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  1. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  2. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Fomsgaard, Anders

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  3. Narcolepsy and H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of narcolepsy between January 2000 and December 2010 in children in western Sweden and its relation to the Pandemrix H1N1 influenza vaccination were assessed by collection of data from hospital and clinic medical records and by parent telephone interviews.

  4. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. PMID:27321744

  5. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Ravert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1 immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

  6. Acute transverse myelitis following vaccination against H1N1 influenza: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Li; Chen, Kangning; Zhang, Yinqi

    2011-01-01

    H1N1 vaccination is currently safe, and only rare acceptable side-effects have been reported. Here we describe for the first time a serious adverse event, i.e., acute transverse myelitis, following H1N1 vaccination in China. After the standard treatment with methylprednislone, the patient recovered completely.

  7. Perspectives of Pulmonologists on the 2009-2010 H1N1 Vaccination Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with high-risk conditions such as asthma were a target group for H1N1 vaccine recommendations. We conducted a mailed survey of a national sample of pulmonologists to understand their participation in the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccine campaign. The response rate was 59%. The majority of pulmonologists strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine for children (73% and adults aged 25–64 years (51%. Only 60% of respondents administered H1N1 vaccine in their practice compared to 87% who offered seasonal influenza vaccine. Other than vaccine supply, respondents who provided H1N1 vaccine reported few logistical problems. Two-thirds of respondents would be very likely to vaccinate during a future influenza pandemic; this rate was higher among those who provided H1N1 vaccine and/or seasonal flu vaccine. In total, the H1N1 vaccine-related experiences of pulmonologists seemed to be positive. However, additional efforts are needed to increase participation in future pandemic vaccination campaigns.

  8. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ravert, Russell D.; Fu, Linda Y.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years) from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes asso...

  9. Protection of mice against lethal challenge with 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus by 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Manicassamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus infection in humans has resulted in nearly 5,000 deaths worldwide. Early epidemiological findings indicated a low level of infection in the older population (>65 years with the pandemic virus, and a greater susceptibility in people younger than 35 years of age, a phenomenon correlated with the presence of cross-reactive immunity in the older population. It is unclear what virus(es might be responsible for this apparent cross-protection against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. We describe a mouse lethal challenge model for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, used together with a panel of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccines and hemagglutinin (HA monoclonal antibodies to dissect the possible humoral antigenic determinants of pre-existing immunity against this virus in the human population. By hemagglutinination inhibition (HI assays and vaccination/challenge studies, we demonstrate that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is antigenically similar to human H1N1 viruses that circulated from 1918-1943 and to classical swine H1N1 viruses. Antibodies elicited against 1918-like or classical swine H1N1 vaccines completely protect C57B/6 mice from lethal challenge with the influenza A/Netherlands/602/2009 virus isolate. In contrast, contemporary H1N1 vaccines afforded only partial protection. Passive immunization with cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs raised against either 1918 or A/California/04/2009 HA proteins offered full protection from death. Analysis of mAb antibody escape mutants, generated by selection of 2009 H1N1 virus with these mAbs, indicate that antigenic site Sa is one of the conserved cross-protective epitopes. Our findings in mice agree with serological data showing high prevalence of 2009 H1N1 cross-reactive antibodies only in the older population, indicating that prior infection with 1918-like viruses or vaccination against the 1976 swine H1N1 virus in the USA are likely to provide protection against the 2009

  10. Seroprevalence of pandemic H1N1 antibody among health care workers in Hong Kong following receipt of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers in many countries are recommended to receive influenza vaccine to protect themselves as well as patients. A monovalent H1N1 vaccine became available in Hong Kong in December 2009 and around 10% of local healthcare workers had received the vaccine by February 2010. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of antibody to pandemic (H1N1 2009 among HCWs in Hong Kong in February-March 2010 following the first pandemic wave and the pH1N1 vaccination campaign. In this study we focus on the subset of healthcare workers who reported receipt of non-adjuvanted monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccine (Panenza, Sanofi Pasteur. Sera collected from HCWs were tested for antibody against the pH1N1 virus by hemagglutination inhibition (HI and viral neutralization (VN assays. RESULTS: We enrolled 703 HCWs. Among 104 HCWs who reported receipt of pH1N1 vaccine, 54% (95% confidence interval (CI: 44%-63% had antibody titer ≥1∶40 by HI and 42% (95% CI: 33%-52% had antibody titer ≥1∶40 by VN. The proportion of HCWs with antibody titer ≥1∶40 by HI and VN significantly decreased with age, and the proportion with antibody titer ≥1∶40 by VN was marginally significantly lower among HCWs who reported prior receipt of 2007-08 seasonal influenza vaccine (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-1.00. After adjustment for age, the effect of prior seasonal vaccine receipt was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that monovalent H1N1 vaccine may have had suboptimal immunogenicity in HCWs in Hong Kong. Larger studies are required to confirm whether influenza vaccine maintains high efficacy and effectiveness in HCWs.

  11. Induction of broadly neutralizing H1N1 influenza antibodies by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Boyington, Jeffrey C; McTamney, Patrick M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pearce, Melissa B; Xu, Ling; Andersen, Hanne; Rao, Srinivas; Tumpey, Terrence M; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Nabel, Gary J

    2010-08-27

    The rapid dissemination of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus underscores the need for universal influenza vaccines that elicit protective immunity to diverse viral strains. Here, we show that vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and boosting with seasonal vaccine or replication-defective adenovirus 5 vector encoding HA stimulated the production of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies. This prime/boost combination increased the neutralization of diverse H1N1 strains dating from 1934 to 2007 as compared to either component alone and conferred protection against divergent H1N1 viruses in mice and ferrets. These antibodies were directed to the conserved stem region of HA and were also elicited in nonhuman primates. Cross-neutralization of H1N1 subtypes elicited by this approach provides a basis for the development of a universal influenza vaccine for humans. PMID:20647428

  12. Vaccine-related internet search activity predicts H1N1 and HPV vaccine coverage: implications for vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is a primary source for health-related information, and Internet search activity is associated with infectious disease outbreaks. The authors hypothesized that Internet search activity for vaccine-related information would predict vaccination coverage. They examined Internet search activity for H1N1 and human papilloma virus (HPV) disease and vaccine information in relation to H1N1 and HPV vaccine uptake. Google Insight for Search was used to assess the volume of Internet search queries for H1N1- and vaccine-related terms in the United States in 2009, the year of the H1N1 pandemic. Vaccine coverage data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at the state level for H1N1 vaccinations in 2009. These same measures were collected at the state level for HPV- and vaccine-related search terms in 2010 as well as HPV vaccine uptake in that year. Analyses showed that the search terms H1N1 and vaccine were correlated with H1N1 vaccine uptake; ordinal regression found the H1N1 search term was independently associated with H1N1 vaccine coverage. Similarly, the correlation between vaccine search volume and HPV coverage was significant; ordinal regression showed the search term vaccine independently predicted HPV vaccination coverage. This is among the first studies to show that Internet search activity is associated with vaccination coverage. The Internet should be exploited as an opportunity to dispel vaccine misinformation by providing accurate information to support vaccine decision making. PMID:25222149

  13. Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frank R; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Balint, Joseph P; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Smith, Jennifer; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Salazar, Magda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-09-16

    Vaccines against emerging pathogens such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus can benefit from current technologies such as rapid genomic sequencing to construct the most biologically relevant vaccine. A novel platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) has been utilized to induce immune responses to various antigenic targets. We employed this vector platform to express hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Inserts were consensuses sequences designed from viral isolate sequences and the vaccine was rapidly constructed and produced. Vaccination induced H1N1 immune responses in mice, which afforded protection from lethal virus challenge. In ferrets, vaccination protected from disease development and significantly reduced viral titers in nasal washes. H1N1 cell mediated immunity as well as antibody induction correlated with the prevention of disease symptoms and reduction of virus replication. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:21821082

  14. Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong; CHANG Li-bing; ZHAO Min; LI Xiao-xin

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination.We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Case 1 was a 10-year-old boy who was admitted for bilateral blurred vision at 10 days after vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Vitreous opacity was obvious in both eyes.Broad exudative retinal detachment was observed in the right eye.Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who suffered from an acute high fever at 2 days after the vaccination of H1 N1 influenza.Later,she encountered bilateral headache and decreasing vision.In both eyes,mutton fat keratic precipitates,positive Tyndall phenomenon,congestion of optic disc and exudative retinal detachment were observed.

  15. Correlates of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptability among Parents and Their Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children were a priority group for receipt of the pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine. Both parental and adolescent attitudes likely influence vaccination behaviors. Data were collected from surveys distributed to middle- and high-school students and their parents in two counties in rural Georgia. Multivariable logistic regression…

  16. Determinants of Parental Acceptance of the H1N1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyard, Karen M.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin H.; Musa, Don; Freimuth, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    Although designated as a high-risk group during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, only about 40% of U.S. children received the vaccine, a relatively low percentage compared with high-risk groups in seasonal influenza, such as the elderly, whose vaccine rates typically top 70%. To better understand parental decision making and predictors of acceptance…

  17. High effectiveness of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in healthcare workers from a Portuguese hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José Torres; Silva, Rui; Tavares, Margarida; Nienhaus, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) was made a high priority during the phase six pandemic of the novel influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. We surveyed adherence to pH1N1 vaccination and the incidence of pH1N1 infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Methods Employees at the S. João Hospital in Porto, Portugal, were offered pH1N1 vaccinations free of charge. Pandemrix® was the vaccine administered. As part of the pandemic plan, employees with influenza-like symptoms (IL...

  18. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  19. Learning from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: prospects for more broadly effective influenza vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ethan C. Settembre; Philip R. Dormitzer; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic. This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.%@@ Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic.This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies.Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.

  20. Factors associated with vaccination against Influenza A (H1N1 in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Fonseca Victor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors and receiving information about the vaccine against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 associated with vaccination of elderly people. Study of quantitative and transversal nature, in which 286 elderly residents in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil participated. The association between variables was analyzed by the Pearson chi-square test, considering a 95% confidence interval and significance level (p≤0.05. The results revealed that, unlike the sociodemographic characteristics, many clinical, behavioral and informational aspects correlated significantly with adherence to Influenza A (H1N1 vaccination. It is believed that the findings can be used in strategies to control and prevent infection by viral subtypes within the elderly population, extensible even to other vaccine-preventable diseases, especially in light of possible future pandemics.

  1. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  2. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination coverage in Germany 2009/10

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Dietmar; Böhmer, Merle; An der Heiden, Matthias; Reiter, Sabine; Krause, Gérard; Wichmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    To monitor pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake during the vaccination campaign in Germany 2009/10, thirteen consecutive cross-sectional telephone-surveys were performed between November 2009 and April 2010. In total 13,010 household-interviews were conducted. Vaccination coverage in persons >14 years of age remained low, both in the general population (8.1%; 95%CI: 7.4–8.8) and in specific target groups such as healthcare workers and individuals with underlying chronic diseases (12.8%; ...

  4. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt Tracy; Kalicinsky Chrystyna; Warrington Richard; Cisneros Nestor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of...

  5. Immunogenicity of Virus Like Particle Forming Baculoviral DNA Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Yong-Dae; Kim, Sehyun; Cho, Yeondong; Heo, Yoonki; Cho, Hansam; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Choi, Jiwon; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza H1N1 in 2009, representing the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, was transmitted to over a million individuals and claimed 18,449 lives. The current status in many countries is to prepare influenza vaccine using cell-based or egg-based killed vaccine. However, traditional influenza vaccine platforms have several limitations. To overcome these limitations, many researchers have tried various approaches to develop alternative production platforms. One of the alternative approach, we reported the efficacy of influenza HA vaccination using a baculoviral DNA vaccine (AcHERV-HA). However, the immune response elicited by the AcHERV-HA vaccine, which only targets the HA antigen, was lower than that of the commercial killed vaccine. To overcome the limitations of this previous vaccine, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope-coated, baculovirus-based, virus-like-particle (VLP)-forming DNA vaccine (termed AcHERV-VLP) against pandemic influenza A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1). BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-VLP (1×107 FFU AcHERV-VLP, i.m.) and compared with mice immunized with the killed vaccine or mice immunized with AcHERV-HA. As a result, AcHERV-VLP immunization produced a greater humoral immune response and exhibited neutralizing activity with an intrasubgroup H1 strain (PR8), elicited neutralizing antibody production, a high level of interferon-γ secretion in splenocytes, and diminished virus shedding in the lung after challenge with a lethal dose of influenza virus. In conclusion, VLP-forming baculovirus DNA vaccine could be a potential vaccine candidate capable of efficiently delivering DNA to the vaccinee and VLP forming DNA eliciting stronger immunogenicity than egg-based killed vaccines. PMID:27149064

  6. Immunogenicity of Virus Like Particle Forming Baculoviral DNA Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dae Gwon

    Full Text Available An outbreak of influenza H1N1 in 2009, representing the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, was transmitted to over a million individuals and claimed 18,449 lives. The current status in many countries is to prepare influenza vaccine using cell-based or egg-based killed vaccine. However, traditional influenza vaccine platforms have several limitations. To overcome these limitations, many researchers have tried various approaches to develop alternative production platforms. One of the alternative approach, we reported the efficacy of influenza HA vaccination using a baculoviral DNA vaccine (AcHERV-HA. However, the immune response elicited by the AcHERV-HA vaccine, which only targets the HA antigen, was lower than that of the commercial killed vaccine. To overcome the limitations of this previous vaccine, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV envelope-coated, baculovirus-based, virus-like-particle (VLP-forming DNA vaccine (termed AcHERV-VLP against pandemic influenza A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1. BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-VLP (1×107 FFU AcHERV-VLP, i.m. and compared with mice immunized with the killed vaccine or mice immunized with AcHERV-HA. As a result, AcHERV-VLP immunization produced a greater humoral immune response and exhibited neutralizing activity with an intrasubgroup H1 strain (PR8, elicited neutralizing antibody production, a high level of interferon-γ secretion in splenocytes, and diminished virus shedding in the lung after challenge with a lethal dose of influenza virus. In conclusion, VLP-forming baculovirus DNA vaccine could be a potential vaccine candidate capable of efficiently delivering DNA to the vaccinee and VLP forming DNA eliciting stronger immunogenicity than egg-based killed vaccines.

  7. Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 2009 Infection versus Vaccination: A Cohort Study Comparing Immune Responses in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Barbra M.; Van Bockern, Janice; Hart, Jan; Lynch, Anne M.; Winn, Virginia D.; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Weinberg, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background With the emergence of H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) influenza, the CDC recommended that pregnant women be one of five initial target groups to receive the 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccine, regardless of prior infection with this influenza strain. We sought to compare the immune response of pregnant women to H1N1 infection versus vaccination and to determine the extent of passive immunity conferred to the newborn. Methods/Findings During the 2009-2010 influenza season, we enrolled a cohort of w...

  8. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  9. Coverage and side effects of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine among primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Arjona, Miguel Angel; Abd Elaziz, Khaled Mahmoud; Caballero Lanzas, Jose Maria; Allam, Mohamed Farouk

    2011-08-26

    In June 2009, WHO declared the maximum phase alert against H1N1 pandemic flu. Health care workers (HCWs) are considered a strategic target for prevention of the occurrence of H1N1 influenza since they had the greatest risk of acquiring infection. The objectives of our study were (1) identifying the uptake of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine by primary health care workers in the southern part of Cordoba, and (2) reporting of the adverse events occurred after vaccination. We followed 240 HCWs in 12 primary health care centres at southern part of Cordoba for vaccine uptake and the occurrence of adverse events. The coverage rate with H1N1 vaccine was 20.5% which was lower compared to seasonal influenza vaccination rate 44.2% in 2009. Males had higher H1N1 vaccination rate compared to females with no significant difference. Senior HCWs complied more with seasonal influenza vaccine while this finding was not consistent with H1N1 vaccination. Multivariate analysis showed that the only independent variable that affected H1N1 vaccine was the compliance to the seasonal flu vaccine in the past three years with OR 5.1 and 95% CI (2.4-10.8). Adverse events occurred among 26.5% of those who complied with H1N1 vaccination. Those were local pain, irritation and induration at site of injection (38.5%), fever (15.4%), fever cough and rhinorrhea (15.4%) generalized pain and lumber pains (23.1%). The low vaccination rate in this study is consistent with previous studies done in many parts of the world and in Spain. Further studies should be done to explore the factors that hindered the uptake and resistance of HCWs to vaccination to H1N1 vaccine. PMID:21840463

  10. Twitter influence on vaccination and antiviral uptake during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMcNeill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveInformation exchange via Twitter and other forms of social media make public health communication more complex as citizens play an increasingly influential role in shaping acceptable or desired health behaviours. Taking the case of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, we explore in detail the dissemination of H1N1-related advice in the UK through Twitter to see how it was used to discourage or encourage vaccine and antiviral uptake.MethodsIn three stages we conducted (1 an analysis of general content, retweeting patterns and URL sharing, (2 a discourse analysis of the public evaluation of press releases and (3 a template analysis of conversations around vaccine and antiviral uptake, using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT as a way of understanding how the public weighed the costs and benefits.ResultsNetwork analysis of retweets showed that information from official sources predominated. Analysing the spread of significant messages through Twitter showed that most content was descriptive but there was some criticism of health authorities. A detailed analysis of responses to press releases revealed some scepticism over the economic beneficiaries of vaccination, that served to undermine public trust. Finally, the conversational analysis showed the influence of peers when weighing up the risks and benefits of medication.ConclusionsMost tweets linked to reliable sources, however Twitter was used to discuss both individual and health authority motivations to vaccinate. The PMT framework describes the ways individuals assessed the threat of the H1N1 pandemic, weighing this against the perceived cost of taking medication. These findings offer some valuable insights for social media communication practices in future pandemics.

  11. Highly conserved antigenic epitope regions of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza: vaccine considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ping; Yu, Shouyi; Wu, Changyou; Liang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    An immunoinformatics study was conducted to determine the highly conserved antigenic epitope regions of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in the humoral immunity and CD4+ and CD8+ T cellular immunity between 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses. It was found that in sH1N1 viruses, 29 epitope regions of HA genes and 8 epitope regions of NA genes which had been experimentally identified, were highly conserved (97.1-100.0%) in the corresponding genes and pre...

  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2012-06-01

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40\\/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  13. Safety of pandemic (H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccines in taiwan: a self-controlled case series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, new H1N1 monovalent vaccines without adjuvant and with MF59® adjuvant were used in the nationwide vaccination campaign beginning on November 1, 2009. From November 2009 through February 2010, the authors identified recipients of H1N1 vaccines who were diagnosed with adverse events of special interest (AESIs in a large-linked safety database, and used the self-controlled case series (SCCS method to examine the risk of each AESI in the 0-42 days after H1N1 vaccination. Of the 3.5 million doses of H1N1 vaccines administered and captured in the linked database, the SCCS analysis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS found an incidence rate ratio of 3.81 (95% confidence interval 0.43-33.85 within 0-42 days after nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccination and no cases after MF59®-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccination. The risks of other AESIs were, in general, not increased in any of the predefined postvaccination risk periods and age groups. The databases and infrastructure created for H1N1 vaccine safety evaluation may serve as a model for safety, effectiveness and coverage studies of licensed vaccines in Taiwan.

  14. Willingness to accept H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine: A cross-sectional study of Hong Kong community nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Carmen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1 infection has alerted many governments to make preparedness plan to control the spread of influenza A (H1N1 infection. Vaccination for influenza is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce the disease burden. Our study aims to assess the willingness of nurses who work for the community nursing service (CNS in Hong Kong on their acceptance of influenza A (H1N1 influenza vaccination. Methods 401 questionnaires were posted from June 24, 2009 to June 30, 2009 to community nurses with 67% response rate. Results of the 267 respondents on their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccine were analyzed. Results Twenty-seven percent of respondents were willing to accept influenza vaccination if vaccines were available. Having been vaccinated for seasonable influenza in the previous 12 months were significantly independently associated with their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.03-7.98. Conclusions Similar to previous findings conducted in hospital healthcare workers and nurses, we confirmed that the willingness of community nurses to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination is low. Future studies that evaluate interventions to address nurses' specific concerns or interventions that aim to raise the awareness among nurses on the importance of influenza A (H1N1 vaccination to protect vulnerable patient populations is needed.

  15. Safety of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines in Taiwan: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Ting Huang; Hsu-Wen Yang; Tzu-Lin Liao; Wan-Jen Wu; Shu-Er Yang; Yi-Chien Chih; Jen-Hsiang Chuang

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwan, new H1N1 monovalent vaccines without adjuvant and with MF59® adjuvant were used in the nationwide vaccination campaign beginning on November 1, 2009. From November 2009 through February 2010, the authors identified recipients of H1N1 vaccines who were diagnosed with adverse events of special interest (AESIs) in a large-linked safety database, and used the self-controlled case series (SCCS) method to examine the risk of each AESI in the 0-42 days after H1N1 vaccination. Of the 3.5 m...

  16. Correlates of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptance among Middle and High School Teachers in Rural Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Weiss, Paul; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Teachers play an essential role in the school community, and H1N1 vaccination of teachers is critical to protect not only themselves but also adolescents they come in contact within the classroom through herd immunity. School-aged children have a greater risk of developing H1N1 disease than seasonal influenza. The goal of this study…

  17. Properly folded bacterially expressed H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head and ectodomain vaccines protect ferrets against H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Khurana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large

  18. Effectiveness of the influenza a(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59- adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 infl

  19. Narcolepsy with cataplexy after A/H1N1 vaccination – A case reported from Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Yaimi Rosales; Meira e Cruz, Miguel Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare sleep disorder with a neurological basis which has been recently linked to H1N1 vaccination either in children or adults. Cases from Europe, United States and Brasil were registered. Authors describe a case report of a 15 years old boy who developed narcolepsy with cataplexy after H1N1 vaccination in Havana. As far as it is concerned this is the first case reported from Cuba.

  20. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman;

    2013-01-01

    were to compare influences of dose and adjuvant on the immune response. METHODS: The study was nested in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort in 2009-2010 and conducted as a single-blinded block-randomised [1∶1∶1] controlled clinical trial in pregnant......-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557....

  1. Canadian family physicians' and paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding A(H1N1 pandemic vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinger Julie A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main determinants of public immunization success is health professionals' support and recommendations. Little is known about the physicians' level of support and intentions regarding A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination. The aim of this survey was to document Canadian family physicians' and paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP as well as their intentions regarding A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines right before the beginning of the largest immunization campaign in Canadian history. Findings A self-administered, anonymous, mail-based questionnaire was sent to a random sample of family physicians and to all paediatricians practicing in Canada. All 921 questionnaires received by October 29 2009 were included in the analysis. Between 72% and 92% of respondents agreed with the statements regarding vaccine safety, effectiveness and acceptability. More than 75% of respondents intended to recommend the A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine to their patients and to get vaccinated themselves. The most significant factors associated with the intention to recommend A(H1N1 pandemic vaccines were physicians' intention to be vaccinated against influenza themselves and the perceived acceptability of the vaccine by the vaccinators. Conclusions Most Canadian family physicians and paediatricians surveyed were supportive of the A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination before its implementation and large media coverage.

  2. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  3. The decision to vaccinate or not during the H1N1 pandemic: selecting the lesser of two evils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Ashbaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the release of the H1N1 vaccine, there was much controversy surrounding its use despite strong encouragements to be vaccinated in the media. Though studies have examined factors influencing people's decision to be vaccinated, few have focused on how general beliefs about the world or where an individual gathers information might influence that decision. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional web-based survey (N = 817 was conducted during the H1N1 outbreak after the vaccine was available. Variables examined included sociodemographic information, health related behaviours, specific beliefs concerning the H1N1 virus and its vaccine, as well as general beliefs, such as fear of contamination, intolerance of uncertainty, emotional states, coping behaviour, and the source of information concerning the virus. Three converging statistical methods were used to examine the associations - analysis of variance, logistic regression, and recursive partition modelling. The most consistent and strongest association was that negative beliefs about the H1N1 vaccine (e.g. fear of its side effects was related to the decision not to be vaccinated, whereas beliefs about the dangers of the H1N1 virus was related to the decision to be vaccinated. Most notably, having very strong negative beliefs about the vaccine was a more powerful predictor than even strong beliefs about the dangers of the H1N1 virus. Furthermore, obtaining information from the Internet, as compared to more traditional sources of information (e.g., TV, newspapers was related to the decision not to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the Health Belief Model. Importantly they suggest that during future pandemics public health officials should not only discuss the dangers of the pandemic but also (i take additional steps to reassure the public about the safety of vaccines and (ii monitor the information disseminated over the Internet

  4. Potency of a vaccine prepared from A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1 against A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic influenza virus strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pandemic 2009 (H1N1 influenza virus has spread throughout the world and is now causing seasonal influenza. To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza, we have established a library of virus strains isolated from birds, pigs, and humans in global surveillance studies. Methods Inactivated whole virus particle (WV and ether-split (ES vaccines were prepared from an influenza virus strain, A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1, from the library and from A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic strain. Each of the vaccines was injected subcutaneously into mice and their potencies were evaluated by challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 virus strain in mice. Results A/swine/Hokkaido/2/81 (H1N1, which was isolated from the lung of a diseased piglet, was selected on the basis of their antigenicity and growth capacity in embryonated chicken eggs. Two injections of the WV vaccine induced an immune response in mice, decreasing the impact of disease caused by the challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1, as did the vaccine prepared from the homologous strain. Conclusion The WV vaccine prepared from an influenza virus in the library is useful as an emergency vaccine in the early phase of pandemic influenza.

  5. The Decision to Vaccinate or Not during the H1N1 Pandemic: Selecting the Lesser of Two Evils?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea R Ashbaugh; Herbert, Christophe F.; Saimon, Elena; Azoulay, Nelson; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening; Brunet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background With the release of the H1N1 vaccine, there was much controversy surrounding its use despite strong encouragements to be vaccinated in the media. Though studies have examined factors influencing people's decision to be vaccinated, few have focused on how general beliefs about the world or where an individual gathers information might influence that decision. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional web-based survey (N = 817) was conducted during the H1N1 outbreak after the ...

  6. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    OpenAIRE

    Torun Fuat; Torun Sebahat D; Catak Binali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs) and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs) in a public hospital during De...

  7. Antibody Response After a Single Dose of an AS03-Adjuvanted Split-Virion Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Heart Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Sven; Adam, Matti; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Ilchmann, Corina; Eulenburg, Christine; Sattinger, Edgar; Runte, Hendrik; Schlueter, Michael; Deuse, Tobias; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Costard-Jaeckle, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Background. Influenza A (H1N1) has emerged as a considerable threat for recipients of organ transplants. Vaccination against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has generally been advocated. There is limited experience with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed patien

  8. Humans and Ferrets with Prior H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections Do Not Exhibit Evidence of Original Antigenic Sin after Infection or Vaccination with the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and hu...

  9. Pediatric hospital admissions from influenza A (H1N1) in Brazil: effects of the 2010 vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Ana Carolina Cavalcanti; Pelissoni, Fernanda D'Angelo Monteiro; Cunegundes, Kelly Simone Almeida; Abramczyk, Marcelo Luiz; Bellei, Nancy Cristina Junqueira; Sanches, Nivea Aparecida Pissaia; Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel de

    2012-10-01

    lIn 2009, the influenza A (H1N1) virus spread rapidly around the world, causing the first pandemic of the 21st Century. In 2010, there was a vaccination campaign against this new virus subtype to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease in some countries, including Brazil. Herein, we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients under 19 years of age who were hospitalized with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection in 2009 and 2010. We retrospectively reviewed files from the pediatric patients who were admitted to a university hospital with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection in 2009 and 2010. There were 37 hospitalized patients with influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 and 2 in 2010. In 2009, many of the hospitalized children had an underlying chronic disease and a lower median age than those not hospitalized. Of the hospitalized patients, 78% had a chronic disease, primarily pneumopathy (48%). The main signs and symptoms of influenza were fever (97%), cough (76%), and dyspnea (59%). Complications occurred in 81% of the patients. The median length of hospitalization was five days; 27% of the patients required intensive care, and two died. In 2010, two patients were hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1): one infant with adenovirus co-infection who had received one previous H1N1 vaccine dose and presented with respiratory sequelae and a 2-month-old infant who had a hospital-acquired infection. An impressive reduction in hospital admissions was observed in 2010 when the vaccination campaign took place in Brazil. PMID:23070350

  10. Pediatric hospital admissions from influenza A (H1N1 in Brazil: effects of the 2010 vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cavalcanti Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available lIn 2009, the influenza A (H1N1 virus spread rapidly around the world, causing the first pandemic of the 21st Century. In 2010, there was a vaccination campaign against this new virus subtype to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease in some countries, including Brazil. Herein, we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients under 19 years of age who were hospitalized with confirmed influenza A (H1N1 infection in 2009 and 2010. We retrospectively reviewed files from the pediatric patients who were admitted to a university hospital with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR confirmed influenza A (H1N1 infection in 2009 and 2010. There were 37 hospitalized patients with influenza A (H1N1 in 2009 and 2 in 2010. In 2009, many of the hospitalized children had an underlying chronic disease and a lower median age than those not hospitalized. Of the hospitalized patients, 78% had a chronic disease, primarily pneumopathy (48%. The main signs and symptoms of influenza were fever (97%, cough (76%, and dyspnea (59%. Complications occurred in 81% of the patients. The median length of hospitalization was five days; 27% of the patients required intensive care, and two died. In 2010, two patients were hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1: one infant with adenovirus co-infection who had received one previous H1N1 vaccine dose and presented with respiratory sequelae and a 2-month-old infant who had a hospital-acquired infection. An impressive reduction in hospital admissions was observed in 2010 when the vaccination campaign took place in Brazil.

  11. Cold-Adapted Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Live Vaccine Elicits Cross-Reactive Immune Responses against Seasonal and H5 Influenza A Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yo Han; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik Lin

    2012-01-01

    The rapid transmission of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) among humans has raised the concern of a potential emergence of reassortment between pH1N1 and highly pathogenic influenza strains, especially the avian H5N1 influenza virus. Here, we report that the cold-adapted pH1N1 live attenuated vaccine (CApH1N1) elicits cross-reactive immunity to seasonal and H5 influenza A viruses in the mouse model. Immunization with CApH1N1 induced both systemic and mucosal antibodies with broa...

  12. A/H1N1 Vaccine Intentions in College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in college students who have not previously received the A/H1N1 vaccine. Participants: Undergraduate communication students at a metropolitan southern university. Methods: In January-March 2010, students from voluntarily participating communication classes completed a…

  13. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers; C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); R. Vázquez (Rolando); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  14. Comparison of Immune Response by Virus Infection and Vaccination to 2009 Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; KIM, DONG HO

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the immune response induced by natural infection with 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and by monovalent pH1N1 vaccination in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional clinical study was conducted at 3 hospitals in Korea from February to May 2010. A total of 266 healthy subjects aged from 6 months to 18 yr were tested for the presence of the antibody against pH1N1 using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Information about pH1N1 vaccination and laborato...

  15. An adverse event following 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination: a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Teak Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically follows an infection or vaccination and has a favorable long-term prognosis. We describe the first reported case of ADEM after vaccination against novel influenza A (H1N1. A previously healthy 34-monthold boy who developed ADEM presented with a seizure and leftsided weakness 5 days after vaccination against novel influenza A (H1N1. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated cell counts. T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images revealed multiple patchy hyperintense lesions in the frontal and parietal subcortical white matter and the left thalamus. After the administration of intravenous corticosteroid, the patient’s clinical symptoms improved and he recovered completely without neurologic sequelae.

  16. Upregulation of TGF-beta 1 in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Folsgaard, N.; Bisgaard, H.; Rasmussen, M.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    vaccinated during or after pregnancy. Method: IFN-c, IL-1b, IL-2, -4, -5, -10, - 12p70, -13, -17, TNF-a, IL-8, eotaxin-1,eotaxin-3, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1b, TGF-b1 and TARC were quantified in nasal mucosal lining fluid in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1v) vaccine during (n = 52) or....... aureus; older siblings; furred animals in home; smoking during 3rd trimester; and mothers’ atopic disease. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy affects the mucosal immune competence of the unborn child. The up-regulation of TGF-b1 and down-regulation of...

  17. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Fuat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. Results A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105 reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1% of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Conclusions Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the

  18. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinate...

  19. Guillain-Barré Syndrome During the 2009–2010 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Campaign: Population-based Surveillance Among 45 Million Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Matthew E.; Viray, Melissa; Sejvar, James J.; Lewis, Paige; Baughman, Andrew L.; Connor, Walter; Danila, Richard; Giambrone, Greg P.; Hale, Christa; Hogan, Brenna C.; Meek, James I.; Murphree, Rendi; Oh, John Y.; Reingold, Arthur; Tellman, Norisse

    2012-01-01

    Because of widespread distribution of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine (pH1N1 vaccine) and the prior association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the 1976 H1N1 influenza vaccine, enhanced surveillance was implemented to estimate the magnitude of any increased GBS risk following administration of pH1N1 vaccine. The authors conducted active, population-based surveillance for incident cases of GBS among 45 million persons residing at 10 Emerging Infections Program sites du...

  20. Meta-analysis of the immunogenicity and tolerability of pandemic influenza A 2009 (H1N1 vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the 2009 (H1N1 influenza pandemic officially ended in August 2010, the virus will probably circulate in future years. Several types of H1N1 vaccines have been tested including various dosages and adjuvants, and meta-analysis is needed to identify the best formulation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and nine clinical trial registries to April 2011, in any language for randomized clinical trials (RCTs on healthy children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Primary outcome was the seroconversion rate according to hemagglutinination-inhibition (HI; secondary outcomes were adverse events. For the primary outcome, we used head-to-head meta-analysis and multiple-treatments meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eighteen RCTs could be included in all primary analyses, for a total of 76 arms (16,725 subjects. After 2 doses, all 2009 H1N1 split/subunit inactivated vaccines were highly immunogenic and overcome CPMP seroconversion criteria. After 1 dose only, all split/subunit vaccines induced a satisfactory immunogenicity (> = 70% in adults and adolescents, while only some formulations showed acceptable results for children and elderly (non-adjuvanted at high-doses and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines. Vaccines with oil-in-water adjuvants were more immunogenic than both nonadjuvanted and aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines at equal doses and their immunogenicity at doses < = 6 µg (even with as little as 1.875 µg of hemagglutinin antigen was not significantly lower than that achieved after higher doses. Finally, the rate of serious vaccine-related adverse events was low for all 2009 H1N1 vaccines (3 cases, resolved in 10 days, out of 22826 vaccinated subjects. However, mild to moderate adverse reactions were more (and very frequent for oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Several one-dose formulations might be valid for future vaccines, but 2 doses may be needed for children, especially if a low-dose non-adjuvanted vaccine is

  1. Influenza A (H1N1)pnd09 Vaccination of Pregnant Women and Immunological Consequences for Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    limited information on the details of the immunological responses to influenza immunization in pregnant versus non-pregnant. We had the unique opportunity to study the H1N1pnd09 vaccination of pregnant and non-pregnant women in our unselected, prospective, clinical pregnancy-cohort: the Copenhagen...... Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010). The timing of this enrolment and the pandemic provided for an “experiment of nature” in our population of subjects of whom half had completed pregnancy before the pandemic and the other half were pregnant while H1N1pnd09 virus was prevalent in the...... impact on neonatal immune signature in the airway of neonates implies that some immunological triggering factors during pregnancy may enhance changes in the immune system of the offspring. Influenza vaccination is generally considered safe for the pregnant mother and the fetus, but there is no published...

  2. H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy revisited: has the willingness to get vaccinated suffered in the long run?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ludolph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study is to assess the long-term secondary effects of personal experience with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009/2010 and the perception of the institutional reaction to it on Italians’ willingness to get vaccinated in case of a novel influenza pandemic. Design and Methods. We conducted 140 face-to-face interviews in the Registry Office of the Municipality of Milan, Italy, from October to December 2012. Results. Willingness to get vaccinated during a novel influenza pandemic was best predicted by having been vaccinated against the seasonal flu in the past (OR=5.18; 95%CI: 1.40 to 19.13 and fear of losing one’s life in case of an infection with H1N1 (OR=4.09; 95%CI: 1.68 to 9.97. It was unaffected by the assessment of institutional performance. Conclusions. The findings of this study do not point to long-term secondary effects of the institutional handling of the H1N1 pandemic. The results highlight the fact that behavioural intention is not the same as behaviour, and that the former cannot simply be taken as an indicator of the latter.

  3. Determinants of vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected pregnant women: analysis of B and T cell responses to pandemic H1N1 monovalent vaccine.

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    Adriana Weinberg

    Full Text Available Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1 antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ and granzyme B (GrB T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than previously described in healthy adults. pH1N1-IgG memory B cells (Bmem increased, IFNγ-effector T-cells (Teff decreased, and IgA Bmem and GrB Teff did not change. pH1N1-antibodies and Teff were significantly correlated with each other and with sH1N1-HAI and Teff, respectively, before and after vaccination. pH1N1-antibody responses to the vaccine significantly increased with high proportions of CD4+, low CD8+ and low CD8+HLADR+CD38+ activated (Tact cells. pH1N1-IgG Bmem responses increased with high proportions of CD19+CD27+CD21- activated B cells (Bact, high CD8+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg, and low CD19+CD27-CD21- exhausted B cells (Bexhaust. IFNγ-Teff responses increased with low HIV plasma RNA, CD8+HLADR+CD38+ Tact, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg and CD19+IL10+ Breg. In conclusion, pre-existing antibody and Teff responses to sH1N1 were associated with increased responses to pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women suggesting an important role for heterosubtypic immunologic memory. High CD4+% T cells were associated with increased, whereas high HIV replication, Tact and Bexhaust were associated with decreased vaccine immunogenicity. High Treg increased antibody responses but

  4. Upregulation of TGF-beta 1 in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Folsgaard, N.; Bisgaard, H.;

    2012-01-01

    . aureus; older siblings; furred animals in home; smoking during 3rd trimester; and mothers’ atopic disease. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy affects the mucosal immune competence of the unborn child. The up-regulation of TGF-b1 and down-regulation of...... after pregnancy (n = 118) in our unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood 2010 birth-cohort. Result: Neonates of mothers vaccinated during pregnancy showed a significant up-regulation of the immune-regulatory TGF-b1 (P = 0.0004), significant down regulation (P < 0.05) of TARC, IL-5...

  5. Fever following immunization with influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in children : a survey-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Nancy; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; van Grootheest, Kees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 2009, all children in the Netherlands from 6 months up to 4 years of age were indicated to receive the Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Fever is a common adverse event following immunization in children. Pandemrix®, an inactivated, split-virus influenza A (H1N1) vaccine, was used

  6. Immunogenicity, boostability, and sustainability of the immune response after vaccination against Influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009 in a healthy population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Elisabeth; Rossen, John; Mulder, Paul; van Beek, Ruud; van Vugt, Hennie; Verbakel, Johannes; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Koopmans, Marion; Peeters, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of a new influenza A virus (H1N1) variant in 2009 led to a worldwide vaccination program, which was prepared in a relatively short period of time. This study investigated the humoral immunity against this virus before and after vaccination with a 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) monovalen

  7. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

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    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  8. Influenza vaccination in the Americas: Progress and challenges after the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Kurtis, Hannah Jane; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. Methods: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI). Results: Since 2008, 25 countries/territories in the Americas have introduced new target groups for vaccination or expanded the age ranges of existing target groups. As of 2014, 40 (89%) out of 45 countries/territories have policies established for seasonal influenza vaccination. Currently, 29 (64%) countries/territories target pregnant women for vaccination, the highest priority group according to WHO´s Stategic Advisory Group of Experts and PAHO/WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases, compared to only 7 (16%) in 2008. Among 23 countries reporting coverage data, on average, 75% of adults ≥60 years, 45% of children aged 6–23 months, 32% of children aged 5–2 years, 59% of pregnant women, 78% of healthcare workers, and 90% of individuals with chronic conditions were vaccinated during the 2013–14 Northern Hemisphere or 2014 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccination activities. Difficulties however persist in the estimation of vaccination coverage, especially for pregnant women and persons with chronic conditions. Since 2007, 6 tropical countries have changed their vaccine formulation from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere formulation and the timing of

  9. Is there an association between the H1N1 influenza pandemic vaccination and the manifestation of narcolepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Masoudi, Sanita; Ploen, Daniela; Hildt, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    After the mass-vaccination campaign during the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, a significant increase in narcolepsy incidence was observed initially in Scandinavia, later in other European countries and recently also in Canada. Narcolepsy is a sleep disease caused by the loss of hypocretin-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Almost all narcolepsy patients carry the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, giving a link to an autoimmune-mediated process. Most of the observed narcolepsy cases were correlate...

  10. H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Italy Revisited: Has the Willingness to Get Vaccinated Suffered in the Long Run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Ramona; Nobile, Marta; Hartung, Uwe; Castaldi, Silvana; Schulz, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the long-term secondary effects of personal experience with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009/2010 and the perception of the institutional reaction to it on Italians’ willingness to get vaccinated in case of a novel influenza pandemic. Design and Methods We conducted 140 face-to-face interviews in the Registry Office of the Municipality of Milan, Italy, from October to December 2012. Results Willingness to get vaccinated during a novel influenza pandemic was best predicted by having been vaccinated against the seasonal flu in the past (OR=5.18; 95%CI: 1.40 to 19.13) and fear of losing one’s life in case of an infection with H1N1 (OR=4.09; 95%CI: 1.68 to 9.97). It was unaffected by the assessment of institutional performance. Conclusions The findings of this study do not point to long-term secondary effects of the institutional handling of the H1N1 pandemic. The results highlight the fact that behavioural intention is not the same as behaviour, and that the former cannot simply be taken as an indicator of the latter. Significance for public health Whereas influenza pandemics occurred rather rarely in the last centuries, their frequency can be expected to increase in the future due to the enhanced globalisation and still raising importance of air travelling. Recent examples (Ebola, H1N1, SARS, avian influenza) demonstrate that initially local disease outbreaks often become worldwide health threats of international concern. National and international health authorities are consequently urged to present preparedness plans on how to manage such health crises. However, their success highly depends on their acceptance by the public. To ensure the public compliance with recommended actions, effective communication is needed. Since communication is most successful when it meets the needs of the target audience, a full understanding of the audience is crucial. This study can help public health experts to better understand the

  11. Factors Affecting Intention to Receive and Self-Reported Receipt of 2009 Pandemic (H1N1) Vaccine in Hong Kong: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccination was a core component for mitigating the 2009 influenza pandemic (pH1N1). However, a vaccination program's efficacy largely depends on population compliance. We examined general population decision-making for pH1N1 vaccination using a modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (TBP). Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study, collecting data before and after the introduction of pH1N1 vaccine in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested if a modified TPB had expl...

  12. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-γ, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-γ, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed

  13. Epidemiological effects of the A(H1N1)influenza vaccine immunization program on students%中学生接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗保护效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何寒青; 李倩; 何奔; 高雯洁; 姚凤燕; 蒋雪峰; 沈月根; 周建红; 陈恩富

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiological effects of vaccine immunization program related to A(H1N1)influenza in the middle school students.Methods Non-randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the A(H1N1)influenza vaccine on its efficacy.14883 students from 8 middle schools in Zhejiang province were recruited and classified into vaccinated or control groups,based on the status of immunization with A(H1N1)influenza vaccine.All subjects were followed up through one epidemic period(6 months)and the incidence rates of influenza-like illnesses,A(H1N1)influenza,and seasonal influenza in these two groups were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine.Results There were 6334 subjects in the vaccinated group and 8549 in the control group.7441.75 person-years were followed from these two groups.The incidence rate of A (H1N1)influenza in vaccinated group was 1.64‰ per person-year,lower than that of the control group.The rate difference(RD)was-1.64‰ per person-year(95% confidence interval value from-3.04‰ to-0.23‰ per person-year),and the difference was significant(P=0.010).The incidence rate of influenza-like illnesses in vaccinated group was 21.47‰ per person-year,lower than that of the control group(22.69‰ per person-year)and the diffefence was not significant(P>0.05).The incidence rate of B influenza in vaccinated group was 6.63‰ per person-year,higher than that of control group(7.02‰ per person-year)but the difference was not significant(P>0.05).Conclusion This vaccine demonstrated a good epidemiological effect against the A(H1N1)influenza virus infection,observed through a student-immunization program.The cross-protection effect against the influenza-like illnesses and other seasonal influenzas was not noticed in this study.%目的 了解中学生接种甲型H1NI流感疫苗的保护效果.方法 采用非随机对照临床试验方法,选择8所中学14 883名学生,分甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种组6334人,对照组(未接种)8549人,

  14. Coordination Costs for School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics, Maine, 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Lorick, Suchita A.; Tipton, Meredith L.; Dube, Nancy L.; Messonnier, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    School nurses played a key role in Maine's school-located influenza vaccination (SLV) clinics during the 2009-2010 pandemic season. The objective of this study was to determine, from the school district perspective, the labor hours and costs associated with outside-clinic coordination activities (OCA). The authors defined OCA as labor hours spent…

  15. Patient reported outcome data following influenza A (H1N1p vaccination in the 2009–2010 season: web-based and telephone evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade AG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alan G Wade1, Gordon M Crawford1, Neil Pumford1, Alex McConnachie21Patients Direct, 3 Todd Campus, Glasgow, UK; 2Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UKBackground: There has been worldwide interest in the safety of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1p vaccines, although limited data are available from the vaccine recipients’ perspective. This evaluation was designed to collect data from people who had received an influenza vaccination during the 2009–2010 season using a web-based data collection tool supplemented by telephone reporting (PROBE.Methods: People scheduled to receive the influenza A (H1N1p or seasonal influenza vaccines were recruited through media advertising and campaigns throughout the West of Scotland. Vaccine recipients participated in the evaluation by answering demographic and side effect questions using PROBE methodology on the day of the immunization, after 3 days, 8 days, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks.Results: A total of 1103 vaccine recipients including 134 young children (0–4 years participated in the evaluation; 694 (63% received H1N1p vaccine only, 135 (12% seasonal vaccine only, 224 (20% both H1N1p and seasonal vaccines, and 50 (5% received H1N1p or seasonal vaccine with a non-influenza vaccine (eg, travel or pneumococcal. Overall, 42% of recipients reported experiencing a side effect after their baseline vaccination; the most commonly reported were general and arm side effects (>20%. Injection site discomfort/pain and flu-like symptoms were reported by 57% and 24% of recipients, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of the 960 H1N1p vaccine recipients experienced a side effect (44% vs 27%, P < 0.001 or injection site discomfort/pain (61% vs 26%, P < 0.001 than those receiving seasonal influenza vaccines. Female sex and H1N1p vaccination were associated with a significantly higher risk of injection site discomfort/pain, whereas the 70+ age group was associated with a

  16. Protective efficacy of a human endogenous retrovirus envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based hemagglutin vaccine against pandemic influenza H1N1 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Yoo; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Cho, Yeon-Dong; Heo, Yoon-Ki; Cho, Han-Sam; Choi, Tae-Jin; Poo, Ha-Ryoung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of DNA vaccines, overcoming their lower efficacy relative to that of conventional vaccines remains a challenge. Here, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based HA vaccine against swine influenza A/California/04/2009(H1N1) hemagglutin (HA) (AcHERV-sH1N1-HA) as an alternative to conventional vaccines and evaluated its efficacy in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6. A commercially available, killed virus vaccine was used as a positive control. Mice were intramuscularly administered AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine and subsequently given two booster injections. Compared with the commercial vaccine, AcHERV-sH1N1-HA induced significantly higher levels of cellular immune responses in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Unlike cellular immune responses, humoral immune responses depended on the strain of mice. Following immunization with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA, C57BL/6 mice showed HA-specific IgG titers 10- to 100-fold lower than those of BALB/c mice. In line with the different levels of humoral immune responses, the survival of immunized mice after intranasal challenge with sH1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009) depended on the strain. After challenge with 10-times the median lethal dose (MLD50) of sH1N1 virus, 100% of BALB/c mice immunized with the commercial vaccine or AcHERV-sH1N1-HA survived. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine showed 60% and 70% survival respectively, after challenge with sH1N1 virus. In all mice, virus titers and results of histological analyses of lung tissues were consistent with the survival data. Our results indicate the importance of humoral immune response as a major defense system against influenza viral infection. Moreover, the complete survival of BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA after challenge with sH1N1 virus suggests the potential of baculoviral vector-based vaccines to achieve an efficacy comparable to

  17. Protective efficacy of a human endogenous retrovirus envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based hemagglutin vaccine against pandemic influenza H1N1 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yoo Choi

    Full Text Available Despite the advantages of DNA vaccines, overcoming their lower efficacy relative to that of conventional vaccines remains a challenge. Here, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based HA vaccine against swine influenza A/California/04/2009(H1N1 hemagglutin (HA (AcHERV-sH1N1-HA as an alternative to conventional vaccines and evaluated its efficacy in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6. A commercially available, killed virus vaccine was used as a positive control. Mice were intramuscularly administered AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine and subsequently given two booster injections. Compared with the commercial vaccine, AcHERV-sH1N1-HA induced significantly higher levels of cellular immune responses in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Unlike cellular immune responses, humoral immune responses depended on the strain of mice. Following immunization with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA, C57BL/6 mice showed HA-specific IgG titers 10- to 100-fold lower than those of BALB/c mice. In line with the different levels of humoral immune responses, the survival of immunized mice after intranasal challenge with sH1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009 depended on the strain. After challenge with 10-times the median lethal dose (MLD50 of sH1N1 virus, 100% of BALB/c mice immunized with the commercial vaccine or AcHERV-sH1N1-HA survived. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine showed 60% and 70% survival respectively, after challenge with sH1N1 virus. In all mice, virus titers and results of histological analyses of lung tissues were consistent with the survival data. Our results indicate the importance of humoral immune response as a major defense system against influenza viral infection. Moreover, the complete survival of BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA after challenge with sH1N1 virus suggests the potential of baculoviral vector-based vaccines to achieve an efficacy

  18. Determinants of non-vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study.

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    Romain Freund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2009, the French government organized a national-wide, free of charge vaccination campaign against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, especially targeting pregnant women, a high risk group for severe illness. The study objective was to evaluate pandemic flu vaccine uptake and factors associated with non-vaccination in a population of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort conducted in 3 maternity hospitals in Paris, 882 pregnant women were randomly included between October 12, 2009 and February 3, 2010, with the aim to study characteristics of pandemic influenza during pregnancy. At inclusion, socio-demographic, medical, obstetrical factors and those associated with a higher risk of flu exposition and disease-spreading were systematically collected. Pandemic flu vaccine uptake was checked until delivery. 555 (62.9% women did not get vaccinated. Determinants associated with non-vaccination in a multivariate logistic regression were: geographic origin (Sub-Saharan African origin, adjusted Odd Ratio aOR = 5.4[2.3-12.7], North African origin, aOR = 2.5[1.3-4.7] and Asian origin, aOR = 2.1[1.7-2.6] compared to French and European origin and socio-professional categories (farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, aOR = 2.3[2.0-2.6], intermediate professionals, aOR = 1.3[1.0-1.6], employees and manual workers, aOR = 2.5[1.4-4.4] compared to managers and intellectual professionals. The probability of not receiving pandemic flu vaccine was lower among women vaccinated against seasonal flu in the previous 5 years (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8] and among those who stopped smoking before or early during pregnancy (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.8]. Number of children less than 18 years old living at home, work in contact with children or in healthcare area, or professional contact with the public, were not associated with a higher vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this cohort of pregnant women, vaccine coverage against pandemic

  19. Safety and efficacy of a novel live attenuated influenza vaccine against pandemic H1N1 in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...

  20. Live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine protects against A(H1N1)pdm09 heterologous challenge without vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Phillip C; Loving, Crystal L; Khurana, Surender; Lorusso, Alessio; Perez, Daniel R; Kehrli, Marcus E; Roth, James A; Golding, Hana; Vincent, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines may provide cross-protection against contemporary influenza A virus (IAV) in swine. Conversely, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines have the potential risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with IAV of substantial antigenic drift. A temperature sensitive, intranasal H1N2 LAIV was compared to wild type exposure (WT) and an intramuscular WIV vaccine in a model shown to induce VAERD. WIV vaccinated swine challenged with pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were not protected from infection and demonstrated severe respiratory disease consistent with VAERD. Lung lesions were mild and challenge virus was not detected in the respiratory tract of LAIV vaccinates. High levels of post-vaccination IgG serum antibodies targeting the H1N1pdm09 HA2 stalk domain were exclusively detected in the WIV group and associated with increased H1N1pdm09 virus infectivity in MDCK cells. In contrast, infection-enhancing antibodies were not detected in the serum of LAIV vaccinates and VAERD was not observed. PMID:25461535

  1. Particle and subunit-based hemagglutinin vaccines provide protective efficacy against H1N1 influenza in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis A; Miller, Cathy L; Vaughn, Eric M

    2016-08-15

    The increasing diversity of influenza strains circulating in swine herds escalates the potential for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and highlights the need for swift development of new vaccines. Baculovirus has proven to be a flexible platform for the generation of recombinant forms of hemagglutinin (HA) including subunit, VLP-displayed, and baculovirus-displayed antigens. These presentations have been shown to be efficacious in mouse, chicken, and ferret models but little is known about their immunogenicity in pigs. To assess the utility of these HA presentations in swine, Baculovirus constructs expressing HA fused to swine IgG2a Fc, displayed in a FeLV gag VLP, or displayed in the baculoviral envelope were generated. Vaccines formulated with these antigens wer The e administered to groups of pigs who were subsequently challenged with H1α cluster H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with any of these three vaccines elicits robust hemagglutinin inhibition titers in the serum and decreased the severity of SIV-associated lung lesions after challenge when compared to placebo-vaccinated controls. In addition, the number of pigs with virus detected in the lungs and nasal passages was reduced. Taken together, the results demonstrate that these recombinant approaches expressed with the baculovirus expression vector system may be viable options for development of SIV vaccines for swine. PMID:27374905

  2. Responses to pandemic ASO3-adjuvanted A/California/07/09 H1N1 influenza vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Deborah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza infection may be more serious in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals, therefore, vaccination against seasonal and pandemic strains is highly advised. Seasonal influenza vaccines have had no significant negative effects in well controlled HIV infection, but the impact of adjuvanted pandemic A/California/07/2009 H1N1 influenza hemaglutinin (HA vaccine, which was used for the first time in the Canadian population as an authorized vaccine in autumn 2009, has not been extensively studied. Objective Assess vaccine-related effects on CD4+ T cell counts and humoral responses to the vaccine in individuals attending the Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial HIV clinic. Methods A single dose of ArepanrixTM split vaccine including 3.75 μg A/California/07/2009 H1N1 HA antigen and ASO3 adjuvant was administered to 81 HIV-infected individuals by intramuscular injection. Plasma samples from shortly before, and 1–5 months after vaccination were collected from 80/81 individuals to assess humoral anti-H1N1 HA responses using a sensitive microbead-based array assay. Data on CD4+ T cell counts, plasma viral load, antiretroviral therapy and patient age were collected from clinical records of 81 individuals. Results Overall, 36/80 responded to vaccination either by seroconversion to H1N1 HA or with a clear increase in anti-H1N1 HA antibody levels. Approximately 1/3 (28/80 had pre-existing anti-H1N1 HA antibodies and were more likely to respond to vaccination (22/28. Responders had higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts and responders without pre-existing antibodies against H1N1 HA were younger than either non-responders or responders with pre-existing antibodies. Compared to changes in their CD4+ T cell counts observed over a similar time period one year later, vaccine recipients displayed a minor, transient fall in CD4+ T cell numbers, which was greater amongst responders. Conclusions We observed low response rates

  3. Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything

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    Conway Jessica M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much remains unknown about the effect of timing and prioritization of vaccination against pandemic (pH1N1 2009 virus on health outcomes. We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality. Methods We modeled different distribution strategies initiated between July and November 2009 using a compartmental epidemic model that includes age structure and transmission network dynamics. The model represents the Greater Vancouver Regional District, a major North American city and surrounding suburbs with a population of 2 million, and is parameterized using data from the British Columbia Ministry of Health, published studies, and expert opinion. Outcomes are expressed as the number of infections and deaths averted due to vaccination. Results The model output was consistent with provincial surveillance data. Assuming a basic reproduction number = 1.4, an 8-week vaccination campaign initiated 2 weeks before the epidemic onset reduced morbidity and mortality by 79-91% and 80-87%, respectively, compared to no vaccination. Prioritizing children and parents for vaccination may have reduced transmission compared to actual practice, but the mortality benefit of this strategy appears highly sensitive to campaign timing. Modeling the actual late October start date resulted in modest reductions in morbidity and mortality (13-25% and 16-20%, respectively with little variation by prioritization scheme. Conclusion Delays in vaccine production due to technological or logistical barriers may reduce potential benefits of vaccination for pandemic influenza, and these temporal effects can outweigh any additional theoretical benefits from population targeting. Careful modeling may provide decision makers with estimates of these effects before the epidemic peak to guide production goals and inform policy. Integration of real-time surveillance data with mathematical models holds the promise of

  4. Low adherence to influenza vaccination campaigns: is the H1N1 virus pandemic to be blamed?

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    Trivellin Valeria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few months, debates about the handling of the influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic took place, in particular regarding the change of the WHO pandemic definition, economic interests, the dramatic communication style of mass media. The activation of plans to reduce the virus diffusion resulted in an important investment of resources. Were those investments proportionate to the risk? Was the pandemic overrated? The workload of the Pediatric Emergency Room (P.E.R. at a teaching hospital in Varese (Northern Italy was investigated in order to evaluate the local diffusion and severity of the new H1N1 influenza epidemic. Discussion A 100% increase of the number of P.E.R. visits, particularly for influenza-like illness, was recorded during weeks 42-46 of 2009 (October, 17 to November, 2; the low rate of hospitalization and the mild presentation of the infection gave rise to the conclusion that the pandemic risk was overrated. Mass media communications concerning the new virus created a disproportionate fear in the population that significantly enhanced the burden of cares at the hospital. In the absence of generally implemented measures for etiological diagnosis, the actual incidence of the H1N1 infection could not be estimated. Virus identification, in fact, was limited to children showing severe symptoms after consultancy with an infectious disease specialist. The alarming nature of the communication campaign and the choice to limit etiologic diagnosis to severe cases created a climate of uncertainty which significantly contributed to the massive admissions to the P.E.R.. Summary The communication strategy adopted by the mass media was an important element during the pandemic: the absence of clarity contributed to the spread of a pandemic phobia that appeared to result more from the sensationalism of the campaign than from infection with the novel influenza A variant of human, avian, swine origin virus. One relevant effect

  5. Acceptance and Adverse Effects of H1N1 Vaccinations Among a Cohort of National Guard Health Care Workers during the 2009 Hajj Season

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    Balkhy Hanan H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1 influenza pandemic had garnered a large amount of attention. Currently, the most effective preventive measure available is the H1N1 vaccine. We aimed to assess the willingness of our study participants to receive the H1N1 vaccination prior to the annual Hajj season. If any participant declined, we investigated the reasons for vaccine rejection. Findings We conducted a prospective cohort study of National Guard employees during the 1430 (2009 Hajj season. A survey was used as the primary method for data collection. Participants were vaccinated one to two weeks prior to their trip to Mona, and any side effects reported at the time of injection and three weeks post vaccination were recorded. There were 100 male and 26 female participants in the study. In total, 66.7% (n = 84 of the participants were health care workers (HCWs and 33.3% (n = 42 were non-health care workers (non-HCWs. Less than half of the respondents (46.8%, n = 59 accepted the vaccination. The vaccination acceptance rate was higher among non-HCWs, at a rate of 71.4% (n = 30; HCWs only accepted at a rate of 34.5% (n = 29 (OR 1.103, 95% CI [0.488-2.496]. The most common reason for vaccine refusal was the impression that the disease was not fatal (25.4%, n = 32. Finally, all participants reported pain at the injection site and 18.3% (n = 11 reported swelling. All other side effects were reported in less than 15% of the participants. Conclusions Despite fears of the new H1N1 vaccine, there was a reasonable rate of vaccine acceptance among our study participants. Early health education may increase the rate of acceptance of the H1N1 vaccine. Furthermore, additional research is needed on long-term adverse effects of the H1N1 vaccine.

  6. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

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    Otfried Kistner

    Full Text Available The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  7. Description of a large urban school-located 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccination campaign, New York City 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Heather E; Pathela, Preeti; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Kansagra, Susan M; May, Linda; Scaccia, Allison; Zucker, Jane R

    2012-04-01

    In the spring of 2009, New York City (NYC) experienced the emergence and rapid spread of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1), which had a high attack rate in children and caused many school closures. During the 2009 fall wave of pH1N1, a school-located vaccination campaign for elementary schoolchildren was conducted in order to reduce infection and transmission in the school setting, thereby reducing the impact of pH1N1 that was observed earlier in the year. In this paper, we describe the planning and outcomes of the NYC school-located vaccination campaign. We compared consent and vaccination data for three vaccination models (school nurse alone, school nurse plus contract nurse, team). Overall, >1,200 of almost 1,600 eligible schools participated, achieving 26.8% consent and 21.5% first-dose vaccination rates, which did not vary significantly by vaccination model. A total of 189,902 doses were administered during two vaccination rounds to 115,668 students at 998 schools included in the analysis; vaccination rates varied by borough, school type, and poverty level. The team model achieved vaccination of more children per day and required fewer vaccination days per school. NYC's campaign is the largest described school-located influenza vaccination campaign to date. Despite substantial challenges, school-located vaccination is feasible in large, urban settings, and during a public health emergency. PMID:22318374

  8. Immune response after one or two doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) monovalent, AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bybeck Nielsen, Allan; Nielsen, Henriette Schjønning; Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Søren; Kronborg, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continued research is needed to evaluate and improve the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in HIV infected patients. We aimed to determine the antibody responses after one or two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in HIV infected patients. METHOD......: Following the influenza season 2009/2010, 219 HIV infected patients were included and divided into three groups depending on whether they received none (n=60), one (n=31) or two (n=128) doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. At inclusion, antibody titers for all patients were analyzed and compared to...... seroconversion rate of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: A single dose of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine created an adequate immune response in HIV infected patients lasting as long as 4-9 months. Two doses improved the immunogenicity further....

  9. Decreased serologic response in vaccinated military recruits during 2011 correspond to genetic drift in concurrent circulating pandemic A/H1N1 viruses.

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    Dennis J Faix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based febrile respiratory illness surveillance conducted by the Department of Defense contributes to an estimate of vaccine effectiveness. Between January and March 2011, 64 cases of 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1, including one fatality, were confirmed in immunized recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, suggesting insufficient efficacy for the pH1N1 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test serologic protection, serum samples were collected at least 30 days post-vaccination from recruits at Fort Jackson (LAIV, Parris Island (LAIV and trivalent inactivated vaccine [TIV] at Cape May, New Jersey (TIV and responses measured against pre-vaccination sera. A subset of 78 LAIV and 64 TIV sera pairs from recruits who reported neither influenza vaccination in the prior year nor fever during training were tested by microneutralization (MN and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assays. MN results demonstrated that seroconversion in paired sera was greater in those who received TIV versus LAIV (74% and 37%. Additionally, the fold change associated with TIV vaccination was significantly different between circulating (2011 versus the vaccine strain (2009 of pH1N1 viruses (ANOVA p value = 0.0006. HI analyses revealed similar trends. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis revealed that the quantity, IgG/IgM ratios, and affinity of anti-HA antibodies were significantly greater in TIV vaccinees. Finally, sequence analysis of the HA1 gene in concurrent circulating 2011 pH1N1 isolates from Fort Jackson exhibited modest amino acid divergence from the vaccine strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among military recruits in 2011, serum antibody response differed by vaccine type (LAIV vs. TIV and pH1N1 virus year (2009 vs. 2011. We hypothesize that antigen drift in circulating pH1N1 viruses contributed to reduce vaccine effectiveness at Fort Jackson. Our findings have wider implications regarding

  10. Immunogenicity and tolerability after two doses of non-adjuvanted, whole-virion pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected individuals.

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    Heimo Lagler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the influenza pandemic of 2009/10, the whole-virion, Vero-cell-derived, inactivated, pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine Celvapan® (Baxter was used in Austria. Celvapan® is adjuvant-free and was the only such vaccine at that time in Europe. The objective of this observational, non-interventional, prospective single-center study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of two intramuscular doses of this novel vaccine in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI assay was used for evaluation of the seroconversion rate and seroprotection against the pandemic H1N1 strain. In addition, H1N1-specific IgG antibodies were measured using a recently developed ELISA and compared with the HAI results. Tolerability of vaccination was evaluated up to one month after the second dose. A total of 79 HIV-infected adults with an indication for H1N1 vaccination were evaluated. At baseline, 55 of the 79 participants had an HAI titer ≥1:40 and two patients showed a positive IgG ELISA. The seroconversion rate was 31% after the first vaccination, increasing to 41% after the second; the corresponding seroprotection rates were 92% and 83% respectively. ELISA IgG levels were positive in 25% after the first vaccination and in 37% after the second. Among the participants with baseline HAI titers 60 years of age had a baseline HAI titer <1:40 or seroconverted after vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: The non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated and induced a measurable immune response in a sample of HIV-infected individuals.

  11. Responses to pandemic ASO3-adjuvanted A/California/07/09 H1N1 influenza vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Deborah; Burt Kimberley; Missaghi Bayan; Barrett Lisa; Keynan Yoav; Fowke Keith; Grant Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Influenza infection may be more serious in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, therefore, vaccination against seasonal and pandemic strains is highly advised. Seasonal influenza vaccines have had no significant negative effects in well controlled HIV infection, but the impact of adjuvanted pandemic A/California/07/2009 H1N1 influenza hemaglutinin (HA) vaccine, which was used for the first time in the Canadian population as an authorized vaccine in autu...

  12. Post-H1N1 Flu Vaccination Narcolepsy in Switzerland: A Retrospective Survey in the 30 Sleep-Certified Swiss Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, Ulf; Mathis, Johannes; Jenni, Oskar G; Heinzer, Raphaël; Haba-Rubio, José; Baumann, Christian R; Cervena, Katerina; Bassetti, Claudio L A

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a sleep-wake disorder and suggested to be immune-mediated, involving genetic and environmental factors. The autoimmune process eventually leads to a loss of hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Epidemiological studies in several countries proved an increased incidence of narcolepsy after H1N1 flu vaccination and infection. This survey in 30 sleep centers in Switzerland led to the identification of 9 H1N1-vaccinated children and adults as newly diagnosed narcolepsy. Clinical features included the abrupt and severe onset of sleepiness, cataplexy and sleep fragmentation. PMID:26901055

  13. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  14. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of A/H1N1pdm Vaccine Among Subjects With Severe Motor and Intellectual Disability in the 2010/11 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Background While the immunogenicity and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines among subjects with severe motor and intellectual disability (SMID) are known to be diminished, the efficacy of the A/H1N1pdm vaccine has not been evaluated. Methods We prospectively evaluated 103 subjects with SMID (mean age, 41.7 years) who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2010/11 influenza season. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer was measured in serum samples collected pre-vaccination (S0), post-vaccination (S1), and end-of-season (S2) to evaluate subjects’ immunogenicity capacity. Vaccine efficacy was assessed based on antibody efficacy and achievement proportion. Results The proportions of seroprotection and seroconversion, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (GMT at S1/GMT at S0) for A/H1N1pdm were 46.0%, 16.0%, and 1.8, respectively—values which did not meet the European Medicines Evaluation Agency criteria. The achievement proportion was 26%. During follow-up, 11 of 43 subjects with acute respiratory illness were diagnosed with type A influenza according to a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), and A/H1N1pdm strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 5 of those 11 subjects. When either or both RIDT-diagnosed influenza or serologically diagnosed influenza (HI titer at S2/HI titer at S1 ≥2) were defined as probable influenza, subjects with A/H1N1pdm seroprotection were found to have a lower incidence of probable influenza (odds ratio, 0.31; antibody efficacy, 69%; vaccine efficacy, 18%). Conclusions In the present seasonal assessment, antibody efficacy was moderate against A/H1N1pdm among SMID subjects, but vaccine efficacy was low due to the reduced immunogenicity of SMID subjects. PMID:26780860

  15. Análise do custo parcial com vacina para prevenção da Influenza A (H1N1 / Analysis of partial cost with vaccine for prevention of Influenza A (H1N1

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    Edmilson de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudo que teve como objetivo identificar o custo parcial da vacina contra o vírus Influenza A (H1N1, na cidade de Londrina-PR, no ano de 2012. Utilizou-se como fonte de dados os documentos contidos na Avaliação do Programa de Imunização e também do DATASUS. O custo parcial da vacina foi calculado a partir do produto, do preço unitário da vacina e da quantidade de doses administradas, com base na moeda nacional (Reais. Constatou-se que o custo total da vacina foi de R$ 870.097,90, equivalente a 122.549 doses unitárias. Dessas, o maior consumo foi entre os idosos e crianças menores de dois anos, que totalizou R$ 533.366,20. Para vacinar toda a população de Londrina-PR seriam necessários R$ 3.597.577,10. Concluiu-se que a vacina disponibilizada para o município, em 2012, foi suficiente para imunizar toda a população de Londrina, definida pelo Ministério da Saúde e também para aquelas denominadas de alto risco. O número de vacinas destinadas às crianças menores de dois anos e aos profissionais de saúde excedeu o número de indivíduos destas populações identificadas na cidade, e o impacto financeiro da vacinação global seria mínimo no orçamento. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- This paper aimed to identify the partial cost of the vaccine against Influenza A (H1N1 in Londrina, during the year 2012. The documents contained in the Evaluation of Immunization Program and also from DATASUS were used as a data source. The partial cost of the vaccine was calculated taking from the product of the unit price and quantity of vaccine doses administered, based on national currency (Real. We realized that the to-tal cost of the vaccine was R$ 870,097.90, equivalent to 122,549 unit doses. The highest consumption was between the elderly and children under two years, which totaled R$ 533.366,20. To vaccinate the entire population of Londrina-PR would be necessary an amount of R$ 3

  16. Cold-adapted influenza and recombinant adenovirus vaccines induce cross-protective immunity against pH1N1 challenge in mice.

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    Mark R Soboleski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1 highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP and consensus matrix 2 (M2 (NP+M2-rAd. Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic.

  17. Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in England and Scotland 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardelid, P; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; SebastianPillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

    2011-01-01

    Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines in preventing confirmed pandemic influenza infection. Some 5,982 individuals with influenza-like illness seen in general practices between November 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled. Those testing positive on PCR for pandemic influenza were assigned as cases and those testing negative as controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the relative reduction in odds of confirmed infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Fourteen or more days after immunisation with the pandemic vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21% to 90%). If protection was assumed to start after seven or more days, the adjusted VE was 71% (95% CI: 37% to 87%). Pandemic influenza vaccine was highly effective in preventing confirmed infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 from one week after vaccination. No evidence of effectiveness against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was found for the 2009/10 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (adjusted VE of -30% (95% CI: -89% to 11%)). PMID:21251487

  18. Aerosol Delivery of a Candidate Universal Influenza Vaccine Reduces Viral Load in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic H1N1 Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Sophie B; Hemmink, Johanneke D.; Porter, Emily; Harley, Ross; Shelton, Holly; Aramouni, Mario; Everett, Helen E.; Brookes, Sharon M; Bailey, Michael; Townsend, Alain M.; Charleston, Bryan; Tchilian, Elma

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are a major health threat to livestock and humans, causing considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. Current inactivated influenza vaccines are strain specific and new vaccines need to be produced at frequent intervals to combat newly arising influenza virus strains, so that a universal vaccine is highly desirable. We show that pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in which the hemagglutinin signal sequence has been suppressed (S-FLU), when administered to pigs by aero...

  19. Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

    2014-03-14

    During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group

  20. Intent to receive pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine, compliance with social distancing and sources of information in NC, 2009.

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    Jennifer A Horney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public adherence to influenza vaccination recommendations has been low, particularly among younger adults and children under 2, despite the availability of safe and effective seasonal vaccine. Intention to receive 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine has been estimated to be 50% in select populations. This report measures knowledge of and intention to receive pandemic vaccine in a population-based setting, including target groups for seasonal and H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On August 28-29, 2009, we conducted a population-based survey in 2 counties in North Carolina. The survey used the 30x7 two-stage cluster sampling methodology to identify 210 target households. Prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Knowledge of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine was high, with 165 (80% aware that a vaccine was being prepared. A total of 133 (64% respondents intended to receive pandemic vaccine, 134 (64% intended to receive seasonal vaccine, and 109 (53% intended to receive both. Reporting great concern about H1N1 infection (PR 1.55; 95%CI: 1.30, 1.85, receiving seasonal influenza vaccine in 2008-09 (PR 1.47; 95%CI: 1.18, 1.82, and intending to receive seasonal influenza vaccine in 2009-10 (PR 1.27; 95%CI: 1.14, 1.42 were associated with intention to receive pandemic vaccine. Not associated were knowledge of vaccine, employment, having children under age 18, gender, race/ethnicity and age. Reasons cited for not intending to get vaccinated include not being at risk for infection, concerns about vaccine side effects and belief that illness caused by pandemic H1N1 would be mild. Forty-five percent of households with children under 18 and 65% of working adults reported ability to comply with self-isolation at home for 7-10 days if recommended by authorities. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a population based rapid assessment used to assess knowledge and intent to

  1. Negotiating equitable access to influenza vaccines: global health diplomacy and the controversies surrounding avian influenza H5N1 and pandemic influenza H1N1.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the PLoS Medicine series on Global Health Diplomacy, David Fidler provides a case study of the difficult negotiations to increase equitable access to vaccines for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) and pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1).

  2. Serological evaluation of an influenza A virus cold-adapted reassortant live vaccine, CR-37 (H1N1), in Japanese adult volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, N; Nakamura, Y.; Yuki, M.; Odagiri, T.; Ishida, N

    1984-01-01

    A cold-adapted influenza A virus, CR-37 (H1N1), derived from genetic reassortment between A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted variant virus and A/California/10/78 (H1N1) wild-type virus, was tested in Japanese adult volunteer. The CR-37 live virus preparation induced only low-grade clinical reactions in volunteers for the first 3-4 days after inoculation. Two vaccinees who did not show any antibody changes became febrile (over 38.0 degrees C). Skin tests using the vaccine preparation and uni...

  3. Guillain-Barre syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccines: a multinational self-controlled case series in Europe.

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    Silvana Romio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1pdm09 immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A self-controlled case series (SCCS analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1-4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI. Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. RESULTS: Three hundred and three (303 GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99 were exposed to A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria. The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.2-5.5, based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.1 after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.2 when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8, which is the main finding. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with

  4. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although its hemagglutinin gene is relat...

  5. Factors associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccination acceptance among university students from India during the post-pandemic phase

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    Thejaswini Venkatesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There was a low adherence to influenza A (H1N1 vaccination program among university students and health care workers during the pandemic influenza in many parts of the world. Vaccination of high risk individuals is one of the recommendations of World Health Organization during the post-pandemic period. It is not documented about the student's knowledge, attitude and willingness to accept H1N1 vaccination during the post-pandemic period. We aimed to analyze the student's knowledge, attitude and willingness to accept H1N1 vaccination during the post-pandemic period in India. Methods Vaccine against H1N1 was made available to the students of Vellore Institute of Technology, India from September 2010. The data are based on a cross-sectional study conducted during October 2010 to January 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire with a representative sample of the student population (N = 802. Results Of the 802 respondents, only 102/802 (12.7% had been vaccinated and 105/802 (13% planned to do so in the future, while 595/802 (74% would probably or definitely not get vaccinated in the future. The highest coverage was among the female (65/102, 63.7% and non-compliance was higher among men in the group (384/595; 64.5% (p Conclusions Our study shows that the vaccination coverage among university students remains very low in the post-pandemic period and doubts about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are key elements in their rejection. Our results indicate a need to provide accessible information about the vaccine safety by scientific authorities and fill gaps and confusions in this regard.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy and cross-protectivity of recent human and swine vaccines against the pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection.

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    Philippe Noriel Q Pascua

    Full Text Available The current pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus remains transmissible among humans worldwide with cases of reverse zoonosis, providing opportunities to produce more pathogenic variants which could pose greater human health concerns. To investigate whether recent seasonal human or swine H1N1 vaccines could induce cross-reactive immune responses against infection with the pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus, mice, ferrets or mini-pigs were administered with various regimens (once or twice and antigen content (1.77, 3.5 or 7.5 microg HA of a-Brsibane/59/07, a-CAN01/04 or RgCA/04/09xPR8 vaccine. Receipt of a-CAN01/04 (2-doses but not a-Brisbane/59/07 induced detectable but modest (20-40 units cross-reactive serum antibody against CA/04/09 by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI assays in mice. Only double administration (7.5 microg HA of both vaccine in ferrets could elicit cross-reactivity (30-60 HI titers. Similar antigen content of a-CAN01/04 in mini-pigs also caused a modest approximately 30 HI titers (twice vaccinated. However, vaccine-induced antibody titers could not suppress active virus replication in the lungs (mice or virus shedding (ferrets and pigs of immunized hosts intranasally challenged with CA/04/09. Furthermore, neither ferrets nor swine could abrogate aerosol transmission of the virus into naïve contact animals. Altogether, these results suggest that neither recent human nor animal H1N1 vaccine could provide complete protectivity in all animal models. Thus, this study warrants the need for strain-specific vaccines that could yield the optimal protection desired for humans and/or animals.

  7. A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination: A retrospective evaluation of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Massimo; Bella, Antonino; Rota, Maria C; Clagnan, Elena; Gallo, Tolinda; D'Amato, Maurizio; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Ferrara, Lorenza; Demicheli, Vittorio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Rizzo, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    Although concerns about safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy have been raised in the past, vaccination of pregnant women was recommended in many countries during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women vaccinated with a MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. The study was carried out in four Italian regions (Piemonte, Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Lazio, and Puglia) among 102,077 pregnant women potentially exposed during the second or third trimester of gestation to the vaccination campaign implemented in 2009/2010. Based on data retrieved from the regional administrative databases, the statistical analysis was performed using the Cox proportional-hazards model, adjusting for the propensity score to account for the potential confounding effect due to the socio-demographic characteristics and the clinical and reproductive history of women. A total of 100,332 pregnant women were eligible for the analysis. Of these, 2003 (2.0%) received the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during the second or third trimester of gestation. We did not observe any statistically significant association between the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination and different maternal outcomes (hospital admissions for influenza, pneumonia, hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes, thyroid disease, and anaemia), fetal outcomes (fetal death after the 22nd gestational week) and neonatal outcomes (pre-term birth, low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar score, and congenital malformations). Pre-existing health-risk conditions (hospital admissions and drug prescriptions for specific diseases before the onset of pregnancy) were observed more frequently among vaccinated women, thus suggesting that concomitant chronic conditions increased vaccination uptake. The results of this study add some evidence on the safety of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during

  8. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine does not increase the mortality rate of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: a matched case-control study.

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    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the mortality rate after administration of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine on patients with underlying diseases is currently scarce. We conducted a case-control study in Japan to compare the mortality rates of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia after the vaccines were administered and were not administered. METHODS: Between October 2009 and March 2010, we collected clinical records in Japan and conducted a 1:1 matched case-control study. Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia who died during this period were considered case patients, and those who survived were considered control patients. We determined and compared the proportion of each group that received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine and estimated the odds ratio. Finally, we conducted simulations that compensated for the shortcomings of the study associated with adjusted severity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. RESULTS: The case and control groups each comprised of 75 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The proportion of patients who received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine was 30.7% and 38.7% for the case and control groups, respectively. During that winter, the crude conditional odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.47 and the adjusted conditional odds ratio was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-4.49; neither was significant. The simulation study showed more accurate conditional odds ratios of 0.63-0.71. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we detected no evidence that the influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine increased the mortality rate of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The results, however, are limited by the small sample size and low statistical power. A larger-scale study is required.

  9. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  10. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  11. 甲型H1N1流行性感冒疫苗接种人群的血清抗体分析%Analysis of serum antibody level in population vaccinated with H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺韵; 鲁恩洁; 李铁钢; 蒋力云; 狄飚; 吴新伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解接种甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)疫苗后,人群中血清抗体的变化情况,为甲型H1N1流感疫苗的接种提供依据.方法:随机采集不同年龄已接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗人群的血清,采用血凝抑制实验检测血清中甲型H1N1流感抗体的血凝抑制滴度(HI滴度),HI滴度≥1:40判定为阳性,同时调查采样对象的甲型H1N1流感疫苗与季节性流感疫苗的接种史.结果:甲型H1N1流感抗体阳性率为57.4%(402份/700份),抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)为1:35.6;甲型H1N1流感抗体阳性率与GMT较高的是10~30岁组人群,较低的是60岁以上的人群;接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后30~90天,GMT水平达到高峰(1:56);随着季节性流感疫苗接种次数的增多,人群血清中甲型H1N1流感抗体的阳性率与GMT值反而降低.结论:青少年与成人接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗的免疫效果比儿童和老年人的好;甲型H1N1流感疫苗对人群的保护作用能持续90天左右;甲型H1N1流感抗体在0~10岁组,10~30岁组人群中持续的时间比30~60岁,>60岁组人群长;多次接种季节性流感疫苗可能会影响甲型H1N1流感抗体的产生.建议对儿童和老年人开展双倍剂量甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种;甲型H1N1流感疫苗的接种时间最好在流行期前1~3月内,并且应每年接种一次.%Objective:To investigate the change of antibody level in people who were vaccinated with H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, and to provide advices for the vaccination project. Methods:The serum specimens were collected randomly from people who were vaccinated with H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and antibody levels were examined by Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Samples with HI titer≥40 was considered as positive. The information of the vaccination history of H1N1 pandemic influenza and seasonal influenza vaccine was collected. Results:700 serum specimens were collected, 402(57. 4% ) of those were positive, the geometric mean titer(GMT) was 1

  12. Perceptions populaires du risque et savoirs experts en contexte de pandémie : le cas du A(H1N1 au Québec. Public perceptions of risk and expert knowledge in times of pandemic disease: the cases of A (H1N1 in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Désy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La pandémie A(H1N1 de 2009 a mis en évidence les limites des stratégies de communication du risque tout en ravivant l’intérêt pour une analyse des perceptions populaires du risque. Au Québec, la campagne de vaccination de l’automne 2009 fut le théâtre de la circulation d’informations perçues souvent comme contradictoires sur le risque épidémique. Dans le cadre de dix focus groups organisés à Montréal et à Québec dans les mois qui ont suivi la fin de la campagne de vaccination, 100 Québécois francophones ont été invités à débattre de leur perception tant du risque associé au virus et au vaccin que de la gestion qui en fut faite par les autorités de santé publique. L’article analyse ces perceptions, en illustre la diversité et montre que diverses logiques cohabitent dans un savoir populaire marqué d’une certaine réflexivité. L’article conclut sur certaines leçons à tirer pour les stratégies de communication du risque épidémique.The A(H1N1 pandemic of 2009 illustrated the limitations of communication strategies on risk and revived interest in the analysis of public perception of risk. In Quebec, during the vaccination campaign carried out in the fall of 2009, the spread of information on epidemiological risk was often perceived as contradictory. In the months following the vaccination campaign, 10 focus groups were organized in Montréal and Québec City and 100 French-speaking Quebecers were invited to discuss their perception of the risk associated with the virus and vaccination, the management of the situation by public health authorities and the pertinence of holding a public consultation in the context of a pandemic disease. The article presents the different opinions of the general public tempered, however, by a measure of reflexivity. The article concludes with lessons to be learned regarding communication strategies on epidemiological risk.

  13. Comparison of Pandemrix and Arepanrix, two pH1N1 AS03-adjuvanted vaccines differentially associated with narcolepsy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Leib, Ryan; Ollila, Hanna M; Bonvalet, Mélodie; Adams, Christopher M; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Narcolepsy onset in children has been associated with the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic and vaccination with Pandemrix. However it was not clearly observed with other adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines such as Arepanrix or Focetria. Our aim was to characterize the differences between Pandemrix and Arepanrix that might explain the risk for narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry (MS). We found that Pandemrix (2009 batch) and Arepanrix (2010 batch) showed 5 main viral proteins: hemagglutinin HA1 and HA2 subunits, neuraminidase NA, nucleoprotein NP, and matrix protein MA1 and non-viral proteins from the Gallus gallus growth matrix used in the manufacturing of the vaccines. Latticed patterns of HA1, HA2 and NA indicated charge and molecular weight heterogeneity, a phenomenon likely caused by glycosylation and sulfation. Overall, Pandemrix contained more NP and NA, while Arepanrix displayed a larger diversity of viral and chicken proteins, with the exception of five chicken proteins (PDCD6IP, TSPAN8, H-FABP, HSP and TUB proteins) that were relatively more abundant in Pandemrix. Glycosylation patterns were similar in both vaccines. A higher degree of deamidation and dioxidation was found in Pandemrix, probably reflecting differential degradation across batches. Interestingly, HA1 146N (residue 129N in the mature protein) displayed a 10-fold higher deamidation in Arepanrix versus Pandemrix. In recent vaccine strains and Focetria, 146N is mutated to D which is associated with increased production yields suggesting that 146N deamidation may have also occurred during the manufacturing of Arepanrix. The presence of 146N in large relative amounts in Pandemrix and the wild type virus and in lower relative quantities in Arepanrix or other H1N1 vaccines may have affected predisposition to narcolepsy. PMID:25452148

  14. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Jiang, X.; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs. PMID:27093541

  15. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  16. Low-dose aspirin use does not diminish the immune response to monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M L; Bellamy, A; Wolff, M; Hill, H; Jackson, L A

    2016-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells; one consequence of this could be decreased effectiveness of vaccines in NSAID users. Because many older adults use low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of coronary events, any inhibitory effect of aspirin on vaccine immune response could reduce the benefits of vaccination programmes in older adults. We tested whether immune response to vaccination differed between users vs. non-users of low-dose aspirin, using data from four randomized trials of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine. Geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were not significantly lower in low-dose aspirin users compared to non-users. Our results provide reassurance that influenza vaccination effectiveness is probably not reduced in older adults taking chronic low-dose aspirin. PMID:26330204

  17. Acceptance and tolerability of an adjuvanted nH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients in the cologne-bonn cohort

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    Steffens B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the acceptance and tolerability of the nH1N1 2009 vaccine in HIV-positive individuals. Method 758 patients were included in this prospective study. Different study populations were formed: The Tolerability Study Group consists of HIV-infected patients who visited three outpatient clinics (Cologne, Bonn, Freiburg during a predefined time period. Patients were offered nH1N1 vaccination. Those accepting were administered a standard dose AS03 adjuvant nH1N1 vaccine. Questionnaires to report side effects occurring within 7 days after immunization were handed out. In a substudy conducted during the same time period, acceptance towards immunization was recorded. This Acceptance Study Group consists of all HIV-infected patients visiting the Cologne clinic. They were offered vaccination. In case of refusal, motivation was recorded. Results In the Tolerability Study Group, a total of 475 patient diaries returned in the three study centres could be evaluated, 119 of those (25% reported no side effects. Distribution of symptoms was as follows: Pain 285/475 patients (60%, swelling 96 (20%, redness 54 (11%, fever 48/475 (10%, muscle/joint ache 173 (36%, headache 127 (27%, and fatigue 210 (44%. Association of side effects with clinical data was calculated for patients in Cologne and Bonn. Incidence of side effects was significantly associated with CDC stages A, B compared to C, and with a detectable viral load (> 50 copies/mL. No correlation was noted for CD4 cell count, age, gender or ethnicity. In the Acceptance Study Group, 538 HIV-infected patients were offered vaccination, 402 (75% accepted, while 136 (25% rejected. Main reasons for rejection were: Negative media coverage (35%, indecisiveness with preference to wait until a later date (23%, influenza not seen as personal threat (19% and scepticism towards immunization in general (10%. Conclusion A total of 622 HIV-infected patients were vaccinated against nH1N1-influenza in

  18. Duration of {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

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    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik [OUH, Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV{sub max}) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV{sub max} was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV{sub max} in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  19. Duration of 18F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUVmax) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUVmax was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUVmax in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  20. Aerosol Delivery of a Candidate Universal Influenza Vaccine Reduces Viral Load in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic H1N1 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sophie B; Hemmink, Johanneke D; Porter, Emily; Harley, Ross; Shelton, Holly; Aramouni, Mario; Everett, Helen E; Brookes, Sharon M; Bailey, Michael; Townsend, Alain M; Charleston, Bryan; Tchilian, Elma

    2016-06-15

    Influenza A viruses are a major health threat to livestock and humans, causing considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. Current inactivated influenza vaccines are strain specific and new vaccines need to be produced at frequent intervals to combat newly arising influenza virus strains, so that a universal vaccine is highly desirable. We show that pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in which the hemagglutinin signal sequence has been suppressed (S-FLU), when administered to pigs by aerosol can induce CD4 and CD8 T cell immune responses in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Neutralizing Ab was not produced. Detection of a BAL response correlated with a reduction in viral titer in nasal swabs and lungs, following challenge with H1N1 pandemic virus. Intratracheal immunization with a higher dose of a heterologous H5N1 S-FLU vaccine induced weaker BAL and stronger tracheobronchial lymph node responses and a lesser reduction in viral titer. We conclude that local cellular immune responses are important for protection against influenza A virus infection, that these can be most efficiently induced by aerosol immunization targeting the lower respiratory tract, and that S-FLU is a promising universal influenza vaccine candidate. PMID:27183611

  1. Studies on the antibody response of mice and humans after immunization with potential influenza virus A (H1N1) vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibody response of mice and adult humans to immunization with subunit vaccines derived from a pair of antigenically distinct influenza A H1N1 viruses isolate in eggs was investigated. Although the haemagglutinin molecule of each virus differed by only three amino acid residues, highly specific antibody responses were elicited in mice as determined by haemagglutination inhibition and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. Results from competitive radioimmunoassays using monoclonal antibodies of known specificity and a study of the reactivity of mouse antisera with H1N1 field strains indicated that the marked differences in the antibody responses to the two vaccines was due to an amino acid substitution in the distal tip of the haemagglutinin molecule. In contrast, cross reactive antibody responses were elicited in humans presumably due to exposure to viruses related to the candidate vaccine prior to vaccination. Although immunogenic differences are apparent in this pair of antigenically distinct viruses in naive laboratory animals, these differences are not apparent following vaccination of humans that had prior exposure to related viruses. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  2. A randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial comparing A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine antigen, with and without AS03 adjuvant system, co-administered or sequentially administered with an inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine

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    Langley Joanne M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the time of the influenza A(H1N1pmd09 pandemic it was not known if concurrent or sequential administration of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV with pandemic vaccine was preferred. Methods Immunogenicity and safety were assessed in 871 healthy subjects aged 19–40 years who were randomised into six groups to receive co-administration or sequential administration of TIV and two doses of A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine (either unadjuvanted or adjuvanted with AS03, an α-tocopherol and squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion. Results Safety and immunogenicity data (by haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assay after each dose and six months post-Dose 1 are reported here. Co-administration of A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine with TIV reduced the HI immune responses to A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine. However, serologic responses with both co-administration and sequential schedules met the European and US regulatory criteria for pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines up to six months following the first vaccine dose. The AS03-adjuvanted formulation elicited higher immune responses at all time points. Prior administration or co-administration of A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine did not affect immune responses to TIV. Conclusions Co-administration of TIV and A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine negatively influenced A(H1N1pmd09 vaccine immunogenicity but had no effect on TIV responses. The non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted vaccines demonstrated strong immune responses against all vaccine strains for up to six months following the first vaccine dose. Trial registration NCT00985673

  3. No effect of 2008/09 seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Malkani, Rashmi; McCartney, Christine; Ellis, Joanna; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-03-21

    This study reports effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed pandemic influenza infection in England using a retrospective test-negative case-control study. Cases and controls were frequency matched by age, swabbing-week and region. On univariable and multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying clinical risk factors, cases were no more or less likely than controls to be vaccinated with 2008-09 or 2007-08 season TIV. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness for the former was -6% (-43% to 22%). Vaccine effectiveness did not differ significantly by age-group or hospitalisation status. There was no evidence prior vaccination with TIV significantly altered subsequent risk of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection. PMID:21292008

  4. GM-CSF increases mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza DNA vaccine administered into the epidermis of non-human primates.

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    Peter T Loudon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated production, broader protection against drifted and shifted strains, and the capacity to elicit anti-viral immune responses in the respiratory tract at the site of viral entry. As a safe alternative to live attenuated vaccines, the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza (A/New Caledonia/20/99 HA DNA vaccine administered by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED or gene gun was analyzed in rhesus macaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Macaques were immunized at weeks 0, 8, and 16 using a disposable single-shot particle-mediated delivery device designed for clinical use that delivers plasmid DNA directly into cells of the epidermis. Significant levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI antibodies and cytokine-secreting HA-specific T cells were observed in the periphery of macaques following 1-3 doses of the PMED HA DNA vaccine. In addition, HA DNA vaccination induced detectable levels of HA-specific mucosal antibodies and T cells in the lung and gut-associated lymphoid tissues of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, co-delivery of a DNA encoding the rhesus macaque GM-CSF gene was found to significantly enhance both the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of the HA DNA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide strong support for the development of a particle-mediated epidermal DNA vaccine for protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza and demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of skin-delivered GM-CSF to serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccine induction of immune responses in the gut and respiratory tract.

  5. Deep Sequencing for Evaluation of Genetic Stability of Influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 Vaccine Viruses.

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    Majid Laassri

    Full Text Available Virus growth during influenza vaccine manufacture can lead to mutations that alter antigenic properties of the virus, and thus may affect protective potency of the vaccine. Different reassortants of pandemic "swine" H1N1 influenza A vaccine (121XP, X-179A and X-181 viruses as well as wild type A/California/07/2009(H1N1 and A/PR/8/34 strains were propagated in embryonated eggs and used for DNA/RNA Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing. The RNA sequences of these viruses published in NCBI were used as references for alignment of the sequencing reads generated in this study. Consensus sequences of these viruses differed from the NCBI-deposited sequences at several nucleotides. 121XP stock derived by reverse genetics was more heterogeneous than X-179A and X-181 stocks prepared by conventional reassortant technology. Passaged 121XP virus contained four non-synonymous mutations in the HA gene. One of these mutations (Lys226Glu was located in the Ca antigenic site of HA (present in 18% of the population. Two non-synonymous mutations were present in HA of viruses derived from X-179A: Pro314Gln (18% and Asn146Asp (78%. The latter mutation located in the Sa antigenic site was also detected at a low level (11% in the wild-type A/California/07/2009(H1N1 virus, and was present as a complete substitution in X-181 viruses derived from X-179A virus. In the passaged X-181 viruses, two mutations emerged in HA: a silent mutation A1398G (31% in one batch and G756T (Glu252Asp, 47% in another batch. The latter mutation was located in the conservative region of the antigenic site Ca. The protocol for RNA sequencing was found to be robust, reproducible, and suitable for monitoring genetic consistency of influenza vaccine seed stocks.

  6. Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza A H1N1 virus vaccination

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    Benedict Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies in humans have yielded evidence that adaptive immune function, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, is distinctly impaired when sleep is deprived at the time of first antigen exposure. Here we examined the effects of a regular 24- hour sleep-wake cycle (including 8 hours of nocturnal sleep and a 24-hour period of continuous wakefulness on the 7-week antibody production in 11 males and 13 females in response to the H1N1 (swine flu virus vaccination. The specific antibody titer in serum was assayed by the hemagglutination inhibition test on the days 5, 10, 17, and 52 following vaccination. Results In comparison to the sleep group, sleep-deprived males but not females had reduced serum concentration of H1N1-specific antibodies five days after vaccination, whereas antibody titers at later time points did not differ between the conditions. Conclusions These findings concur with the notion that sleep is a supportive influence in the very early stage of an adaptive immune response to a viral antigen. However, our results do not support the view that acute sleep deprivation has lasting effects on the human antibody titer response to influenza vaccination.

  7. Swedish nursing and medical students' high vaccination adherence during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic 2009: insights for pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Tomas; Arvidsson, Lina; Boberg, Pontus; Hagert, Britt; Gursky, Elin A; Timpka, Toomas

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze Swedish health science student decision-making regarding vaccination against pandemic influenza during a national mass vaccination campaign. A questionnaire was distributed to 430 students during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009. The data from medical and nursing students were compared and a multiple logistic regression model was applied to identify items independently associated with the decision to be vaccinated. The overall survey response rate was 90%. More medical (93.2%) than nursing students (84.8%) reported that they had received the vaccine (p perception that benefits can outweigh possible side effects was significantly (p students on objective risk communication. It should be taken into account that the pandemic information provided by authorities to the general public also affects health care students. PMID:22066650

  8. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  9. Immunogenicity and acceptance of influenza A (H1N1 vaccine in a cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients receiving pegylated-interferon treatment.

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    Manuel Hernández-Guerra

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND #ENTITYSTARTX00026; AIMS: Individuals at risk of (H1N1 influenza A infection are recommended to receive vaccination. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients receiving treatment might be at a higher risk of respiratory bacterial infections after influenza infection. However, there are no observational studies evaluating the immunogenicity, tolerance and acceptance of 2009 influenza A vaccine in CHC patients. METHODS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of influenza A vaccine (Pandemrix® by using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI titers method in a well defined cohort of CHC patients receiving or not receiving pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, and compared it with healthy subjects (controls. A group of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD under immunosuppression, thought to have a lower immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine, were also included as a negative control group. In addition, tolerance to injection site reactions and acceptance was assessed by a validated questionnaire (Vaccinees' perception of injection-VAPI-questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 114 subjects invited to participate, 68% accepted and, after exclusions, 72 were included. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers and seroprotection/seroconversion rates were optimal in CHC patients with ongoing treatment (n = 15; 232, CI95% 46-1166; 93%; 93%, without treatment (n = 10; 226, CI95% 69-743: 100%; 100% and controls (n = 15;168, CI95% 42-680; 93%; 86% with no differences between groups (P = 0.8. In contrast, IBD patients had a significantly lower immunogenic response (n = 27; 60, CI95% 42-680;66%;66%; P = 0.006. All the groups showed a satisfactory tolerance although CHC patients with ongoing treatment showed more local discomfort after vaccine injection. CONCLUSION: There appeared to be no differences between CHC patients and healthy controls in serological response and acceptance of (H1N1 influenza vaccination.

  10. Cost comparison of 2 mass vaccination campaigns against influenza A H1N1 in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; McGinty, Meghan D; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Marquez, Monica L; Rosselli-Fraschilla, Annmarie; Zucker, Jane R; Farley, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Objectives. We estimated and compared total costs and costs per dose administered for 2 influenza A 2009 monovalent vaccine campaigns in New York City: an elementary school-located campaign targeting enrolled children aged 4 years and older, and a community-based points-of-dispensing campaign for anyone aged 4 years and older. Methods. We determined costs from invoices or we estimated costs. We obtained vaccination data from the Citywide Immunization Registry and reports from the community points of dispensing. Results. The school campaign delivered approximately 202,089 vaccines for $17.9 million and $88 per dose. The community campaign delivered 49,986 vaccines for $7.6 million and $151 per dose. At projected capacity, the school campaign could have delivered 371,827 doses at $53 each or $13 each when we excluded the value of in-kind resources. The community points of dispensing could have administered 174,000 doses at $51 each or $24 each when we excluded the value of in-kind resources. Conclusions. The school campaign delivered vaccines at a lower cost per dose than did the community campaign. Had demand been higher, both campaigns may have delivered vaccine at lower, more comparable cost per dose. PMID:22676501

  11. No Evidence for Disease History as a Risk Factor for Narcolepsy after A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Favelle; Ploner, Alexander; Fink, Katharina; Maeurer, Markus; Bergman, Peter; Piehl, Fredrik; Weibel, Daniel; Sparén, Pär; Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy. Methods Case-control study in Sweden. Cases included persons referred for a Multiple Sleep Latency Test between 2009 and 2010, identified through diagnostic sleep centres and confirmed through independent review of medical charts. Controls, selected from the total population register, were matched to cases on age, gender, MSLT-referral date and county of residence. Disease history (prescriptions and diagnoses) and vaccination history was collected through telephone interviews and population-based healthcare registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk-factor for narcolepsy. Results In total, 72 narcolepsy cases and 251 controls were included (range 3–69 years mean19-years). Risk of narcolepsy was increased in individuals with a disease history of nervous system disorders (OR range = 3.6–8.8) and mental and behavioural disorders (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6–8.8) before referral. In a second analysis of vaccinated individuals only, nearly all initial associations were no longer statistically significant and effect sizes were smaller (OR range = 1.3–2.6). A significant effect for antibiotics (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) and a marginally significant effect for nervous system disorders was observed. In a third case-only analysis, comparing cases referred before vaccination to those referred after; prescriptions for nervous system disorders (OR = 26.0 95% CI 4.0–170.2) and ADHD (OR = 35.3 95% CI 3.4–369.9) were statistically significant during the vaccination period, suggesting initial associations were due to confounding by indication. Conclusion The findings of this study do not support disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy. PMID:27120092

  12. Effectiveness of seasonal 2010/11 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in preventing influenza infection in the United Kingdom: mid-season analysis 2010/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, R; Hardelid, P; Fleming, Dm; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; Thomas, Dr; Sebastianpillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm

    2011-01-01

    This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with monovalent vaccine in the 2009/10 season; 46% (95% CI: 7 - 69%) if vaccinated only with trivalent influenza vaccine in the 2010/11 season and 63% (95% CI: 37 - 78%) if vaccinated in both seasons. PMID:21329644

  13. Costs of School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics in Maine during the 2009-2010 H1N1 Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bo-Hyun; Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Lorick, Suchita A.; Tipton, Meredith L.; Dube, Nancy L.; Messonnier, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This study retrospectively estimated costs for a convenience sample of school-located vaccination (SLV) clinics conducted in Maine during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Surveys were developed to capture the cost of labor including unpaid volunteers as well as supplies and materials used in SLV clinics. Six nurses from different school districts…

  14. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

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    Anonh Xeuatvongsa

    Full Text Available The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%. Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1 no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2 safety and efficacy concerns, and 3 late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1 crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential.

  15. Individual Vaccination as Nash Equilibrium in a SIR Model with Application to the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguzet, Laetitia; Turinici, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    The vaccination against ongoing epidemics is seldom compulsory but remains one of the most classical means to fight epidemic propagation. However, recent debates concerning the innocuity of vaccines and their risk with respect to the risk of the epidemic itself lead to severe vaccination campaign failures, and new mass behaviors appeared driven by individual self-interest. Prompted by this context, we analyze, in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model, whether egocentric individuals can reach an equilibrium with the rest of the society. Using techniques from the "Mean Field Games" theory, we extend previous results and show that an equilibrium exists and characterizes completely the individual best vaccination strategy (with or without discounting). We also compare with a strategy based only on overall societal optimization and exhibit a situation with nonnegative price of anarchy. Finally, we apply the theory to the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaign in France and hint that a group of individuals stopped vaccinating at levels that indicated a pessimistic perception of the risk of the vaccine. PMID:26443437

  16. Personal decision-making criteria related to seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1 influenza-vaccination acceptance among French healthcare workers.

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    Lila Bouadma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza-vaccination rates among healthcare workers (HCW remain low worldwide, even during the 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic. In France, this vaccination is free but administered on a voluntary basis. We investigated the factors influencing HCW influenza vaccination. METHODS: In June-July 2010, HCW from wards of five French hospitals completed a cross-sectional survey. A multifaceted campaign aimed at improving vaccination coverage in this hospital group was conducted before and during the 2009 pandemic. Using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the relationships between seasonal (SIV and pandemic (PIV influenza vaccinations, and sociodemographic and professional characteristics, previous and current vaccination statuses, and 33 statements investigating 10 sociocognitive domains. The sociocognitive domains describing HCWs' SIV and PIV profiles were analyzed using the classification-and-regression-tree method. RESULTS: Of the HCWs responding to our survey, 1480 were paramedical and 401 were medical with 2009 vaccination rates of 30% and 58% for SIV and 21% and 71% for PIV, respectively (p<0.0001 for both SIV and PIV vaccinations. Older age, prior SIV, working in emergency departments or intensive care units, being a medical HCW and the hospital they worked in were associated with both vaccinations; while work shift was associated only with PIV. Sociocognitive domains associated with both vaccinations were self-perception of benefits and health motivation for all HCW. For medical HCW, being a role model was an additional domain associated with SIV and PIV. CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccination rates remained low. Vaccination mainly depended on self-determined factors and for medical HCW, being a role model.

  17. Serum-Free Suspension Culture of MDCK Cells for Production of Influenza H1N1 Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Peng, Wen-Juan; Ye, Qian; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Xia-Hou, Kang; Jia, Han-Jing; Luo, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Ting; Li, Bei-Bei; Wang, Shi-Lei; Xu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Ze; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-01-01

    Development of serum-free suspension cell culture processes is very important for influenza vaccine production. Previously, we developed a MDCK suspension cell line in a serum-free medium. In the present study, the growth kinetics of suspension MDCK cells and influenza virus production in the serum-free medium were investigated, in comparison with those of adherent MDCK cells in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. It was found that the serum-free medium supported the stable subculture and growth of both adherent and suspension cells. In batch culture, for both cell lines, the growth kinetics in the serum-free medium was comparable with those in the serum-containing medium and a commercialized serum-free medium. In the serum-free medium, peak viable cell density (VCD), haemagglutinin (HA) and median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) titers of the two cell lines reached 4.51×106 cells/mL, 2.94Log10(HAU/50 μL) and 8.49Log10(virions/mL), and 5.97×106 cells/mL, 3.88Log10(HAU/50 μL), and 10.34Log10(virions/mL), respectively. While virus yield of adherent cells in the serum-free medium was similar to that in the serum-containing medium, suspension culture in the serum-free medium showed a higher virus yield than adherent cells in the serum-containing medium and suspension cells in the commercialized serum-free medium. However, the percentage of infectious viruses was lower for suspension culture in the serum-free medium. These results demonstrate the great potential of this suspension MDCK cell line in serum-free medium for influenza vaccine production and further improvements are warranted. PMID:26540170

  18. A(H1N1) vaccination recruits T lymphocytes to the choroid plexus for the promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangfang; Yang, Junhua; Xia, Yucen; Yuan, Qunfang; Guo, Kaihua; Zou, Juntao; Yao, Zhibin

    2016-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that A(H1N1) influenza vaccine (AIV) promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory in pregnant mice. However, the underlying mechanism of flu vaccination in neurogenesis and memory has remained unclear. In this study, we found that T lymphocytes were recruited from the periphery to the choroid plexus (CP) of the lateral and third (3rd) ventricles in pregnant mice vaccinated with AIV (Pre+AIV). Intracerebroventricular delivery of anti-TCR antibodies markedly decreased neurogenesis and the working memory of the Pre+AIV mice. Similarly, intravenous delivery of anti-CD4 antibodies to the periphery also down-regulated neurogenesis. Furthermore, AIV vaccination caused microglia to skew toward an M2-like phenotype (increased Arginase-1 and Ym1 mRNA levels), and elevated levels of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were found in the hippocampus, whereas these effects were offset by anti-TCR antibody treatment. Additionally, in the CP, the expression level of adhesion molecules and chemokines, which assist leukocytes in permeating into the brain, were also elevated after AIV vaccination of pregnant mice. Collectively, the results suggested that the infiltrative T lymphocytes in the CP contribute to the increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory caused by flu vaccination, involving activation of the brain's CP, M2 microglial polarization and neurotrophic factor expression. PMID:26576725

  19. Punctuated evolution of influenza virus neuraminidase (A/H1N1) under opposing migration and vaccination pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J C

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The structure and properties of HA, which is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected, change significantly when the virus is transmitted from avian or swine species to humans. Here we focus first on the simpler problem of the much smaller human individual evolutionary amino acid mutational changes in NA, which cleaves sialic acid groups and is required for influenza virus replication. Our thermodynamic panorama shows that very small amino acid changes can be monitored very accurately across many historic (1945-2011) Uniprot and NCBI strains using hydropathicity scales to quantify the roughness of water film packages. Quantitative sequential analysis is most effective with the fractal differential hydropathicity scale based on protein self-organized criticality (SOC). Our analysis shows that large-scale vaccination programs have been responsible for a very large convergent reduction in common influenza severity in the last century. Hydropathic analysis is capable of interpreting and even predicting trends of functional changes in mutation prolific viruses directly from amino acid sequences alone. An engineered strain of NA1 is described which could well be significantly less virulent than current circulating strains. PMID:25143953

  20. Punctuated Evolution of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase (A/H1N1 under Opposing Migration and Vaccination Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA. The structure and properties of HA, which is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected, change significantly when the virus is transmitted from avian or swine species to humans. Here we focus first on the simpler problem of the much smaller human individual evolutionary amino acid mutational changes in NA, which cleaves sialic acid groups and is required for influenza virus replication. Our thermodynamic panorama shows that very small amino acid changes can be monitored very accurately across many historic (1945–2011 Uniprot and NCBI strains using hydropathicity scales to quantify the roughness of water film packages. Quantitative sequential analysis is most effective with the fractal differential hydropathicity scale based on protein self-organized criticality (SOC. Our analysis shows that large-scale vaccination programs have been responsible for a very large convergent reduction in common influenza severity in the last century. Hydropathic analysis is capable of interpreting and even predicting trends of functional changes in mutation prolific viruses directly from amino acid sequences alone. An engineered strain of NA1 is described which could well be significantly less virulent than current circulating strains.

  1. Immunogenic and Protective Properties of the First Kazakhstan Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Ferrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaissar Tabynov; Zhailaubai Kydyrbayev; Abylai Sansyzbay; Berik Khairullin; Sholpan Ryskeldinova; Nurika Assanzhanova; Yerken Kozhamkulov; Dulat Inkarbekov

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pre-clinical study of the immunogenicity and efficacy of an egg-derived,inactivated,whole-virion adjuvanted vaccine (Refluvac(R)) on ferret models.For this purpose,groups of eight ferrets (6 to 7 months old) were injected with 0.5 mL of vaccine specimens containing 3.75,7.5 or 15.0 μg of virus hemagglutinin.Administration was intramuscular and given either as a single dose or as two doses 14 days apart.All vaccine specimens manifested immunogenicity in ferrets for single (HI titer,from 51 ± 7 to 160 ± 23) and double (HI titer,from 697 ± 120 to 829 ± 117) administrations.To assess the protective effects of the vaccine,ferrets from the vaccinated and control groups were infected intranasally with pandemic virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) pdm09 at a dose of 106 EID50/0.5 mL.Fourteen days post-infection,the ferrets inoculated with single or double vaccines containing 3.75,7.5 or 15.0 μg of hemagglutinin per dose showed no signs of influenza infection,weight loss,or body temperature rise,and no premature deaths occurred.The number of vaccinated ferrets shedding the virus via the upper airway,as well as the amount of virus shed after infection,was significantly reduced in comparison with animals from the control group.Based on our results,we suggest that a single vaccination at a dose of 3.75 or 7.5 μg hemagglutinin be used for Phase I clinical trials.

  2. Vaccination focusing immunity on conserved antigens protects mice and ferrets against virulent H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Pappas, Claudia; Houser, Katherine V; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2009-11-01

    Immunization against conserved virus components induces broad, heterosubtypic protection against diverse influenza A viruses, providing a strategy for controlling unexpected outbreaks or pandemics until strain-matched vaccines become available. This study characterized immunization to nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 2 (M2) by DNA priming followed by parenteral or mucosal boosting in mice and ferrets. DNA vaccination followed by boosting with antigen-matched recombinant adenovirus (rAd) or cold-adapted (ca) influenza virus provided robust protection against virulent H1N1 and H5N1 challenges. Compared to other boosts, mucosal rAd induced stronger IgA responses, more virus-specific activated T-cells in the lung, and better protection against morbidity following challenge even eight months post-boost. In ferrets, both mucosal and parenteral rAd boosting protected from lethal H5N1 challenge. These findings demonstrate potent protection by vaccination highly focused on conserved antigens and identify immune response measures in mice that differed among vaccinations and correlated with outcome. PMID:19729082

  3. Effect of a polysaccharide from Poria cocos on humoral response in mice immunized by H1N1 influenza and HBsAg vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Li, Shuai; Li, Haixia; Zhao, Chunzhi; Ma, Hao; Zhao, Xiunan; Wu, Junhua; Liu, Kunlu; Shan, Junjie; Wang, Yuxia

    2016-10-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in China. Polysaccharides and their derivatives in the medicine exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. In this study, a new polysaccharide (PCP-II) was isolated from sclerotium of Poria cocos. Its physico-chemical characters were identified and its adjuvant activity was investigated in mice co-immunized with H1N1 influenza vaccine and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results revealed that PCP-II has a molecular weight of 29.0kDa. It was composed of fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose in molar ration of 1.00:1.63:0.16:6.29 respectively. Pharmacological data demonstrated that PCP-II increased antigen-specific antibody levels in mice immunized with influenza vaccine. PCP-II also elicited anti-HBsAg antibodies at significantly higher titers and generated robust and durable immunity compared to mice immunized with HBsAg-alum following two administrations. PCP-II improved proliferation of splenocytes, stimulated IL-12p70 and TNF-α productions in dendritic cells and macrophages respectively. These results suggested that PCP-II-adjuvanted vaccines enhanced humoral and cellular immunity. PCP-II could be developed as an efficacious adjuvant in human and animal vaccines. PMID:27185068

  4. Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross-reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril; Thomsen, Joakim S.; Jensen, Kim Lynge; Nielsen, Lars P.; Aasted, Bent; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Bragstad et al. (2010) Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross-reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 13-23. Background Alternative influenza vaccines and...... immunised by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (gene gun) with DNA vaccines based on the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) and/or the matrix (M) and nucleoprotein genes of the 1918 H1N1 Spanish influenza pandemic virus or the 1968 H3N2 Hong Kong influenza pandemic virus. The animals were...... challenged with contemporary H1N1 or H3N2 viruses. Results We demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding proteins of the original 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus induced protective cross-reactive immune responses in ferrets against infection with a 1947 H1N1 virus and a recent 1999 H1N1 virus. Similarly, a DNA vaccine...

  5. Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with

  6. Failure of protection and enhanced pneumonia with a US H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs vaccinated with an inactivated classical swine H1N1 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated two US swine influenza virus (SIV) isolates, A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 (IA30) and A/Swine/Minnesota/00194/2003 H1N2 (MN03), with substantial genetic variation in the HA gene and failure to cross-react in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, in an in vivo vaccination and challenge...

  7. Autoantibodies against ganglioside GM3 are associated with narcolepsy-cataplexy developing after Pandemrix vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 type influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariaho, Anna-Helena; Vuorela, Arja; Freitag, Tobias L; Pizza, Fabio; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Partinen, Markku; Vaarala, Outi; Meri, Seppo

    2015-09-01

    Following the mass vaccinations against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 2009, a sudden increase in juvenile onset narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) was detected in several European countries where AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine had been used. NC is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. In human NC, the hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus or the hypocretin signaling pathway are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction. Both genetic (e.g. HLA-DQB1*0602) and environmental risk factors (e.g. Pandemrix) contribute to the disease development, but the underlying and the mediating immunological mechanisms are largely unknown. Influenza virus hemagglutinin is known to bind gangliosides, which serve as host cell virus receptors. Anti-ganglioside antibodies have previously been linked to various neurological disorders, like the Guillain-Barré syndrome which may develop after infection or vaccination. Because of these links we screened sera of NC patients and controls for IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies against 11 human brain gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1a, GD1b, GD2, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b) and a sulfatide by using a line blot assay. Samples from 173 children and adolescents were analyzed: 48 with Pandemrix-associated NC, 20 with NC without Pandemrix association, 57 Pandemrix-vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated healthy children. We found that patients with Pandemrix-associated NC had more frequently (14.6%) anti-GM3 antibodies than vaccinated healthy controls (3.5%) (P = 0.047). Anti-GM3 antibodies were significantly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602 (P = 0.016) both in vaccinated NC patients and controls. In general, anti-ganglioside antibodies were more frequent in vaccinated (18.1%) than in unvaccinated (7.3%) individuals (P = 0.035). Our data suggest that autoimmunity against GM3 is a feature of Pandemrix-associated NC and that autoantibodies against gangliosides were induced by Pandemrix vaccination. PMID

  8. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract. PMID:27016770

  9. Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity to Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in a Canadian Cohort One Year Post-Pandemic: Implications for Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wagar, Lisa E.; Rosella, Laura; Crowcroft, Natasha; Lowcock, Beth; Drohomyrecky, Paulina C.; Foisy, Julie; Gubbay, Jonathan; Rebbapragada, Anu; Winter, Anne-Luise; Achonu, Camille; Brian J Ward; Watts, Tania H

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a cohort of Canadian donors for T cell and antibody responses against influenza A/California/7/2009 (pH1N1) at 8-10 months after the 2nd pandemic wave by flow cytometry and microneutralization assays. Memory CD8 T cell responses to pH1N1 were detectable in 58% (61/105) of donors. These responses were largely due to cross-reactive CD8 T cell epitopes as, for those donors tested, similar recall responses were obtained to A/California 2009 and A/PR8 1934 H1N1 Hviruses. Longitudinal ...

  10. Design of a shear-thinning recoverable peptide hydrogel from native sequences and application for influenza H1N1 vaccine adjuvant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongzhou; Shi, Jishu; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Ziyan; McVey, David S.; Sun, Xiuzhi S.

    2011-10-07

    Peptide hydrogels are considered injectable materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Most published hydrogel-forming sequences contain either alternating-charged and noncharged residues or amphiphilic blocks. Here, we report a self-assembling peptide, h9e (FLIVIGSIIGPGGDGPGGD), designed by rationally combining two native sequences from an elastic segment of spider silk and a trans-membrane segment of human muscle L-type calcium channel. The turning segment GSII of h9e promoted hydrogel formation in both Ca2+ solution and acidic pH conditions at water content greater than 99.5%. Although h9e Ca2+ hydrogel and h9e acidic hydrogel have the same sequence, they have distinct physical properties. The shear-thinning, rapid-strengthrecovering h9e Ca2+ hydrogel was used as an H1N1 influenza vaccine adjuvant. The h9e adjuvant was biologically safe and improved immune response by 70% compared with an oil-based commercial adjuvant.

  11. 基于流感样症状发病率的甲型H1N1疫苗保护效果观察%Study on Protection Effects of Influenza A( H1N1 )Vaccine Based on Influenza-like Symptoms Incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 甘标; 王军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiological effects of influenza A ( H1N1) vaccine on health population. Method Descriptive epidemiology and cohort study design were used. 2116 students and teachers who had receive influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (immunized group) and 2762 who had not (unimmunized group) been followed - up one year to observe whether the influenza - like illness was occurred. Results The influenza - like illness incidence rate of the immunized group was 3. 2% , and that of unimmunized group was 4. 5%. There were statistical significance between two groups (χ2 =4.869, P =0.027) and the protective rate was 28. 9%. The higher the immunization rate was, the lower the OR value was. Seasonally influenza vaccine wasn't the protective factor. Conclusions Influenza A ( H1N1) vaccine had good epidemiological protective effects on influenza — like illness including influenza A ( H1 N1) .%目的 了解健康人群接种甲型H1N1流感(甲流)疫苗后的流行病学保护效果.方法 采用描述流行病学、队列研究方法对2116名接种和2762名未接种甲流疫苗的师生随访1年,观察其流感样病例发病情况.结果 接种组流感样病例发病率3.2%,未接种组发病率4.5%,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.869,P=0.027),疫苗保护率为28.9%.OR值随接种率升高而降低.季节性流感疫苗并不是保护因素.结论 甲流疫苗对包括甲流在内的流感样病例有较好的流行病学保护效果.

  12. Influenza pandemic (H1N1 2009 activity during summer 2009: Effectiveness of the 2008-9 trivalent vaccine against pandemic influenza in Spain Actividad de la gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 durante el verano de 2009: Efectividad de la vacuna trivalente 2008-9 frente a la gripe pandémica en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Larrauri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Spanish influenza surveillance system (SISS maintained its activity during the summer of 2009 to monitor the influenza pandemic. Objectives: To describe pandemic influenza activity from May to September 2009 and to estimate the effectiveness of the 2008-9 seasonal influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza. Methods: Data from the SISS were used to identify the trend of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza outside the influenza season. For the effectiveness study, we compared the vaccination status of notified cases [influenza-like illnesses (ILI laboratory confirmed as pandemic influenza] with that of the test-negative controls. Results: The first laboratory-confirmed case of the pandemic virus was notified in the system in week 20/2009. The ILI rate increased gradually in the study period, exceeding basic activity in week 38. The proportion of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza viruses detected by the system represented 14% in week 20/2009 and rapidly increased to 90% in week 34. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness of the 2008-9 seasonal vaccine against laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza was 12% (-30; 41. Conclusions: The SISS became an essential tool for pandemic monitoring in Spain. The improved SISS will provide more accurate information on influenza activity in future seasonal or pandemic waves. Using surveillance data, we could not demonstrate the effectiveness of the seasonal 2008-9 vaccine against laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza.Introducción: El Sistema de Vigilancia de Gripe en España (SVGE continuó y reforzó su actividad durante el verano de 2009 con el objetivo de vigilar la evolución de la pandemia en España. Objetivos: Describir la actividad de la gripe pandémica en España de mayo a septiembre de 2009 y estimar la efectividad de la vacuna antigripal estacional 2008-2009 frente a casos confirmados de gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009. Métodos: Se utilizaron datos del SVGE para

  13. Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross‐reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril J.; Thomsen, Joakim S.; Jensen, Kim L.; Nielsen, Lars P.; Aasted, Bent; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Bragstad et al. (2010) Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross‐reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 13–23. Background  Alternative influenza vaccines and vaccine production forms are needed as the conventional protein vaccines do not induce broad cross‐reactivity against drifted strains. Furthermore, fast vaccine production is especially important in a pandemic situation, and broader vaccine reactivity would diminish the need for frequent change in the vaccine formulations. Objective  In this study, we compared the ability of pandemic influenza DNA vaccines to induce immunity against distantly related strains within a subtype with the immunity induced by conventional trivalent protein vaccines against homologous virus challenge. Methods  Ferrets were immunised by particle‐mediated epidermal delivery (gene gun) with DNA vaccines based on the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) and/or the matrix (M) and nucleoprotein genes of the 1918 H1N1 Spanish influenza pandemic virus or the 1968 H3N2 Hong Kong influenza pandemic virus. The animals were challenged with contemporary H1N1 or H3N2 viruses. Results  We demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding proteins of the original 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus induced protective cross‐reactive immune responses in ferrets against infection with a 1947 H1N1 virus and a recent 1999 H1N1 virus. Similarly, a DNA vaccine, based on the HA and NA of the 1968 H3N2 pandemic virus, induced cross‐reactive immune responses against a recent 2005 H3N2 virus challenge. Conclusions  DNA vaccines based on pandemic or recent seasonal influenza genes induced cross‐reactive immunity against contemporary virus challenge as good as or superior to contemporary conventional trivalent protein vaccines. This suggests a unique ability of influenza DNA to induce cross‐protective immunity

  14. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Julita Gil; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies. PMID:27123691

  15. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y. K.; Michie, S.; Potts, H. W.; Rubin, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  16. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic:Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  17. Study on the Immunogenicity and Related Factors of the Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Mass Immunization%甲型H1N1流感疫苗免疫效果及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩富; 姚凤燕; 周建红; 张严峻; 何寒青; 周敏; 赵艳荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the immunogenicity and influence factors of the influenza A ( H1 N1 ) vaccine in mass immunization, providing evidence for decision making on immunization strategy and control of influenza A ( H1 N1 ). Methods Serologicsamples from 344 subjects were collected, tested and analyzed before and 1 month after influenza A ( H1 N1 ) vaccine immunization. Positive rates, sero -conversion rates, GMT (geometric mean titer) of antibody, history of influenza -like illness and seasonal influenza vaccination were calculated and compared between different groups. Results Positive rate of antibody was 36. 50% (95% CI∶31.35% ~41.89% ), and GMT was 1∶16. 97 (95% CI∶1∶14. 49 ~ 1∶19. 86) at baseline. After immunization, positive rate was 89. 91% (95% CI∶86. 19% ~ 92. 91% ), sero - conversion rates was 72. 54% ( 95% CI∶67. 76% ~ 77. 32% ) and GMT was 1∶167. 41 ( 95% CI∶1∶145.08 ~ 1∶193. 18), which were significantly higher than those before immunization, and there were no significant differences among different groups divided by history of influenza - like illness and seasonal influenza vaccination ( P> 0. 05 ). Conclusion The vaccine proved to be highly immunogenic, and it could achieve the criteria of EMEA and FDA. The history of influenza - like illness and seasonal influenza vaccination did not influence the immune effect of this vaccine.%目的 了解学生大规模接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗的免疫效果及影响因素,为探索甲型H1N1流感免疫策略和防控措施提供科学依据.方法 分别对344名中学生在甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种前及接种后1个月采集血清标本,进行抗体水平的检测.并收集中学生在接种疫苗前季节性流感疫苗接种史、流感样症状等有关流行病学信息,评价甲型H1N1流感疫苗的免疫效果及影响因素.结果 344名中学生在免前H1N1流感抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)为1:16.97(95%CI:1:14.49~1:19.86),

  18. Influenza A H1 N1 Vaccination Coverage and Influencing Factors among Focus groups in Baoan District of Shenxhen City%深圳市宝安区重点人群甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开钳; 李苑; 陆碧宇; 黄振宇; 朱奕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the influenza A H1N1 vaccination coverage and influencing factors among 2 focus groups of medical workers and primary and secondary school students in Baoan District of Shenzhen City. [Methods] A total of 1 549 students and 770 medical workers were randomly selected for anonymous questionnaire survey in Baoan District. Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis of factors affecting the vaccination coverage. [ Results] The coverage rate of influenza A H1N1 vaccination was 30.39% in primary and secondary school students and 55.03% in medical workers of Baoan District. The main reason for unvacci-nated was fear of vaccination adverse reactions which in the above 2 groups occupied 36.81% and 39.10%. The vaccination coverage was significantly different between students with different age, different guardian occupation, whether knowing inoculating date of H1N1 vaccine or not, considering whether the vaccine against H1N1 or not, and having been vaccinated seasonal influenza vaccine in recent 3 years (P <0.05). And the vaccination coverage was significantly different between medical workers with different educational background, different positions, different service length, whether knowing inoculating date of H1N1 vaccine or not, and having been vaccinated seasonal influenza vaccine in recent 3 years (P < 0.05). [ Conclusion ] The propaganda of influenza A H1N1 vaccine effectiveness, safety and vaccination should be strengthened among medical workers and primary and secondary school students . The medical institutions should convey accurate information to the public via various channels.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区医务人员和中小学生两类重点人群甲型H1N1流感(简称甲流)疫苗接种率及其影响因素.方法 在宝安区所辖的中小学校和医疗机构中随机抽取1 549名学生和770名医务人员作为调查对象进行匿名问卷调查.采用卡方检验分别对疫苗接种率的影响因

  19. Kinetics of lung lesion development and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in pigs with vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease induced by challenge with pandemic (2009) A/H1N1 influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this report was to characterize the enhanced clinical disease and lung lesions observed in pigs vaccinated with inactivated H1N2 swine delta-cluster influenza A virus and challenged with pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 human influenza virus. Eighty-four, six-week-old, crossbred pigs were rand...

  20. Molecular docking analysis of 2009-H1N1 and 2004-H5N1 influenza virus HLA-B*4405-restricted HA epitope candidates: implications for TCR cross-recognition and vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Su Chinh TT; Schönbach Christian; Kwoh Chee-Keong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The pandemic 2009-H1N1 influenza virus circulated in the human population and caused thousands deaths worldwide. Studies on pandemic influenza vaccines have shown that T cell recognition to conserved epitopes and cross-reactive T cell responses are important when new strains emerge, especially in the absence of antibody cross-reactivity. In this work, using HLA-B*4405 and DM1-TCR structure model, we systematically generated high confidence conserved 2009-H1N1 T cell epitop...

  1. Research on influenza A (H1N1)vaccine coverage and influential factors among health-care workers in the Bao'an District, City of Shenzhen%深圳市宝安区医务人员甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苑; 刘开钳; 于宝柱; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市宝安区医务人员甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及其影响因素.方法 在宝安区区级医院、街道医院以及所辖社区健康服务中心中随机抽取770名医务人员作为调查对象,进行不记名问卷调查.采用卡方检验和Logistic回归分析分别对疫苗接种率的影响因素进行单因素和多因素分析.结果 宝安区医务人员甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率为55.03%,未接种的主要原因是担心出现疫苗不良反应,占39.10%.影响疫苗接种率的因素分别为高文化程度(大专:OR=0.462,95%CI 0.269~0.794;大学及以上:OR=0.250,95%CI 0.140~0.446)、医疗岗位为护士(OR=0.392,95%CI 0.228~0.675)、工作年限≤5年(OR=0.303,95%CI 0.197~0.465)、知道甲流疫苗接种时间(OR=1.413,95%CI 1.022~1.953)和近3年接种过季节性流感疫苗(OR=3.822,95%CI 2.634~5.544)等.结论 宝安区医务人员甲流疫苗接种率较高,但仍需加强甲流疫苗有效性和安全性宣传,重点为大专以上文化程度、护士、工作年限小于5年、不知道甲流接种时间和近3年无季节性流感疫苗接种史等人群.%Objective To study influenza A (H1N1) vaccine coverage and influenitial factors among health-care workers in the Bao'an District, City of Shenzhen.Methods A random sample of 770 health-care workers from Bao'an District was sampled, Workers at township hospitals and community health service centers responded to an anonymous questionnaire.The x2 test and logistic regression analysis were used in univariate analysis and multivariate analysis to evaluate factors influencing vaccine coverage.Results Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine coverage of health-care workers in Bao'an District was 55.03%.The main reason for not being vaccinated, which was given by 39.10% of respondents, concerned side effects.The factors influencing vaccine coverage were level of education (junior college: OR= 0.462, 95 % CI= 0.269-0.794; college or higher: OR=0.250, 95

  2. 深圳市宝安区托幼机构人员甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种率及其影响因素%Vaccination Coverage of Influenza A (H1N1) and the Influential Factors Among Child-care Staff in Bao'an District of Shenzhen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海庄; 李苑; 刘开钳; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the vaccination coverage of influenza A (H1N1) and the its influential factors among child - care staff in Bao'an district of Shenzhen. Methods A survey of random sampling was carried out for 530 health - care workers from 100 kindergartens with anonymous questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis, Rank sum test, x2 test and Logistic regression analysis were used for univariate analysis and multiva-riate analysis to evaluate influential factors of vaccine coverage. Results The vaccination coverage rate of influenza A ( H1N1 ) in child - care staff in Bao'an district of Shenzhen was 39. 96%% , the main reason for un - inoculation was concerning about side effects. The multivariate analysis showed that the sex [ male, odds ratio (OR) = 3.193, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1. 285 - 7. 936 ] , being sanitarian and nursery governess (sanitarian, OR = 12.583, 95% CI = 2.825 - 56.082; nursery governess, OR = 7.581, 95% CI = 1. 881 - 30. 554) , length of service (11 -15, OR =6. 299, 95% CI = 1. 169-33. 945) and with a seasonal influenza vaccination in the past three years (vaccinated, OR =8. 856, 95% CI =4. 139 - 18. 703; obscurity, OR = 4. 322, 95% CI = 1. 588 - 11. 766) were correlated with influenza A ( H1N1) vaccination (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The child - care staff in Bao'an had high vaccination coverage of influenza A ( H1N1). It is important to strengthen the propaganda of the effectiveness and security of influenza A (H1N1) vaccine, especially to women, being teacher, people who have length of service less than five years and without the history of seasonal influenza vaccination in the past three years.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区托幼机构人员甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)疫苗接种率及其影响因素.方法 随机抽取深圳市宝安区100家托幼机构530人作为面访匿名问卷调查对象.采用描述性分析、秩和检验、x 2检验和Logistic回归分析分别对疫苗接种率的影响因素进行单

  3. Memory immune responses against pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus induced by a whole particle vaccine in cynomolgus monkeys carrying Mafa-A1*052:02.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Arikata

    Full Text Available We made an H1N1 vaccine candidate from a virus library consisting of 144 ( = 16 HA×9 NA non-pathogenic influenza A viruses and examined its protective effects against a pandemic (2009 H1N1 strain using immunologically naïve cynomolgus macaques to exclude preexisting immunity and to employ a preclinical study since preexisting immunity in humans previously vaccinated or infected with influenza virus might make comparison of vaccine efficacy difficult. Furthermore, macaques carrying a major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, Mafa-A1*052:02, were used to analyze peptide-specific CD8(+ T cell responses. Sera of macaques immunized with an inactivated whole particle formulation without addition of an adjuvant showed higher neutralization titers against the vaccine strain A/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1 than did sera of macaques immunized with a split formulation. Neutralization activities against the pandemic strain A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 in sera of macaques immunized twice with the split vaccine reached levels similar to those in sera of macaques immunized once with the whole particle vaccine. After inoculation with the pandemic virus, the virus was detected in nasal samples of unvaccinated macaques for 6 days after infection and for 2.67 days and 5.33 days on average in macaques vaccinated with the whole particle vaccine and the split vaccine, respectively. After the challenge infection, recall neutralizing antibody responses against the pandemic virus and CD8(+ T cell responses specific for nucleoprotein peptide NP262-270 bound to Mafa-A1*052:02 in macaques vaccinated with the whole particle vaccine were observed more promptly or more vigorously than those in macaques vaccinated with the split vaccine. These findings demonstrated that the vaccine derived from our virus library was effective for pandemic virus infection in macaques and that the whole particle vaccine conferred more effective memory and broader cross-reactive immune responses

  4. Pandemic H1N1 influenza infections in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hacımustafaoğlu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In early spring 2009 an outbreak of H1N1 influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico, spreaded quickly, and on June 11 2009, World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to phase 6. This novel H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus represented a quadruple reassortment of swine, human and avian influenza virus strains. This pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses in different regions of the world were found to be antigenically homogenous. Transmission features, incubation period and clinical findings wee similar with the seasonal influenza viruses, although the gastrointestinal manifestations were more common. Young children (<5years and some special risk groups are at increased risk for infection complications and mortality. The recommended test for diagnosis is real-time PCR. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A strains are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir and resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are used for prophlaxis and therapy of infection. However, vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A should be the main target for individual and population based prevention. Monovalent pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccines are available in this (recent influenza season. According to CDC, the next (2010-2011 influenza season trivalent vaccines will coverage the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccine. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 80th Year: 31-6

  5. A single dose of DNA vaccine based on conserved H5N1 subtype proteins provides protection against lethal H5N1 challenge in mice pre-exposed to H1N1 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Haiyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 infects humans with a high fatality rate and has pandemic potential. Vaccination is the preferred approach for prevention of H5N1 infection. Seasonal influenza virus infection has been reported to provide heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection to some extend. In this study, we used a mouse model pre-exposed to an H1N1 influenza virus and evaluated the protective ability provided by a single dose of DNA vaccines encoding conserved H5N1 proteins. Results SPF BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with A/PR8 (H1N1 virus beforehand. Six weeks later, the mice were immunized with plasmid DNA expressing H5N1 virus NP or M1, or with combination of the two plasmids. Both serum specific Ab titers and IFN-γ secretion by spleen cells in vitro were determined. Six weeks after the vaccination, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of H5N1 influenza virus. The protective efficacy was judged by survival rate, body weight loss and residue virus titer in lungs after the challenge. The results showed that pre-exposure to H1N1 virus could offer mice partial protection against lethal H5N1 challenge and that single-dose injection with NP DNA or NP + M1 DNAs provided significantly improved protection against lethal H5N1 challenge in mice pre-exposed to H1N1 virus, as compared with those in unexposed mice. Conclusions Pre-existing immunity against seasonal influenza viruses is useful in offering protection against H5N1 infection. DNA vaccination may be a quick and effective strategy for persons innaive to influenza A virus during H5N1 pandemic.

  6. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  7. Prospective hospital-based case–control study to assess the effectiveness of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and risk factors for hospitalization in 2009–2010 using matched hospital and test-negative controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Wiebke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a case–control study to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE for prevention of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (pH1N1 and to identify risk factors for pH1N1 and acute respiratory infection (ARI in 10 hospitals in Berlin from December 2009 to April 2010. Methods Cases were patients aged 18–65 years with onset of ARI ≤10 days before admission testing positive for pH1N1 by PCR performed on nasal and throat swabs or by serological testing. Cases were compared to (1 matched hospital controls with acute surgical, traumatological or other diagnoses matched on age, sex and vaccination probability, and (2 ARI patients testing negative for pH1N1. Additionally, ARI cases were compared to matched hospital controls. A standardized interview and chart review elicited demographic and clinical data as well as potential risk factors for pH1N1/ARI. VE was estimated by 1-(Odds ratio for pH1N1-vaccination ≥10 days before symptom onset using exact logistic regression analysis. Results Of 177 ARI cases recruited, 27 tested pH1N1 positive. A monovalent AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine was the only pandemic vaccine type identified among cases and controls (vaccination coverage in control group 1 and 2: 15% and 5.9%. The only breakthrough infections were observed in 2 of 3 vaccinated HIV positive pH1N1 patients. After exclusion of HIV positive participants, VE was 96% (95%CI: 26-100% in the matched multivariate analysis and 46% (95%CI: -376-100% in the test-negative analysis. Exposure to children in the household was independently associated with hospitalization for pH1N1 and ARI. Conclusions Though limited by low vaccination coverage and number of pH1N1 cases, our results suggest a protective effect of the AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine for the prevention of pH1N1 hospitalization. The use of hospital but not test-negative controls showed a statistically protective effect of pH1N1-vaccination and permitted

  8. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  9. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  10. A polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine induces heterologous immunity and protects pigs against pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Mette Sif;

    2013-01-01

    The composition of current influenza protein vaccines has to be reconsidered every season to match the circulating influenza viruses, continuously changing antigenicity. Thus, influenza vaccines inducing a broad cross-reactive immune response would be a great advantage for protection against both....... The ability of this DNA vaccine to limit virus shedding may have an impact on virus spread among pigs which could possibly extend to humans as well, thereby diminishing the risk for epidemics and pandemics to evolve....... antibodies >40 HAU/ml seven days after second vaccination. Heterologous virus challenge as long as ten weeks after last immunisation was able to trigger a vaccine antibody HI response 26 times higher than in the control pigs. The H3N2 DNA vaccine HA and NA genes also triggered an effective vaccine response...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMBINANT VACCINE AGAINST A(H1N1) 2009 INFLUENZA BASED ON VIRUS-LIKE NANOPARTICLES CARRYING THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF M2 PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlyarov, R.; Kuprianov, V.; Migunov, A.; Stepanova, L.; Tsybalova, L.; Kiselev, O.; Ravin, N.; Skryabin, K.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional vaccines currently being used to deal with influenza are based on a virus obtained in chicken embryos or its components. The high variability of the major immunogenic surface proteins – hemagglutinin and neuraminidase–require the development of strain–specific vaccines that match the antigenic specificity of a newly emerging virus. Recombinant vaccines based on single viral proteins that could be easily produced in standard expression systems are attractive alternatives to tr...

  12. Factores asociados a la predisposición a vacunarse contra la gripe pandémica A/H1N1 en población adulta del Departamento de Salud de Elche (España: Influencia de las fuentes de información Factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated against pandemic flu A/H1N1 in the adult population of the Health Department of Elche (Spain: The influence of sources of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tuells

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Evaluar en población general las fuentes de información, actitudes y predisposición hacia la vacunación contra la gripe pandémica A/H1N1 de 2009. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de carácter transversal realizado entre el 25 de noviembre y 30 de diciembre de 2009 mediante entrevista personal cara a cara a una muestra aleatoria (826 de adultos residentes en el Departamento de Salud de Elche (España. Resultados. Los encuestados manifestaron que la televisión (57% y el médico de familia (47,9% eran su fuente principal de información sobre vacunas. El 82,2% tenía una buena opinión sobre las vacunas, un 30,5% percibía la gripe A/H1N1 como más grave que la estacional, siendo esta percepción creciente entre los de mayor edad y con menos estudios. Un 25,4% de encuestados sentía preocupación por padecerla, sobre todo los de menor nivel educativo. Un 42,1% manifiesta su buena predisposición para vacunarse contra la gripe estacional, disminuyendo hasta un 18,4% la intención hacia la gripe A/H1N1. La predisposición hacia la vacunación crece con la edad y en el caso de la gripe A/H1N1 decrece a mayor nivel educativo. El médico de familia es la fuente de información más determinante para inmunizarse frente a gripe estacional (OR 1,43 y gripe A/H1N1 (OR 2,47. Conclusiones. Existe baja aceptabilidad de la vacuna pandémica y baja percepción de gravedad sobre la gripe A/H1N1. La experiencia previa de vacunación ante gripe estacional predispone hacia la inmunización contra gripe A/H1N1. Aunque los medios de comunicación encabezan la fuente de información más usual durante este episodio, la influencia del médico de familia en la decisión de vacunarse resulta significativa.Background. To assess, in the general population, the information sources, attitudes and willingness to be vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in 2009. Methods. We carried out a cross sectional study between 25th November and 30th December 2009

  13. Duration of (18)F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke;

    2011-01-01

    'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV(max)) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g....../ml BW. The SUV(max) was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV(max) in the axillary...

  14. Eventos adversos pós-vacinação contra influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009 em crianças Adverse events following vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a frequência e os fatores associados à ocorrência de eventos adversos pós-vacinação contra a influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009 em crianças com idade entre seis meses e dois anos. Participaram do estudo 156 crianças. Modelos multivariados de regressão de Cox foram construídos para avaliar a associação independente de cada covariável e a queixa de pelo menos um evento adverso. A força da associação foi medida pela hazard ratio e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança. Após a primeira dose, foi relatado algum tipo de evento adverso por 40,3% dos participantes e, após a segunda, por 35,5%. Os eventos sistêmicos foram mais frequentes que os locais, destaque para irritabilidade, diarreia e febre. As incidências de eventos adversos, no geral e sistêmicos, após a primeira dose, foram maiores nas crianças com doença concomitante/alergia em relação àquelas sem o agravo (HR = 3,43; IC95%: 1,34-8,77 e HR = 2,76; IC95%: 1,11-6,89. A maioria dos eventos foi de intensidade leve. Febre alta, vômito e diarreia motivaram a busca por serviços de saúde.The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of adverse events following vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 and associated factors in children from six months to two years of age (n = 156. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the independent associations between covariates and complaints of at least one adverse event. Strength of association was measured by hazard ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals. Following the first dose, 40.3% of parents reported one or more adverse events in their children, compared to 35.5% after the second dose. Systemic adverse events, specifically irritation, diarrhea, and fever, were more frequent than local reactions at the vaccination site. Incidence rates for adverse events in general and systemic reactions following the first dose were higher in children with

  15. Airway Mucosal Immune-suppression in Neonates of Mothers Receiving A(H1N1)pnd09 Vaccination During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bischoff, Anne L.; Folsgaard, Nilofar V.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is recommended to vaccinate pregnant women against influenza. A possible impact on the immune expression of the fetus has never been studied. We aim to study the immune signature in the upper airways and the incidence of infections in neonates born to mothers receiving Influenza A(...

  16. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease does not interfere with the adaptive immune response following challenge with pandemic A/H1N1 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. The implications of sequential prime and challenge with mismatched influenza A viruses is a concern in mammals including humans. We evaluated the ability of pigs affected with vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) to generate a humoral immune response against the hetero...

  17. Two types of antibodies are induced by vaccination with A/California/2009 pdm virus: binding near the sialic acid-binding pocket and neutralizing both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Ohshima

    Full Text Available Many people have a history of catching the flu several times during childhood but no additional flu in adulthood, even without vaccination. We analyzed the total repertoire of antibodies (Abs against influenza A group 1 viruses induced in such a flu-resistant person after vaccination with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. They were classified into two types, with no exceptions. The first type, the products of B cells newly induced through vaccination, binds near the sialic acid-binding pocket. The second type, the products of long-lived memory B cells established before vaccination, utilizes the 1-69 VH gene, binds to the stem of HA, and neutralizes both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses with few exceptions. These observations indicate that the sialic acid-binding pocket and its surrounding region are immunogenically very potent and majority of the B cells whose growth is newly induced by vaccination produce Abs that recognize these regions. However, they play a role in protection against influenza virus infection for a short period since variant viruses that have acquired resistance to these Abs become dominant. On the other hand, although the stem of HA is immunogenically not potent, the second type of B cells eventually becomes dominant. Thus, a selection system should function in forming the repertoire of long-lived memory B cells and the stability of the epitope would greatly affect the fate of the memory cells. Acquisition of the ability to produce Abs that bind to the stable epitope could be a major factor of flu resistance.

  18. Serologic Status for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Shao, Pei-Lan; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lu, Chun-Yi; Wang, Jen-Ren; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chi, Hsin; Lai, Mei-Ru; Lee, Chin-Yun; Chang, Luan-Yin; Huang, Li-Min

    2011-01-01

    We studied preexisting immunity to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in persons in Taiwan. A total of 18 (36%) of 50 elderly adults in Taiwan born before 1935 had protective antibodies against currently circulating pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Seasonal influenza vaccines induced antibodies that did not protect against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

  19. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of worry about the risk of catching swine flu, whether too much fuss was being made about the pandemic, whether they or a close friend or relative had had swine flu, how effective they felt the vaccine was, whether they had previously had a seasonal flu vaccination, how well prepared they felt the government was for a pandemic and how satisfied they were with information available about the pandemic. Most participants (n = 734, 55.6%) reported being vaccinated against swine flu, compared to 396 who had not been vaccinated and were unlikely to be vaccinated in the future. Results The main reasons given for declining vaccination were concerns over the vaccine's safety, and being generally healthy. Controlling for demographic variables, risk factors for not being vaccinated were: being female, not having a long-standing infirmity or illness, not having been vaccinated against seasonal flu in previous years, feeling that too much fuss had been made about the pandemic and believing that the vaccine was ineffective. Conclusions Interventions that target these factors may be effective in improving uptake in a future pandemic. PMID:26757401

  20. H1N1 in dialysis units: Prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkar Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients are at increased risk of contracting influenza A H1N1 and deve-loping serious illness. Increasing the awareness of dialysis patients and continuous education and training of medical staff on early recognition and management of influenza A H1N1 can help in saving the life of patients. Antiviral drugs and influenza vaccines are effective in providing ade-quate immunity in dialysis patients with strict implementation of infection control policies and procedures can help in preventing and controlling the dissemination of influenza A H1N1 in dia-lysis units. We report a case of a patient who presented with HINI influenza and developed acute kidney injury during his hospitalization and his course with disease.

  1. Single-dose mucosal immunization with a candidate universal influenza vaccine provides rapid protection from virulent H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sudden emergence of novel influenza viruses is a global public health concern. Conventional influenza vaccines targeting the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase must antigenically match the emerging strain to be effective. In contrast, "universal" vaccines targeting conserved viral components could be used regardless of viral strain or subtype. Previous approaches to universal vaccination have required protracted multi-dose immunizations. Here we evaluate a single dose universal vaccine strategy using recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing the conserved influenza virus antigens matrix 2 and nucleoprotein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In BALB/c mice, administration of rAd via the intranasal route was superior to intramuscular immunization for induction of mucosal responses and for protection against highly virulent H1N1, H3N2, or H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Mucosally vaccinated mice not only survived, but had little morbidity and reduced lung virus titers. Protection was observed as early as 2 weeks post-immunization, and lasted at least 10 months, as did antibodies and lung T cells with activated phenotypes. Virus-specific IgA correlated with but was not essential for protection, as demonstrated in studies with IgA-deficient animals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Mucosal administration of NP and M2-expressing rAd vectors provided rapid and lasting protection from influenza viruses in a subtype-independent manner. Such vaccines could be used in the interval between emergence of a new virus strain and availability of strain-matched vaccines against it. This strikingly effective single-dose vaccination thus represents a candidate off-the-shelf vaccine for emergency use during an influenza pandemic.

  2. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  3. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  4. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  5. In Silico Identification of Highly Conserved Epitopes of Influenza A H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, and H5N1 with Diagnostic and Vaccination Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Esteban Muñoz-Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unpredictable, evolutionary nature of the influenza A virus (IAV is the primary problem when generating a vaccine and when designing diagnostic strategies; thus, it is necessary to determine the constant regions in viral proteins. In this study, we completed an in silico analysis of the reported epitopes of the 4 IAV proteins that are antigenically most significant (HA, NA, NP, and M2 in the 3 strains with the greatest world circulation in the last century (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 and in one of the main aviary subtypes responsible for zoonosis (H5N1. For this purpose, the HMMER program was used to align 3,016 epitopes reported in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB and distributed in 34,294 stored sequences in the Pfam database. Eighteen epitopes were identified: 8 in HA, 5 in NA, 3 in NP, and 2 in M2. These epitopes have remained constant since they were first identified (~91 years and are present in strains that have circulated on 5 continents. These sites could be targets for vaccination design strategies based on epitopes and/or as markers in the implementation of diagnostic techniques.

  6. Influenza Stigma during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Quinn, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the extent to which H1N1 was stigmatized at the height of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the U.S. and explores the role that H1N1 stigma played in people’s desire for physical distance from others with H1N1. H1N1 was the most stigmatized disease, with participants endorsing greater prejudice towards people with H1N1 than people with cancer or HIV/AIDS. Further, H1N1 stigma partially mediated the relationship between participants’ perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and...

  7. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009: a pandemic alarm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Khanna; Neha Gupta; Ankit Gupta; V K Vijayan

    2009-09-01

    At this critical juncture when the world has not yet recovered from the threat of avian influenza, the virus has returned in the disguise of swine influenza, a lesser known illness common in pigs. It has reached pandemic proportions in a short time span with health personnel still devising ways to identify the novel H1N1 virus and develop vaccines against it. The H1N1 virus has caused a considerable number of deaths within the short duration since its emergence. Presently, there are no effective methods to contain this newly emerged virus. Therefore, a proper and clear insight is urgently required to prevent an outbreak in the future and make preparations that may be planned well in advance. This review is an attempt to discuss the historical perspective of the swine flu virus, its epidemiology and route of transmission to better understand the various control measures that may be taken to fight the danger of a global pandemic.

  8. Enhanced Pneumonia and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Following Vaccination with an Inactivated delta-Cluster H1N2 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endemic strains of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in North America consist of the subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. These circulating strains contain the triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette resulting from incorporation of genes from swine, avian, and human IAV’s. Genetic drift and reassortm...

  9. Sequential Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections Protect Ferrets against Novel 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Donald M.; Bloom, Chalise E.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Marques, Ernesto T.A.; Craigo, Jodi K.; Cherry, Joshua L.; Lipman, David J.; Ross, Ted M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals 60 years old also had preexisting antibodies to novel H1N1. These observations are puzzling because the seasonal H1N1 viruses circulating during the last 60 years were not antigenically similar to novel H1N1. We therefore hypothesized that a sequence of exposures to antigenically different seasonal H1N1 viruses can elicit an antibody response that protects against novel 2009 H1N1. Ferrets were preinfected with seasonal H1N1 viruses and assessed for cross-reactive antibodies to nov...

  10. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) Co-infection, New Zealand, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Peacey, Matthew; Hall, Richard J.; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Ducatez, Mariette; Paine, Shevaun; Nicol, Mackenzie; Jacqui C Ralston; Bandaranayake, Don; Hope, Virginia; Webby, Richard J.; Huang, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Co-infection with seasonal influenza A (H1N1) and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 could result in reassortant viruses that may acquire new characteristics of transmission, virulence, and oseltamivir susceptibility. Results from oseltamivir-sensitivity testing on viral culture suggested the possibility of co-infections with oseltamivir-resistant (seasonal A [H1N1]) and -susceptible (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) viruses.

  11. The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    In late March of 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico, was eventually identified as H1N1 influenza A. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised a pandemic alert to the highest level. More than 214 countries have reported confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza A. In Korea, the first case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection was reported on May 2, 2009. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 750,000 cases of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 were confirmed by laboratory test. The H1N1-rel...

  12. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development

  13. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  14. Postvaccination Influenza 2009 H1N1 Respiratory Failure Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Mangino, Julie E.; Danielle Blais; Juan Crestanello; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Erik Abel

    2011-01-01

    The spread of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) was believed to have been attenuated by the effectiveness of worldwide vaccination initiatives. Despite the immunogenicity of a safe vaccine, we report a case of vaccine failure resulting in catastrophic influenza-associated respiratory failure.

  15. Kompliceret influenza A (H1N1) hos gravid i andet trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, A.S.; Hedegaard, M.; Hesselvig, A.B.; Krebs, L.

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman at 25 weeks of gestation was admitted to hospital due to bilateral pneumonia with increasing hypoxia. She was tested positive for influenza A (H1N1) and successfully treated with oral oseltamivir. Nine days after the admission pathological umbilical flows were recorded and an...... emergency caesarean was performed at 26 weeks + 2 days of gestation. The neonatal period was uncomplicated. Influenza A (H1N1) is especially dangerous in pregnant women and vaccination is important....

  16. 甲流了解程度、疫苗安全感知、接种行为及其影响机制%The Familiarity of Influenza A (H1N1), Perception of Vaccine Safety, Vaccination Behaviour and Their Influential Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦昕; 牛丛; 黄振雷; 徐敏亚

    2011-01-01

    采用问卷调查的方法,对甲流了解程度、疫苗安全感知、接种行为及其影响机制进行了研究,并运用结构方程对提出的模型进行了验证和调整.结果表明:(1)民众对甲流疫情基本情况、疫苗接种要求和传播途径等方面有较高的了解程度,但对预防措施和疫苗信息了解较少.(2)交流卷入对了解程度不存在显著影响;而新闻卷入对了解程度有显著正向影响,并且新闻卷入对感知疫苗安全程度的正向影响受到了解程度的部分中介.(3)感知甲流疫苗越安全,越倾向于选择接种疫苗.(4)人格对疫苗的风险认知存在显著影响,个人随和性(Agreeableness)程度越高,则感知疫苗的安全程度越高,而年龄和性别对其均没有显著影响.%Breaking out in Mexico, influenza A (H1N1) spread rapidly throughout the world and caused thousands of deaths. In China, the government took several measures to control the disease's transmission, such as licensing vaccine production and setting up a vaccination system. Researchers have conducted a number of investigations on risk perceptions of past public health crises and natural disasters, but little systematic empirical research has been done for vaccine or vaccination behaviour. Also, up until now, there seems to be no explicit research conducted on influenza A (H1N1). In this study, we examined the public's familiarity with influenza A (H1N1), perception of vaccine safety, vaccination behaviour and the mechanism of influence.We employed a questionnaire to collect data from several universities located in Beijing. Before conducting the survey, we first performed a pretest with a group of 30 people, and made adjustments based on their opinions and suggestions. The measurements in the questionnaire included: respondents' demographics, the Big Five Scales, degree of prudence, involvement, degree of familiarity, perception of vaccine safety, vaccination behaviour and two open questions about

  17. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  18. Symmetric Peripheral Gangrene Associated with H1N1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulgud, Ram S.; Kamath, Vasantha; Patil, Vijayalaxmi; Desai, Sagar

    2013-01-01

    More and more cases of H1N1 influenza are being detected in India and so also the variety of complications this virus can cause. Here, we report a case of symmetric peripheral gangrene following H1N1 infection.

  19. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors. PMID:24423574

  20. Learning to trust flu shots: quasi-experimental evidence on the role of learning in influenza vaccination decisions from the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, J.; Harris, K M

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions, i.e., potential causal effects of past experiences of being vaccinated on current use of influenza vaccine. Existing structural models of demand usually identify consumer learning parametrically based on functional form assumptions within dynamic forward-looking Bayesian demand models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explore the potential role of consumer learning in pharmaceutical demand within a reduc...

  1. 'Rhyme or reason?' Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-12-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or 'big pharma capitalism' are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants. PMID:26077985

  2. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  3. Vaccination with NS1-truncated H3N2 swine influenza virus primes T cells and confers cross-protection against an H1N1 heterosubtypic challenge in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of contemporary swine influenza virus (SIV) strains impedes effective immunization of swine herds. Mucosally delivered, attenuated virus vaccines are one approach with potential to provide broad cross-protection. Reverse genetics-derived H3N2 SIV virus with truncated NS1 (NS1delta126 T...

  4. Detection of Extensive Cross-Neutralization between Pandemic and Seasonal A/H1N1 Influenza Viruses Using a Pseudotype Neutralization Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Labrosse, Béatrice; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Porcher, Raphaël; LeGoff, Jérôme; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Simon, François; Molina, Jean-Michel; Clavel, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Cross-immunity between seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses remains uncertain. In particular, the extent that previous infection or vaccination by seasonal A/H1N1 viruses can elicit protective immunity against pandemic A/H1N1 is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Neutralizing titers against seasonal A/H1N1 (A/Brisbane/59/2007) and against pandemic A/H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) were measured using an HIV-1-based pseudovirus neutralization assay. Using this highly sens...

  5. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  6. Influenza A (H1N1 2009: Impact on Frankfurt in due consideration of health care and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009 a novel influenza A H1N1/2009 virus was identified in Mexico and in the United States which quickly spread around the world. Most of the countries established infection surveillance systems in order to track the number of (laboratory-confirmed H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths. Methods The impact of the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus on Frankfurt was statistically evaluated by the Health Protection Authority, City of Frankfurt am Main. Vaccination rates of the health care workers (HCWs of the University Hospital Frankfurt were measured by the Occupational Health Service. Results Although the virulence of pandemic (H1N1 2009 seems to be comparable with seasonal influenza, a major patient load and wave of hospital admissions occurred in the summer of 2009. Even though the 2009 vaccination rate of the University Hospital Frankfurt (seasonal influenza [40.5%], swine flu [36.3%] is better than the average annual uptake of influenza vaccine in the German health care system (approximately 22% for seasonal and 15% for swine flu, vaccination levels remain insufficient. However, physicians were significantly (p Conclusions The outbreak of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 in April 2009 provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Nosocomial transmission of H1N1/2009 has been documented. Present experience should be used to improve pandemic preparedness plans and vaccination programs ought to target as many HCWs as possible.

  7. Stay Informed About Novel H1N1 Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-04

    This podcast discusses things you can do everyday to avoid getting sick from infectious diseases, such as the novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/4/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 5/4/2009.

  8. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  9. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt at...

  10. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  11. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  12. H1N1 Flu and Antiviral Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-02

    This podcast discusses the use of antiviral drugs for treating and preventing the H1N1 flu virus.  Created: 5/2/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/2/2009.

  13. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  14. H1N1 Message from the Acting Surgeon General

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-13

    In this podcast, Acting Surgeon General Dr. Steven Galson discusses what you can do to protect yourself from H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/13/2009 by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/13/2009.

  15. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  16. Compliance with immunization against H1N1 influenza virus among children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganis, Dimitrios; Tsolia, Maria; Dana, Helen; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Baka, Margarita; Varvoutsi, Maria; Servitzoglou, Marina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2013-03-01

    In this report, we describe the experience with immunization against pandemic influenza A H1N1 in children with cancer treated at a pediatric oncology department during the pandemic season (2009). According to the guidelines, vaccination of all children with cancer receiving chemotherapy as well as those who had completed treatment was scheduled. Among the 140 children who were eligible for immunization, 122 were immunized, achieving a compliance rate of 87% despite negative publicity and low vaccine uptake in the general population. The vaccine was tolerated and none of the vaccinated children developed influenza. It is concluded that high immunization rates can be achieved among pediatric oncology patients. PMID:23301621

  17. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Higiene (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Hygiene)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente las formas de protegerse contra el virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  18. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Comunidad (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Community)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente los planes de la comunidad frente al brote del virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  19. H1N1 Infection in a pediatric unit

    OpenAIRE

    J. Magalhães; Pinho, L; Mendes, C; Dias, A.; Zilhão, C; Garrido, C; Pinto, S.; Reis, M. G.; Guedes, M

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A infecção por vírus influenza A H1N1 constituiu a primeira pandemia deste século. Para reduzir a propagação, foram enfatizadas medidas de protecção individual e atendimento e internamento em áreas específicas, com isolamento de gotícula. Objectivos: Avaliar a importância da área de isolamento para casos de suspeita de infecção por H1N1 num Serviço de Pediatria. Caracterização da infecção nos doentes internados. Material e métodos: Consulta do processo clín...

  20. Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Lu; CAO Bin; WANG Chen

    2011-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection ranged from self-limited mild illness to progressive pneumonia,or even a fatal outcome.We summarize the clinical manifestations,risk factors for severe and fatal cases,pathologic findings and treatment of this disease in this paper based on current reports from different regions of the world.

  1. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  2. Virological characterization of influenza H1N1pdm09 in Vietnam, 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang K L; Nguyen, Phuong T K; Nguyen, Thach C; Hoang, Phuong V M; Le, Thanh T; Vuong, Cuong D; Nguyen, Anh P; Tran, Loan T T; Nguyen, Binh G; Lê, Mai Q

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus was first detected in Vietnam on May 31, 2009, and continues to circulate in Vietnam as a seasonal influenza virus. This study has monitored genotypic and phenotypic changes in this group of viruses during 2010–2013 period. Design and setting We sequenced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from representative influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and compared with vaccine strain A/California/07/09 and other contemporary isolates from neighboring countries. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NAI) assays also were performed on these isolates. Sample Representative influenza A/H1N1pdm09 isolates (n = 61) from ILI and SARI surveillances in northern Vietnam between 2010 and 2013. Main outcome measures and results The HA and NA phylogenies revealed six and seven groups, respectively. Five isolates (8·2%) had substitutions G155E and N156K in the HA, which were associated with reduced HI titers by antiserum raised against the vaccine virus A/California/07/2009. One isolate from 2011 and one isolate from 2013 had a predicted H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase molecule, which was associated with reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir in a NAI assay. We also identified a D222N change in the HA of a virus isolated from a fatal case in 2013. Conclusions Significant genotypic and phenotypic changes in A/ H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses were detected by the National Influenza Surveillance System (NISS) in Vietnam between 2010 and 2013 highlighting the value of this system to Vietnam and to the region. Sustained NISS and continued virological monitoring of seasonal influenza viruses are required for vaccine policy development in Vietnam. 3 PMID:25966032

  3. Subsisting H1N1 influenza memory responses are insufficient to protect from pandemic H1N1 influenza challenge in C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Leo K.; Fox, Julie M.; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus transmitted and caused disease in many individuals immune to pre-2009 H1N1 influenza virus. Whilst extensive studies on antibody-mediated pH1N1 cross-reactivity have been described, few studies have focused on influenza-specific memory T-cells. To address this, the immune response in pre-2009 H1N1 influenza-immune mice was evaluated after pH1N1 challenge and disease pathogenesis was determined. The results show that despite homology ...

  4. Neurological events related to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Graciela; Soto-Hernández, José Luis; Díaz-Alba, Alexandra; Ugalde, Yair; Mérida-Puga, Jorge; Rosetti, Marcos; Sciutto, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review neurological complications after the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, highlighting the clinical differences between patients with post-vaccine or viral infection. Design A search on Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, and PubMed databases using the keywords “neurological complications of Influenza AH1N1” or “post-vaccine Influenza AH1N1.” Setting Only papers written in English, Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, and Italian published from March 2009 to December 2012 were included. Sample We included 104 articles presenting a total of 1636 patient cases. In addition, two cases of influenza vaccine-related neurological events from our neurological care center, arising during the period of study, were also included. Main outcome measures Demographic data and clinical diagnosis of neurological complications and outcomes: death, neurological sequelae or recovery after influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine or infection. Results The retrieved cases were divided into two groups: the post-vaccination group, with 287 patients, and the viral infection group, with 1349 patients. Most patients in the first group were adults. The main neurological complications were Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) or polyneuropathy (125), and seizures (23). All patients survived. Pediatric patients were predominant in the viral infection group. In this group, 60 patients (4.7%) died and 52 (30.1%) developed permanent sequelae. A wide spectrum of neurological complications was observed. Conclusions Fatal cases and severe, permanent, neurological sequelae were observed in the infection group only. Clinical outcome was more favorable in the post-vaccination group. In this context, the relevance of an accurate neurological evaluation is demonstrated for all suspicious cases, as well as the need of an appropriate long-term clinical and imaging follow-up of infection and post-vaccination events related to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, to clearly estimate the magnitude of neurological complications

  5. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies. PMID:21361797

  6. Vaccinees against the 1976 “swine flu” have enhanced neutralization responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Jonathan A.; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Allison, Kim J.; Branum, Kristen C.; Webby, Richard J.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The world is facing a novel H1N1 pandemic. A pandemic scare with a similar virus in 1976 resulted in the vaccination of nearly 45 million persons. We hypothesized that prior receipt of the 1976 “swine flu” vaccine would enhance immune responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 strain. Methods A prospective, volunteer sample of employees 55 years of age and older at a children’s cancer hospital in August of 2009 was assessed for antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. Results Antibody responses by hemagglutination-inhibition assay were high against both the seasonal (89.7% had a titer considered seroprotective) and pandemic (88.8% had a seroprotective titer) H1N1 viruses. These antibodies were effective at neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 virus in 68.1% of participants (titer ≥ 40), but only 18.1% had detectable neutralizing titers against the pandemic H1N1. Of 116 participants, 46 (39.7%) received the 1976 “swine flu” vaccine. Receipt of this vaccine significantly enhanced neutralization responses as 8 of 46 (17.4%) vaccine recipients had titers ≥ 160 compared to only 3 of 70 (4.3%) who did not receive the vaccine (P = 0.018 by chi-squared test). Conclusions In this cohort, persons 55 years and older had evidence of robust immunity to the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 virus. These antibodies were cross-reactive but non-neutralizing against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Receipt of a vaccine to a related virus significantly enhanced the neutralization capacity of these responses, suggesting homologous vaccination against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 would have a similar effect. PMID:20415539

  7. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  8. 清新县甲型H1N1流感流行因素分析%Analysis on factors of H1N1 flu pandemic influenza in Qingxin county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩琼; 黄德厚; 周志珊; 朱永坚; 邝西金; 李初升; 欧映红; 马励斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To grasp the dynamic features and popular rule of H1N1 flu outbreak in our county through the system monitoring survey,to analyze the popular factors of influenza H1N1flu,provide the scientific basis for improving the prevention and control measures.[Methods]Six towns were selected as monitoring stations in Qingxin county central,southem and northern region,extracting the general population venous blood,ELISA test was carried out on a H1N1 IgG antibody serologicad survey,at the same time the face to face questionnaire of epidemiological investigation was also conducted.[Results]The serum samples of 1325 persons were tested,influenza H1N1 flu antibody positive for 190 people,positive rate was 14.34%,H1N1 influenza virus infection in patients in our county were mainly light and inapparent,the life of a crowd gathered H1N1 IgG antibody was higher than that in the crowd gathered(P< 0.05),influenza H1N1 flu vaccine for 2.49% rate,the effect of immunity for 57.58%,a cold of visit for 70.66% rate,the case of H1N1 influenza was not found in the survey group.[Conclusions]The main factors influencing our county H1N1 flu pandemic influenza are the vaccine immunization rates among immune effect and medical diagnosis accuracy,the susceptibility of living gathering group,infections status with light and inapparent as main condition,the vaccination for H1N1 flu vaccine crowd influenza and influenza H1N1 flu knowledge training for clinical doctors should be strengthened,the nursery institutions and schools and other clustering area are still important places to be prevented and controlled for H1N1 flu prevention in our county.%[目的]通过系统监测调查,及时掌握我县甲型H1N1流感的疫情动态和流行规律,分析其流行因素,为我县完善甲型H1N1流感的防控工作提供科学依据.[方法]在清新县中部、南部、北部地区选择6个镇作为监测点,抽取普通人群静脉血,用酶联免疫试验检测甲型H1N1 IgG抗

  9. Protection against divergent influenza H1N1 virus by a centralized influenza hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Eric A; Rubrum, Adam M; Webby, Richard J; Barry, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Influenza poses a persistent worldwide threat to the human population. As evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, current vaccine technologies are unable to respond rapidly to this constantly diverging pathogen. We tested the utility of adenovirus (Ad) vaccines expressing centralized consensus influenza antigens. Ad vaccines were produced within 2 months and protected against influenza in mice within 3 days of vaccination. Ad vaccines were able to protect at doses as low as 10(7) virus particles/kg indicating that approximately 1,000 human doses could be rapidly generated from standard Ad preparations. To generate broadly cross-reactive immune responses, centralized consensus antigens were constructed against H1 influenza and against H1 through H5 influenza. Twenty full-length H1 HA sequences representing the main branches of the H1 HA phylogenetic tree were used to create a synthetic centralized gene, HA1-con. HA1-con minimizes the degree of sequence dissimilarity between the vaccine and existing circulating viruses. The centralized H1 gene, HA1-con, induced stronger immune responses and better protection against mismatched virus challenges as compared to two wildtype H1 genes. HA1-con protected against three genetically diverse lethal influenza challenges. When mice were challenged with 1934 influenza A/PR/8/34, HA1-con protected 100% of mice while vaccine generated from 2009 A/TX/05/09 only protected 40%. Vaccination with 1934 A/PR/8/34 and 2009 A/TX/05/09 protected 60% and 20% against 1947 influenza A/FM/1/47, respectively, whereas 80% of mice vaccinated with HA1-con were protected. Notably, 80% of mice challenged with 2009 swine flu isolate A/California/4/09 were protected by HA1-con vaccination. These data show that HA1-con in Ad has potential as a rapid and universal vaccine for H1N1 influenza viruses. PMID:21464940

  10. Immunity to Pre-1950 H1N1 Influenza Viruses Confers Cross-Protection against the Pandemic Swine-Origin 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G.; Kim, Jin Hyang; Powers, Ryan; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Masseoud, Feda; Weldon, William C.; Martin, Maria del Pilar; Mittler, Robert S.; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak is the first pandemic of the twenty-first century. Epidemiological data reveal that of all the people afflicted with H1N1 virus, 60 y old have pre-existing neutralizing Abs against the 2009 H1N1 virus. This finding suggests that influenza strains that circulated 50–60 y ago might provide cross-protection against the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. To test this, we determined the ability of representative H1N1 influenza viruses that circulated in ...

  11. Age- Matched Comparison of Children Hospitalized for 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza with Those Hospitalized for Seasonal H1N1 and H3N2

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Susan S; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wong, Wilfred H. S.; Chan, Eunice L. Y.; Peiris, J. S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A wide spectrum of clinical manifestation ranging from deaths to a mild course of disease has been reported in children infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza. Methodology/Major Findings: We conducted an age-matched control study comparing children hospitalized for pH1N1 with historic controls infected with seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza to correct for the effect of age on disease susceptibility and clinical manifestations. We also compared children with pH1N1 to...

  12. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in households with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Ville; Teros‐Jaakkola, Tamara; Rulli, Maris; Toivonen, Laura; Broberg, Eeva; Waris, Matti; Mertsola, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Peltola et al. (2011) Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in households with young children. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e21–e24. Abstract Background  Influenza viruses may cause a severe infection in infants and young children. The transmission patterns of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) within households with young children are poorly characterized. Methods  Household members of six children younger than 1·5 years with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection were studied by daily symptom diaries and serial parent‐collected nasal swab samples for detection of influenza A by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assay. Results  Laboratory‐confirmed, symptomatic influenza was documented in 11 of 15 household contacts of young children with pandemic influenza (73%; 95% CI, 48–99). In five contact cases symptoms started earlier, in three cases on the same day, and in three cases after the onset of symptoms in the youngest child. The first case with influenza A (H1N1) within the household was an elder sibling in two households, father in two households, the youngest child in one household, and the youngest child at the same time with a sibling in one household. The median copy number of influenza virus was higher in children than in adults (4·2 × 107 versus 4·9 × 104, P = 0·02). Conclusions  This study demonstrates the feasibility of nasal swab sampling by parents in investigation of household transmission of influenza. The results support influenza vaccination of all household contacts of young children. PMID:21951638

  13. Prevalence of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida--November-December, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M Cox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus (pH1N1 caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during the pandemic. METHODS: During November-December 2009, we collected leftover serum from a blood bank, a pediatric children's hospital and a pediatric outpatient clinic in Tampa Bay Florida. Serum was tested for pH1N1 virus antibodies using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay. HI titers ≥40 were considered seropositive. We adjusted seroprevalence results to account for previously established HI assay specificity and sensitivity and employed a simple statistical model to estimate the proportion of seropositivity due to pH1N1 virus infection and vaccination. RESULTS: During the study time period, the overall seroprevalence in Tampa Bay, Florida was 25%, increasing to 30% after adjusting for HI assay sensitivity and specificity. We estimated that 5.9% of the population had vaccine-induced seropositivity while 25% had seropositivity secondary to pH1N1 virus infection. The highest cumulative incidence of pH1N1 virus infection was among children aged 5-17 years (53% and young adults aged 18-24 years (47%, while adults aged ≥50 years had the lowest cumulative incidence (11-13% of pH1N1 virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: After the peak of the fall wave of the pandemic, an estimated one quarter of the Tampa Bay population had been infected with the pH1N1 virus. Consistent with epidemiologic trends observed during the pandemic, the highest burdens of disease were among school-aged children and young adults.

  14. 医院门诊甲型H1N1流感的预防控制%The Prevention and Control of Type A H1N1 Influenza for Hospital Outpatient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳静

    2013-01-01

      甲型H1N1流感为急性呼吸道传染病,其病原体是一种新型的甲型H1N1流感病毒,冬春季为流感多发季节,门诊作为患者进入医院的第一道关口,通过采取预检分诊、预防接种等措施减少医院内交叉感染或减少甲型H1N1流感发病率。%Type A H1N1 influenza as acute respiratory infections,the pathogen is a new type of type A H1N1 viruses,the flu season is winter and spring,out-patients as the hospital’s first pass through preflight triage,vaccination and other measures to reduce cross infection in hospitals or reducing influenza morbidity.

  15. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1, formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0. The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1 has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8 and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1. By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  16. Novel Influenza A (H1N1/09 Virus Infection during Pregnancy in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

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    Lars Rothermund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of a pregnant renal transplant patient with H1N1/09 infection. The woman showed a mild clinical course after diagnosis of H1N1/09 infection and therapy with oseltamivir (2×45 mg per day. After delivery by cesarean section, the neonate exhibited moderate respiratory and circulatory dysregulation, which spontaneously normalised a few days postpartum. In conclusion, rapid diagnosis of H1N1/09 and dose-adapted therapy with oseltamivir resulted in successful delivery of a healthy infant in our renal transplanted patient but emphasized the need for consequent vaccination strategies in pregnant transplant recipients for new influenza A pandemics in the future.

  17. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

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    Kerenidi Theodora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia was suspected based on clinical evidence. In total 44 patients were hospitalized 15/44 had asthma, 6/44 COPD, 5/44 leukemia. Lung function was evaluated with forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and diffused carbon monoxide upon discharge and every 3 months, until 6 months of observation was completed after discharge. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate whether influenza A (H1N1 had an impact on the respiratory capacity of the infected patients. Conclusions An improvement of pulmonary function tests was observed between the first two measurements, implicating an inflammatory pathogenesis of influenza A (H1N1 to the respiratory tract. This inflammation was not associated with the severity or clinical outcome of the patients. All patients had a mild clinical course and their respiratory capacity was stable between the second and third measurement, suggesting that the duration of respiratory inflammation was two months. Early treatment with antiviral agents and vaccination represent the mainstay of management.

  18. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus infection associated with purpuric skin lesions: a case report

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    Biagioli Daniele

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The influenza virus infection may be severe in non-immune people. Common complications of influenza virus include upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, myocarditis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure. There have been cases of vasculitis following influenza vaccination, and rash and acute purpura may occur in certain viral infections. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports concerning cases of systemic vasculitis associated with pandemic 2009 (H1N1 infection. Case presentation A 23-year-old Caucasian woman was hospitalized at the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, Italy. Clinical and radiological features including laboratory findings of this case are illustrated. Notably, the patient had fever, severe abdominal pain, hematuria, arthritis, and purpuric manifestations associated with a normal platelet count. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs revealed pandemic 2009 (H1N1 virus by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Routine laboratory analyses showed elevated inflammatory parameters. The autoimmune panel tests were normal. Steroid therapy associated with oseltamivir achieved an evident and rapid improvement. On day seven the patient chose to leave the hospital against medical advice. Conclusion Complications related to influenza infection can be life threatening, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura triggered by the novel influenza virus infection could be an attractive pathogenetic hypothesis. We have discussed both the diagnosis and the challenge of therapy protocols. Steroid therapy is part of the management of severe vasculitis. Our case suggests that steroid therapy associated with antivirals can prevent the risk of further complications such as hemorrhage and multi-organ failure during severe vasculitis, without enhancing the virulence of the influenza virus. The possible role of

  19. The progress of research on influenza A(H1N1)%甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓燕; 孙永红

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)virus is a re-mixed strains of human influenza virus genes,avian influenza virus gene and swine influenza virus gene.Influenza A(H1N1)pandemic influenza has spread around the world,which has drawn worldwide attention.In order to early discovery,early diagnosis,early treatment and effective prevention of Influenza A(H1N1),we describe the characteristics of linfluenza A(H1N1)virus,epidemiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and effective treatment and preventive measures.%甲型H1N1流感病毒是人流感病毒基因、禽流感病毒基因和猪流感病毒基因混合的重配株,其造成的疫情来势凶猛,引起世界各国的广泛关注.为了早发现、早诊断、早治疗及有效地预防甲型H1N1流感,本文综述了甲型H1N1流感病毒的特点、流行病学、致人发病的机制、甲型H1N1流感患者的临床表现、实验室检查及有效的治疗和预防措施.

  20. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Glaros, Dimitrios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Froudarakis, Marios; Kioumis, loannis; Kouroumichakis, loannis; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evagelia; Papakosta, Despoina; Rapti, Aggeliki; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Kerenidi, Theodora; Panopoulou, Maria; Trakada, Georgia; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Fouka, Evangelia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Background The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1) was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study’s objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection. Methods In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests) were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients. Results The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72) than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59). This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients. Conclusion Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza. PMID:22419882

  1. 温州市首次甲型H1N1流感流行的特征分析%Characteristics analysis on the first epidemic of influenza A(H1N1)in Wenzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖木; 蔡圆圆; 魏晶娇; 陈晟; 潘琼娇; 马洪波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of the first influenza A (H1N1) epidemic in Wenzhou and provide a scientific basis for the measures on control and prevention of influenza. Methods A descriptive epidemiological method was used for analysis of influenza A (H1N1) case data in Wenzhou from May 2009 to July 2010. Results There were 4164 cases (accumulative incidence 53.94/100 000) of influenza A (H1N1) in Wenzhou between May 2009 and July 2010. The peak of incidence was from October 2009 to January 2010, there were 3825 cases, accounted for 91.86%. The patients occurred in eleven counties(districts) of Wenzhou. Most of the cases were found in Lucheng, Ruian and Yueqing counties (districts). Cases for groups aged 5-19 years accounted for 67.39% (2806 The influenza A (H1N1) is gradually transmitted from urbans to rural areas after first imported case is introduced to Wenzhou. The incidence rate is closely related to density of population and mobility of population. Schools are risk sellings for transmissions of influenza A (H1N1). It is very critical to strengthen the epidemiological surveillance for influenza in schools. The influenza A (H1N1) vaccination is specific measures for the prevention of influenza A(H1N1) and gained apparent effectiveness.%目的 分析温州市首次甲型H1N1流感流行特征,为防控措施提出建议.方法 用描述性流行病学方法,对温州市2009年5月至2010年7月甲型H1N1流感病例个案资料进行分析.结果 2009年5月至2010年7月共报告甲型H1N1流感病例4164例,累积发病率53.94/10万.2009年10月至2010年1月为发病高峰,共报告病例数3825例,占总病例数的91.86%.11个县(市、区)均有病例发生,病例数居前三位的是鹿城区、瑞安市和乐清市.5~19岁年龄组共2806例,占总病例数的67.39%,男女之比为1.25∶1;学生占总病例数的66.11%.213例重症与危重症病例中以散居儿童和学生最多,共91例,占42.72%.结论 输入性病

  2. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

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    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  3. Transcriptomics and Proteomics in the Study of H1N1 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Zhang; Xiaojun Zhang; Qing Ma; Fang Ma; Honghao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus (HINI) 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A virus, has been spread worldwidely and causedgreat public fear. High-throughput transcriptomics and proteomies methods are now being used to identify H1N1and H1N1-host interaction. This article reviews recent transcriptomics and proteomics research in H1N1 diagnosis,treatment, and H1N1 virus-host interaction, to offer some help for further understanding the infection mechanismand controlling H1N1 transmission.

  4. Predicting the Antigenic Structure of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from “classical swine H1N1” virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemi...

  5. Life threatening severe Influenza A Virus (H1N1) infection in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.; Vaibhav Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    H1N1 influenza is an emerging threat that is life threatening to pregnant women in the third trimester. Pregnant women are a high-risk group for morbidity and mortality from influenza (H1N1). During the current pandemic of H1N1 influenza, few cases of H1N1 have been reported in pregnancy. We report a case of H1N1 influenza in a 23-year old female with 28 weeks of gestation, who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, required mechanical ventilation and eventually recovered.

  6. Possible Increased Pathogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus upon Reassortment

    OpenAIRE

    Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Herfst, Sander; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2011-01-01

    Since emergence of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in April 2009, three influenza A viruses—seasonal (H3N2), seasonal (H1N1), and pandemic (H1N1) 2009—have circulated in humans. Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect to replication kinetics in vitro and pathogenicity and transmission in ferrets. Pandemic (H1N1) 2...

  7. Seroprevalence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 among healthcare workers after the first wave in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, DKM; Wu, JT; Peiris, JSM; Cowling, BJ; Zhou, Y.; Ng, DMW; Seto, WH; Kwok, HKH; Ma, ESK; Ng, S; Lau, LLH

    2011-01-01

    During the first wave of an influenza pandemic prior to the availability of an effective vaccine, healthcare workers (HCWs) may be at particular risk of infection with the novel influenza strain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) among HCWs in Hong Kong in February-March 2010 following the first pandemic wave. Sera collected from HCWs were tested for antibody to pH1N1 influenza virus by viral neutralisation (VN). We ...

  8. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E.; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I.; Abad, Francesc X.; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus curren...

  9. Yeast expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of Novel H1N1 elicits neutralising antibodies in rabbits and mice

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    Athmaram TN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently available vaccines for the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 2009 produced in chicken eggs have serious impediments viz limited availability, risk of allergic reactions and the possible selection of sub-populations differing from the naturally occurring virus, whereas the cell culture derived vaccines are time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to combat the present/future pandemic. Hemagglutinin (HA based subunit vaccine for H1N1 requires the HA protein in glycosylated form, which is impossible with the commonly used bacterial expression platform. Additionally, bacterial derived protein requires extensive purification and refolding steps for vaccine applications. For these reasons an alternative heterologous system for rapid, easy and economical production of Hemagglutinin protein in its glycosylated form is required. The HA gene of novel H1N1 A/California/04/2009 was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA- synthetic gene having α-secretory tag was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having multiple copy integrants of the transgene expressed full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. The Recombinant yeast derived H1N1 HA protein elicited neutralising antibodies both in mice and rabbits. The sera from immunised animals also exhibited Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI activity. Considering the safety, reliability and also economic potential of Pichia expression platform, our preliminary data indicates the feasibility of using this system as an alternative for large-scale production of recombinant influenza HA protein in the face of influenza pandemic threat.

  10. PANDEMIC FLU A/H1N1V: VIROLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE IN SOUTH TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Manini

    2012-05-01

    conclusion, the data demonstrates that the age group mainly affected is that between ages 0-24. Presumably such data is justified by considering that the immune system of younger people has never come in contact previously with the variants similar to the A/H1N1, whereas older adults would seem to be less sus- ceptible, probably because they have already come in contact with similar viruses. The obtained data illustrates an elevated level of contagiousness among individuals, since the new influenza virus A/H1N1 of 2009, represents a variant of completely different from other H1N1 viruses that had previously circulated in the human species. It should be pointed out that the hemagglutinin differs by 27.2% and the neuraminidase by 18.2% compared to the amino acid sequence of the 2008 H1N1 influenza virus and by the variant of the viral strain used for the production of the vaccine, this lent to a sig- nificant pandemic potential. The trend of positivity in local cases from the 29th week was kept at medium-low levels until the 38th week with a great increase, probably due to the reopening of schools and offices after the summer break.

  11. Predicting the antigenic structure of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Igarashi

    Full Text Available The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1 was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from "classical swine H1N1" virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s-1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population.

  12. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

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    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  13. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731. PMID:25969984

  14. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for differential diagnosis of 2009 pandemic H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) is genetically related to North American swine H1 influenza viruses and unrelated to human seasonal H1 viruses. Currently, specific diagnosis of pdmH1N1 relies on RT-PCR. In order to develop an assay that does not rely in amplification of the viral...

  15. Influenza A (H1N1): Past season’s wonder flu in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Joveš-Sević Biljana; Obradović Dušanka; Batranović Uroš; Stojanović Miloš; Sovilj-Gmizić Stanislava; Bošković Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Influenza A (H1N1) re-emerged in the human population during 2009. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical presentation and treatment outcome among patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Methods. The study was performed at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina including all the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit or High Dependency Unit with confirmed, probable or suspected Influenza A (H1N1) infe...

  16. Immune history shapes specificity of pandemic H1N1 influenza antibody responses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; Myers, Jaclyn L.; Bostick, David L; Sullivan, Colleen B.; Madara, Jonathan; Linderman, Susanne L.; Liu, Qin; Carter, Donald M.; Wrammert, Jens; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Ross, Ted M.; Ahmed, Rafi; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Human antibody responses against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus are predominantly directed against conserved epitopes in the stalk and receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. This is in stark contrast to pH1N1 antibody responses generated in ferrets, which are focused on the variable Sa antigenic site of HA. Here, we show that most humans born between 1983 and 1996 elicited pH1N1 antibody responses that are directed against an epitope near the HA receptor–binding doma...

  17. Novel virus, atypical risk group: understanding young adults in college as an under-protected population during H1N1 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Karl; Berkman, Jennifer; Chatkoff, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine illness/vaccination perceptions of and intentions to vaccinate for seasonal influenza (SI) and 2009 H1N1 in the college setting. Participants: 1190 adults [M=23.5 years (SD=9.5)] from a university in the North-Eastern U.S. Methods: We deployed a web-based survey via campus email just prior to the 2009 H1N1 vaccine release. Results: Younger adults (18-24 years) had lesser understanding of the difference between influenza types, and they reported less regular and current S...

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP related to the Pandemic (H1N1 2009 among Chinese General Population: a Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Weirong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of pandemic (H1N1 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face. Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86, and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73 were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50, the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11, the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78, the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64, and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23. Conclusions This A/H

  19. [Virological surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its genetic characteristics in Hunan Province, 2009-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Li, Fang-Cai; Chen, Zhang; Li, Wen-Chao; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Gao, Li-Dong

    2013-03-01

    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6%, of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46. 8%00 of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the 1st-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2% - 100. 0% in homology), but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and 1321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective. Key words: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009; Surveillance; Genetic characteristics PMID:23757845

  20. 甲型H1N1流感的中医证候特点%TCM Syndrome Characteristics of Type A H1N1 Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁腾霄; 吴畏; 解红霞; 李雁; 刘清泉; 姜良铎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the TCM syndrome characteristics of Type A H1N1 Flu with those of the ordinary seasonal flu in the same year in order to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods The data of 200 cases of Type A H1N1 Flu and 200 cases of ordinary seasonal flu in the same year were collected. The cross section investigation on the general clinical manifestatioris and TCM syndromes of Type A H1N1 Flu cases was carried out and compared with those of ordinary seasonal flu cases for analysis. Results The average body temperature of Type A H1N1 Flu group was significantly higher than that of the ordinary seasonal flu group (P<0. 05). There was statistical difference between the two groups in the frequency of symptoms including fever, sore throat, heaviness in extremities, heaviness in the head, aversion to wind and cold, chills, headache, obstruction of nose, running nose, and thirst (P<0. 01). With the seasonal change, in the Type A H1N1 Flu group, the rate of heaviness in the head, heaviness in extremities, aversion to wind and cold, and chills increased. There was statistical significance in summer and autumn as compared with winter (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion The causative factor of Type A H1N1 Flu is the pathogenic heat combined with damp, and its pathogenesis is that the damp-heat invades the lung, causing a pathogenic condition in which the lung and defensive qi are both diseased, therefore, the exterior syndrome is so short and the pathogen enters the interior so quickly.%目的 比较甲型H1N1流感与当年普通季节性流感的中医证候特点,指导甲型H1N1流感辨证论治.方法 分别收集甲型H1N1流感患者和当年普通季节性流感患者各200例,对甲型H1N1流感患者的一般临床特征和中医证候进行横断面调查,并与普通的季节性流感患者的资料作对比分析.结果 甲型H1N1流感组平均体温明显高于普通季节性流感组(P<0.05);两组患者发热、咽痛、肢体困重

  1. H1N1 Influenza Flu:Report of 130 Cases%甲型H1N1流行性感冒临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴传芬; 何爱民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of H1N1 pandemic influenza. Methods Clinical characteristics and treatment of 130 cases of H1N1 influenza were retrospectively analyzed. Results Patients with mild H1N1 flu responsed to the supportive treatment by traditional Chinese medicine, Lianhuaqingwen capsule while severe patients with complicated infections responsed to combined anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir, an anti -influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor. Comparison of WBC count, lymphocyte fraction, neutrophil fraction, and platelet count between hefore and after treatment showed significant differences ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion H1N1 pandemic influenza spread widely and rapidly, which were easily be infected. Combination of anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir is effective in treating H1N1 flu with complicated infections.%目的 探讨甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)的诊断、治疗要点.方法 回顾性分析130例甲型H1N1流感患者的临床特点、治疗方法.结果 病情轻的甲型H1N1流感患者给予中成药连花清瘟胶囊对症、支持治疗有效;病情重合并感染者给予抗感染中药对症、支持治疗基础上,加用神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦抗病毒治疗有效.130例患者治疗前后白细胞计数、淋巴细胞分数、中性粒细胞分数、血小板计数比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甲型H1N1流感传播广而迅猛,人群普遍易感.抗病毒(神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦)、中成药(连花清瘟胶囊)及对症支持治疗合并感染者有效.

  2. Surveillance of influenza A(H_1N_1)in Hangzhou city in 2009%2009年杭州市甲型H_1N_1流感监测现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘社兰; 谢立; 杨旭辉; 孙昼; 王婧; 程瑾; 黄仁杰; 缪凡; 阮冰; 邓晶

    2010-01-01

    -like illness was comparatively flat during the first 28 weeks of 2009,then the percentage of patients with influenza-like illness increased and climbed to the peak at 35th week(7.47%,5 442/72 859).This number declined in the following weeks but rose again at 41st week.At 46th week,a second peak appeared and the percentage of Datients with influenza-1ike illness was 11.32%(11 034/97 436).Virological surveillance showed that the circulation of influenzz viruses before 38th week were mainly H_3N_2,B and seasonal influenza virus H_1N_1,while from 44th week on,the pandemic H_1N_1 influenza was the only predominated strain.Main snsceptible population in 2009 Hangzhou pandemic H_1N_1 influenza was people aged 11-25,and most of them were students.H_1N_1 strains of Hangzhou in 2009 were identical to strains in other parts of China,North American strains and vaccine candidate strain with 99%homology.but only 70%homology with seasonal inflnellZa virus.Conclusions The 2009 influenza A(H_1N_1)in Hangzhou has now entered a phase of rapid and susmined community transmission,susceptible populations are young adults.The predominated strain is the influenza A H_1N_1 type with high affinity and low pathogenicity to humans and no important variation.

  3. Influenza A (H1N1: Past season’s wonder flu in Vojvodina

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    Joveš-Sević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Influenza A (H1N1 re-emerged in the human population during 2009. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical presentation and treatment outcome among patients with influenza A (H1N1 infection. Methods. The study was performed at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina including all the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit or High Dependency Unit with confirmed, probable or suspected Influenza A (H1N1 infection between November 6th, 2009 and April 13th, 2010. Results. Among 64 patients Influenza A (H1N1 infection was confirmed by rt-PCR in 50, defined as probable in 7 and as suspected in 6 patients. There was an equal number of male and female patients. Their mean age was 46 years (SD ± 12.1. None of the patients were vaccinated against influenza. Comorbidities were present in 37 (58% patients. There were 29 (45% obese patients. Three patients were pregnant. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 5 days (IQR 4-7. At admission, the median Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS was 4 (IQR 3-6. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100% and fever (89%. The mean oxygen saturation at admission was 85.3% (SD 9.0. Auscultatory finding of wheesing in the absence of a chronic lung disease was found in 10 (15.6% patients. Leukopenia was noted in 23 (35.9% patients, and thrombocytopenia in 14 (21.9% patients. Aspartate aminotransferase values were elevated in 41 (64.1% patients, alanine aminotransferase in 32 (50% patients, and creatine kinase in 36 (56.2% patients. Opacities on an initial chest radiograph were predominantly patchy and the median number of the lung fields involved was 1 (IQR = 0-3. The non-survivors had statistically significantly higher MEWS at admission (p = 0.0001, lower oxygen saturation (p = 0.001, more lung fields involved on an initial chest radiograph (p = 0.006, wheezing in the absence of chronic lung disease (p = 0.02 and

  4. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  5. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Naveen Dutt; Sushant Khanduri; Baijayantimala Mishra; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of severe H1N1 influenza with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation benefited from noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The NIPPV may be of great use in treating patients with H1N1-related acute respiratory distress syndrome in a resource poor setting or when invasive ventilator is unavailable.

  6. Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: 2 years after

    OpenAIRE

    ALLAM, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the emergence of the new H1N1 influenza virus saw the world brace itself for the first influenza pandemic since 1968. Two years after, it is time to evaluate the situation of that Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and its combat measures.

  7. Susceptibility of poultry to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus in Mexico. The causative agent was complex reassortant influenza A virus with gene segments from North American classic H1N1 swine viruses, North American avian viruses, huma...

  8. Modeling for appropriate awareness of H1N1 influenza among urban population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Rathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 influenza is a viral disease. World Health Organization declared it phase 6 level of pandemic. India, especially Gujarat suffered most from its high case fatality rate. Hence, it was decided to assess awareness level through modelling about H1N1 influenza in urban population of 18 years and above of Vadodara, India.

  9. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  10. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  11. Pandemic Influenza and Type A H1N1 Influenza%大流行流感与甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方捍华; 袁力勇; 李长贵

    2009-01-01

    目的 对大流行流感和甲型H1N1进行综述.方法 参考国内外近期的有关文献和WHO的相关报道,介绍了流感病毒的基本知识、大流行流感的定义和发展,以及甲型H1N1流感的特点和流行现状等.结果 与结论大流行流感具有传播性强、危害大等特点,2009年的甲型H1N1流感为21世纪的第1次大流感,应加以重视.

  12. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理%Influenza A H1N1 influenza patient care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感患者的护理方法.方法:回顾分析我院2009年8月至2010年1月收治的112例患者的临床资料.结果:112例患者治愈出院.结论:对甲型H1N1流感患者在治疗的同时,有针对性采取护理措施以及严格的消毒隔离制度,是救治甲型H1N1流感的保证.

  13. Complex Patterns of Human Antisera Reactivity to Novel 2009 H1N1 and Historical H1N1 Influenza Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Donald M.; Lu, Hai-Rong; Bloom, Chalise E.; Crevar, Corey J.; Cherry, Joshua L.; Lipman, David J.; Ross, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic, individuals over the age of 60 had the lowest incidence of infection with approximately 25% of these people having pre-existing, cross-reactive antibodies to novel 2009 H1N1 influenza isolates. It was proposed that older people had pre-existing antibodies induced by previous 1918-like virus infection(s) that cross-reacted to novel H1N1 strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using antisera collected from a cohort of individuals collected before t...

  14. Large scale genome analysis shows that the epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies are predominant in the pandemic 2009 influenza virus A H1N1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ramírez, Edgar E; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1)pdm09) has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1)pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB), were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1) pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA), which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1)pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1)pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines. PMID:24257096

  15. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  16. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoutsakis N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis1, Dimitrios Glaros2,3, Theodoros Kontakiotis1, Marios Froudarakis4, loannis Kioumis1, loannis Kouroumichakis3, Anastasios Tsiotsios1, Anastasios Kallianos5, Paschalis Steiropoulos4, Konstantinos Porpodis1, Evagelia Nena6, Despoina Papakosta1, Aggeliki Rapti5, Theodoros C Constantinidis6, Theodora Kerenidi7, Maria Panopoulou8, Georgia Trakada9, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis10, Evangelia Fouka11, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1, Efstratios Maltezos2,31Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" Hospital, Exochi, Thessaloniki, 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, 4Pulmonary Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 52nd Pulmonology Clinic, Hospital of Chest Diseases "SOTIRIA," Athens, 6Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Occupational Medicine Section, Teaching Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, Alexandroupolis, 7Pulmonary Department, University of Larissa, Larissa, 8Microbiology Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 9Pulmonary Department, University of Athens, Athens, 10Radiology Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 111st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" Hospital, Exochi, Thessaloniki, GreeceBackground: The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1 was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study's objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection.Methods: In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary

  17. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. METHODS/RESULTS: The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  18. Genome evolution of novel influenza A (H1N1)viruses in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; HU SongNian; LI TianXian

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic situation of A H1N1 flu arose in North America in April 2009,which rapidly expanded to three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa,with the risk ranking up to 5.Until May 13th,the flu virus of A H1N1 had spread into 33 countries and regions,with a laboratory confirmed case number of 5728,including 61 deaths.Based on IRV and EpiFluDB database,425 parts of A H1N1 flu virus sequence were achieved,followed by sequenced comparison and evolution analysis.The results showed that the current predominant A H1N1 flu virus was a kind of triple reassortment A flu virus:(i) HA,NA,MP,NP and NS originated from swine influenza virus;PB2 and PA originated from bird influenza virus;PB1 originated from human influenza virus.(ii) The origin of swine influenza virus could be subdivided as follows:HA,NP and NS originated from classic swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype;NA and MP originated from bird origin swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.(iii) A H1N1 flu virus experienced no significant mutation during the epidemic spread,accompanied with no reassortment of the virus genome.In the paper,the region of the representative strains for sequence analysis (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) and A/Mexico/4486/2009 (H1N1)) included USA and Mexico and was relatively wide,which suggested that the analysis results were convincing.

  19. The Neurological Manifestations of H1N1 Influenza Infection; Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization declared pandemic phase of human infection with novel influenza A (H1N1 in April 2009. There are very few reports about the neurological complications of H1N1 virus infection in the literature. Occasionally, these complications are severe and even fatal in some individuals. The aims of this study were to report neurological complaints and/or complications associated with H1N1 virus infection. Methods: The medical files of all patients with H1N1 influenza infection admitted to a specified hospital in the city of Shiraz, Iran from October through November 2009 were reviewed. More information about the patients were obtained by phone calls to the patients or their care givers. All patients had confirmed H1N1 virus infection with real-time PCR assay. Results: Fifty-five patients with H1N1 infection were studied. Twenty-three patients had neurological signs and/or symptoms. Mild neurological complaints may be reported in up to 42% of patients infected by H1N1 virus. Severe neurological complications occurred in 9% of the patients. The most common neurological manifestations were headache, numbness and paresthesia, drowsiness and coma. One patient had a Guillain-Barre syndrome-like illness, and died in a few days. Another patient had focal status epilepticus and encephalopathy. Conclusions: The H1N1 infection seems to have been quite mild with a self-limited course in much of the world, yet there appears to be a subset, which is severely affected. We recommend performing diagnostic tests for H1N1influenza virus in all patients with respiratory illness and neurological signs/symptoms. We also recommend initiating treatment with appropriate antiviral drugs as soon as possible in those with any significant neurological presentation accompanied with respiratory illness and flu-like symptoms

  20. Pandemic H1N1 influenza infections in 2009 Invited Author

    OpenAIRE

    Hacımustafaoğlu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    In early spring 2009 an outbreak of H1N1 influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico spreaded quickly and on June 11 2009 World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to phase 6 This novel H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus represented a quadruple reassortment of swine human and avian influenza virus strains This pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses in different regions of the world were found to be antigenically homogenous Transmission features incubation period and clinical fin...

  1. Severe novel influenza A (H1N1) infection in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, L. A.; Mauad, T; Galas, F. R. B. G.; Kumar, A.; da Silva, L. F. F.; Dolhnikoff, M; Trielli, T; Almeida, J. P.; Borsato, M. R. L.; Abdalla, E.; Pierrot, L.; Kalil Filho, R.; Auler, J. O. C.; Saldiva, P H N; Hoff, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The natural history and consequences of severe H1N1 influenza infection among cancer patients are not yet fully characterized. We describe eight cases of H1N1 infection in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a referral cancer center. Patients and methods: Clinical data from all patients admitted with acute respiratory failure due to novel viral H1N1 infection were reviewed. Lung tissue was submitted for viral and bacteriological analyses by real-time RT-PCR, and...

  2. A(H1N1)Influenza Pneumonia with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN YANG; YU-GUANG WANG; YUN-LIANG XU; XIAN-LING REN; YU MAO; XING-WANG LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION A 56-year-old Chinese female patient with A (H1N1) influenza pneumonia accompanied by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is described in this article. The patient had typical clinical manifestation,and the diagnosis was reached after MRI and other examinations. From this case, we can conclude that the virus ofA (H1N1) influenza can infect CNS, and we should pay more attention to patients of A (H1N1)influenza pneumonia with neurological complications.

  3. Epidemiological update on swine influenza (H1N1) in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Shiv Chandra; G. Venkatesh; Diwakar D. Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic has slowed down its spread after initial speed of transmission. The conventional swine influenza H1N1 virus (SIV) in pig populations worldwide needs to be differentiated from pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, however it is also essential to know about the exact role of pigs in the spread and mutations taking place in pig-to-pig transmission. The present paper reviews epidemiological features of classical SIV and its differentiation with pandemic influenza.

  4. Characterization of H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Circulating in Canadian Pigs in 2009▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nfon, Charles K.; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Zhang, Shunzhen; Handel, Katherine; Kehler, Helen; Labrecque, Olivia; Lewis, Nicola S.; Vincent, Amy L.; Copps, John; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), of apparent swine origin, may have evolved in pigs unnoticed because of insufficient surveillance. Consequently, the need for surveillance of influenza viruses circulating in pigs has received added attention. In this study we characterized H1N1 viruses isolated from Canadian pigs in 2009. Isolates from May 2009 were comprised of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) genes of classical SIV origin in combination with the North American triple-reassortant internal...

  5. Alteration of liver function due to H1N1 infection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alhammadi AH; Hendaus MA; Kayoum AA

    2013-01-01

    Ahmed H Alhammadi, Mohamed A Hendaus, Anas A Kayoum Department of Pediatrics, Section of General Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: H1N1 virus is known to affect the respiratory tract. The majority of healthcare providers focus on the respiratory complications attributed to H1N1 infection, overlooking possible multi-organ involvement. We present a rare case of abnormal liver function in a child who was admitted for respiratory illness due to the H1N1 virus. There was...

  6. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Boon H.; Mahmood, Tahir A.

    2011-01-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has ...

  7. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez David L; Spackman Erica; Wasilenko Jamie L; Pantin-Jackwood Mary; Swayne David E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the r...

  8. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha Sirjana; Prakash KC Khagendra; Upadhyay Bishnu; Shakya Geeta; Adhikari Bal Ram; Dhungana Guna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A pos...

  9. Temporal trends of influenza A (H1N1 virus seroprevalence following 2009 pandemic wave in Guangdong, China: three cross-sectional serology surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the temporal trends of seroprevalence to pH1N1 among the Guangdong population following 2009 H1N1 pandemic wave, we conducted three cross-sectional serology surveys in 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three surveys were carried out consecutively in 2010 from January 8 to January 24, from March 15 to April 10 and from August 23 to September 4. Sample populations comprising of 4725, 4727, and 4721 subjects respectively were randomly selected for study in these three surveys. The level of antibodies against pH1N1 was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition assay. In survey 1, the seroprevalence of pH1N1 among all the subjects is 25.1%, declining to 18.4% in survey 2 and increasing to 21.4% in survey 3. Among vaccinated subjects, the seroprevalence was 49.0%, 53.0%, and 49.4% in the three consecutive surveys, showing no significant differences. In contrast, among non-vaccinated subjects, the seroprevalence declined significantly from 22.8% (survey 1 to 14.3% (survey 2 and subsequently increased to 18.1% (survey 3. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seroprevalence to pH1N1 in non-vaccinated individuals correlated with the investigated order of the surveys, age, and region (all P<0.05. However, it was not correlated with gender (P = 0.650, seasonal influenza vaccination history (P = 0.402 and symptoms (P = 0.074. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Guangdong, the seroprevalance to pH1N1 decreased initially and then rebounded modestly during the first 9 months following the 2009 pandemic wave. Our results suggest that the prevalence of pH1N1 is still correlated with age and population density during the post-pandemic period. An early end to the free pH1N1 vaccination program might be another important reason for the slight rebound in seroprevalance. Our study findings can help the Guangdong authorities to make evidence-based decisions about a long-term vaccination strategy and boost immunity in specific

  10. Issues in pharmacotherapy of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic caused by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has been a cause of great concern for healthcare professionals and the scientific community worldwide. Due to the widespread resistance of the virus to adamantanes, pharmacotherapy is currently limited to neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir. The use of neuraminidase inhibitors in India is primarily associated with issues of patient and physician awareness, variability in disease management guidelines, safety and efficacy in the Indian population, need for active drug safety monitoring, and development of resistance due to possible misuse. In addition, other issues like availability of the drugs in retail and stockpiling by the public health authorities need careful introspection. The development of influenza vaccines in India and its adequate availability to the country′s populace also poses significant challenges in the management of the pandemic. In light of the limited therapeutic options available for the management of the disease, research on novel targets and pharmacological agents would also be beneficial in addressing the challenges of future outbreaks.

  11. Emerging influenza A/H1N1: challenges and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human population suffered to four major influenza pandemics in the past by influenza virus in the form of either bird flu or swine flu. The virus has immense capability to diverse as it is capable in antigenic shift, antigenic drift and reassortment due to its fragmented RNA genome. The severity of previous pandemics suggests that severity in human population is directly proportional to the degree of divergence in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes and so the virus is named as HnNn (H1N1, H5N1, etc. Till date no treatment (vaccines and drugs is available against influenza virus infection. Therefore, evolution of new strains, lack of herd immunity, high divergence rate, resistance against antiviral, co-infection with different influenza strains and replication in multiple hosts might help the present virus to develop in super-virus with a potential health threat to man-kind. To tackle the issue, there is a need for a joint venture among government health department, researchers, clinicians, ecologists and general public for future preparedness to combat future influenza pandemics.

  12. Akt inhibitor MK2206 prevents influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Oxana V; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kainov, Denis E

    2014-07-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus. PMID:24752266

  13. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  14. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  15. H1N1 infection in emergency surgery: A cautionary tale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 has spread rapidly since its first report in Mexico in March 2009. This is the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years and it atypically affects previously healthy young adults, with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The medical literature has been inundated with reports of H1N1 infection, the majority found in critical care and internal medicine journals with a relative paucity in the surgical literature. Despite this, it remains an important entity that can impact greatly on acute surgical emergencies. We present a case of previously healthy 31-year-old male who underwent open appendectomy. His post-operative recovery was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to H1N1 infection. This case report highlights the impact that H1N1 virus can have on acute surgical emergencies and how it can complicate the post-operative course.

  16. Encephalitis in a child with H1N1 infection: First case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications have been described with seasonal influenza infection. We report encephalitis manifesting as seizures in a child with confirmed H1N1 infection. Treatment with oseltamivir was started. Child was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  17. Hypothalamic abnormalities and Parkinsonism associated with H1N1 influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    González-Duarte Alejandra; Magaña Zamora Lucía; Cantú Brito Carlos; García-Ramos Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a case of a young adult with severe H1N1 influenza illness associated with hypothalamic abnormalities and post-influenza parkinsonism. Design Case report. Patient A 22-year-old woman with H1N1 influenza infection developed encephalopathy followed by diverse hypothalamic dysfunction manifestations, sleeplessness, and persistent parkinsonian features. Results CSF analysis, brain imaging and EEG ruled out hypoxic brain injury or other illnesses. Conclusions A numbe...

  18. Strengthening the International Health Regulations: lessons from the H1N1 pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kumanan; John S Brownstein; Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (2005) [IHR(2005)] represent a potentially revolutionary change in global health governance. The use of the regulations by the World Health Organization (WHO) to respond to the outbreak of pandemic influenza A 2009-H1N1 highlights the importance of the regulations to protecting global health security. As the 2009-H1N1 pandemic illustrated, the IHR(2005) have provided a more robust framework for responding to public health emergencies of international conce...

  19. Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women?

    OpenAIRE

    An, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Choi, Ok-Ja; Kim, Gwang-Sook; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jang, Hee-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than ...

  20. Systematic review: influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Infection with influenza A (H1N1)v (swine flu) has caused widespread anxiety, among patients who are potentially immunocompromised, such as those being treated for inflammatory bowel disease. Aims: Provide guidance for physicians and their patients on the risk, prevention and management of influenza A (H1N1)v infection. Methods: Medline was searched using the following key words: `swine flu?, `immunosuppression?, inflammatory bowel disease?, `recommendati...

  1. Clinical Predictors of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Choon Ok; Nam, Chung Mo; Lee, Duk-Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Lee, Ji Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread rapidly and prompt diagnosis is needed for successful treatment and prevention of transmission. We investigated clinical predictors, validated the use of previous criteria with laboratory tests, and evaluated the clinical criteria for H1N1 infection in the Korean population. Materials and Methods We analyzed clinical and laboratory evaluation data from outpatient clinics at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea between November 11 and December...

  2. Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatez MF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, little antigenic variation has been observed in the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. However, as the A(H1N1pdm09 virus continues to circulate and the immunologic pressure within the human population increases, future antigenic change is almost a certainty. Several coinfections of A(H1N1pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1 or A(H3N2 viruses have been observed, but no reassortant viruses have been described in humans, suggesting a lack of fitness of reassortant viruses or a lack of opportunities for interaction of different viral lineages. In contrast, multiple reassortment events have been detected in swine populations between A(H1N1 pdm09 and other endemic swine viruses. Somewhat surprisingly, many of the well characterized influenza virus virulence markers appear to have limited impact on the phenotype of the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses when they have been introduced into mutant viruses in laboratory settings. As such, it is unclear what the evolutionary path of the pandemic virus will be, but the monitoring of any changes in the circulating viruses will remain a global public and animal health priority.Keywords: influenza, pandemic, evolution, adaptation

  3. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign

  4. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness about H1N1 Flu in Urban Adult Population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and awareness about H1N1 flu in urban population of 18 years and aboveof Vadodara, India.Methods: A pre-designed self-rated instrument survey was conducted among 100 adults of 18 years and abovethrough a cross-sectional study design and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results: Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate knowledge regardingcausative organism (87%, mode of spread (45% and prevention (83%. Majority of participants (96% wouldconsult doctor for management of H1N1 flu and also participants (82% believe that hand washing is most importantpreventable measure for H1N1 flu.Conclusion: Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of H1N1 fluamong urban adult population still, active interventions are required in all areas of H1N1 flu pandemic not only toimprove their knowledge and awareness regarding H1N1 flu of urban adults but also for rural adults.

  6. Respiratory failure presenting in H1N1 influenza with Legionnaires disease: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Michele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Media sensationalism on the H1N1 outbreak may have influenced decisional processes and clinical diagnosis. Case Presentation We report two cases of patients who presented in 2009 with coexisting H1N1 virus and Legionella infections: a 69-year-old Caucasian man and a 71-year-old Caucasian woman. In our cases all the signs and symptoms, including vomiting, progressive respiratory disease leading to respiratory failure, refractory hypoxemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of creatine kinase and hepatic aminotransferases, were consistent with critical illness due to 2009 H1N1 virus infection. Other infectious disorders may mimic H1N1 viral infection especially Legionnaires' disease. Because the swine flu H1N1 pandemic occurred in Autumn in Italy, Legionnaires disease was to be highly suspected since the peak incidence usually occurs in early fall. We do think that our immediate suspicion of Legionella infection based on clinical history and X-ray abnormalities was fundamental for a successful resolution. Conclusion Our two case reports suggest that patients with H1N1 should be screened for Legionella, which is not currently common practice. This is particularly important since the signs and symptoms of both infections are similar.

  7. The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

  8. Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Bandaranayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (2009 H1N1 through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres of ≥1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4. The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0, a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8. Older adults aged ≥60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9 and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0. Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5 and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8 and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child

  9. Language Generation of A/H1N1 Flu%"甲型H1N1流感"之语言生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周筱娟

    2010-01-01

    语言静态是相对的,动态是绝对的.当下"猪流感"到"甲型H1N1流感"术语变更的实际情形表明,语言生成会经过"基础、修正、生成"的直线过程,经受从言语到语言的心理认知过程.

  10. Spontaneous reporting of adverse events following pandemic influenza A (H1N1 immunization in a reference center in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danise Senna Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper describes adverse events (AEs temporally associated to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine observed in a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, during a 2010 mass vaccination campaign. Methods A retrospective study involving persons who sought medical care for AEs following influenza vaccination. Data were retrieved from medical records, vaccine AE notification forms, and a computerized system for immunobiological registration. Results Sixty-six vaccinees sought medical care for AEs after immunization. The most frequent AEs were fever, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Few vaccinees spontaneously reported AEs to influenza A (H1N1 vaccine at this center.

  11. An epidemiological study of H1N1 influenza A%甲型H1N1流感病毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉香; 汪杨; 高玉伟; 王峰

    2014-01-01

    H1N1 influenza A spread around the world in 2009.There were lots of patients in China too.We did this research to know the epidemiological feature and transmission route and strengthen the prevention and control measure of the influenza.Methods:We collected the nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples of 56 patients who had flu symptom from the infectious disease department of 1st hospital of Jilin University from October in 2009 to December in 2009.The specific antibody of the serum samples were detected by the blood clots suppression method and the H 1N1 RNA of the nasopharyngeal swab was detected by the Nest-RT-PCR assay.Results:The results of nucleic acid test showed that 21(37.5%) and 16(27.8%) samples were found NP and M of influenza A positive respectively and only 2 ( 3.6%) were found H1N1 of influenza A positive.The results of the blood clots suppression method showed that the serum samples of 27 patients (48.2%) could suppress the red blood cells blot of H 1N1 influenza A specifically and all the antibody titer was more than 1∶320.The antibody titer was more than 1∶5 120 in 8 of them.There′s significant difference of the serum antibody titer between the recovery phase and the acute phase.The specific H1N1 influenza A antibody of 27 (48.2%) serum samples in the recovery phase were positive and it was much higher than the result of nucleic acid test .Conclusion:The nucleic acid could be detected in the acute phase and the serum antibody detection could be done in the later stage .Using both the assays could increase the positive rate of H 1N1 influenza.%目的:了解甲型H1 N1流感病毒的流行特点及传播规律,加强对流感大流行的防控。方法:收集2009年10~12月吉林大学第一医院住院发热门诊中具有流感症状患者的临床样品(鼻咽拭子和血清),采用血凝抑制法、巢式 RT-PCR技术检测具有流感症状患者血清标本中的特异性抗体、咽拭子中的甲型H1N1 RNA

  12. CD4+ T cell autoimmunity to hypocretin/orexin and cross-reactivity to a 2009 H1N1 influenza A epitope in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Mahlios, Josh;

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy, a disorder strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 (DQ0602), is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities. It is caused by the loss of ~70,000 posterior hypothalamic neurons that produce the...... narcolepsy with the 2009 H1N1 influenza A strain (pH1N1), we administered a seasonal influenza vaccine (containing pH1N1) to patients with narcolepsy and found an increased frequency of circulating HCRT56-68- and HCRT87-99-reactive T cells. We also identified a hemagglutinin (HA) pHA1 epitope specific to the...... 2009 H1N1 strain, pHA1275-287, with homology to HCRT56-68 and HCRT87-99. In vitro stimulation of narcolepsy CD4(+) T cells with pH1N1 proteins or pHA1275-287 increased the frequency of HCRT56-68- and HCRT87-99-reactive T cells. Our data indicate the presence of CD4(+) T cells that are reactive to HCRT...

  13. Clinical Presentation of Novel Influenza A (H1N1 in Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarpour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Human pandemic influenza H1N1 virus as the cause of febrile respiratory infection ranging from self-limited to severe illness has spread globally during 2009. Signs and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, fever, sore throat, rhinitis, myalgia, malaise, headache, chills and fatigue are common. In this article we report the clinical presentation of Influenza A (H1N1 in our hospitalized children. Methods:Between September and October 2009, all children requiring hospitalization for suspected H1N1 infection were transferred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases ward. For all patients the throat swab was taken for PCR testing to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza A. Case patients consisted of H1N1-positive patients. Age, sex, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, CXR changes, details of therapy, duration of admission and patient outcome were documented. Findings:Twenty patients were H1N1 positive. Mean age of the patients was 65.50±9.8 months. Fever and coughs were with 55% the most commonly reported symptoms. Other presentations included vomiting (55%, abdominal pain (25%, cyanosis and dyspnea (5%, body ache (40%, rhinorrhea (80%, sore throat (35%, head stiffness (5% and loss of conciousness (5%. The median temperature of the patients was 38.5ºC. Chest X-Ray changes were noted in 13 out of 20 patients (65%. Mean leukocyte and platelet was 6475 and 169000 respectively. Seventeen (85% patients were treated with Oseltamivir, 3 patients received adjuvant antibiotics. The mean duration of admission was 3 days. Three patients required intensive care support and all of them expired due to superinfection. Conclusion:Our data confirm that the presentation of influenza in children is variable and 2009 H1N1 influenza may cause leucopenia and thrombocytopenia.

  14. Close Relationship between the 2009 H1N1 Virus and South Dakota AIV Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Li; Xiao-ping An; Zhi-qiang Mi; Da-bin Liu; Huan-huan Jiang; Bo Pan; Sheng Wang; Bin Chen; Yi-gang Tong

    2011-01-01

    Although previous publications suggest the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)virus was reassorted from swine viruses of North America and Eurasia, the immediate ancestry still remains elusive due to the big evolutionary distance between the 2009 H1N1 virus and the previously isolated strains. Since the unveiling of the2009 H1N1 influenza, great deal of interest has been drawn to influenza, consequently a large number of influenza virus sequences have been deposited into the public sequence databases. Blast analysis demonstrated that the recently submitted 2007 South Dakota avian influenza virus strains and other North American avian strains contained genetic segments very closely related to the 2009 H1N1 virus, which suggests these avian influenza viruses are very close relatives of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Phylogenetic analyses also indicate that the2009 H1N1 viruses are associated with both avian and swine influenza viruses circulating in North America. Since the migrating wild birds are preferable to pigs as the carrier to spread the influenza viruses across vast distances, it is very likely that birds played an important role in the inter-continental evolution of the 2009 H1N1virus. It is essential to understand the evolutionary route of the emerging influenza virus in order to find a way to prevent further emerging cases. This study suggests the close relationship between 2009 pandemic virus and the North America avian viruses and underscores enhanced surveillance of influenza in birds for understanding the evolution of the 2009 pandemic influenza.

  15. Nationwide molecular surveillance of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus genomes: Canada, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Graham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza A H1N1 virus ("A/H1N1pdm"; also known as SOIV was detected and spread globally as the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Sequencing has since been conducted at an unprecedented rate globally in order to monitor the diversification of this emergent virus and to track mutations that may affect virus behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By Sanger sequencing, we determined consensus whole-genome sequences for A/H1N1pdm viruses sampled nationwide in Canada over 33 weeks during the 2009 first and second pandemic waves. A total of 235 virus genomes sampled from unique subjects were analyzed, providing insight into the temporal and spatial trajectory of A/H1N1pdm lineages within Canada. Three clades (2, 3, and 7 were identifiable within the first two weeks of A/H1N1pdm appearance, with clades 5 and 6 appearing thereafter; further diversification was not apparent. Only two viral sites displayed evidence of adaptive evolution, located in hemagglutinin (HA corresponding to D222 in the HA receptor-binding site, and to E374 at HA2-subunit position 47. Among the Canadian sampled viruses, we observed notable genetic diversity (1.47 x 10⁻³ amino acid substitutions per site in the gene encoding PB1, particularly within the viral genomic RNA (vRNA-binding domain (residues 493-757. This genome data set supports the conclusion that A/H1N1pdm is evolving but not excessively relative to other H1N1 influenza A viruses. Entropy analysis was used to investigate whether any mutated A/H1N1pdm protein residues were associated with infection severity; however no virus genotypes were observed to trend with infection severity. One virus that harboured heterozygote coding mutations, including PB2 D567D/G, was attributed to a severe and potentially mixed infection; yet the functional significance of this PB2 mutation remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings contribute to

  16. Pandemia de gripe A (H1N1: estrategia de vigilancia y vacunación en las Fuerzas Armadas Pandemic of swine flu (H1N1: strategies for surveillance and immunization in the Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Cáceres Bermejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Fuerzas Armadas constituyen un colectivo de interés especial en cuanto a la vigilancia y prevención de la gripe. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las medidas de Salud Pública adoptadas frente a la pandemia de gripe A (H1N1. Se elaboraron protocolos de actuación específicos, tanto en vigilancia epidemiológica como en vacunación, en territorio nacional y en zona de operaciones. El número de casos notificados de gripe A fue de 1223 (el 57,5% en el Ejército de Tierra, 10 necesitaron hospitalización, y no se produjo ninguna defunción. Se distribuyeron 67.800 vacunas pandémicas y la cobertura fue del 9,7%, la Unidad Militar de Emergencias fue donde se conseguieron coberturas más altas (45,9%. Se notificaron 613 efectos adversos a la vacunación, todos ellos fueron leves.The Armed Forces constitute a group of special interest for the surveillance and the prevention of influenza. The aim of this paper is to describe the public health measures taken in response to pandemic of Influenza A (H1N1. Specific protocols of action were designed for the epidemiological surveillance and the vaccination, for national territory and operation areas. The reported cases of Influenza A were 1223 (57,5% in the Army, 10 have required hospitalization, and no death has taken place. 67800 pandemic vaccines have been distributed and the coverage reached 9,7 %, the highest coverage of vaccination (45,9% was obtained in the UME (Emergencies Military Unit. 613 adverse effects to the vaccination were reported, but all of them were slight.

  17. Hypothalamic abnormalities and Parkinsonism associated with H1N1 influenza infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Duarte Alejandra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe a case of a young adult with severe H1N1 influenza illness associated with hypothalamic abnormalities and post-influenza parkinsonism. Design Case report. Patient A 22-year-old woman with H1N1 influenza infection developed encephalopathy followed by diverse hypothalamic dysfunction manifestations, sleeplessness, and persistent parkinsonian features. Results CSF analysis, brain imaging and EEG ruled out hypoxic brain injury or other illnesses. Conclusions A number of viruses have been associated with both acute and chronic parkinsonism. A link between parkinsonism and influenza viruses is somewhat controversial. This is the first reported case of parkinsonism following an H1N1 influenza infection.

  18. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Liberatore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65years and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions andlaboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up.Conclusion: The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered.

  19. Opinions on Influenza A (H1N1)%我的一点看法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟南山

    2009-01-01

    2009年4月,一场突如其来的疫情席卷全球,引起各国高度重视。这一疫情的命名经历了从“猪流感(swine influenza)”等词到“甲型H1N1流感(influenza A(H1N1))”的变化。本刊对此命名变化的来龙去脉以及“甲型H1N1流感”的含义进行了梳理与解读,并就命名问题征询了一些专家的意见。

  20. Mongrelised genetics of H1N1 virus: A bird′s eyeview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 influenza, also known as "novel H1N1 virus" has led to a "global outcry." This virus is more virulent when compared with other seasonal flu viruses. Virulence may change as the adaptive mutation gene increases within the virus. A study at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain as they showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction when compared with adults aged 18-64 years, who showed a cross-reactive antibody reaction of 6-9% and older adults with 33% immunity. This review article depicts H1N1 virus, its virulence with genetic evolution potential and preventive protocol for the dental professionals. This would allow us to comprehend the changes in the disease process and contribute in its prevention as "prevention is better than cure."

  1. Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection in a Pennsylvania domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Rankin, J T; Daverio, S A; Hunt, E A; Lute, J R; Tewari, D; Acland, H M; Ostrowski, S R; Moll, M E; Urdaneta, V V; Ostroff, S M

    2011-11-01

    We report the earliest recognized fatality associated with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in a domestic cat in the United States. The 12-year old, indoor cat died on 6 November 2009 after exposure to multiple family members who had been ill with influenza-like illness during the peak period of the fall wave of pH1N1 in Pennsylvania during late October 2009. The clinical presentation, history, radiographic, laboratory and necropsy findings are presented to assist veterinary care providers in understanding the features of this disease in cats and the potential for transmission of infection to pets from infected humans. PMID:21824345

  2. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  3. 在线监测2009 H1N1流感%On-line Monitoring of 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John S.Brownstein; Clark C.Freifeld; Lawrence C.Madoff; 黄海

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感的出现,使基于信息网络建立的疾病早期诊断、公共卫生监测以及风险交流体现出了显著的重要性.从现阶段的情况来看,互联网和社会媒体在这次流感爆发的发现和应对中发挥了突出作用.

  4. Molecular epidemiology and complete genome characterization of H1N1pdm virus from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus is one of world's major uncontrolled pathogen, causing seasonal epidemic as well as global pandemic. This was evidenced by recent emergence and continued prevalent 2009 swine origin pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus, provoking first true pandemic in the past 40 years. In the course of its evolution, the virus acquired many mutations and multiple unidentified molecular determinants are likely responsible for the ability of the 2009 H1N1 virus to cause increased disease severity in humans. Availability of limited data on complete genome hampers the continuous monitoring of this type of events. Outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from all parts of the country. METHODS/RESULTS: Considering a large number of clinical cases of infection complete genome based sequence characterization of Indian H1N1pdm virus and their phylogenetic analysis with respect to circulating global viruses was undertaken, to reveal the phylodynamic pattern of H1N1pdm virus in India from 2009-2011. The Clade VII was observed as a major circulating clade in phylogenetic analysis. Selection pressure analysis revealed 18 positively selected sites in major surface proteins of H1N1pdm virus. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly revealed that clade VII has been identified as recent circulating clade in India as well globally. Few clade VII specific well identified markers undergone positive selection during virus evolution. Continuous monitoring of the H1N1pdm virus is warranted to track of the virus evolution and further transmission. This study will serve as a baseline data for future surveillance and also for development of suitable therapeutics.

  5. Analysis of fatal outcomes from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdenebaatariin Soyolmaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While influenza A(H1N1pdm09 usually causes mild illness in the majority of people, there have been reports of severe cases and deaths. As there is no documented evidence on fatal outcomes from influenza in Mongolia previously, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of fatal influenza A(H1N1pdm09 cases to provide recommendations to assist the national influenza prevention and control strategy.Methods: We selected influenza A(H1N1pdm09-confirmed deaths in hospitals between 12 October 2009 and 31 January 2010 in Mongolia from the national influenza surveillance system. The mortality rate and case fatality rate (CFR of influenza A(H1N1pdm09-hospitalized deaths were calculated. Using country prevalence of pregnancy and chronic diseases, we calculated the relative risk of death from influenza A(H1N1pdm09.Results: There were 29 deaths with a mortality rate of 1.0 per 100 000 population during the study period, which was highest in children under five and the middle-aged population. Crude CFR was 2.2%. Of all fatal cases, 62% had at least one underlying condition. Most (62% were provided antivirals, although none received these within 48 hours of symptom onset. Prevalence for pregnancy, cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases was five to 50 times higher in fatal cases compared to country prevalence.Discussion: Mortality and crude CFR in our study was higher than in other studies. However, due to the diagnostic policy change during the epidemic, this estimate is likely to have overestimated actual case fatalities. Pregnancy, cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases were suggestive risk factors for death from influenza A(H1N1pdm09. Strengthening hospital-based influenza surveillance is important in predicting severity of an epidemic and responding to influenza epidemics in a timely and appropriate manner.

  6. Precipitation of new onset diabetes by H1N1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S V S; Sunil, K; Prasad, R Devi; Modi, K D

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases in type 2 diabetes can complicate diabetic ketoacidosis, derange hyperglycemia, or precipitate new onset diabetes. Pulmonary tuberculosis being the most common. High index of clinical suspicion is required for co-existing H1N1 virus, which if present has high mortality if not treated. A 63-year-old female, with no known chronic illness, was hospitalized in month of Aug 2010 with influenza-like symptoms and diabetes. Quick evaluation revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, p02 90% at room air, and normotensive. Clinical chest examination was normal. Further evaluation revealed NHO in both lung fields on chest X-ray, hyperglycemia 325 mg/dl, detected for first time. Her signs and symptoms were out of proportion to clinical findings and chest X-ray findings. Patient was managed with insulin infusion and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage in ICU. As her condition worsened over next 12 hrs, infection with H1N1 was suspected and empirically started on oseltamavir after taking throat swab for H1N1 test and later, the sample was tested positive for H1N1 influenza by RT-PCR. Clinical course in the hospital was complicated by oxygen dependence requiring 10-12 ltr/hr by nasal mask. She made an uneventful recovery. In a known diabetic, infection with H1N1 quadruples ICU hospitalization, and only few cases of new onset diabetes with H1N1 were reported. Two reported from Iran had fatal outcome. This case emphasis on clinical acumen in recognition, and prompt institution of therapy will reduce associated mortality. PMID:23565458

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Influenza A (H1N1) between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou%2009年~2011年广州市甲型H1N1流感监测定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 姜虹; 饶阳

    2011-01-01

    本文对广州市2009年7月~2011年1月的发热呼吸道监测数据进行了定量分析,并在此分析的基础上提出了相关政策建议,比如加强人群分类管理、加快疫苗研制、避免抗病毒药物的滥用、重视健康管理和健康教育以及遵循预防控制原则等.%This article has done some quantitative analysis of influenza A {H1N1) between July,2009 and January,2011 in Guangzhou, and drawn some suggestion , such as to strengthen the management of crowd classifying , speed up the devel-opment of vaccine, avoid abusage of antiviral drug, think highly of health management and health instruction ,and to follow influenza A (H1N1) precaution principle.

  8. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  9. Clinical characteristics of acute encephalopathies associated with influenza H1N1-2009 in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 12 cases of acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009 treated according to Japanese guideline (2009). In all 12 cases, electroencephalogram presented diffuse or localized high-amplitude slow waves. Brain CT and MRI showed abnormalities in 4 and 6 cases, respectively. We used hypothermia therapy for 5 patients. One patient showed impairment in short term memory, while the rest of the patients showed no sequelae. These 12 cases presented here suggest the early recognition and therapy according to the newly proposed guideline may reduce severe sequelae and mortality by acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009. (author)

  10. [Influenza A H1N1v treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Reinhold; Severinsen, Inge Krogh; Terp, Kim; Boyko, Yuliya; Storgaard, Merete

    2010-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with body mass index > 30 was admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia due to H1N1v. Thoracic X-ray showed bilateral, diffuse infiltrates. There was no sign of complicating bacterial infection and all microbiological tests of tracheal secretion, blood and urine were negative....... Polymerase chain reaction test for H1N1v was positive until day ten. No mutations were found in the virus. The patient was given oseltamivir tablets and inhalable zanamivir as well as antibiotics. The patient was treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (EcmO) for 12 days followed by ventilator...

  11. Pulmonary Complication of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Infection: Imaging Features in Two Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) virus is the pathogen of recent global outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection. We herein report the imaging findings of pulmonary complication in two patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. The first patient without secondary infection showed the ill-defined ground-glass opacity nodules and patch areas of ground-glass opacities. The second patient with secondary pneumococcal pneumonia showed areas of lobar consolidation in the right middle lobe and left lower lobe and ground-glass opacities

  12. Origin and fate of A/H1N1 influenza in Scotland during 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, S.; McLeish, N.J.; Robertson, C.; Carman, W; Baillie, G.; McMenamin, J.; Rambaut, A; Simmonds, P.; Woolhouse, M.; Leigh Brown, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of influenza has usually been described by a ‘density’ model, where the largest centres of population drive the epidemic within a country. An alternative model emphasizing the role of air travel has recently been developed. We have examined the relative importance of the two in the context of the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic in Scotland. We obtained genome sequences of 70 strains representative of the geographical and temporal distribution of H1N1 influenza during the summer and wi...

  13. Computed Tomography Findings in New Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram; Bahare Saidi; Payam Tabarsi; Soheyla Zahirifard

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to"nevaluate the computed tomography scan of patients"nwith documented influenza A (H1N1)."nPatients and Methods: Thirteen patients (six men,"nseven women), with documented H1N1 infection"nconfirmed by RT-PCR from November 2009 to January"n2010 were included in this study. The computed"ntomography scans of the patients were reviewed"nregarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules"nand reticul...

  14. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Blower Sally; Wagner Bradley G; Coburn Brian J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 e...

  15. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Felix; Haque Shamsul; Goodwin Robin; Myers Lynn B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert l...

  16. 北京市中小学生甲型H1N1流感感染影响因素的病例对照研究%A case-control study on risk factors of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ) in primary and secondary school students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玮; 杨鹏; 张奕; 刘爽; 刘文婷; 王全意

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨北京市中、小学生甲型H1N1流感感染的相关影响因素.方法采用1∶2病例-对照研究方法,通过问卷调查,在6个区县收集304对病例和对照的个人卫生习惯、疫苗接种史、搭乘交通工具等信息.结果多因素logistic回归结果显示,教室内学生密度,教室通风情况,课间活动范围,打喷嚏后是否洗手,睡眠时间,上学交通方式,接种甲流疫苗和不带病上课与甲型H1N1流感感染有关.结论参加户外活动、加强教室通风、注意手卫生、保证睡眠允足、不乘坐密闭的交通工具、接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗是预防中小学生甲型H1N1流感感染的重要手段.%Objective To explore the risk factors of the students infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 ) infectious in primary and secondary schools in Beijing. Methods A 1:2 matched casecontrol study was used to analyze the information of personal hygienic habits, vaccination history, means of transportation etc via standardized questionnaires . 304pairs of cases and controls were collected from 6 districta. Results The following variables were significantly associated with 2009 pandemic influenza ( H1N1 )infection in multivariate factor logistic regression analysis including classroom space per student, classroom ventilation, area of recreation activities, hand washing after sneezing, hours of sleep, means of transportation to school and H1 N1 vaccination. Conclusions Having outdoor activities, maintaining classroom ventilation, hand hygiene and adequate sleep, taking the unsealed vehicles and H1N1 vaccination are important measures to prevent pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection among primary and secondary school students.

  17. Perceptions of and willingness to engage in public health precautions to prevent 2009 H1N1 influenza transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Lynn T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations about precautionary behaviors are a key part of public health responses to infectious disease threats such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Individuals' interpretation of recommendations, willingness to comply, and factors predicting willingness were examined. Methods A telephone survey of adult residents of New York State was conducted (N = 807. Respondents reported how they interpreted recommendations, willingness to engage in recommended actions, risk perceptions for H1N1 infection, and perceived efficacy of recommendations. Demographic characteristics were used to calculate sampling weights to obtain population-representative estimates. Results There was substantial variability in interpretation of preventive actions. Willingness to engage in preventive actions also varied substantially; vaccination willingness was substantially lower than other preventive actions. No pattern of demographic characteristics consistently predicted willingness. Perceived efficacy was associated with willingness for all recommendations, and perceived severity was associated with willingness for some recommendations. Conclusions Results suggest that individual interpretation of actions differ widely. The results suggest that current recommendations are not clear to laypeople and are open to different interpretations. These varying interpretations should be considered in crafting public health messages about precautionary behaviors.

  18. Large-scale evolutionary surveillance of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus using resequencing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlie Wah Heng; Koh, Chee Wee; Chan, Yang Sun; Aw, Pauline Poh Kim; Loh, Kuan Hon; Han, Bing Ling; Thien, Pei Ling; Nai, Geraldine Yi Wen; Hibberd, Martin L.; Wong, Christopher W.; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2010-01-01

    In April 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1 2009) virus emerged that rapidly spread around the world. While current variants of this virus have caused widespread disease, particularly in vulnerable groups, there remains the possibility that future variants may cause increased virulence, drug resistance or vaccine escape. Early detection of these virus variants may offer the chance for increased containment and potentially prevention of the virus spread. We have developed and field-tested a resequencing kit that is capable of interrogating all eight segments of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus genome and its variants, with added focus on critical regions such as drug-binding sites, structural components and mutation hotspots. The accompanying base-calling software (EvolSTAR) introduces novel methods that utilize neighbourhood hybridization intensity profiles and substitution bias of probes on the microarray for mutation confirmation and recovery of ambiguous base queries. Our results demonstrate that EvolSTAR is highly accurate and has a much improved call rate. The high throughput and short turn-around time from sample to sequence and analysis results (30 h for 24 samples) makes this kit an efficient large-scale evolutionary biosurveillance tool. PMID:20185568

  19. Impedimetric detection of influenza A (H1N1) DNA sequence using carbon nanotubes platform and gold nanoparticles amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, A; Pividori, M I; del Valle, M

    2010-07-01

    In this work we report the use of an impedimetric genosensor for the model detection of H1N1 swine flu correlated DNA sequence. An oligonucleotide DNA probe, complementary to the target H1N1 virus sequence, was immobilized onto the electrode surface by covalent binding. Two different protocols, i.e. direct hybridization with the DNA target and a sandwich scheme, were employed and compared. In both cases the resulting hybrid was biotin-labelled to allow the additional conjugation with streptavidin gold nanoparticles (strept-AuNPs). The latter were used with the aim of enhancing the impedimetric signal, thus improving the sensitivity of the technique. The best limit of detection, obtained with the sandwich scheme after signal amplification step was 7.5 fmol (corresponding to 577 pmol L(-1)). Furthermore, a gold enhancement treatment was performed in order to compare the presence and distribution of gold nanoparticles onto the electrode surface. As an alternative way of visualization, streptavidin conjugate quantum dots (strept-QD) were employed to obtain fluorescence images of the DNA-biotin-strept-QD electrode surface. Finally, a comparison between impedance and microscopy was performed in terms of viability and feasibility of the techniques. PMID:20458407

  20. A Contributing Role for Anti-Neuraminidase Antibodies on Immunity to Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza A Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelin, Glendie; DuBois, Rebecca; Rubrum, Adam; Russell, Charles J.; McElhaney, Janet E; Webby, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to contemporary seasonal influenza A viruses affords partial immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (pH1N1) infection. The impact of antibodies to the neuraminidase (NA) of seasonal influenza A viruses to cross-immunity against pH1N1 infection is unknown. Methods and Results Antibodies to the NA of different seasonal H1N1 influenza strains were tested for cross-reactivity against A/California/04/09 (pH1N1). A panel of reverse genetic (rg) recombinant viruses was ...

  1. Imaging findings of severe and critical severe pulmonary infections with A H1N1 influenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary imaging features in patients with severe or critical severe A H1N1 influenza. Methods: Clinical and imaging findings of 18 cases with H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into 2 groups including severe group (n=11) and critical group (n=7). Results: Among the severe group, bilateral ill-defined nodules and patch shadows were found in 8 cases, local ill-defined patchy was shown in 3 cases, and consolidation of right inferior lung was demonstrated by CT scan in 1 case. Among the critical group, diffuse ground-glass attenuation with partial consolidation were found in bilateral lungs of 4 cases, subcutaneous emphysema was observed in 1 case. CT showed diffuse ground-glass attenuation and nodular like consolidation in bilateral inferior lungs in 1 case, and other 3 cases showed diffuse consolidation of bilateral lungs. Conclusions: The radiologic findings of severe and critical severe pulmonary infections with H1N1 include ill-defined nodules and patch shadows of bilateral lung in sever patients, diffuse peribronchial ground-glass opacity and multifocal consolidation in critical severe patients. The radiologists should learn the features of H1N1 pneumonia on thoracic plain film and CTT to make diagnosis in time. (authors)

  2. Zoonoses: USDA ARS Lessons Learned During Novel Influenza H1N1 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza illness was first recognized in pigs during the 1918 human Spanish flu pandemic, and influenza A virus has since remained of importance to the swine industry as a primary respiratory pathogen. Influenza virus H1N1 remained relatively stable in U.S. swine for nearly 80 years following 1918...

  3. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  4. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; (U. Hong Kong); (Inter. Inst. Infect. Imm.); (Xiamen)

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  5. Severe novel influenza A (H1N1) infection in cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, L. A.; Mauad, T.; Galas, F. R. B. G.; Kumar, A.; da Silva, L. F. F.; Dolhnikoff, M.; Trielli, T.; Almeida, J. P.; Borsato, M. R. L.; Abdalla, E.; Pierrot, L.; Kalil Filho, R.; Auler, J. O. C.; Saldiva, P. H. N.; Hoff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The natural history and consequences of severe H1N1 influenza infection among cancer patients are not yet fully characterized. We describe eight cases of H1N1 infection in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a referral cancer center. Patients and methods: Clinical data from all patients admitted with acute respiratory failure due to novel viral H1N1 infection were reviewed. Lung tissue was submitted for viral and bacteriological analyses by real-time RT-PCR, and autopsy was conducted on all patients who died. Results: Eight patients were admitted, with ages ranging from 55 to 65 years old. There were five patients with solid organ tumors (62.5%) and three with hematological malignancies (37.5%). Five patients required mechanical ventilation and all died. Four patients had bacterial bronchopneumonia. All deaths occurred due to multiple organ failure. A milder form of lung disease was present in the three cases who survived. Lung tissue analysis was performed in all patients and showed diffuse alveolar damage in most patients. Other lung findings were necrotizing bronchiolitis or extensive hemorrhage. Conclusions: H1N1 viral infection in patients with cancer can cause severe illness, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. More data are needed to identify predictors of unfavorable evolution in these patients. PMID:20511340

  6. Invasive group A streptococcal infection concurrent with 2009 H1N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Cynthia; Louie, Janice K; Glaser, Carol A; Harriman, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill K; Aranki, Faisal; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Farley, Susan; Ginsberg, Michele; Hernandez, Lisa B; Sallenave, Catherine S; Radner, Allen B

    2010-05-15

    We describe 10 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and concurrent invasive group A streptococcal infection with marked associated morbidity and mortality. Seven patients required intensive care, 8 required mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Five of the patients, including 4 of the fatalities, were previously healthy. PMID:20377405

  7. Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia: radiograph and CT features of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging features on chest radiograph and CT in children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: The imaging data of chest radiograph and CT in six children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay was retrospectively analysis. All patients had chest radiograph at first examination and 4 of them re-examed. One children took CT. Results: All cases showed thick lung markings with varied degrees of pulmonary infiltration and interstitial changes on chest radiograph. Among them, 3 cases showed bilateral pulmonary infiltration and 3 cases showed infiltration in left lung; enlarged hilar was observed in 3 cases. The imaging findings of the pneumonia changed quickly during the follow-up accompanied with the improvement of clinical symptoms. The only one chest CT examination showed bilateral infiltration, multiple ground-glass opacities, small subpleural nodulars, right pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy of lung hila and mediastinum. Conclusions: Chest radiograph and CT revealed certain typical imaging features in the children with influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. However, the final diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 pneumonia still should be made based on epidemiology and laboratory examination. (authors)

  8. How to Prevent Getting and Spreading Novel H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to prevent giving and getting novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of the Director.   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  9. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-15

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established.

  10. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established

  11. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Cameron G; Davies, Jennifer L; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V

    2016-05-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  12. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better…

  13. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Danish pigs: Diagnosis and lack of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, L. P.; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1v) of likely swine origin emerged in the human population globally. The first case in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009 and presently almost all countries with pig production have reported cases. The emergence of a new influenza subtype...... in swine with a genetic profile similar to older circulating strains implied a challenge for the veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We report the development, validation and implementation of a diagnostic strategy for specific diagnosis of H1N1v in pigs and the results of tests of pigs performed in...... Denmark. Routinely, detection of swine influenza virus in clinical specimens is performed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays (rRT-PCR) targeting the M and the NP genes. Alignment of the probe and primer sequences to available H1N1v gene sequences in GeneBank revealed that these assays most...

  14. The resurgence of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif Beniameen

    2009-06-01

    Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:19487554

  15. Manténgase Informado Sobre la Influenza H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-03

    Este podcast habla sobre las medidas básicas que usted puede tomar para protegerse de cualquier enfermedad infecciosa, incluido el nuevo virus de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/3/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 5/3/2009.

  16. [Genetic factors in severe cases of (H1N1) 2009 influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafell i Majó, Francesc; González Candelas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 raised a number of issues, of which we address the following: Why did between 25 and 30% of severe influenza cases show no obvious risk factor? We hypothesize that an element that can contribute to the answer are host genetic risk factors involved in poor disease progression. Several indications led us to this hypothesis: i) studies of familial aggregation in Iceland and Utah Mormons show some heritability of influenza mortality; ii) nearly 300 known human genes are necessary for the replication of the influenza virus, and iii) the most severe cases of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 showed a deregulation of the adaptive immune system. We are addressing this problem through a case-control design (hospitalized cases of influenza (H1N1) 2009 confirmed against outpatient cases, also confirmed for (H1N1) 2009), which will be genotyped for more than a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs). PMID:21750840

  17. Fulminant myocarditis associated with the H1N1 influenza virus: case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria Lúcia Saraiva; Taguchi, Ângela; Gaspar, Heloísa Amaral; Ferranti, Juliana Ferreira; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    A case of fulminant myocarditis associated with the H1N1 influenza virus. This case report describes the patient's clinical course and emphasizes the importance of bedside echocardiography as an aid in the early diagnosis and management of children with severe myocardial dysfunction. It also discusses aspects relevant to the treatment and prognosis of fulminant myocarditis. The patient was a female, 4 years and 8 months old, previously healthy and with a history of flu symptoms in the past two weeks. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with signs of hemodynamic instability, requiring ventilatory support and vasoactive drugs. The laboratory tests, chest X-ray and echocardiogram suggested the presence of myocarditis. The test for H1N1 in nasopharyngeal secretions was positive. The patient evolved to refractory cardiogenic shock despite the clinical measures applied and died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. The H1N1 influenza virus is an etiological agent associated with acute myocarditis, but there are few reported cases of fulminant myocarditis caused by the H1N1 virus. The identification of signs and symptoms suggestive of fulminant progression should be immediate, and bedside echocardiography is a useful tool for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction and for therapeutic guidance. The use of immunosuppressive therapy and antiviral therapy in acute myocarditis of viral etiology is controversial; hence, the treatment is based on hemodynamic and ventilatory support. The use of hemodynamic support by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emerges as a promising treatment. PMID:25295829

  18. Novel H1N1 Flu - Creating a Safe and Healthy Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-20

    This podcast helps businesses understand how novel H1N1 flu can affect their business and how to keep their workers and worksites safe.  Created: 5/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/20/2009.

  19. Antivirals Use During the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-23

    Charisma Atkins, CDC public health analyst, discusses antiviral use during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic flu outbreak.  Created: 1/23/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/23/2012.

  20. Calculating the potential for within-flight transmission of influenza A (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly air travel, by transporting infectious individuals from one geographic location to another, significantly affects the rate of spread of influenza A (H1N1. However, the possibility of within-flight transmission of H1N1 has not been evaluated; although it is known that smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, SARS and seasonal influenza can be transmitted during commercial flights. Here we present the first quantitative risk assessment to assess the potential for within-flight transmission of H1N1. Methods We model airborne transmission of infectious viral particles of H1N1 within a Boeing 747 using methodology from the field of quantitative microbial risk assessment. Results The risk of catching H1N1 will essentially be confined to passengers travelling in the same cabin as the source case. Not surprisingly, we find that the longer the flight the greater the number of infections that can be expected. We calculate that H1N1, even during long flights, poses a low to moderate within-flight transmission risk if the source case travels First Class. Specifically, 0-1 infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 1-3 during an 11 hour flight and 2-5 during a 17 hour flight. However, within-flight transmission could be significant, particularly during long flights, if the source case travels in Economy Class. Specifically, two to five infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 5-10 during an 11 hour flight and 7-17 during a 17 hour flight. If the aircraft is only partially loaded, under certain conditions more infections could occur in First Class than in Economy Class. During a 17 hour flight, a greater number of infections would occur in First Class than in Economy if the First Class Cabin is fully occupied, but Economy class is less than 30% full. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the potential utility of air travel restrictions on controlling influenza pandemics in the winter of 2009/2010. They show travel by one

  1. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  2. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  3. Swine flu (H1N1 infection: An autoimmune endocrine condition in pregnant females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: H1N1 infection tends to be more severe in pregnant than nonpregnant women. It is not known whether this is due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and/or immune responses to hormones. Aims: Whether the effect of pregnancy on responses to the H1N1 pandemic is mediated by the effects of immune responses to hormones resulting in anti-hormone antibody production requires investigation. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed, and H1N1-infected pregnant women were recruited from the Intensive Care Unit of a hospital during the period 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Differences in the levels of anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies were determined in H1N1-infected pregnant patients and healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women, using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS inc, Chicago, USA software was used for all statistical procedures. Results: Pregnant women showed nonsignificant trends for higher immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgM anti-estrogen-antibodies as compared to the healthy non-pregnant women. IgG, IgM, and IgE anti-progesterone-antibodies were also higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, with marginally significant effects for IgG and IgE. H1N1 infection was associated with increased anti-estrogen IgG and IgA relative to healthy pregnant females. Conclusion: Findings about elevated anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies might improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of pregnant females to swine flu, and thereby lead to better management of this disease.

  4. Incidence and epidemiology of hospitalized influenza cases in rural Thailand during the influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C Baggett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the burden of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Asia are limited. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was first reported in Thailand in May 2009. We assessed incidence and epidemiology of influenza-associated hospitalizations during 2009-2010. METHODS: We conducted active, population-based surveillance for hospitalized cases of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI in all 20 hospitals in two rural provinces. ALRI patients were sampled 1∶2 for participation in an etiology study in which nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for influenza virus testing by PCR. RESULTS: Of 7,207 patients tested, 902 (12.5% were influenza-positive, including 190 (7.8% of 2,436 children aged 75 years (407 per 100,000. The incidence of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was 62 per 100,000 (214 per 100,000 in children <5 years. Eleven influenza-infected patients required mechanical ventilation, and four patients died, all adults with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (1 or H3N2 (3. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in Thailand during 2009-10 were substantial and exceeded rates described in western countries. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 predominated, but H3N2 also caused notable morbidity. Expanded influenza vaccination coverage could have considerable public health impact, especially in young children.

  5. The 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and Triple-Reassortant Swine H1N1 Influenza Viruses Replicate Efficiently but Elicit an Attenuated Inflammatory Response in Polarized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) produced a spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe illness and death. Respiratory symptoms were frequently associated with virus infection, with relatively high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms reported. To better understand 2009 H1N1 virus pathogenesis in humans, we studied virus and host responses following infection of two cell types: polarized bronchial and pharyngeal epithelial cells, which exhibit many features of the human ai...

  6. Coupling sensitive in vitro and in silico techniques to assess cross-reactive CD4+ T cells against the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Schanen, Brian C.; De Groot, Anne S.; Moise, L; Ardito, Matt; McClaine, Elizabeth; Martin, William; Wittman, Vaughan; Warren, William L.; Drake, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    The outbreak of the novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009 took epidemiologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists by surprise and galvanized a massive worldwide effort to produce millions of vaccine doses to protect against this single virus strain. Of particular concern was the apparent lack of pre-existing antibody capable of eliciting cross-protective immunity against this novel virus, which fueled fears this strain would trigger a particularly far-reaching and lethal pan...

  7. Protective Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Infections by H1N1 and H3N2 Influenza Viruses in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Dae-Goon; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Min-Kyung; Song, Jae-Min; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Cho, Young-Keol; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years and is known to have multiple biological and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Korean red ginseng extract would have preventive and antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. Oral administration to mice of red ginseng extract prior to infection significantly increased survival after infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. Daily oral treatment of vaccinated mice with red ginseng extract provided enh...

  8. Difficult airway in a patient with H1N1 pneumonia in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficult airway is a frequent problem among adult patients in intensive care unit. All critical patients should initially be evaluated as a potential difficult airway cases. Development of a serious desaturation should be considered since these patients have less physiological reserve compared to those with difficult airway due to elective surgery. Development of respiratory failure with H1N1 associated pneumonia is likely and support of intubation and mechanic ventilator shall be needed. The objective of this report is to present the management of a patient with H1N1 associated pneumonia who required intubation however could not be intubated due to difficult airway. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 617-619

  9. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  10. O VÍRUS PANDEMICO (H1N1: UMA AMEAÇA A SUINOCULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Alexandra Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza A (H1N1 or Swine Flu is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by one of several swine influenza virus A. Morbidity tends to be high while low mortality. Pigs are important hosts of H1N1 influenza (swine-like influenza A virus and susceptible to infection by influenza viruses of avian origin and human. These animals have an important role in viral transmission between species and the epidemiology of human influenza because it can harbor a virus that undergoes genetic recombination and mutation may therefore be more virulent or not. On April 24, 2009, there was a first alert from WHO (World Health Organization on the appearance of the disease. The spread of the H1N1 caused alarm because it could be quickly and become unmanageable, since its symptoms are similar to those of a common flu and could be easily confused and camouflage a possible pandemic. Considering the great impact of the recent epidemic H1N1 influenza virus, according to their potential risk, this article intends to clarify how to recognize, diagnose and prevent, to better understand the relationships between exposure to pigs and possible infection. Influenza suína (H1N1 ou Gripe Suína é uma doença respiratória aguda altamente contagiosa, causada por um dos diversos vírus da influenza suína A. A morbidade tende a ser alta, enquanto a mortalidade baixa. Os suínos são importantes hospedeiros do vírus Influenza H1N1(swine-like Influenza A e susceptíveis às infecções por vírus Influenza de origem aviária e humana. Estes animais possuem importante papel na transmissão viral entre espécies e na epidemiologia da influenza humana, pois pode abrigar um vírus que sofre recombinação genética e por consequência mutação que pode ficar ou não mais virulento. Em 24 de abril de 2009, houve o primeiro alerta da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde sobre o surgimento desta doença. O contágio pelo H1N1 causou alarme, pois poderia ser rápido e

  11. Identification of small molecules acting against H1N1 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamennone, Mariangela; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Superti, Fabiana

    2016-01-15

    Influenza virus represents a serious threat to public health. The lack of effective drugs against flu prompted researchers to identify more promising viral target. In this respect hemagglutinin (HA) can represent an interesting option because of its pivotal role in the infection process. With this aim we collected a small library of commercially available compounds starting from a large database and performing a diversity-based selection to reduce the number of screened compounds avoiding structural redundancy of the library. Selected compounds were tested for their hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) ability against two different A/H1N1 viral strains (one of which is oseltamivir sensitive), and 17 of them showed the ability to interact with HA. Five drug-like molecules, in particular, were able to impair hemagglutination of both A/H1N1 viral strains under study and to inhibit cytopathic effect and hemolysis at sub-micromolar level. PMID:26655243

  12. [Probable vertical transmission of the influenza virus A (H1N1): apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Rubén D; Chávez, Víctor M; Gamio, Iris E; Muñoz, Richard I; Polar, Marcos F; Montalvo, Raúl; Ticona, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    We report the case of a male newborn, product of a 36 week pregnancy, with diagnosis of congenital pneumonia and with a confirmatory test for influenza A (H1N1) virus, without any other suspicious contact. The mother was admitted to the hospital with respiratory failure and the history of a flu-like episode of 5 days of evolution, during the first days of the pandemic in Peru. Due to the severe evolution of the respiratory process, assisted ventilation was given to her and then a cesarean section was performed due to acute fetal distress and oligoamnios. The mother was later confirmed as a case of epidemic influenza A (H1N1) and pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21152742

  13. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  14. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  15. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Jane B. [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Remigio, Cheryl [Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Medical Education, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Milligan, Thomas [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Deline, Carol [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  16. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  17. Community-based measures for mitigating the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyi Tang

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in March-April 2009, very stringent interventions including Fengxiao were implemented to prevent importation of infected cases and decelerate the disease spread in mainland China. The extent to which these measures have been effective remains elusive. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of Fengxiao that may inform policy decisions on improving community-based interventions for management of on-going outbreaks in China, in particular during the Spring Festival in mid-February 2010 when nationwide traveling will be substantially increased. We obtained data on initial laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1 in the province of Shaanxi and used Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC simulations to estimate the reproduction number. Given the estimates for the exposed and infectious periods of the novel H1N1 virus, we estimated a mean reproduction number of 1.68 (95% CI 1.45-1.92 and other A/H1N1 epidemiological parameters. Our results based on a spatially stratified population dynamical model show that the early implementation of Fengxiao can delay the epidemic peak significantly and prevent the disease spread to the general population but may also, if not implemented appropriately, cause more severe outbreak within universities/colleges, while late implementation of Fengxiao can achieve nothing more than no implementation. Strengthening local control strategies (quarantine and hygiene precaution is much more effective in mitigating outbreaks and inhibiting the successive waves than implementing Fengxiao. Either strong mobility or high transport-related transmission rate during the Spring Festival holiday will not reverse the ongoing outbreak, but both will result in a large new wave. The findings suggest that Fengxiao and travel precautions should not be relaxed unless strict measures of quarantine, isolation, and hygiene precaution practices are put in place. Integration and prompt implementation of

  18. Intravenous ketamine for refractory bronchospasm precipitated by H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eAgrawal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute severe bronchospasm is an emergency situation and sometimes these children may fail to respond to conventional treatment and deteriorate rapidly to respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. We present a case of 2-year-old girl, who presented with severe bronchospasm resulting in respiratory failure not responding to conventional management including mechanical ventilation and was found to be H1N1 positive. She was treated with ketamine infusion, which led to prompt improvement in airway obstruction.

  19. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza: Experience from a critical care unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series details our experience with seven patients with pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in India. All the patients had respiratory failure requiring ventilation except one; two patients developed pneumothorax. Of the seven patients, two died (28.5% and five recovered. Four patients had co-morbid conditions and one was morbidly obese; all the five patients were discharged alive.

  20. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  1. Critical influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: imaging manifestations and histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; LI Ning; LI Yun-fang; ZHANG Hui-mao

    2012-01-01

    Background The global outbreak of influenza A (H1N1 ) has led to the Ministry of Health of China listing it as one of the A-class infectious diseases.Pneumonia is the most serious complication of influenza A,commonly causing death.Populations are ordinarily susceptible to influenza A.This study aimed to investigate the imaging manifestation features of cdtical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia and to improve its diagnostic techniques.Methods A total of seven death cases from critical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed on their imaging manifestations and autopsy data.Pulmonary CT scanning was performed for five cases,with one receiving additional chest X-ray and chest CT scanning,and chest postero-anterior position X-ray examination was performed for other two.Autopsy was performed for five cases and postmortem examinations were performed for other two cases.Results The seven cases of influenza A showed critical manifestations in 4-7 days after symptoms onset,with two having basic diseases of diabetes and one being pregnant.Extensive blurry high-density shadows of bilateral lungs were found in three cases,which were most obvious in middle and infedor parts of lungs.Pulmonary CT scanning revealed bilateral flaky parenchymal shadows in peripheral,dorsal and fundus segments of the middle-inferior parts of lungs,with one case of complicated pneumothorax,atelectasis and pleural effusion and another case of thin-walled cavity and dilated bronchi shadows in the superior parts of lungs.Conclusions Diagnostic imaging is an important assessing tool for cdtical influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia The imaging manifestations are characteristic instead of being specific.The definitive diagnosis can be made in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests.

  2. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted. PMID:23379315

  3. Oseltamivir use and outcomes during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Su, Chia-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan CDC provided free oseltamivir to all patients with influenza infections confirmed by rapid testing or who had clinical warning symptoms during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in Taiwan. However, oseltamivir utilization patterns, cost, and outcomes among oseltamivir-treated patients remained unclear. Method A population-level, observational cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from January to December 2009 to describe the use of ...

  4. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Ain Rahmat; Shaheen Majid

    2013-01-01

    Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority ...

  5. Antiviral Medications for Treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza and Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-09

    This podcast features CDC's Dr. Sonja Rasmussen discussing the latest guidelines related to antiviral medications for treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Excerpt from a CDC-Medscape video series for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.  Created: 11/9/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM); National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 1/21/2010.

  6. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  7. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëlle, Pierre‐Yves; Ansart, Séverine; Cori, Anne; Valleron, Alain‐Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Boëlle P‐Y et al. (2011) Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 306–316. Background  The new influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), identified in mid‐2009, rapidly spread over the world. Estimating the transmissibility of this new virus was a public health priority. Methods  We reviewed all studies presenting estimates of the serial interval or generation time and the reproduction number of the A/H1N1 (2009) virus infection. Results  Thirteen studies documented the serial interval from household or close‐contact studies, with overall mean 3 days (95% CI: 2·4, 3·6); taking into account tertiary transmission reduced this estimate to 2·6 days. Model‐based estimates were more variable, from 1·9 to 6 days. Twenty‐four studies reported reproduction numbers for community‐based epidemics at the town or country level. The range was 1·2–3·1, with larger estimates reported at the beginning of the pandemic. Accounting for under‐reporting in the early period of the pandemic and limiting variation because of the choice of the generation time interval, the reproduction number was between 1·2 and 2·3 with median 1·5. Discussion  The serial interval of A/H1N1 (2009) flu was typically short, with mean value similar to the seasonal flu. The estimates of the reproduction number were more variable. Compared with past influenza pandemics, the median reproduction number was similar (1968) or slightly smaller (1889, 1918, 1957). PMID:21668690

  8. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  9. Mechanical ventilation in patients with most severe forms of influenza a H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pandemic of A H1N1 influenza is noted for its rapid spreading and life-threatening consequences like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which requires mechanical ventilation (MV and intensive therapy (IT. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of mechanical ventilation application in the presence of comorbidities on the outcome of the disease and patients with severe forms of acute influenza caused by A H1N1 virus. Methods. Five patients with acute respiratory failure caused by A H1N1 influenza that required MV were included in the study. Course and outcome of the treatment were monitored in relation to age and sex of the patients, concomitant diseases, time of influenza beginning, a time of admittance in an intensive care unit, a time of an endotracheal intubation and MV beginning, MV duration and occurrence of secondary infections. Results. Three patients were on a very prolonged MV (39, 43 and 20 days, respectively and they all survived. Two patients with a significantly shorter duration of MV (14 and 12 days, respectively died because of a very severe clinical course and concomitant diseases. Unexpectedly, we found a positive correlation between duration of MV and survival although two patients, who were on MV for the longest period of time (43 and 39 days, respectively, developed, as a complication, secondary bacterial pneumonia. Conclusion. Intensive therapy of patients with ARDS due to A H1N1 influenza virus requires MV which should be carried out according to guidelines of international expert forums. That is in accordance with our unexpected observation on negative correlation between duration of MV and fatal outcome. Intensive treatment of these patients, specially MV, can be very prolonged and, therefore, requires specialized teams of anesthesiologists, separate, isolated intensive therapy units and high level of medical staff protection, as was the case in this study, so no member of medical

  10. Genetic Characteristics of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-ru Zhao; Han Xia; Na Han; Shuang Tang; Zhong Zhang; Zheng Kou; Simon Rayner; Tian-xian Li; Yong-dong Li; Li-min Pan; Na Zhu; Hong-xia Ni; Guo-zhang Xu; Yong-zhong Jiang; Xi-xiang Huo; Jun-qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    A total of 100 HIN1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang,Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009,were provided by local CDC laboratories.After MDCK cell culture,57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing.A total of 39 HA sequences,52 NA sequences,36 PB2 sequences,31 PB1 sequences,40 PA sequences,48 NP sequences,51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained,including 20 whole genome sequences.Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%~99%) with known epidemic strains (A/Califomia/04/2009(H1N1).Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved,they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains.Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences:A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQEA,A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQER,A/Hubei/75/2009PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQGG,the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case,while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms.Other key sites such as 119,274,292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein,627 of PB2 protein were conserved.Meanwhile,all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation,suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes.Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns.

  11. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Pio Liberatore; Francesca del Bufalo; Giorgia Bottaro; Pietro Ferrara; Antonio Gatto; Ottavio Vitelli

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65 years) and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus,...

  12. Successful Treatment of Novel H1N1 Influenza related Fulminant Myocarditis with Extracorporeal Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohite Prashant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of myocardial involvement in influenza infection ranges from 0% to 12%. The 2009 pH1N1 influenza virus, formerly known as swine flu, first appeared in Mexico and the United States of America in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed. We report a case of fulminant myocarditis associated with this virus treated successfully using extra-corporal membrane oxygenator.

  13. Hospitalization in two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C N J; Mytton, O T; McLean, E M; Rutter, P D; Pebody, R G; Sachedina, N; White, P J; Hawkins, C; Evans, B; Waight, P A; Ellis, J; Bermingham, A; Donaldson, L J; Catchpole, M

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the population risks of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Understanding these risks is important for patients, clinicians and policy makers. This study aimed to clarify these uncertainties. A national surveillance system was established for patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England. Information was captured on demographics, pre-existing conditions, treatment and outcomes. The relative risks of hospitalization associated with pre-existing conditions were estimated by combining the captured data with population prevalence estimates. A total of 2416 hospitalizations were reported up to 6 January 2010. Within the population, 4·7 people/100,000 were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The estimated hospitalization rate of cases showed a U-shaped distribution with age. Chronic kidney disease, chronic neurological disease, chronic respiratory disease and immunosuppression were each associated with a 10- to 20-fold increased risk of hospitalization. Patients who received antiviral medication within 48 h of symptom onset were less likely to be admitted to critical care than those who received them after this time (adjusted odds ratio 0·64, 95% confidence interval 0·44-0·94, P=0·024). In England the risk of hospitalization with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has been concentrated in the young and those with pre-existing conditions. By quantifying these risks, this study will prove useful in planning for the next winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, and for future pandemics. PMID:21108872

  14. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  15. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Chang Min; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kwon, Gu Jin (Dept. of Family Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)); Woo, Sung Koo (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Seung Hoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-05-15

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  16. Severity of pneumonia due to new H1N1 influenza virus in ferrets is intermediate between that due to seasonal H1N1 virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Judith; Stittelaar, Koert; Amerongen, Geert van; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Simon, James; de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent; Bestebroer, Theo; Fouchier, Ron; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Ab

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The newly emerged influenza A(H1N1) virus (new H1N1 virus) is causing the first influenza pandemic of this century. Three influenza pandemics of the previous century caused variable mortality, which largely depended on the development of severe pneumonia. However, the ability of the new H1N1 virus to cause pneumonia is poorly understood. Methods. The new H1N1 virus was inoculated intratracheally into ferrets. Its ability to cause pneumonia was compared with that of sea...

  17. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid, Shaheen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority of the participants were: symptoms of H1N1, causes of the infection, preventive measures, and possible treatments. Data analysis also revealed that mass media such as television, newspapers, and radio were most frequently used for seeking the needed information. The use of human information sources was also quite high while only a small number of the respondents accessed online news and healthcare websites. About three-quarters of the participants indicated that the gathered information helped them to stay vigilant and take necessary precautionary measures. A major problem identified by the participants in using H1N1 information was the lack of understanding of certain terms used in public communications. This paper suggests certain measures for strengthening health information communication during future outbreaks.

  18. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 with neurological manifestations, a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Luis Miguel; Verdugo, Renato J.; Araos, Rafael; Munita, José Manuel; Díaz, Violeta; Marcotti, Alejandra; Perez, Jorge; Gonzalez, Patricia; Thompson, Luis; Canals, Magdalena; Hoppe, Arnold; Mounts, Anthony W.; Vial, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Noriega et al. (2010) Pandemic influenza a (H1N1) 2009 with neurological manifestations, a case series. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 117–120. Objectives  Describe a series of atypical presentations of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. Methods  Description of case series using hospital records. Results  Six patients aged 1 to 65 years with confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection presented with neurological complications within 2 to 5 days after the first signs of influenza‐like illness. All six were admitted with seizures or altered mental status. No abnormalities were found in brain scans or cerebral spinal fluid studies of any of the six. All were discharged without sequelae within days of admission. Conclusions  This is only the second report of pandemic influenza presenting with neurological manifestations. Clinicians caring for patients when pandemic influenza is prevalent in their communities should maintain a high level of awareness of the potential atypical presentations with which this disease can appear. PMID:20409207

  19. Imaging manifestation of A H1N1 influenza with pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging features of pneumonia caused by A (H1N1) influenza virus. Methods: Imaging data of 51 patients with pneumonia caused by A H1N1 influenza were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent mobile chest radiographs and 44 patients underwent CT as well. On the basis of the lesion degree in the lung, the patients were classified into mild, moderate and serious types. Results: Mild type showed patchy consolidation at chest imaging in 4 patients. Moderate type demonstrated consolidation and (or) ground-glass opacities more than 2 lung fields in 33 patients, including 30 bilateral and 3 unilateral. Serious type displayed diffuse consolidation and ground-glass opacities, probably accompanying with interstitial lesions in the lungs in 14 patients, including 6 patients with ARDS, 2 with infection and 1 with cutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: The imaging features of pneumonia caused by A H1N1 influenza mainly manifest as consolidation and ground-glass opacities, probably accompanying with interstitial changes. The imaging findings show various in patients with infection. Some serious patients even develope to ARDS. (authors)

  20. Radiographic study of severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the radiographic findings of pediatric patients with severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Methods: A retrospective study of data from chest X-ray, CT and MRI exam of 29 pediatric patients treated in intensive care unit for severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Results: Disease developed quickly at early stage. Here are four types of radiographic findings. The disease continued to progress for 2-3 days and X-ray showed that all 29 patients had increased solid lesions with the existence of interstitial lesions. Four days later, all lung lesions showed absorption to certain degree. Fifteen days later, X-ray and CT showed complete or significant absorption in 19 cases (85.5%); delayed recovery was identified in 8 cases (27.6%), pulmonary fibrosis was found in 3 cases (10.3%), and 3 patients (10.3%) died. But the latter identified more lesions. Cranial CT and MRI were performed for 8 patients who had neurological symptoms. Of them, 3 cases (10.3%) were abnormal, showed symmetrical long T1 and T2 signal shadow in bilateral thalamus and longer T1 and T2 signals in the between. 3 cases had autopsy completed. Conclusion: The severe Influenza-A (H1N1) among children progression was generally rapid in the first 3 days. The overall radiographic findings are similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A small portion of the patients occurred acute necrotizing encephalopathy and plastic bronchitis.

  1. Radiographic study of severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Cailei, E-mail: zhaocailei197866@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Gan Yungen, E-mail: mickeyym@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Sun Jie, E-mail: sunxixi@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To characterize the radiographic findings of pediatric patients with severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Methods: A retrospective study of data from chest X-ray, CT and MRI exam of 29 pediatric patients treated in intensive care unit for severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Results: Disease developed quickly at early stage. Here are four types of radiographic findings. The disease continued to progress for 2-3 days and X-ray showed that all 29 patients had increased solid lesions with the existence of interstitial lesions. Four days later, all lung lesions showed absorption to certain degree. Fifteen days later, X-ray and CT showed complete or significant absorption in 19 cases (85.5%); delayed recovery was identified in 8 cases (27.6%), pulmonary fibrosis was found in 3 cases (10.3%), and 3 patients (10.3%) died. But the latter identified more lesions. Cranial CT and MRI were performed for 8 patients who had neurological symptoms. Of them, 3 cases (10.3%) were abnormal, showed symmetrical long T1 and T2 signal shadow in bilateral thalamus and longer T1 and T2 signals in the between. 3 cases had autopsy completed. Conclusion: The severe Influenza-A (H1N1) among children progression was generally rapid in the first 3 days. The overall radiographic findings are similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A small portion of the patients occurred acute necrotizing encephalopathy and plastic bronchitis.

  2. Design of multiligand inhibitors for the swine flu H1N1 neuraminidase binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Manoj M; Nair, Chandrasekhar B; Sanjeeva, Shilpa K; Rao, PV Subba; Pullela, Phani K; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir prevent early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. These drugs are effective for the treatment of a variety of influenza subtypes, including swine flu (H1N1). The binding site for these drugs is well established and they were designed based on computational docking studies. We show here that some common natural products have moderate inhibitory activity for H1N1 neuraminidase under docking studies. Significantly, docking studies using AutoDock for biligand and triligand forms of these compounds (camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate linked via methylene bridges) indicate that they may bind in combination with high affinity to the H1N1 neuraminidase active site. These results also indicate that chemically linked biligands and triligands of these natural products could provide a new class of drug leads for the prevention and treatment of influenza. This study also highlights the need for a multiligand docking algorithm to understand better the mode of action of natural products, wherein multiple active ingredients are present. PMID:23983477

  3. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16777.001 PMID:27350259

  4. Affective language during the H1N1 influenza health crisis

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    Morant Marco, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effects that, as seen through the written press, the arrival of H1N1 had on certain affective behaviors in society. After the spread of H1N1, health authorities recommended maintaining physical distance in social settings and, among other measures, advised against kissing. At first, this show of affection became a victim of the pandemic, especially in certain activities and rituals. However, once the media impact of swine flu had subsided, kissing recovered its habitual place and frequency, demonstrating that customs which are socially and culturally entrenched are resistant to change.

    El presente artículo analiza los efectos que según la prensa escrita tuvo la llegada de la gripe A en ciertos comportamientos afectivos de la población. Las autoridades sanitarias, tras la expansión del virus H1N1, recomendaron aumentar la distancia social y aconsejaron, entre otras medidas, evitar los besos. Esta manifestación afectiva, en un primer momento, notó los efectos de la pandemia, sobre todo en ciertas actividades y rituales. Sin embargo, una vez pasado el impacto mediático de la gripe A, recuperó su uso y frecuencia habitual, demostrando que las costumbres fuertemente enraizadas se resisten a cambiar.

  5. Subacute thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimos, Georgios; Pappas, Georgios; Akritidis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    To describe the first documented case of subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed at the General Hospital "G. Hatzikosta" of Ioannina, Greece. A 55-year-old previously healthy male developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by severe neck pain, palpitations, weight loss, and disproportionately increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Polymerase chain reaction assay of pharyngeal swabs confirmed the diagnosis of novel H1N1 influenza infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero and levels of free thyroxine and particularly triiodothyronine were increased. Technetium-99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed diffuse and inhomogeneous very low technetium trapping. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thyroid function gradually normalized without evolving to a hypothyroid phase. This is the first case of subacute thyroiditis associated with novel H1N1 influenza infection. Furthermore, this is the first case to definitely demonstrate active influenza infection of any type concurrent with thyroiditis, and one of the very rare similar cases for any active viral disease etiologically implicated in the pathogenesis of subacute thyroiditis. PMID:20960165

  6. Mortality, severe acute respiratory infection, and influenza-like illness associated with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Argentina, 2009.

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    Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.

  7. Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

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    Esposito Susanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Demographic, clinical and virologic data were collected from 69 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza (27 females, mean age ± SD: 5.01 ± 4.55 years. Their antibody levels against pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and seasonal A/H1N1 influenza viruses were evaluated by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies using standard assays. Sixty-four patients (92.8% with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza had A/H1N1/2009 antibody levels of ≥40, whereas only 28/69 (40.6% were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus. Those who were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 virus were significantly older, significantly more often hospitalised, had a diagnosis of pneumonia significantly more frequently, and were significantly more often treated with oseltamivir than those who were not seroprotected (p Conclusions Otherwise healthy children seem to show seroprotective antibody titres after natural infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. The strength of the immune response seems to be related to the severity of the disease, but not to previous seasonal A/H1N1 influenza immunity.

  8. Viral shedding in Chinese young adults with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Ning; GAO Yan; SUO Ji-jiang; XIE Li-jun; YAN Zhong-qiang; XING Yu-bin; HE Lei; LIU Yun-xi

    2011-01-01

    Background The duration of viral shedding and the transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza among individuals, especially among the younger population with mild illness, are not well understood now. The aim of this study was to determine the viral shedding of the young adult patients with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza in China.Methods From September 2009 to January 2010, the clinical data and serial nasopharyngeal swabs of 67 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and 37 patients with seasonal influenza aged from 18 years to 35 years were collected. The nasopharyngeal swab samples were detected by real time RT-PCR to determine the viral shedding. All the patients did not receive the antiviral therapy but Chinese medicine for detoxicating.Results Among the patients with H1N1 virus infection, 82.1% (55/67) patients presented with fever symptom, while more patients with high fever (≥39℃) were found in seasonal influenza patients (P<0.05). For the H1N1 patients, the median interval between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was six days (4-10 days). But viral shedding was still found in 31.3% patients after 7 days following illness onset. The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-8 days), and 17.9% patients were found to be viral shedding 6 days later after normalization of body temperature. For the seasonal influenza patients, 94.6% patients were detected out viral RNA within 7 days. The median interval of seasonal influenza between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was four days (3-8 days). The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-6 days).Conclusion It suggests that 7 days isolation period from the illness onset or 24 hours after the resolution of fever and respiratory symptoms are not long enough to cut off the transmission among Chinese young adults with mild illness.

  9. Community responses to communication campaigns for influenza A (H1N1: a focus group study

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    Gray Lesley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging

  10. ‘Presenting CXR phenotype of H1N1’ flu compared with contemporaneous non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia, during pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks’

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, F.C., E-mail: Fiona.Minns@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Nimhuineachain, A, E-mail: draideen@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Beek, E.J.R. van, E-mail: Edwin-vanbeek@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Ritchie, G., E-mail: drgillritchie@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Hill, A., E-mail: adam.hill318@nhs.net [Department of Respiratory Medicine, New Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murchison, J.T., E-mail: john.murchison@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Patients with H1N1 pneumonia demonstrated more opacified zones on chest x-ray than patients with non-H1N1 pneumonias. • A particular ‘phenotype’ of chest x-ray changes was identified in H1N1 patients. • This H1N1 ‘phenotype’ was the same for the two evaluated ‘flu seasons, during both pandemic and post pandemic stages. - Abstract: Aims: To review, phenotype and assess potential prognostic value of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with H1N1 influenza during seasonal outbreaks of 2009 and 2010, in comparison with non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We retrospectively identified 72 patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia during the seasons of 2009 and 2010. H1N1 cases were confirmed by virology PCR. Presenting chest X-rays were jointly read by 2 radiologists, who were ‘blinded’ to further patient details and divided into 6 zones. Total number of opacified zones, the pattern and distribution of changes and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Patients with H1N1 demonstrated more opacified zones (mean of 2.9 compared with 2.0; p = 0.006), which were bilateral in two-thirds compared with a quarter of those with non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.001). H1N1 radiographs were more likely to be ‘patchy’ versus ‘confluent’ changes of non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.03) and more often demonstrated peripheral distribution (p = 0.01). H1N1 patients tended to stay in hospital longer (not significant; p = 0.08). A positive correlation existed between number of affected zones and length of inpatient stay, which was statistically significant for the cohorts combined (p = 0.02). The findings were the same for the two evaluated seasons. Conclusion: H1N1 patients demonstrated more extensive disease, which was more likely bilateral, ‘patchy’, and peripheral in distribution. With increasing global cases of H1N1, knowledge of the typical findings of the H1N1 presenting chest X-ray may assist with early triage of patients

  11. ‘Presenting CXR phenotype of H1N1’ flu compared with contemporaneous non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia, during pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Patients with H1N1 pneumonia demonstrated more opacified zones on chest x-ray than patients with non-H1N1 pneumonias. • A particular ‘phenotype’ of chest x-ray changes was identified in H1N1 patients. • This H1N1 ‘phenotype’ was the same for the two evaluated ‘flu seasons, during both pandemic and post pandemic stages. - Abstract: Aims: To review, phenotype and assess potential prognostic value of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with H1N1 influenza during seasonal outbreaks of 2009 and 2010, in comparison with non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We retrospectively identified 72 patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia during the seasons of 2009 and 2010. H1N1 cases were confirmed by virology PCR. Presenting chest X-rays were jointly read by 2 radiologists, who were ‘blinded’ to further patient details and divided into 6 zones. Total number of opacified zones, the pattern and distribution of changes and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Patients with H1N1 demonstrated more opacified zones (mean of 2.9 compared with 2.0; p = 0.006), which were bilateral in two-thirds compared with a quarter of those with non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.001). H1N1 radiographs were more likely to be ‘patchy’ versus ‘confluent’ changes of non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.03) and more often demonstrated peripheral distribution (p = 0.01). H1N1 patients tended to stay in hospital longer (not significant; p = 0.08). A positive correlation existed between number of affected zones and length of inpatient stay, which was statistically significant for the cohorts combined (p = 0.02). The findings were the same for the two evaluated seasons. Conclusion: H1N1 patients demonstrated more extensive disease, which was more likely bilateral, ‘patchy’, and peripheral in distribution. With increasing global cases of H1N1, knowledge of the typical findings of the H1N1 presenting chest X-ray may assist with early triage of patients

  12. Prevalence of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida — November–December, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Chad M.; Kate Goodin; Emily Fisher; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Hamilton, Janet J.; Leparc, German F.; Monica Gray; Linda Nelson; Rebekah H Borse; Singleton, James A.; Carrie Reed; Balish, Amanda L.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Fry, Alicia M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1)) caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during t...

  13. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Koçer, Zeynep A.; Carter, Robert; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circ...

  14. Post-pandemic seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 infection (swine flu among children <18 years in Germany.

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    Rüdiger von Kries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1(st to July 31(st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1-4 and 5-17 years the prevalence of HI titers (≥1∶10 was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5-31.3 and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9-56.2 compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3-30.5 in children aged 1-4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6-52.0 in 5-17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ≥1∶10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5-28.8 reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0-96.6 of the 5-17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5-66.5 of the 1-4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1 2009. CONCLUSION: Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5-17 years infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03(B

  15. Assessing Google flu trends performance in the United States during the 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic.

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    Samantha Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends (GFT uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet. For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009-Dec 2009. We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively. The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. CONCLUSIONS: Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories "influenza complications" and "term for influenza." The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1

  16. Pre-existing immunity with high neutralizing activity to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Shanghai population.

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    Xiaoqing Liu

    Full Text Available Pre-existing immunity is an important factor countering the pandemic potential of an emerging influenza virus strain. Thus, studying of pre-existing immunity to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. In the present study, sera were collected from 486 individuals in a hospital in Shanghai, China, before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The serum anti-hemagglutinins (HA antibody, hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody and neutralizing antibody against the 2009 H1N1 were assayed. Among this population, 84.2%, 14.61% and 26.5% subjects possessed anti-HA antibody, HI antibody and neutralizing antibody, respectively. Although neutralizing antibody only existed in those sera with detectable anti-HA antibody, there was no obvious correlation between the titers of anti-HA and neutralizing antibody. However, the titers of anti-HA and neutralizing antibody against seasonal H1N1 virus were highly correlated. In the same population, there was no correlation between titers of neutralizing antibody against 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H1N1. DNA immunization performed on mice demonstrated that antibodies to the HA of 2009 pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses were strain-specific and had no cross-neutralizing activity. In addition, the predicted conserved epitope in the HA of 2009 H1N1 and recently circulating seasonal H1N1 virus, GLFGAIAGFIE, was not an immunologically valid B-cell epitope. The data in this report are valuable for advancing our understanding of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection.

  17. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Lackenby, Angie; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Barnes, Rosemary; Evans, Meirion R; Fegan, Christopher; Froude, Susannah; Hastings, Mark; Knapper, Steven; Litt, Emma; Price, Nicola; Salmon, Roland; Temple, Mark; Davies, Eleri

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first confirmed person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus that occurred in a hematology unit in the United Kingdom. Eleven cases of (H1N1) 2009 virus infection were identified, of which, ten were related as shown by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. H275Y analysis demonstrated that 8 of 10 case patients had oseltamivir-resistant virus, with 4 of 8 case patients infected by direct transmission of resistant virus. Zanamivir should be considered as first-line therapy for influenza in patients with lymphopenic hematological conditions and uptake of influenza vaccination encouraged to further reduce the number of susceptible individuals. PMID:21148492

  18. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

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    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  19. Imaging Findings in Patients With H1N1 Influenza A Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swine influenza (H1N1) is a very contagious respiratory infection and World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the alert level to phase 6 (pandemic). The study of clinical and laboratory manifestations as well as radiologic imaging findings helps in its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of patients with documented H1N1 infection referred to our center. Thirty-one patients (16 men) with documented H1N1 infection were included in our study. The initial radiography obtained from the patients was reviewed regarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules and reticulation), distribution (focal, multifocal, and diffuse) and the lung zones involved. Computed tomography (CT) scans were also reviewed for the same abnormalities. The patient files were studied for their possible underlying diseases. The mean age was 37.97 ± 13.9 years. Seventeen (54.8%) patients had co-existing condition (eight respiratory, five cardiovascular, two immunodeficiency, two cancer, four others). Twelve (38.7%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Five (16.1%) patients died. (25.8%) had normal initial radiographs. The most common abnormality was consolidation (12/31; 38.7%) in the peripheral region (11/31; 35.5%) followed by peribronchovascular areas (10/31; 32.3%) which was most commonly observed in the lower zone. The patients admitted to the ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved (P = 0.005). In patients with the novel swine flu infection, the most common radiographic abnormality observed was consolidation in the lower lung zones. Patients admitted to ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved

  20. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  1. Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Children with H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Pekcan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to review the radiological findings and to find new prognostic factors that determine the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1 virus infection. Methods: Chest X-ray (CXR and computed tomography (CT findings of 18 children with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infection (9 boys, 9 girls with a median age of 34 (1–216 months were retrospectively evaluated. Results: CXRs were performed in 15 (83.3% and thorax CT in 7 (38.8% children. Abnormal findings were detected in 60% of the patients who underwent CXR and 85.7% of the patients who underwent thorax CT. Radiological findings were mostly diffuse, bilateral, and asymmetric. Ground-glass opacity (GGO (66.6% was the leading abnormality and was followed by reticulation (38.8%, nodules (27.7%, consolidation only (16.6%, tree-in-bud pattern (11.1%, consolidation with GGO (5.5%, and septal lines (5.5%. Lymphadenopathy (22.2%, air trapping (5.5%, and parenchymal band (5.5% were other recorded findings. CXR was found to be insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. Only existence of nodules (p=0.04 affected the need for PICU admission. Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in children with H1N1 infection were bilateral, asymmetric GGO with or without associated multifocal areas of consolidation. CXR was insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. The existence of nodules is a bad prognostic factor in determining the need for PICU admission.

  2. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  3. Molecular characterization of H1N1 influenza A viruses from human cases in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; WANG ChengMin; DONG GuoYing; LUO Jing; ZHAO BaoHua; HE HongXuan

    2009-01-01

    Subtypes of H1N1 influenza virus can be found in humans in North America,while they are also associated with the infection of swine.Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in human populations is important to understand the source and distribution of viral strains.Genomic and protein sequences of 10 isolates of the 2009 outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) virus in North America were obtained from GenBank database.To characterize the genotypes of these viruses,phylogenetic trees of genes PB2,PB1,PA,HA,NP,NA,NS and M were constructed by Phylip3.67 program and N-Linked glycosylation sites of HA,NA,PB2,NS1 and M2 proteins were analyzed online by NetNGIyc1.0 program.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates are virtually identical but may be recombinant viruses because their genomic fragments come from different viruses.The isolates also contain a characteristic lowly pathogenic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites (IPSIQSR↓GL),and an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein which shows its high affinity to humans.The homologous model of M proteins showed that the viruses had obtained the ability of anti-amantadine due to the mutation at the drug-sensitive site,while sequence analysis of NA proteins indicated that the viruses are still susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor drug (i.e.oseltamivir and zanamivir) because no mutations have been observed.Our results strongly suggested that the viruses responsible for the 2009 outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) virus have the ability to cross species barriers to infect human and mammalian animals based on molecular analysis.These findings may further facilitate the therapy and prevention of possible transmission from North America to other countries.

  4. Identification of the First Chinese Cases of H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Scott Dowell discusses the first cases of the new H1N1 influenza virus in China in May 2009, which occurred in three students who had been studying in North America during the early days of the pandemic and returned home to visit their friends and family. Chinese health officials acted swiftly to investigate and determine whether the students had spread their illness to others. The article, which appears in the September 2009 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, details what they found.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  5. The role of cellular immunity in Influenza H1N1 population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuri Venkata R; Heffernan Jane M; Moghadas Seyed M; Duvvuri Bhargavi; Guo Hongbin; Fisman David N; Wu Jianhong; Wu Gillian E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-existing cellular immunity has been recognized as one of the key factors in determining the outcome of influenza infection by reducing the likelihood of clinical disease and mitigates illness. Whether, and to what extent, the effect of this self-protective mechanism can be captured in the population dynamics of an influenza epidemic has not been addressed. Methods We applied previous findings regarding T-cell cross-reactivity between the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain and s...

  6. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kerenidi Theodora; Matthaios Dimitris; Mabroudi Maria; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Kouroumichakis Ioannis; Constantinidis Theodoros C; Spyratos Dionysis; Papanas Nikolaos; Kouliatsis George; Zarogoulidis Paul; Courcoutsakis Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis Konstantinos; Maltezos Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia...

  7. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kouliatsis, George; Papanas, Nikolaos; Spyratos, Dionysis; Theodoros C Constantinidis; Kouroumichakis, Ioannis; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Mabroudi, Maria; Matthaios, Dimitris; Kerenidi, Theodora; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia was susp...

  8. Epidemiological Characteristics of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Antiviral Drug Users in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kyunghi Choi; Sung-il Cho; Masahiro Hashizume; Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    Soon after the first novel influenza A (H1N1) death was documented in Korea on August 15, 2009, prompt treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended when an infection was suspected. Free antiviral drugs were distributed to patients who met the case definition in the treatment guidelines, and patients prescribed the antiviral drugs were included in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS). A total of 2,825,821 patients were reported to the ADSS from September 1 to December 31, 2009. Odds...

  9. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  10. Inactivation of H1N1 viruses exposed to acidic ozone water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Kwang H.; Seong, Baik L.

    2009-10-01

    The inactivation of H1N1 viruses upon exposure to acidic ozone water was investigated using chicken allantoic fluids of different dilutions, pH values, and initial ozone concentrations. The inactivation effect of the acidic ozone water was found to be stronger than the inactivation effect of the ozone water combined with the degree of acidity, indicating a synergic effect of acidity on ozone decay in water. It is also shown that acidic ozone water with a pH value of 4 or less is very effective means of virus inactivation if provided in conjunction with an ozone concentration of 20 mg/l or higher.

  11. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenze A (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using by pre-developed multiplex RT-PCR kit that is able to diagnosis Tamiflu-sensitive and -resistant Swine Influenza A (H1N1) in the 1st research year, reproducibility and sentitivity of the kit has been investigated in this year. The optimum concentration of reverse transcriptase has also been determined and the economic evaluation has been carried out in this year. Based on the results, a international patent has been applied and a domestic patent has been registered in this year

  12. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenze A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.

    2012-12-15

    Using by pre-developed multiplex RT-PCR kit that is able to diagnosis Tamiflu-sensitive and -resistant Swine Influenza A (H1N1) in the 1st research year, reproducibility and sentitivity of the kit has been investigated in this year. The optimum concentration of reverse transcriptase has also been determined and the economic evaluation has been carried out in this year. Based on the results, a international patent has been applied and a domestic patent has been registered in this year.

  13. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marx

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuraminidase (NA genes of A(H1N1pdm09 influenza virus isolates from 306 infected patients were analysed. The circulation of oseltamivir-resistant viruses in Brazil has not been reported previously. Clinical samples were collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS from 2009-2011 and two NA inhibitor-resistant mutants were identified, one in 2009 (H275Y and the other in 2011 (S247N. This study revealed a low prevalence of resistant viruses (0.8% with no spread of the resistant mutants throughout RS.

  14. CT manifestations of patients with swine-origin influenza A H1N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the manifestations of chest multi-slice spiral CT in patients with initial infection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). Methods: The chest multi-slices spirals CT images of 19 firstly diagnosed patients with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in our institution were retrospectively studied. CT manifestations were evaluated by three experienced radiologists. Location, appearance of lung abnormalities, abnormal distribution, pleural effusion and others (pericadiaum, lymphadenopathy and pleural thickening) were observed and quantitatively analyzed. The correlation of ground-glass and consolidation CT scores with the fever time was studied. Results: The abnormal CT findings were observed bilaterally in 18 of 19 subjects including ground-glass (n=3), consolidation (n=3), consolidation accompanied with ground-glass (n=12). Most of these lesions were distributed diffusively (n=14) while the others located in the middle and low lobes (n=4). Unilateral (n=3) or bilateral (n=2) pleural effusion were observed. Lymphadenopathy (n=2), effusion of pericadium (n=1), pleural thickening (n=1) and cardiac enlargement (n=2) were also found in patients with H1N1. CT scores of ground-glass were 4.25 (n=2), 3.75 (n=1), 2.25 (n=1), 1.75 (n=1), 1.00 (n=6), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=2), 0 (n=4). CT scores of consolidation were 4.25 (n=1), 4.00 (n=1), 3.75 (n=1), 2.75 (n=1), 1.25 (n=3), 1.00 (n=2), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=1), 0.25 (n=3), 0 (n=4). CT scores of ground-glass were significantly correlated with the fever time (r=0.776, P0.01). Conclusions: The most common CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are diffuse distribution of bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. The increasing of ground-glass's range could be the marker of progression of H1N1 pulmonary infection at initial stage. (authors)

  15. Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Krauss, S.; Li, P H; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R G

    1996-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses from Asia are recognized as the source of genes that reassorted with human vital genes to generate the Asian/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) pandemic strains earlier in this century. Here we report the genetic analysis of avian influenza A H1N1 viruses recently isolated from pigs in southern China, a host suspected to generate new pandemic strains through gene reasso