior. Also, our results represent the first experimental realization of mixed linear atomic chains (LACs) among transition and noble metals; in particular, surface energies induce chemical gradients on NW surfaces that can be exploited to control the relative LAC compositions (different number of gold and copper atoms). The implications of these results for nanocatalysis and spin transport of one-atom-thick metal wires are addressed

  13. Making Lightweight Structures By Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goela, Jitendra S.; Pickering, Michael A.; Taylor, Raymond L.

    1990-01-01

    Technique developed for fabrication of stiff, strong, lightweight structures of silicon carbide or other materials by any of several deposition processes. Structures made by method can have complicated shapes. Ability to manufacture complex shape from pure deposited SiC useful and leads to new products in several fields. These lightweight structures used as backup structures for optical components, as structural components in automotive, aerospace, and outer space applications, and as lightweight parts of furniture for outer space.

  14. Ultramafic-Hosted Talc-Magnesite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation on the geology of ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits was given at the 42nd Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, May 7-13, 2006, in Asheville, North Carolina (USA). Talc is a soft inert industrial mineral commodity commonly used as a component or filler in ceramic, paint, paper, plastic, roofing, and electrical applications. Ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits are important sources of talc.

  15. Modelling The Dynamic Distribution Of Spray Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the spray distribution of phytopharmaceutical deposits under a spray boom is proposed. It focuses on the need to take account of the dynamic effects of the forward movement of the boom. These are related both to the horizontal and vertical boom movement and to the influence of aerodynamic factors on the nozzle spray distribution. The distribution of the spray deposits is computed by multiplying the nozzle spray pattern by the time needed to m...

  16. A Game Theory Approach of Deposit Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-xun; QIU Wan-hua; MING Ming

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic game theory approach for deposit insurance. We formulate a deposit insurance problem as an incomplete information game theory model, which deduces the expression of Capital Charge Ratio for national central bank. The main contribution of the paper however is that we then extrapolate the declared value of the bank in best its policy. Finally a numerical example is used to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.

  17. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  18. IMMUNOGLOBULIN DEPOSITIONS IN PERIPHERAL NERVES IN POLYMYOSITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越星; 陈清棠; 吴丽娟; 贾钟; 张秋荣; 左越焕

    1995-01-01

    An immunocytochemical study was performed in 6 peripheral nerve specimens from 6 cases of polymyositis.The results revealed that depositions of IgG,IgM,IgA and C3 were found in the epineurium,perineurium and the walls of capillaries.These findings demonstrated that depositions of immonoglobulins and the complement-mediated immunoreaction may play an important role in pathogenesis of polymyositis with peripheral nerfve involvements.

  19. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  20. Removal of External Deposits on Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. De

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available The superheater tubes in Port and Starboard boilers were found to have completely clogged by heavy deposits, which on analysis mainly vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphmatter. The cleaning of the deposits was accomplished by alternate spraying with 15-20 per cent hydrogen peroxide and washing with hot water jets. Over the past two years, since the date of cleaning, the IN ship is operating without any trouble in the boilers.

  1. Fabrication of Micro Components by Electrochemical Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    The main issue of this thesis is the combination of electrochemical deposition of metals and micro machining. Processes for electroplating and electroless plating of nickel and nickel alloys have been developed and optimised for compatibility with microelectronics and silicon based micromechanics...... of electrochemical machining and traditional machining is compared to micro machining techniques as performed in the field of microelectronics. Various practical solutions and equipment for electrochemical deposition of micro components are demonstrated, as well as the use and experience obtained utilising...

  2. Study on pulsed excimer laser deposited films

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Jing Ru; Li Tie Jun; Yao Dong Sheng; Wang Li Ge; Yuan Xiao; Wang Sheng; Ye Xi Sheng

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed lasers of two different durations (30 ns, 500 fs) are used to deposit Hydrogen-free Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) films over large areas. Analysis of DLC films shows remarkable mechanical, optical, electrical, and chemical properties that are close to those of diamond. By optical emission spectroscopy and ion probe, the effects of plasma characteristic on DLC film are on experimentally studied. Amorphous silicon films deposited by PLD are also experimentally studied

  3. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  4. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  5. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  6. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  7. 青海省东昆仑成矿带铁矿成矿规律与找矿方向研究%Metallogenic Law and Prospect Direction of Iron Deposits in the East Kunlun Metallogenic Belt in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许长坤; 王红英; 张文君; 乔强; 刘世宝; 赵子基; 张梅芬; 张开成; 刘建华; 詹发余; 黄朝晖; 张钟月

    2012-01-01

    Early Xingkai period. East Kunlun metallogenic belt is one of the most important metallogenic belts in Qinghai with advantageous geological conditions and great prospecting potential where structures of intrusive rock, fold and fracture are well developed as well as frequent and strong magmatic activities. Moreover, this belt is also the concentrated region of major industrial ore deposits in Qinghai with large reserves and high grade and concurrently paragenic and associated poly-metallic deposit normally possess certain scale. In particularly most skarn-type and sedimentary-metamorphic iron ores are concentrated in this area. Genetic types of iron ore deposits in the East Kunlun metallogenic belt are complex, including exhalative-sedimentary and pyrometasomatic metamorphism reformation type related to volcanic exhalative sedimentation, and sedimentary metamorphic and skarn types. Therefore, the belt is provided with metallogenic conditions for large or super large ore deposits. The ore deposits distribute mostly along the deep fractures of the north, middle and south of Kunlun Mountain and are closely connected with secondary structures and magmatic rock mass. The west of East Kunlun metallogenic belt is the important prospecting area for large ore deposits, the middle has prospecting potential of sedimentary metamorphic iron ores, and the east is regarded as the accumulation area of skarn-type iron ore deposits. The resources of iron ores in this belt occupy 75. 51% of the whole province and large quantity of useful components associated with iron deposits can be also utilized. The contact-metasomatic iron deposits are the target for current exploration. The ores of this kind is excellent and the grade of TFe is between 35% and 55%, with low contents of sulphur and phosphorus (normally lower than industrial requirements). Especially in the Dulan and Yemaquan areas, the associated elements in iron depsotis, such as such as lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, tin, cobalt

  8. Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits of the World: Deposit Models and Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Lindsey, David A.; Singer, Donald A.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction This publication contains four descriptive models and four grade-tonnage models for sediment hosted copper deposits. Descriptive models are useful in exploration planning and resource assessment because they enable the user to identify deposits in the field and to identify areas on geologic and geophysical maps where deposits could occur. Grade and tonnage models are used in resource assessment to predict the likelihood of different combinations of grades and tonnages that could occur in undiscovered deposits in a specific area. They are also useful in exploration in deciding what deposit types meet the economic objectives of the exploration company. The models in this report supersede the sediment-hosted copper models in USGS Bulletin 1693 (Cox, 1986, and Mosier and others, 1986) and are subdivided into a general type and three subtypes. The general model is useful in classifying deposits whose features are obscured by metamorphism or are otherwise poorly described, and for assessing regions in which the geologic environments are poorly understood. The three subtypes are based on differences in deposit form and environments of deposition. These differences are described under subtypes in the general model. Deposit models are based on the descriptions of geologic environments and physical characteristics, and on metal grades and tonnages of many individual deposits. Data used in this study are presented in a database representing 785 deposits in nine continents. This database was derived partly from data published by Kirkham and others (1994) and from new information in recent publications. To facilitate the construction of grade and tonnage models, the information, presented by Kirkham in disaggregated form, was brought together to provide a single grade and a single tonnage for each deposit. Throughout the report individual deposits are defined as being more than 2,000 meters from the nearest adjacent deposit. The deposit models are presented here as

  9. Quantitative analysis of diamond deposition reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Surface H atom densities in a diamond deposition plasma reactor and the highest predicted value (black line). A 350 μm diamond crystal grown at 70 μm/h. Highlights: ► Electron temperature measurement at high pressure in diamond deposition reactor. ► H-atom density measurements at high pressure and high power in diamond deposition reactor. ► Surface H-atom density measurements at high pressure and high power in diamond deposition reactor. ► Microwave cavity based reactor efficiency compared to others reactors. - Abstract: Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to characterize diamond deposition microwave chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) plasmas operating at high power density. Electron temperature has been deduced from H atom emission lines while H-atom mole fraction variations have been estimated using actinometry technique, for a wide range of working conditions: pressure 25–400 hPa and MW power 600–4000 W. An increase of the pressure from 14 hPa to 400 hPa with a simultaneous increase in power causes an electron temperature decrease from 17,000 K to 10,000 K and a H atom mole fraction increase from 0.1 to up to 0.6. This last value however must be considered as an upper estimate due to some assumptions made as well as experimental uncertainties.

  10. Modeling sediment deposition from marine outfall jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terfous, Abdelali; Chiban, Samia; Ghenaim, Abdellah

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the sediment deposition from marine outfall jets. The introduced unidirectional coupling (fluid-sediment) is an appropriate choice in the case of low-concentrated particle-laden jets such as municipal wastewater discharge, where the concentration of particles is small enough and does not affect the hydrodynamic development of the jet in the nearfield. The sedimentation model takes advantage of the preferential concentration phenomenon. The deposition criterion states that the deposition of sediments begins when the vertical component of the entrainment velocity becomes smaller than the settling velocity. Once the deposition process begins, it is controlled by the settling velocity, entrainment velocity, volume flux, and sediment concentration. The deposition along the jet trajectory is expressed by an ordinary differential equation coupled with the liquid phase equations. Experiments of Lane-Serff and Moran [Sedimentation from Buoyant jets. J Hyd Eng. 2005;131(3):166-174], Cuthbertson and Davies [Deposition from particle-laden, round, turbulent, horizontal, buoyant jets in stationary and coflowing receiving fluids. J Hydr Eng. 2008;134(4):390-402], and Lee [Mixing of horizontal sediment laden jets [dissertation]. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong; 2010], chosen from bibliography, are used to validate the model. These experiments cover the cases of horizontal and inclined buoyant jets in stationary ambient, horizontal buoyant jets in co-flow current and nonbuoyant horizontal jets in stationary ambient. Good agreement between the experiments and the obtained simulations is revealed. PMID:26732467

  11. MICRO ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING DEPOSITION IN AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Baidong; ZHAO Wansheng; WANG Zhenlong; CAO Guohui

    2006-01-01

    A new deposition method is described using micro electrical discharge machining (EDM)to deposit tool electrode material on workpiece in air. The basic principles of micro electrical discharge deposition (EDD) are analyzed and the realized conditions are predicted. With an ordinary EDM shaping machine, brass as the electrode, high-speed steel as the workpiece, a lot of experiments are carried out on micro EDD systematically and thoroughly. The effects of major processing parameters, such as the discharge current, discharge duration, pulse interval and working medium, are obtained. As a result, a micro cylinder with 0.19 mm in diameter and 7.35 mm in height is deposited.By exchanging the polarities of the electrode and workpiece the micro cylinder can be removed selectively. So the reversible machining of deposition and removal is achieved, which breaks through the constraint of traditional EDM. Measurements show that the deposited material is compact and close to workpiece base, whose components depend on the tool electrode material.

  12. Deposition uniformity inspection in IC wafer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Jeng, J. J.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the task of automatic visual inspection of color uniformity on the surface of integrated circuits (IC) wafers arising from the layering process. The oxide thickness uniformity within a given wafer with a desired target thickness is of great importance for modern semiconductor circuits with small oxide thickness. The non-uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a wafer surface will proceed to fail testing in Wafer Acceptance Test (WAT). Early detection of non-uniform deposition in a wafer surface can reduce material waste and improve production yields. The fastest and most low-priced inspection method is a machine vision-based inspection system. In this paper, the proposed visual inspection system is based on the color representations which were reflected from wafer surface. The regions of non-uniform deposition present different colors from the uniform background in a wafer surface. The proposed inspection technique first learns the color data via color space transformation from uniform deposition of normal wafer surfaces. The individual small region statistical comparison scheme then proceeds to the testing wafers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the non-uniform deposition regions on the wafer surface. The inspection time of the deposited wafers is quite compatible with the atmospheric pressure CVD time.

  13. Atmospheric deposition fluxes to Monetary Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Paytan, A.; Ryan, J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances. Sources of these components include both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources, which may contribute to harmful health and environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. This study looks at the flux of aerosol deposition (TSP - total suspended particle load) to Monterey Bay, California. Samples are collected on a cascade impactor aerosol sampler (size fractions PM 2.5 and PM 10) every 48 hours continuously. Preliminary results indicate that the TSP for PM 10 ranged from 0.026 to 0.104 mg m-3 of air and for PM 2.5 from 0.014 to 0.046 mg m-3 of air. Using a deposition velocity of 2 cm s-1 for the large fraction (PM10 - PM 2.5) and a deposition velocity of 0.7 cm s-1 for the fine fraction (PM 2.5) deposition rates are 13 and 86 mg m-2 d-1 respectively.

  14. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  15. Deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, W.B.; Sacks, G.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Center of Microelectronics

    1997-03-01

    Use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for electrochromic WO{sub 3} film deposition is investigated. Oxygen, hydrogen, and tungsten hexafluoride were used as source gases. Reactant gas flow was investigated to determine the effect on film characteristics. High quality optical films were obtained at deposition rates on the order of 100 {angstrom}/s. Higher deposition rates were attainable but film quality and optical coherence degraded. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), was used to provide an in situ assessment of the plasma deposition chemistry. Through AES, it is shown that the hydrogen gas flow is essential to the deposition of the WO{sub 3} film. Oxygen gas flow and tungsten hexafluoride gas flow must be approximately equal for high quality films.

  16. As-grown magnesium diboride superconducting thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassano, G.; Ramadan, W.; Ferrando, V.; Bellingeri, E.; Marre, D.; Ferdeghini, C.; Grasso, G.; Putti, M.; Chincarini, A. [INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Manfrinetti, P.; Palenzona, A. [INFM, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-09-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on magnesium oxide and sapphire substrates. Starting from a non-stoichiometric, Mg and B mixed-powder target, we were able to grow the superconducting phase during the film deposition, without any further annealing process. So far, samples grown in the temperature range of 400-450 deg. C, and at an argon buffer pressure of the order of 10{sup -2} mbar turned out to be superconducting with an onset temperature of the resistive transition at about 25 K. Even if the deposition process still needs to be fully optimized, we have demonstrated that this method allows us to achieve in situ deposition of as-grown superconducting thin films. This procedure could therefore be promising for the deposition of high-quality epitaxial MgB{sub 2} thin films. (author)

  17. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa occur Mediterranean and Red Sea metallogenic provinces. In each province distribute 47 iron- manganese- barite and lead-zinc deposits with tectonic-structural control. The author presents in this paper aspects of position of these deposits in the two provinces with Phanerozoic rifting . The Mediterranean Province belongs to two epochs, Hercynian and Alpine. The Hercynian Epoch manganese deposits in only Moroccoa- Algeria belong to Paleozoic tectonic zones and Proterozoic volcanics. The Alpine Epoch iron-manganese deposits are of post-orogenic exhalative-sedimentary origin. Manganese deposits in southern Morocco occur in Kabil-Rief quartz-chalcedony veins controlled by faults in andesitic sheets and in bedded pelitic tuffs, strata-form lenses and ore veins, in Precambrian schist and in Triassic and Cretaceous dolomites. Disseminated manganese with quartz and barite and effusive hydrothermal veins are hosted in Paleocene volcanics. Manganese deposits in Algeria are limited and unrecorded in Tunisia. Strata-form iron deposits in Atlas Heights are widespread in sub-rift zone among Jurassic sediments inter-bedding volcanic rocks. In Algeria, Group Beni-Saf iron deposits are localized along the Mediterranean coast in terrigenous and carbonate rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene age within faults and bedding planes. In Morocco strata-form hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits occur in contact zone of Tertiary andesite inter-bedding Cambrian shale, Lias dolomites and Eocene andesite. In both Algeria and Tunisia metasomatic Pb-Zn veins occur in Campanian - Maastrichtian carbonates, Triassic breccia, Jurassic limestone, Paleocene sandstones and limestone and Neogene conglomerates and sandstones. The Red Sea metallogenic province belongs to the Late Tertiary-Miocene times. In Wadi Araba hydrothermal iron-manganese deposits occur in Cretaceous sediments within 320°and 310 NW faults related to Tertiary basalt. Um-Bogma iron-manganese deposits are closely

  18. [Monitoring nitrogen deposition on temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Yong-mei; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Duan, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen deposition on temperate steppe was monitored from November 2011 to October 2012 in Taipusi County, Inner Mongolia. The dry deposition of gaseous nitrogen compounds was calculated based on online-monitored atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NO2 and dry deposition velocity simulated by CMAQ model. The wet deposition, dry deposition of particle, and throughfall deposition were also estimated by collecting rainfall, dust fall, and throughfall samples and the chemical analysis of NH4+ and NO3-concentrations. Results showed that the total deposition of nitrogen was up to 3.43 g x (m2 x a)(-1), which might be harmful to the ecosystem. The wet deposition accounted for about 44% of the total deposition, while dry deposition of gases and particle accounted for 38% and 18%, respectively. Since the deposition contributed more than wet deposition, a great attention should be paid on dry deposition monitoring. However, the very simple method for total deposition monitoring based on throughfall seemed not suitable for grassland because the monitored throughfall deposition was much lower than the total deposition. In addition, reduced nitrogen (NH4+ and NH3) contributed to 71% of the total deposition, while oxidation nitrogen (NO3- and NO2) was only 29%. Therefore, NH3 emission reduction should be considered as important as nitrogen oxides (NO3x) for controlling nitrogen deposition.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of titania nanoparticles: Wet density of deposits during EPD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morteza Farrokhi-Rad; Taghi Shahrabi; Shirin Khanmohammadi

    2014-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of titania nanoparticles was performed at different voltages and times. The wet density of deposits was calculated according to the Archimedes’ principle. The wet density as well as the electric field over the deposits increased with time and attained the plateau at longer times. The velocity at which particles attach to the deposit, strongly influences its wet density at initial times. However, the effect of electro-osmotic flow is dominant at longer times. The coating with higher wet density had the higher corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution at 37.5 °C due to its closely packed and crack free microstructure.

  20. Novel photochemical vapor deposition reactor for amorphous silicon solar cell deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.; Hegedus, Steven S.; Buchanan, Wayne A.; Jackson, Scott C.

    1987-07-01

    A novel photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) reactor having a flexible ultraviolet-transparent Teflon curtain and a secondary gas flow to eliminate deposition on the window has been used to deposit amorphous silicon films and p-i-n solar cells. The background levels of atmospheric contaminants (H2O, CO2, N2) depend strongly on the vacuum procedures but not on the presence of a Teflon curtain in the reactor. Intrinsic films with a midgap density of states of 3×1015 eV-1 cm-3 and all-photo-CVD pin solar cells with efficiencies of 8.5% have been deposited.

  1. Uranium deposits in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of uranium with certain types of magmatic and metamorphic rocks is well known. They have consequently been explored and studied quite extensively. In recent years interest in them has been eclipsed by the discovery of larger, lower cost deposits in other geological environments. Nonetheless, magmatic and metamorphic rocks continue to be important sources of uranium and large areas of the Earth's crust with such rocks are prospective locations for additional discoveries. As future exploration and development could be more difficult the full importance of individual deposits may not be recognized until after many years of investigation and experience. In addition to being important host rocks, magmatic and metamorphic rocks have been of considerable interest to uranium geologists as they are considered to be important source rocks for uranium and thus can lead to deposits nearby in other environments. Furthermore, these rocks provide important information on the geochemical cycle of uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle. Such information can lead to identification of uranium provinces and districts and to a basic understanding of processes of formation of uranium deposits. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks. The meeting was held in Salamanca, Spain, from 29 September to 3 October 1986. It was followed by a two day field trip to uranium deposits in the Ciudad Rodrigo and Don Benito areas. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from 22 countries. Two panels were organized for discussion of the following topics: (1) ore deposit genesis and characterization and (2) exploration and resource assessment. The technical papers together with the panel reports form this publication. The scope and variety of the papers included and the panel reports provide a good coverage of current knowledge and thinking on uranium in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

  2. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  3. Dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: dry deposition, oil shale fugitive air emissions, particle resuspension and translocation, theoretical studies and applications, and processing of emissions by clouds and precipitation. The concentration of contaminant species in air is governed by the rate of input from sources, the rate of dilution or dispersion as a result of air turbulence, and the rate of removal to the surface by wet and dry deposition processes. Once on the surface, contaminants also may be resuspended, depending on meteorological and surface conditions. An understanding of these processes is necessary for accurate prediction of exposures of hazardous or harmful contaminants to humans, animals, and crops. In the field, plume dispersion and plume depletion by dry deposition were studied by the use of tracers. Dry deposition was investigated for particles of both respiration and inhalation interest. Complementary dry deposition studies of particles to rock canopies were conducted under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Because of increasing concern about hazardous, organic gases in the atmosphere some limited investigations of the dry deposition of nitrobenzene to a lichen mat were conducted in a stirred chamber. Resuspension was also studied using tracers and contaminated surfaces and in the wind tunnel. The objective of the resuspension studies was to develop and verify models for predicting the airborne concentrations of contaminants over areas with surface contamination, develop resuspension rate predictors for downwind transport, and develop predictors for resuspension input to the food chain. These models will be of particular relevance to the evaluation of deposition and resuspension of both radionuclides and chemical contaminants

  4. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  5. Determination and genesis of “magnesian skarn”or “ultramafite”of Galale Cu-Au deposit in Tibet,China%西藏嘎拉勒铜金矿床“镁质矽卡岩”或“超镁铁质岩”的厘定与成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志; 唐菊兴; 王立强; 姚晓峰; 王红星; 宋俊龙; 杨毅; 胡正华

    2015-01-01

    The Galale copper-gold deposit is the typical deposit of the collisional mineralization events on the southern margin of the Bangonghu-Nujiang metallogenic belt in Tibet.Its gold resources has reaches more than that of a large-scale deposit.In view of the differences in exploring theory and prospecting direction led to by the different views on the genesis of the deposit in exploring deposits, this paper gives emphasis to studying the characteristics of petrology and geochemistry based on the determination of the “magnesian skarn”and “ultramafite rock”.The research result shows that there are obvious characteristics of dual contact metasomatism among the “ultramafite rock”and dolomite and granodiorite in the aspect of the major elements.Trace elements show the characteristics of having Ba,K,Ti negative anomalies,enriching Rb,U,Th etc.,and losing Hf,Ti of high field strength elements;REE shows that LREE and HREE fractionation is obvious and the LREE is apparent tilt partition.Trace elements and REE geochemical characteristics are seriously inconsistent with that of the ultramafite rock related to ophiolite regionally.On the contrary,trace elements and REE have a close affinity and inherited characteristics with dolomite and granodiorite. The comprehensive studies show that the previous so-called “ultramafite rock”is the contact metasomatic“magnesian skarn”,and the deposit is the contact metasomatic copper-gold skarn deposit.%嘎拉勒铜金矿床是班公湖-怒江成矿带南缘碰撞期成矿事件的代表性矿床,其金资源量达到大型以上规模。鉴于在矿床勘查中对矿床成因的不同认识导致找矿勘查理论及找矿方向的差异,作者从矿床成因立足之本的“镁质矽卡岩”与“超镁铁岩”的厘定出发,重点研究了这类岩石的岩石学以及岩石地球化学特征。主元素方面,“超镁铁岩”与白云岩及花岗闪长岩之间具有明显的接触双交代

  6. Palladium clusters deposited on the heterogeneous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    To improve the performance of the Pd composite membrane prepared by the cold spraying technology, it is extremely essential to give insights into the deposition process of the cluster and the heterogeneous deposition of the big Pd cluster at the different incident velocities on the atomic level. The deposition behavior, morphologies, energetic and interfacial configuration were examined by the molecular dynamic simulation and characterized by the cluster flattening ratio, the substrate maximum local temperature, the atom-embedded layer number and the surface-alloy formation. According to the morphology evolution, three deposition stages and the corresponding structural and energy evolution were clearly identified. The cluster deformation and penetrating depth increased with the enhancement of the incident velocity, but the increase degree also depended on the substrate hardness. The interfacial interaction between the cluster and the substrate can be improved by the higher substrate local temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the surface alloys were formed by exchanging sites between the cluster and substrate atoms, and the cluster atoms rearranged following as the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up in the deposition course. The ability and scope of the structural reconstruction are largely determined by both the size and incident energy of the impacted cluster.

  7. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  8. Deposition of carbonyl sulphide to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczewski, S. M.; Brown, K. A.; Bel, J. N. B.

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a trace constituent of the atmosphere and is also the main form in which 35S is released from CO 2-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of its deposition velocity ( Vg) are therefore important for validating radiological dose models and for interpreting the role of COS in the global S cycle. The Vg of [ 35S]COS to thin layers of several contrasting soils was measured in a through-flow fumigation system. Deposition velocity was not significantly affected by soil type, although deposition to moist soil was significantly greater ( P dried soils, mean values being 5.71 × 10 -6 ms -1 and 3.06 × 10 -6 ms -1, respectively. The results obtained are about three orders of magnitude smaller than published Vg values for SO 2 to similar soils, which suggests that uptake by soils is not a major sink for atmospheric COS. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that deposition to soil of [ 35S]COS from nuclear reactors is unlikely to contribute significantly to radiation dose from the food chain pathway. The reduction in Vg observed in heat-treated soils indicates a microbial involvement in uptake. However, it seems unlikely that microbial metabolism is the rate-controlling step, since stimulation of the microflora by the addition of nutrients did not increase COS deposition.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail: kega@physx.u-szeged.hu; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Nogradi, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Szeged, H-6720, Szeged, Koranyi fasor 10-11 (Hungary)

    2005-07-15

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 x 10{sup -3} Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified 'protein cube' method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  10. Pharmacological approach to evaluate aerosol pulmonary deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Molimard, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    Drug delivery to the lung in vivo may be assessed using pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic techniques. The choice of method depends on drug class specificities. Pharmacokinetic determination of deposition to the lung for drugs without hepatic first-pass effect, such as short acting beta2-agonists, has to be done shortly after inhalation to minimize the effect of gastrointestinal absorption. For medication undergoing important hepatic first-pass metabolisation, such as inhaled corticosteroid, plasma concentration indirectly reflects bronchial deposition. The pharmacodynamic profile should be assessed through clinical effects and adverse events induced by inhaled drugs. Dose ranking of lung deposition for bronchodilators requires patient selection with sufficient bronchial obstruction to maintain room for improvement after the first dose. To assess dose effect relationship between inhaled corticosteroid, the Finney parallel line bioassay is the reference method with a study period of at least 6 weeks. Analysis of side effects with high doses of beta2-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids may also be used to compare lung deposition. Finally, pharmacological evaluation of lung deposition provides complementary information to scintigraphic studies, based on their clinical relevance. PMID:15966772

  11. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  12. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  13. 青海卡尔却卡铜多金属矿床地球化学特征与成矿物质来源%Geochemical Characteristics and Source of Ore-Forming Materials of Kaerqueka Copper Polymetallic Deposit in Qinghai Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖健清; 黄敏; 宋文彬; 苏生顺; 王守良

    2015-01-01

    Combined with field investigation and ore-forming geological conditions of the Kaerqueka copper polymetallic deposit, the geochemical characteristics of the deposit are summarized,the origin of the ore-forming materials is ascertained,and the rock-forming and ore-forming mechanisms are discussed according to the S,Pb isotopes as well as chemical analysis,including major element analysis,trace element analysis.Results of typical magmatic rocks,wall rocks and ores show that the magmatic rocks which were derived from deep and affected by crustal contamination during intrusion are intermediate acidity comagmatic rocks and belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series.All REE distribution patterns of different geologic bodies incline to the right and LREE-rich,indicating that the magmatic rock,skarn and ore belong to the same metallogenic system.The geochemistry of trace elements shows that the granites of the deposit occurred in volcanic arc environment.Theδ34 SCDT values of ore minerals lie between those of magmatic rock and country rock sulfur,with a range of 4.4‰ to 1 1.0‰,which indicates various metallogenic material sources.The Th/U values of lead isotope in ore minerals range from 3.46 to 3.69 and theμ values range from 9.46 to 9.52 (<9.58),which fall between the values of crust and primitive mantle and indicate that the ore lead is characterized by both deep-sourced and crust-sourced origins.The tracer analysis regarding the characteristic parameters,lead composition mod-el and Δβ-Δγ diagram show that the ore lead is mainly crust-derived and mixed with minor mantle-derived lead and affected by magmatism.The geochemical characteristics of Kaerqueka deposit suggest that the ore-forming materials mainly originated from magma with minor strata substance.The complicated evolution of magmatic rock is revealed by the porphyry-type copper-molybdenum mineralization in magmatic rock,the skarn-type lead-zinc mineralization following the contact of carbonate rock and

  14. THE WATERSHED DEPOSITION TOOL: A MEANS TO LINK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION TO WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for atmospheric deposition reductions to contribute to water quality management is not being included in many planning exercises. This is because often the water quality scientists do not know where to get and how to use projections of atmospheric deposition reducti...

  15. Alternate slicing and deposition strategies for fused deposition modelling of light curved parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM, as one of the additive manufacturing (AM techniques, has been widely used in the manufacturing industry from the 1990s. It is relatively cheaper than other AM methods and there are other advantages such as being able to process a variety of other polymers. Currently, FDM is more likely to be suitable for direct production of the terminal-use parts, in some cases challenging traditional process such as injection molding. Research evidences indicate that change of road and layer structure would have significant influence on the meso-structure and thus impact the mechanical properties of the resulting polymer parts. Adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition have been introduced to improve the mechanical properties of terminal-use product. It is necessary that an appropriate deposition scheme is essential to ensure the best interroad and inter-layer connectivity. Uninterrupted connections are likely to result in a continuous network of polymer chains, as in the case of the conventional processes. The current research proposes conventional flat layer deposition, adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition for FDM. In particular for curved parts, curved layer deposition in expected to ensure fiber continuity and better meso-structure. Mathematical models are developed for curved slicing, practically implemented to print physical parts and test results suggest marked improvement in the mechanical characteristics of curved parts.

  16. Interplay between the deposition mode and microstructure in electrochemically deposited Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremmer, K. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Yezerska, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schreiber, G. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Masimov, M. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Klemm, V. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schneider, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: rafaja@ww.tu-freiberg.de

    2007-06-13

    The influence of the electrochemical potential and the deposition mode on the preferred orientation and morphology of crystallites and on the microstrain in electrochemically deposited copper thin films was investigated using a combination of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, X-ray diffraction, SEM and the diffraction of backscattered electrons. With increasing negative electrochemical potential, the deposition mode changed from the charge transfer controlled one to the diffusion controlled one. At the highest electrochemical potentials, copper deposition was accompanied by hydrogen reduction. In potentiostatically deposited thin films, the preferred orientation of crystallites changed from {l_brace}111{r_brace} in the charge transfer controlled deposition mode to {l_brace}110{r_brace} in the diffusion controlled one. The increase of the electrochemical potential in the charge transport controlled deposition mode caused an increase of the dislocation density. The increasing electrochemical potential in the diffusion controlled mode led to a decrease of the dislocation density. The copper deposition, which was accompanied by the hydrogen reduction, produced needle-like crystallites with the {l_brace}100{r_brace} texture and with the lowest dislocation density.

  17. The uranium ore deposits in Ciudad Rodrigo Phyllites. about the possibility of new deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Fe mine type, are discussed in this paper. Pitchblende ore is related with phyllites bearing organic material and with geomorphological level, fossilized by eocene sediments. As a result, new uranium ore deposits are possible under Ciudad Rodrigo tertiary basin, tertiary cover depth being little more than three hundred feet. (Author)

  18. Deposition of Thin Film Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for micro-SOFC Development

    OpenAIRE

    Krogstad, Hedda Nordby

    2012-01-01

    Optimalization of PLD deposition of YSZ for micr-SOFC electrolyte applications by varying deposition pressure and target-substrate distance.Substrate used was Si-based chips and wafers (large area PLD), and the substrate temperature was held at 600. Dense films were obtained at 20 mTorr.

  19. 76 FR 7740 - Amendments to Deposit Insurance Regulations: Deposit Insurance Coverage Training; SMDIA Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    .... Becker, Senior Consumer Affairs Specialist, Deposit Insurance Section, Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection, (202) 898-6644, mbecker@fdic.gov ; or Catherine A. ] Ribnick, Counsel, Legal Division... insurance training requirement on third parties (e.g., deposit brokers or affinity groups) that directly...

  20. Spatial atomic layer deposition: a route towards further industrialization of atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.W.G.; Cameron, D.C.; Dickey, E.; George, S.M.; Kuznetsov, V.; Parsons, G.N.; Roozeboom, F.; Sundaram, G.; Vermeer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique capable of producing ultrathin conformal films with atomic level control over thickness. A major drawback of ALD is its low deposition rate, making ALD less attractive for applications that require high throughput processing. An approach to overcome this

  1. The Effect of Deposition Time on Textured Magnesium Diboride Thick Films Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Mutia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 powders suspended in ethanol were electrophoretically deposited on high-purity molybdenum substrates having dimensions of 1 x 0.3 x 0.01 cm. The said substrate was set as the cathode and was placed 0.5 cm away from a graphite rod anode. A current density of ~0.02 mA/cm2 and a voltage of 600 V were applied. The effect of deposition time was studied by varying it as follows: 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Heat treatment at 950 oC for 3 h was done after deposition. MgB2 thick films were successfully fabricated for the deposition carried out for 2 min. Deposition times less than 2 min resulted in insufficient deposited powder; hence formation of MgB2 was not facilitated. Films deposited at 15 and 30 s have good surface characteristics, wherein no microcracks were present. X-ray diffraction and surface image analysis reveal that the deposited films have a preferred orientation along the (10l direction.

  2. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  3. 24 CFR 882.414 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 882... Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic Policies § 882.414 Security and utility deposits. (a) If at the time of the... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b) If...

  4. 24 CFR 884.115 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 884... Security and utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount... security and utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  5. 24 CFR 886.116 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount up to, but not... utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  6. Electroless Deposition of Fe-Mo-W-B Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The preparation, formation mechanism, surface appearance and structure of electroless plating Fe-Mo-W-B amorphous alloys were systematically studied. The deposition rates of the deposits in different bath composition as plated were measured. The formation mechanism of the deposits was discussed. The parameter for amorphous structures formation was suggested for the deposits.

  7. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of... term of deposit. Viability may be tested by the depository. The test must conclude only that...

  8. 7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment; advance deposit. 27.92 Section 27... Micronaire § 27.92 Method of payment; advance deposit. Any payment or advance deposit under this subpart...,” and may not be made in cash except in cases where the total payment or deposit does not exceed...

  9. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  10. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  11. Effect of deposition pressure and post deposition annealing on SmCo thin film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we report on the effect of the deposition pressure and the post deposition annealing conditions on the structural and magnetic properties of SmCo thin films deposited on Si(100) wafers employing Ta buffer and capping layers. The films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and annealed in vacuum at various temperatures. The films under investigation were isotropic with high remanence magnetization, maximum coercive field of 8 kOe and a squareness ratio of coercivity higher than 0.9. It was found that the Ar pressure during the deposition is a key factor in controlling the stoichiometry and the structural and magnetic properties of the SmCo films, while the effect of the annealing temperature is crucial in optimizing the magnetic properties of the films. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Atomic-layer deposition of silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Ooba, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride has been investigated by means of plasma ALD in which a NH sub 3 plasma is used, catalytic ALD in which NH sub 3 is dissociated by thermal catalytic reaction on a W filament, and temperature-controlled ALD in which only a thermal reaction on the substrate is employed. The NH sub 3 and the silicon source gases (SiH sub 2 Cl sub 2 or SiCl sub 4) were alternately supplied. For all these methods, the film thickness per cycle was saturated at a certain value for a wide range of deposition conditions. In the catalytic ALD, the selective deposition of silicon nitride on hydrogen-terminated Si was achieved, but, it was limited to only a thin (2SiO (evaporative).

  13. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  14. Worldwide deposition of strontium-90 through 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 results from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Global Fallout Program (GFP) are presented for the years 1987 through 1990. Quarterly 90Sr deposition results for the 66 sampling locations of EML's GFP were generally low, indicating that there was no significant release of fission products into the atmosphere during this period. The global 90Sr deposition during these 4 years was lower than it has been for any similar period since this program began in 1958. Since there was no major atmospheric source of 90Sr during this period, the global cumulative deposit of 90Sr continued to decrease by radioactive decay to a 27 year low of 311.4 Pbq

  15. Model calculations to formation of salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a contribution from the geophysical side and its target is to explain the formation of long stretched salt deposits - salt walls - in a better manner than has been done sofar using model calculations. A few works have already been dedicated to this subject (they are treated in chapter 5). They all have the disadvantage however in not being able to represent the time sequence of the salt deposit generations. Precisely the latter is achieved in this work by including assumed initial interference. The values for the salt wall distance and its growth rate are improved upon. The Schleswig-Holstein salt deposit is taken as example. The model calculations are supported by model experiments. (orig.)

  16. Washout and dry deposition of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition velocities onto different rough surfaces and the washout coefficients of simulated rain droplets for submicron aerosols were studied in a wind channel. The influence of particle size and electric charge upon the collection efficiencies of simulated rain droplets was measured. The deposition velocity of the particles was determined as a function of aerosol size, wind velocity and roughness of the surface. The experiments were carried out with monodisperse, radioactive particles with sizes which were varied from 0.03 and 5 μm. Using the measured values, the activity flux of the long lived radon decay product (RaD), the mass flux of the atmospheric aerosol and the activity flux near a stack of a nuclear power plant onto the ground surface were calculated considering washout, rainout and dry deposition in the atmosphere. (author)

  17. Crud deposition modeling on BWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of boiling water reactor (BWR) system corrosion products (crud) on operating fuel rods has resulted in performance-limiting conditions in a number of plants. The operational impact of performance-limiting conditions involving crud deposition can be detrimental to a BWR operator, resulting in unplanned or increased frequency of fuel inspections, fuel failure and associated radiological consequences, operational restrictions including core power derate and/or forced shutdowns to remove failed fuel, premature discharge of individual bundles or entire reloads, and/or undesirable core design restrictions. To facilitate improved management of crud-related fuel performance risks, EPRI has developed the CORAL (Crud DepOsition Risk Assessment ModeL) tool. This paper presents a summary of the CORAL elements and benchmarking results. Applications of CORAL as a tool for fuel performance risk assessment are also discussed. (author)

  18. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  19. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.;

    2003-01-01

    , NO3-, NH3 and NH4+) into the North Sea and the processes governing this deposition. The Southern North Sea was studied as a prototype. Because the physical and chemical processes are described, as opposed to empirical relations, the results can potentially be transferred to other regional seas like...... and Harwich/Newcastle. These measurements provided data for sensitivity studies of a variety of problems associated with the coastal region that are not easily evaluated with larger scale models, to constrain models and to test model results. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds over the North Sea...... and the resulting deposition presented in this paper were obtained with the Lagrangian transport-chemistry model ACDEP. The average annual deposition in 1999 was 906 kg N km(-2). The results are compared with experimental data from the ferry. Effects of temporal and spatial variations are evaluated based...

  20. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  1. Patterned deposition at moving contact lines

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    When a simple or complex liquid recedes from a smooth solid substrate it often leaves a homogeneous or structured deposit behind. In the case of a receding non-volatile pure liquid the deposit might be a liquid film or an arrangement of droplets depending on the receding speed of the meniscus and the wetting properties of the system. For complex liquids with volatile components as, e.g., polymer solutions and particle or surfactant suspensions, the deposit might be a homogeneous or structured layer of solute - with structures ranging from line patterns that can be orthogonal or parallel to the receding contact line via hexagonal or square arrangements of drops to complicated hierarchical structures. We review a number of recent experiments and modelling approaches with a particular focus on mesoscopic hydrodynamic long-wave models. The conclusion highlights open question and speculates about future developments.

  2. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wagner, William R; Antaki, James F

    2016-01-01

    Based on the transport model of Sorensen et al. (1999), an improved mathematical model describing the process of thrombus deposition and growth was developed. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are modeled using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations. These represent three main processes: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: mural thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and thrombus deposition in a small (125 x 95 micros) crevice observed in vitro. For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. These promising results encourage further simulations to investigate clinical conditions and design factors that affect the risk of t...

  3. MOCVD deposition of YSZ on stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Kilo, M.; Borchardt, G.; Larpin, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia was deposited on stainless steel using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, from β-diketonate precursors. The variation of the evaporation temperatures of yttrium and zirconium precursor allowed to control the level of Y within the film. Over the temperature range 125-150 °C, the Y content increased from 2.5 to 17.6 at.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses evidenced tetragonal phase of zirconia when the Y content was below 8 at.%, and cubic phase for higher concentration. Sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) profiles confirmed that the control and stability of Y precursor temperature were of major importance to guarantee the homogeneity of the deposited films.

  4. Simulation of Indoor Fine Suspension Particle Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. Q.; Gong, G. C.; Zou, S. H.

    In this paper, the migration and deposition of particles are simulated using the Moment Dynamic Equation (MDE). Indoor fine suspension particle depositions and particle distribution function are obtained. Gas phase flow is simulated by v 2 - f model. The simulated results of particle concentration profiles show that a uniform concentration exists in the middle region of the room with a low supplying speed. At the same time, the total number of partciels deposited is also obtained using Gradient diffusion model. Through the comparison of velocity predictions among several CFD k-ɛ models and v 2 -f model and experimental data, it is concluded that the results obtained by v 2 -f model more accurately approximate the experimental data. So that the MDE combined v 2 -f model will gain in popularity amongst building engineers and it will gradually be adopted as an attractive alternative tool to predict contaminant particle dispersion and distribution.

  5. Texture of atomic layer deposited ruthenium

    OpenAIRE

    Musschoot, J.; Xie, Q; Deduytsche, D.; De Keyser, K; Longrie, D.; Haemers, J.; Van den Berghe, S.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; D'Haen, Jan; Detavernier, C

    2010-01-01

    Ruthenium films were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(1 0 0) and ALD TiN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited films on Si(1 0 0) were polycrystalline, on TiN they were (0 0 2) oriented. After annealing at 800 degrees C for 60 s, all Ru films were strongly (0 0 2) textured and very smooth. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the lateral grain size of the annealed films was several 100 ...

  6. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...... of Swiss bank accounts to offshore holding companies - rather than repatriation of funds...

  7. Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, L.

    1992-01-01

    Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

  8. Shanxi Finding Another Large Bauxite Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>According to Department of Resources of Shanxi,a new breakthrough has been made on the prospecting in the province.The preliminary result shows that another large bauxite mine has been found in Shiqie River in Baode County with a deposit height of 0.81- 8.01m and an estimate reserve of 140 million tons.Meanwhile 3 large-and 3 medium-size bauxite deposits have also been found in the northwest part of Shanxi including Hejiaqianhe of Xin County with an estimate reserve of 37.1 million tons and Beiguli of Jiaokou County.

  9. Bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalvik, Julie Nitsche

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to make bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition (ALD). To do this, a new ALD system with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and lysine as precursors was developed with emphasis on studying the effects of pulsing times and deposition temperatures. TTIP was chosen as titanium is regarded to be biocompatible and lysine was chosen as poly-L-lysine is a part of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and hence affects cell adhesion. The effect of a water pulse...

  10. Risk Adjusted Deposit Insurance for Japanese Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuzo Sato; Rama V. Ramachandran; Bohyong Kang

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Japanese deposit insurance scheme by contrasting the flat insurance rate with a market-determined risk-adjusted rate. The model used to calculate the risk-adjusted rate is that of Ronn and Verrna (1986) . It utilizes the notion of Merton(1977) that the deposit insurance can be based on a one-to-one relation between it and the put option; this permits the application of Black and Scholes(1973) model for the calculation of the insurance rate. The ris...

  11. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  12. XRF analysis of depth profiled thin depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main information about atmospheric and water pollutants is obtained from analysis of thin depositions on filters. Due its high sensitivity for a large number of elements, the XRF analysis based on X-ray tube as source of excitation, is a very advantageous method to measure samples of this kind. However, due to very large absorption photon cross sections in this energy range, the deposition profile can play an important role in analysis. Neglecting it might lead in some cases to wrong results. Assuming a normalized exponentially decaying profile as a realistic approximation of the deposition profile of a given element as ρ(x) = mkme-kmx/(1- e-kmD), where ρ(x) is element density at depth x, m - its surface density, km - deposition parameter and D - sample thickness, the yield, Y(km), of a characteristic X-line measured on a side of the sample is given as a function of Φ(E) - incident X-ray flux at energy E, σf(E) - photoelectric absorption cross section of the element, χ(E) - total X-ray absorption coefficient in sample considering both incidence and emergence path. Measuring the sample on the opposite side, the yield will be Y(-km), while from the ratio Y(-km)/Y(km) can be determined numerically. Since y(km) = Y(km)/m is independent of m, the deposition superficial mass is calculated using a thick standard as m = Y(s)S(x)/y(km)S(s), where S(x) (S(s)) is the X-line intensity measured in sample (standard) and theoretical yield in standard Y(s) is calculated using the formulas of Shiraiwa and Fujino. A computer code based on this formalism was written. Many samples of wet soil and aerosols deposition on filters, previously measured by other methods, were used to check the correctness of the present analysis procedure and a very good agreement is found between our results and the measurements taken as reference. A table is given with the results of the IAEA soil standard SOIL-7, deposited wet on a thin filter and measured after drying. The soil deposition was 3

  13. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  14. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Electrochemical Deposition Of Thiolate Monolayers On Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D.; Weissharr, Duane E.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical method devised for coating metal (usually, gold) surfaces with adherent thiolate monolayers. Affords greater control over location and amount of material deposited and makes it easier to control chemical composition of deposits. One important potential use for this method lies in fabrication of chemically selective thin-film resonators for microwave oscillators used to detect pollutants: monolayer formulated to bind selectively pollutant chemical species of interest, causing increase in mass of monolayer and corresponding decrease in frequency of resonance. Another important potential use lies in selective chemical derivatization for purposes of improving adhesion, lubrication, protection against corrosion, electrocatalysis, and electroanalysis.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent.

  17. Distribution And Mineralogy Of The Clay Deposits In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    1993-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...

  18. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  19. 12 CFR 347.203 - Deposit insurance required for all branches of foreign banks engaged in domestic retail deposit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign banks engaged in domestic retail deposit activity in the same State. 347.203 Section 347.203 Banks... engaged in domestic retail deposit activity in the same State. The FDIC will not insure deposits in any... foreign bank in the same state that engages in domestic retail deposit activity will be an insured branch....

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102338 Cheng Jialong(China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Zhao Yongxin Summary of Metallogenic,Geochemical Study on the Skarn Deposits(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,24(4),2009,p.329-334,358,2 illus.,40 refs.)Key words:skarn depositRecent study shows that the skarn deposit not only occurs in the contact between the intermediate-acidic intrusion and carbonate rocks but also in the contact of the basic intrusion or in the distal strata,not only hosted by the carbonate rocks but also by the active volcanic sedimentary rocks,such as the volcanic sedimentary tuff.The vast majority of skarn deposits are related to magmatic arcs in the subduction zone beneath the continental crust with the mesothermal to epithermal ore-forming temperature and the shallow to medium ore-forming depth.The abyssal environment is not favorable for the formation of skarn.Ore materials of the skarn deposit mainly come from deep source with partial crust materials involved.20102339 Chi Guoxiang(Department of Geology,University of Regina,Regina,Saskatchewan S4SOA2,Canada);Lai Jianqing Roles of Fluid Inclusions in Study of Mineral Deposits(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258-7106,CN11-1965/P,28(6),2009,p.850-855,36 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:fluid inclusions,ore-forming fluids20102340 Ding Jianhua(Institute of Mineral Resources,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Xiao Keyan Large Scale Mineral Assessment in Three Di

  1. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar

    2003-05-01

    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  2. A literature review on wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on wet deposition or precipitation scavenging have been reviewed with special reference to predicting the radiological consequences of accidental contamination. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIAF-423-DK(SD). (author)

  3. 78 FR 13212 - Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... valuable portfolio management tool when there are inflationary risks in the economy. \\4\\ 77 FR 59144 (Sept... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 RIN 3133-AE06 Investment and Deposit Activities AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board) is amending its investment...

  4. Deposition of biopolymer films on micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jensen, Marie P.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of various parameters on the spray-coating of thin films of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was investigated. The optimized processing conditions were used for deposition of the biodegradable polymer on arrays of SU-8 microcantilevers. The resonance frequency of the cantilevers before and af...

  5. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  6. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  7. Low-pressure, chemical vapor deposition polysilicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, B. D.; Crotty, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    The low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of polycrystalline silicon was investigted. The physical system was described, as was the controlling process parameters and requirements for producing films for use as an integral portion of the solar cell contact system.

  8. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...

  9. Atmosfærisk deposition 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M. F.;

    Denne rapport sammenfatter de vigtigste konklusioner fra dette års rapportering af atmosfæredelen af NOVA 2003 og opsummerer ovedresultaterne vedrørende måling og beregning af koncentrationer af atmosfæriske kvælstof-, fosfor-, svovlforbindelser og tungmetaller samt deposition til danske hav- og...... den største kvælstofdeposition, som hidtil er blevet rapporteret og ca. 20% højere end rapporteret for 1999 (Ellermann et al. 2000). For begge år viser de nyeste beregninger en tydeligt højere deposition til de danske farvande end hidtil rapporteret. Opdatering af model Det er vigtigt at bemærke, at...... den samlede deposition til de danske farvande, og dels højere kvælstofkoncentrationer i nedbøren. Denne forklaring underbygges af målingerne, som viser en svag stigning i våddepositionen fra 1999 til 2000 på trods af, at nedbørsmængden er lidt mindre i 2000 end 1999. Deposition opdelt på de...

  10. DRY DEPOSITION OF POLLUTANTS TO FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the results of an extensive field campaign to measure dry deposition of ozone and sulfur dioxide to a sample of forest types in the United States. Measurements were made for full growing seasons over a deciduous forest in Pennsylvania and a mixed deciduous-conifer...

  11. Modeling of dust deposition in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deposition of dust particles has a significant influence on the global bio-geochemical cycle. Currently, the lack of spatiotemporal data creates great uncertainty in estimating the global dust budget. To improve our understanding of the fate, transport and cycling of airborne dust, there is a ne...

  12. 28 CFR 68.22 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.22 Depositions. (a) Notice. Any party... taken elsewhere, unless otherwise permitted by the Administrative Law Judge or agreed to by the...

  13. 37 CFR 1.25 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.25... account may be submitted by electronic funds transfer through the Federal Reserve Fedwire System, which... account number. (2) A payment to replenish a deposit account may be submitted by electronic funds...

  14. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  15. Stabilization of gravel deposits using microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Star, W.R.L.; Van Wijngaarden, W.K.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Van Baalen, L.R.; Zwieten, G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the techniques used for the construction of underground infrastructure is horizontal directional drilling (HDD). This trenchless method is complicated when crossing gravel deposits as a borehole in coarse gravel tends to collapse, causing the drill pipe to get stuck or the failure of installa

  16. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; A.L. Roquemore; the NSTX team; A. Bader; W.R. Wampler

    2004-06-15

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX.

  17. 31 CFR 223.4 - Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposits. 223.4 Section 223.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED...

  18. Iron and manganese deposits in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the results of the study carried out for the United Nations expert which the main object was: the study of the information available about iron and manganese formation in Uruguay, as well as the main researching deposit to determinate economical possibilities in the exportation.

  19. Local plasma deposition on polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Habets, D.; Winands, G.J.J.; Staemmler, L.

    2011-01-01

    For the modification of the surface energy of polymers, organosilicon coatings provide good optical and mechanical properties and are excellent candidates for the modification of the surface energy of polymers. These coatings can be deposited by plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)

  20. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  1. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G.de; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Hertel, O.; Jickells, T.; Spokes, L.; Vignati, E.; Frohn, L.; Frydendall, J.; Schulz, M.; Tamm, S.; Sørensen, L.L.; Kunz, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3,

  2. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  3. 青海省兴海县铜峪沟铜矿床成矿物质和流体来源的地球化学探讨%Geochemistry Constraint on Ore-forming Material and Ore-forming Fluids of Tongyugou Copper Deposit in Xinghai County,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小华; 周宗桂

    2014-01-01

    .Hydrogen,oxygen and silicon isotope studies shown that the metallogenic fluids stemmed from magmatic water and mixed with metamorphism hydrothermal.The overall reflection show that the ore-forming material sources was related to the magmatic-hydrothermal activities.In general,Tongyugou copper deposit is a skarn type copper deposit.

  4. World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with uranium deposit classification. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) database provides general, technical and geological information, including references, about the worldwide uranium deposits. UDEPO has been published on the internet which allows the users to register freely and to work with datasets (http://www-nfcis.iaea.org). The UDEPO web site is designed to allow users to retrieve data sets on a variety of deposit related topics ranging from specific information on individual uranium deposits to statistical information on uranium deposits worldwide. The basic building blocks for the UDEPO database are the more than 900 individual deposits for which information is available in the database. The database is arranged in a relational database format which has one main table and a number of associated tables. Structured nature of the database allows filtering and querying the database in more systematic way. The web site provides filtering and navigation to the data from the database. It has also a statistical tool which provides summary information on number of deposits and uranium resources by type and status, and by country and status. In this respect and with regard to the data presented, the UDEPO database is a unique database which provides freely accessible information on worldwide uranium deposits. Although a great effort is spent to have complete and accurate database, the users should take into consideration that there still might be missing or outdated data for individual deposits due to the rapid changes in the uranium industry due to the new exploration works which are ongoing everyday. This document and its supplementary CD-ROM represent a snapshot of the status of the database as of the end of 2008. However, the database is being continuously updated and the latest updates and additions can be accessed from the database web site (http://wwwnfcis.iaea.org)

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth W. Redfield

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect deposition rates by changing the physical environment and surface area for particle deposition. Land-use patterns can alter P deposition rates by changing particle concentrations in the atmosphere. The vast majority of P in dry atmospheric deposition is conveyed by coarse (2.5 to 10 μm and giant (10 to 100 μm particles, and yet these size fractions represent a challenge for long-term atmospheric monitoring in the absence of accepted methods for routine sampling. Most information on P deposition is from bulk precipitation collectors and wet/dry bucket sampling, both with questionable precision and accuracy. Most published annual rates of P deposition are gross estimates derived from bulk precipitation sampling in locations around the globe and range from about 5 to well over 100 mg P m–2 year–1, although most inland ecosystems receive between 20 and 80 mg P m–2 year–1. Rates below 30 mg P m–2 year–1 are found in remote areas and near coastlines. Intermediate rates of 30 to 50 mg P m–2 year–1 are associated with forests or mixed land use, and rates of 50 to 100 mg P m–2 year–1 or more are often recorded from urban or agricultural settings. Comparison with other methods suggests that these bulk precipitation estimates provide crude boundaries around actual P deposition rates for various land uses. However, data screening cannot remove all positive bias caused by contamination of bucket or bulk collectors. As a consequence, continued sampling

  6. Deposition of diamond and boron nitride films by plasma chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albella, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Sanchez-Garrido, O. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Vazquez, L. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.

    1995-01-01

    The deposition problems of diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by chemical vapour deposition techniques are reviewed, with major emphasis on the nucleation and reaction mechanisms. A discussion is made of the main deposition parameters (i.e. gas mixture, substrate conditioning, plasma discharges etc.) which favour the formation of the cubic phase. Most of the work is devoted to diamond owing to the large progress attained in this material. In fact, the use of diamond as a hard protective coating is now on a commercial scale. By contrast, the preparation of c-BN layers with good characteristics still needs of further research. ((orig.))

  7. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  8. Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc (Pb+Zn) deposits are found throughout the world, and these deposits are characteristically distributed over hundreds of square kilometers that define individual ore districts. The median size of individual MVT deposits is 7.0 million tonnes with grades of about 7.9 percent Pb+Zn metal. However, MVT deposits usually occur in extensive districts consisting of several to as many as 400 deposits. Nearly one-quarter of the world's sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted Pb+Zn resources are found in these deposits, with by-product commodities including silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and indium (In) for some deposits. Environmentally, MVT deposits are less of a concern than other types of mineral deposits since the carbonate-host rocks mitigate many environmental concerns.

  9. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop mathematical models for the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Expressions were obtained for the mean deposition efficiency for nasal inspiration, nasal expiration, and mouth inspiration. A determination was made of statistical properties associated with each deposition efficiency due to intersubject and intrasubject variabilities. Expressions were then derived for head deposition with combined nose and mouth breathing. In the lung, deposition is a result primarily of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. While there was no adequate model for impaction, several deposition formulae for sedimentation were derived as well as ones for diffusion. Studies were also made of the particle charge effect, as the electrostatic image force on a particle contributes to its deposition. There is, however, a threshold charge per particle below which the particle charge has no effect on deposition. Deposition data on ultrafine particles is scarce due to the difficulties in conducting proper experiments.

  10. Properties of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng-jiao; WANG Miao; LU Xin

    2006-01-01

    A new technique of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits was proposed. The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were detected by XRD and SEM. The friction and wear behavior of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were studied and compared with that of chromium deposit. The corrosion properties against 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide were also discussed. The experimental results indicate that Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits have superior properties against wear than hard chromium deposits under dry sliding condition. Under oil sliding condition, except their better wear resistance, the deposits can protect their counterparts against wear. The deposits plated on brass and AISI 1045 steel show good behavior against corrosion of 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide. The bath of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits is environmentally friendly and would find widely use in industry.

  11. Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films deposited by low energy cluster beam deposition: Structural and magnetic investigations of deposited layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films were deposited on amorphous-carbon-coated copper grids and on silicon substrates at room temperature by low energy cluster beam deposition. Characterizations using high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal randomly stacked agglomerates of 9-11 nm diameter, which are themselves composed of small 3.6 nm diameter fcc cobalt clusters. The films are ferromagnetic up to room temperature and above, which implies that the clusters are exchange coupled. The approach to saturation is analyzed within the random anisotropy model. The values of the exchange coefficient A and the anisotropy constant K then derived are discussed. The temperature dependence of the coercivity below 100 K is discussed in terms of thermal activation effects. All results indicate that the fundamental entity governing the magnetic behaviors is constituted by the 9-11 nm diameter agglomerates rather than by the clusters themselves

  12. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of zinc–nickel alloys deposited by direct and reverse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA B. BAJAT

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn–Ni alloys electrochemically deposited on steel under various deposition conditions were investigated. The alloys were deposited on a rotating disc electrode and on a steel panel from chloride solutions by direct and reverse current. The influence of reverse plating variables (cathodic and anodic current densities and their time duration on the composition, phase structure and corrosion properties were investigated. The chemical content and phase composition affect the anticorrosive properties of Zn–Ni alloys during exposure to a corrosive agent (3 % NaCl solution. It was shown that the Zn–Ni alloy electrodeposited by reverse current with a full period T = 1 s and r = 0.2 exhibits the best corrosion properties of all the investigated alloys deposited by reverse current.

  13. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznichenko, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  14. Heavy metal deposition mapping: concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in rural areas of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Fowler, David; Crossley, Alan; Kentisbeer, John; Hallsworth, Steve; Lawlor, Alan; Rowland, Phil; Guyatt, Hayley; Beith, Sarah; Thacker, Sarah; Halford, Alan; ROGERS Stuart; Cape, J. Neil; Leeson, Sarah; Harmens, Harry

    2012-01-01

    CEH has been monitoring the concentrations of a range of heavy metals in rural locations across the UK since 2004. This report presents the annual average concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in air and rainfall samples collected from rural locations during 2011 and it reviews the temporal and spatial trends in heavy metal concentrations and deposition between 2004 and 2011. The monitoring network was established to measure the background concentration of a range of heavy meta...

  15. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  16. Iridium thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition for future applications as transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, M. E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu; Chen, C.; Cohn, J.L.; Gundersen, J.O

    2004-03-11

    The University of Miami has recently started developing and studying high-resolution microcalorimeters operating near 100 mK for X-ray and particle physics and astrophysics. These detectors will be based on Transition Edge Sensors technology fabricated using iridium thin films deposited via the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. We report here the preliminary result of the room temperature characterization of the Ir thin films, and an overview of future plans to use the films as transition edge sensors.

  17. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    OpenAIRE

    Redfield, Garth W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P) to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect depos...

  18. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef;

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source. This confi...... increased the barrier property of the modified low-density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polylactide by 96.48%, 99.69%, and 99.25%, respectively....

  19. Uranium deposits of Gabon and Oklo reactors. Metallogenic model for rich deposits of the lower proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the Franceville basin (Gabon) is examined: stratigraphy, tectonics and geodynamics. The mobile zone of the Ogooue is specially studied: lithology, metamorphism and tectonics, isotopic geochronologic data are given. The different uranium deposits are described. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of Oklo natural nuclear reactor. A metallogenic model is proposed evidencing conditions required for deposit genesis. Tectonics, microstructures sedimentology, organic matter, diagenesis and uraniferous mineralizations are examined

  20. Deposition of metal oxide films and nanostructures by methods derived from photochemical metal organic deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Xin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    In this research, methods for the deposition of patterned films and nanostructures were developed from photochemical metal organic deposition (PMOD). Positive lithographic PMOD was demonstrated with films of titanium (IV) di-n-butoxide bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Ti(OBun)2(eh)2), titanium (IV) diisopropoxide bis(2,4-pentanedionate), and zirconium (IV) di-n-butoxide bis(2,4-pentanedionate). The photochemistry of these complexes in films was studied by FTIR, AES, and XRD. Photo-induced reactivity an...