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Sample records for au sahara premiere

  1. Bensaâd Ali (dir., L’eau et ses enjeux au Sahara, Iremam, Karthala, 2011, 242 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marçot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Je dirai en premier ma déception. Comme le suggère Ali Bensaâd à l’entrée du livre qu’il a dirigé, l’enjeu de l’eau au Sahara n’est ni plus ni moins que la conservation de la vie dans ce milieu qui lui est particulièrement hostile - la vie sous tous ses aspects. Or cet enjeu « vital » a été négligé au profit d’une approche micro-géographique. C’est pourtant par cette entrée que le travail collectif aurait pu légitimement intéresser un vaste public. Comment l’eau existe-t-elle à l’état naturel...

  2. Les marqueurs d'aspect de dicto : 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord'

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    Lenepveu Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On se propose d’étudier les locutions adverbiales "à première vue", "au premier abord", "de prime abord", trois locutions qui comportent une forme numérale ordinale et qui entretiennent des relations de proximité sémantique. Nous nous intéressons précisément au fonctionnement sémantique et pragmatique de ces locutions à valeur paradigmatisante (Nølke 1983, quand elles introduisent un point de vue (Anscombre & Ducrot 1983, Ducrot 1984, Nølke 1994. Dans cette perspective, nous faisons l’hypothèse d’un procès énonciatif, qui consiste à prendre en considération une situation, et qui vise à constituer un jugement stabilisé. Nous admettons alors que les locutions adverbiales 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord', servent à sélectionner la phase initiale de ce procès énonciatif, ce qu’attestent les mises en corrélation possibles des trois marqueurs de point de vue avec des expressions qui signalent une évolution dans le temps du jugement du locuteur concernant une situation ('à mieux regarder', 'à y regarder de plus près', 'tout compte fait', 'tout bien considéré', .... L’étude de ces enchaînements, qui vont parfois au-delà du paragraphe, fait apparaître la capacité des trois locutions à initier un cadre (Charolles 1997, et à appeler un autre cadre dans lequel le jugement va être réévalué. En présentant le point de vue qu’elle introduit comme provisoire et en attente de confirmation, chacune de ces locutions anticipe ainsi sur la suite du texte, et s’inscrit dans une structure aspectuelle de dicto qui est celle d’un procès énonciatif de constitution d’un jugement stabilisé. Nous nous appuyons sur des énoncés attestés au XXème, sélectionnés sur "Frantext intégral", ou bien choisis dans Le Monde sur cederom (1995-96, 1999-2002.

  3. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

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    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  4. Les Campaniformes Pyreneo-Languedociens Premiers Résultats au C 14

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    Jean GUILAINE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La civilisation des gobelets campaniformes a posé aux préhistoriens, dès son individualisation même, des problèmes de géographie et de diffusion ainsi que des questions de caractère chronologique. C'est essentiellement le mérite des auteurs ibériques d'avoir montré que cette culture s'était fractionnée en ensembles géographiques relativement distincts (P. Bosch-Gimpera, A. del Castillo. Les auteurs anglo-saxons, pour leur part, ont surtout mis l'accent sur les variantes typologiques, en essayant de décortiquer la famille campaniforme en horizons stylistiquement et chronologiquement bien différenciés. Au terme d'une longue tradition (marquée par les travaux de A. Goetze, P. Reinecke, J. Abercromby, V. G. Childe, H. N. Savory, etc., se trouve une série de belles synthèses dont les plus remarquables sont celles de E. Sangmeister (1951, J. D. Van der Waals et W. Glasbergen (1955, D. L. Clarke (1970. De nombreux préhistoriens se sont par ailleurs penchés sur les problèmes de diffusion et diverses thèses ont été émises: théorie de l'origine sud-ibérique (Schmidt, Bosch- Gimpera, Del Castillo; théorie de la genèse centro-européenne (J. et E. Neustupny; thèse, plus complexe, de Sangmeister mettant en jeu divers relais à partir de Liberie et un important phénomène de reflux depuis l'Europe moyenne en direction de la Péninsule (théorie fortement discutée par la suite par son auteur même; enfin, tout récemment, hypothèse de D. L. Clarke sur la formation de cette civilisation dans le Midi de la France, plus particulièrement dans la région bordant le Golfe du Lion.

  5. Description sémantique de dans un premier temps : de la composition syntagmatique au discours

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    Catherine Schnedecker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l’expression adverbiale réputée sérielle dans un premier temps. Y est d’abord décrit le comportement sémantique de la locution dont le sens reste, pour une bonne partie, compositionnel, étant donné l’importance de la dimension temporelle et les contraintes qu’elle fait peser sur la nature des constituants de la configuration. Ensuite, nous montrons que l’expression dans un premier temps n’est « sérielle » que dans une partie de ses emplois. Dans les autres, non signalés dans la littérature, dans un premier temps marque une relation d’altérité qui peut être « faible » (i. e. encore teintée de temporalité ou « forte » (i. e. nettement contradictoire.The aim of this paper is to describe the semantic behavior of the French expression dans un premier temps, known as a serial marker. We show how its meaning is partly compositional, given the importance of the temporal dimension and the constraints which this places on the nature of the constituents. We then show that dans un premier temps is “serial” in only some of its uses. In others, not reported in the literature, dans un premier temps expresses a relation of “otherness” which can be either “weak” (i.e. keeping a temporal value, or “strong” (i.e. sharply contradictory.

  6. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

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    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  7. Le développement humain local dans les contextes de crise permanente : l’expérience des femmes au Sahara Occidental

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    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les femmes sahraouies sont des agents actifs dans la dynamique sociale des camps de réfugiés, au sein desquels elles ont défini un certain nombre de stratégies de résolution de problèmes pour surmonter les obstacles liés à une situation humanitaire qui se détériore. Depuis le début du conflit et le déplacement forcé à Tindouf, en Algérie, les femmes sont en e%et intégralement responsables de la gestion des camps de réfugiés, et ont assumé un rôle de dirigeantes dans de nombreux secteurs de la société. Cet article souligne la contribution des femmes sahraouies au processus de développement humain local dans un contexte de refuge prolongé tel celui que connaît le Sahara Occidental. En plus d’améliorer la capacité d’accès des réfugiés aux ressources matérielles, physiques, sociales et organisationnelles ainsi qu’aux forces motivationnelles, les femmes sahraouies ont été en mesure de mettre en place leur propre processus de renforcement des capacitésII individuelle et collective dans la vie du camp.

  8. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  9. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 14, Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress. Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  10. PREMIER MEETS THE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ March 14.Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the Chinese and foreign media at a press conference after the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 1 lth National People's Congress.Edited highlights on a number of economic and social issues follow:

  11. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

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    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  12. Édition, diffusion et réception des premiers ouvrages sur le commerce et la comptabilité en Russie au XVIIIe siècle

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    Natalia Platonova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available À partir du XVIe siècle, des ouvrages destinés à aider les négociants dans leurs pratiques commerciales et en particulier à leur apprendre les techniques de la comptabilité circulent à travers l’Europe. Il faut attendre la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle pour qu’ils apparaissent en Russie. En prenant la mesure du rôle grandissant des marchands dans l’État et la société, la monarchie tenta d’organiser l’enseignement commercial et favorisa la diffusion de cette littérature. Ces premiers écrits, leur contenu, les conditions de leur diffusion, leur impact sur l’instruction et les pratiques des marchands de cette époque font l’objet de la présente étude. Cela donne l’occasion de souligner la parenté des publications russes avec l’ensemble des ouvrages de même nature imprimés en Europe occidentale entre les XVIe et XVIIIe siècles. En effet, leur parution ouvre la voie à la pénétration en Russie des savoirs et des pratiques de la comptabilité moderne. Toutefois, cette littérature n’a pas capté l’intérêt immédiat des milieux marchands russes. Ceux-ci se révèlent majoritairement indifférents à la tenue des livres en partie double et restent attachés aux modes traditionnels de formation professionnelle et de gestion des affaires. En cause, le caractère à la fois novateur et complexe du contenu de ces ouvrages, mais aussi les conditions générales dans lesquelles se déroulait l’exercice du commerce à cette époque et l’identité sociale des marchands. C’est pourquoi l’impact de la littérature commerciale et comptable du XVIIIe siècle sur les pratiques marchandes ne doit pas être surestimé. Cette littérature a surtout marqué la pensée comptable dont le développement s’amorce à partir de cette époque en Russie.  Since the sixteenth century, books written for to help the merchants in their practices and in particular to learn how to keep accounts spread across Europe. Such

  13. Sahara en mouvement

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    On peut dire du Sahara ce que Fernand Braudel disait naguère de la Méditerranée : lui assigner des bornages est une tâche malaisée. Des géographes s’y sont cependant essayés, et leurs tentatives participent de ce qu’on peut appeler l’« invention » du Sahara. La présente introduction évoque quelques figures marquantes de cette invention (Léon l’Africain, Eugène Daumas, Émile Carette, Henri Duveyrier, Robert Capot-Rey…) puis présente brièvement les diverses contributions du dossier, en les repl...

  14. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  15. François Paris, Les sépultures du Sahara nigérien du Néolithique à l'islamisation, Paris, ORSTOM, 1996, 2 vols., 376 p., 275 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Camps

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses campagnes de fouilles entreprises par F. Paris au Niger, ont abouti à la rédaction de cet ouvrage en deux tomes. Le premier, de 376 pages est la présentation des travaux réalisés dans le Sahara nigérien, l'Azawagh, l'Aïr, le Djado… L'étude du vaste bassin de l'Azawagh et de l'importance de ses réserves en eau, permet de définir le grand épisode humide du début de l'Holocène (8000-6500 av. J.-C. Un épisode aride se situe entre 5500 et 4500 av. J.-C.. Un autre épisode, de moindr...

  16. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  17. Premier Wen on Domestic Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Second Session of the 11th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on March 13. Premier Wen Jiabao answered questions from the Chinese and foreign press. Below are highlights of his answers on domestic policies.

  18. Our Measures Are Effective, Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27, 2009, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government's economic policy orientations for 2010. Here are the highlights of the interview.

  19. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  20. Comparing balance and instep angle of premier and non- premier leg in female soccer athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohammadzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare balanceand instep angle in premier and non- premier leg. The number of 30 female futsal athletics of Tehran Province (in the age of years old, in the weight of kg participated in this study. To determine premier and non- premier leg of subjects, they besides questioning requested to shoot 5 times and the leg with less error recorded as premier leg. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS test was used for evaluating static balance. 4 markers were used for evaluating instep angle according to Clark Model. For evaluating dynamic balance of subjects single-leg landing test on 3- axes force board with 1000 hertz frequency was used and the time to stability was computed in line with anteroposterior and internal- external based on sequential estimation technique. Data analyzing was done in two sections, first, instep angle was compared in different status and static and dynamic balance in premier and non- premier leg by paired t- test and then the relationship between instep angle was examined in different status with static balance (total score of balance in the test (BESS with instep angle in standing on two leg and single leg for premier leg and dynamic balance in 3 anteroposterior (AP, mediolateral (ML and vertical (V sides by using from correlation coefficient test (for normal data of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman abnormal data. There is significant difference between dynamic balance in premier and dynamic balance in non- premier leg of futsal athletics and the premier leg has further balance than non- premier leg. There is negative and significant relationship between dynamic balance and instep angle in all statusexcept premier leg of single- leg in vertical side. Futsal athletics in premier leg have further balance than non- premier leg.

  1. Breve historia de Radio Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Fernández, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de Radio Sahara es uno de los períodos menos estudiado en nuestra bibliografía, lo cual tampoco es sintomático sino una muestra más de lo mucho que hay que investigar sobre la historia reciente denuestro país, especialmente en el terreno de la radiodifusión. He profundizado en todo lo que he podido, pero es indudable que queda mucho camino por recorrer. Aquí hay pistas y datos todos verdaderos sobre una parte importante, pero no lo doy por finalizado sino que aspiro a que sirva de aliciente para que futuros investigadores continúen con el camino iniciado. Se trata de describir lo que fue la historia de esta emisora

  2. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

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    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  3. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E; Pausata, Francesco S R; deMenocal, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    During the "Green Sahara" period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged "pause" in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks.

  4. Sahara et nomadisme. L’envers du décor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Claudot-Hawad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette analyse concerne les interventions de l’État au Sahara et la façon dont les Toua­regs prolongent, transforment et adaptent leur nomadisme, dans un contexte de dépossession territoriale, politique et identitaire. Le nomadisme est étudié ici non seulement comme une pratique économique et un mode de vie impliquant un rapport particulier à l’espace, mais également comme une philosophie du mouvement.

  5. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    During the “Green Sahara” period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged “pause” in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks. PMID:28116352

  6. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  7. Solar hydrogen: the Great Sahara project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eljrushi, G.S. (High Industrial Inst., Misurata (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)); Zubia, J.N. (Secretariat of Light Industry, Misurata (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya))

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses a proposal for an international solar hydrogen project to be installed in North Africa, near the town of Ghadames in the middle of the desert, to exploit the enormous Sahara solar power resource. It suggests some practical steps to implement this project in three successive stages. The financing of the project is discussed, and the relevant local activities have been outlined. It also discusses the forming of a task force from interested parties to take initiatives and to present facts about the benefits that would result from harnessing the Sahara's limitless reservoir of solar energy. (author)

  8. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  9. Cool Wool Iaunched at Premiere Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Visitors to Premiere Vision were greeted by the inspired The Woolmark Company image, rapidly becoming iconic, of a welcoming flock of stylish Merino sheep in sunglasses. It raised many a smile and set the scene for a feel- good exhibition, putting Cool Wool firmly at the doorway to the new summer season 2013.

  10. Pakistanis Eager to Welcome Premier Li Keqiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Ali; Nawaz; Gilani

    2013-01-01

    <正>"We the Pakistani Nation,are very much eager to welcome Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on his first visit to Pakistan after taking over the Premiership of the People’s Republic of China whom we are enjoying deep rooted and exemplary friendship for

  11. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  12. Our Measures Are Effective,Premier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In an exclusive interview with Xinhua News Agency in Beijing on December 27,2009,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao shared his visions of the current economic situation in China and the government’s economic policy orientations for 2010.Here are the highlights of the interview.

  13. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  14. Le Premier Amendement : un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude‑Jean Bertrand

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier, plein de verve, d’humeur et d’humour, pose, comme sait si bien le faire l’auteur, des questions profondes sous une apparence paradoxale. Il a été présenté lors d’un colloque sur le Premier amendement organisé à l’Université Lumière-Lyon 2 les 17 et 18 janvier 2003. Certaines communications ont été publiées dans le volume XXIV, n°1 (2003, « Le premier amendement : un modèle américain des libertés » (sous la direction de Vincent Michelot de la Revue Tocqueville.

  15. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  16. Les premiers textes de René Thom sur la morphogenèse et la linguistique : 1966-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Petitot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Au milieu des années 1960, René Thom commença à rédiger ses premiers textes sur les applications à la morphogenèse en biologie et à la syntaxe actantielle en linguistique de la théorie des déploiements universels de singularités de fonctions differentiables et de la stabilité structurelle. Cette note présente et commente ses cinq premiers articles dans ces domaines.

  17. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  18. Development of the Peace Process in the Western Sahara Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN THE WESTERN SAHARA CONFLICT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...AND SUBTITLE Development of the Peace Process in the Western Sahara Conflict 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PRO GRAM ELEMENT...Spain in 1884, The Western Sahara has been a theater of dispute between different actors in different times. Spain relinquished the administration of

  19. Development of Digitex premier digital angiographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Wataru [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has come to be widely utilized in the field of angiography. This has brought forth a strong demand that digital angiographic systems provide high efficiency in patient examinations and high level of interventional support. This report refers to our newly developed Digitex Premier Series digital angiographic systems, designed to meet the above demands. The new systems utilize a high-speed, wide-range C-arm system, a high-resolution image intensifier, a fluid-lubricant X-ray tube, and a digital image processing system, in order to ensure high patient examination efficiency. Their IVR (interventional radiology)-Master bed-side image controller further enhances the efficiency of patient examinations, and also, their CAT (comfortable angio terminal) and FMC (file management console) improve the patient examination throughput and diagnostic workflow of the systems. (author)

  20. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  1. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.

  2. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  3. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  5. Alternative energies. Sahara Power needs pan-European grid operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijland, G.

    2009-09-15

    A consortium of leading European - mostly German - companies plans to invest 400 billion euros in a megaproject to generate solar power in the Sahara desert. Desertec, as the project is called, could cover 15 percent of European electricity demand. The problem is, how do you transport this power to Paris and Berlin? It can only work with a pan-European grid operator.

  6. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  7. Africa, Sub-Sahara: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    Sub-Sahara Africa is covered in this bibliography prepared for use in training programs. Consisting of nearly 500 citations which date from 1940 to the present, topics covered include: POPULATION, Traditional Cultures, Religion, Art, Literature, History, Colonialism, Economic Development, Agricultural Modernization, Education and Manpower,…

  8. Solar power at the edge of the Sahara desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    In Morocco, the turn in the energy sector is overseen by His Majesty the King himself: in 2009, the King introduced the Moroccan Solar Plan and created the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) for its implementation. This year, the construction work for the first project complex will commence at the edge of the Sahara desert. (orig.)

  9. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  10. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  11. ITS au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    JANIN, JF; LOUETTE, E; MALLEJACQ, P; PAGNY, R; YGNACE, JL

    2003-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l'accord de coopération signe entre les ministres des transports français et japonais en janvier 2002, des échanges de mission sont organisés de manière à comparer de façon concrète les développements des programmes its dans les deux pays. La première mission française avait eu lieu en mai 2002 à Tokyo. Elle a permis d'organiser un premier séminaire à l'arche de la défense il y a un an au cours duquel les experts japonais ont présenté leurs projets. Un second séminaire s'est ...

  12. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  13. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  14. Frontières et nationalisme autour du Sahara Occidental (Borders and Nationalism in Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le conflit du Sahara Occidental apparaît comme le principal facteur de blocage dans la construction d'une intégration régionale. Pour la monarchie marocaine, il lui a permis de s'approprier le sentiment nationaliste alors porté par le mouvement de l'Istiqlal qui faisait de la cause du grand Maroc l'un de ses combats politiques. Pour le régime algérien, il a représenté un moyen de justifier le pouvoir d'une armée et d'entretenir le sentiment nationaliste. L'avantage du conflit saharien était évident : l'instauration, sous couvert d'un sentiment nationaliste, de régimes politiques autoritaires. Depuis une décennie, ce conflit « gelé » est bloqué à la fois par « le statut avancé » du Maroc avec l'UE, qui n'ose aborder ce problème et le retour de l'abondance financière en Algérie qui alimente son intransigeance sur le dossier.(The conflict in Western Sahara is the main stumbling block to the construction of an integrated region. The Moroccan monarchy used the conflict to gain the support of nationalists previously allied with the Istiqlal movement whose principal political goal was the creation of a greater Morocco. The Algerian regime used the conflict as a justification for a strong military and to stir up nationalist sentiment. The advantage of the Saharan conflict was obvious: the establishment, under the guise of nationalism, of authoritarian regimes. For a decade resolution of this “frozen” conflict has been blocked by the EU’s unwillingness to address the issue in light of the “advanced status” of Morocco in the EU and by the increased intransigence of Algeria made possible by its renewed financial strength.

  15. Tadmekka. Archéologie d’une ville caravanière des premiers temps du commerce transsaharien Tadmekka: The archaeology of an early cross-Saharan caravan town in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Nixon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les premières fouilles systématiques de Tadmekka, une des villes commerçantes majeures d’Afrique de l’Ouest, qui a participé à la croissance du commerce transsaharien durant les premières années de l’ère islamique (vers 650-1500. En 2005, des fouilles sur les ruines de Tadmekka (Essouk, dans le Nord du Mali, ont fourni une stratigraphie de 6,5 m, depuis le milieu du premier millénaire jusque vers 1400. Les analyses effectuées ensuite ont considérablement amélioré notre compréhension des périodes « préhistoriques » et historiques, et permettent d’ouvrir des perspectives nouvelles. Après une description des prémisses du projet et une présentation complète de ses résultats, nous présentons une histoire du développement de Tadmekka, en plaçant côte à côte les résultats archéologiques et les indices fournis par la documentation historique. Nous nous focalisons ensuite sur des analyses spécifiques, comme par exemple : les modes de construction à Tadmekka, le monnayage en or, le commerce des produits au-delà du Sahara, les céramiques, les industries locales et les pratiques alimentaires.This paper reports the first systematic excavations of Tadmekka, one of the major West African trading towns that enabled the huge growth of cross-Saharan trade during the early Islamic era (c. AD 650-1500. In 2005 excavations at Tadmekka’s contemporary site (‘Essouk’ in northern Mali yielded a 6.5 m excavated sequence, dating from the mid-first millennium AD to c. 1400. Subsequent analysis has significantly improved understanding of the town’s ‘prehistoric’ and historic periods, and shown how the archaeology presents a wealth of evidence of significance for wider debates. Following a background to the project and a full presentation of its results, we build up an improved story of Tadmekka’s development, by placing the archaeology side by side with the evidence provided by early

  16. Premiere of Film Nine-Mile Fragrance Held in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-HABITAT) in Kenya staged the premiere of the film Nine-Mile Fragrance depicting the Wenchuan earthquake relief efforts. The film, showing the unique culture of the Qiang ethnic group and the great spirit of love of the Chinese people in their earthquake relief work, left a deep impression on the African audience.

  17. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  18. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  19. Vice Premier Li Keqiang Meets Chinese and Russian Friendly Personages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The scene: 5 pm on April 26 at the President Hotel in Moscow, and Vice Premier Li Keqiang, having just arrived in Russia for an official visit, cordially meets Chinese and Russian friendly personages from various sectors of society including people-to-people diplomatic, academic, cultural, scientific and educational, and business circles. Among them are experts and scholars in their seventies and eighties, important professionals of their respective workplaces in their prime, as well as students in the bloom of their youth.

  20. Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in northern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, J.A.; Coe, M.T.; Scheffer, M.; Wang, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic "regime shifts" in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of the causes and consequences of two environmental regime shifts in the Sahara and Sa

  1. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an e

  2. Les premiers colons de l’ancienne Haïti et leurs attaches en métropole, à l’aube des premiers établissements (1650-1700)

    OpenAIRE

    Hroděj, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Au moment où les premiers établissements durables voient le jour dans ce qui va devenir la partie française de Saint-Domingue, les colons ne sont qu’une poignée. Il est nécessaire d’abord de raisonner sur le nombre, source d’isolement, renforcé par le relief qui compartimente les différents quartiers, par l’éloignement des Petites Antilles, par des liens commerciaux longtemps aléatoires et par le fait dominant que sont les guerres quasi continues, du fait des délais d’application des traités ...

  3. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (< 2% TC). Calcite dominated sediments are only present in the topmost 15 cm. Grasses and wormword are dominating throughout the sequence, probably reflecting the main constituents of the regional vegetation. Cattail (Typha/Sparganium) and especially milfoil (Myriophyllum) are recorded abundantly and continuously throughout the sequence. In combination with green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen

  4. Tears of a Chinese Premier Hussein Ismail Hussein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    THE day Premier Wen took office he stated.""Leaders should be closer to the masses."" His visit to comfort and talk with everyday workers in Tongchuan City, Shaanxi Province on January 1, 2005, where a few weeks previously a gas blast in the Chenjiashan Coalmine had killed 166 workers, was by no means his first. But it was the first time he publicly shed tears. In one household that had lost its breadwinner, Wen Jiabao embraced the victim's son and shared his grief. He later had a simple lunch of steamed bread and tea in a tunnel 1,300 meters belowg round as he chatted with workers at another mine in the city.

  5. Sahara honey shows higher potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to north Algerian types of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Laid; Niar, Abdellatif

    2007-12-01

    Six varieties of honey from different regions in Algeria were used to determine their potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Four varieties originated from northern Algeria, and two from the Sahara. Three types of media were used. On nutrient agar the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the four northern varieties ranged between 30% (vol/vol) and 31% (vol/vol), while the MIC of the Sahara varieties was 11% (vol/vol) and 14% (vol/vol). On King A agar the MIC of the four northern varieties ranged from 25% (vol/vol) to 31% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 12% (vol/vol) and 15% (vol/vol). On nutrient broth the MIC of the northern varieties ranged from 10% (vol/vol) to 21% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 9% (vol/vol). The botanic flora of Sahara is known in Algeria for its medicinal uses, and thus the higher potency of the Sahara honey is most probably due to antibacterial substances in its plant derivates. These findings suggest that Sahara honey could be used for managing wounds and burns, which are mostly infected by P. aeruginosa.

  6. Chahla Chafiq, Demande au Miroir

    OpenAIRE

    Guilyardi, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Le regard est omniprésent dans le premier roman en français de Chahla Chafiq, écrivain et sociologue iranienne exilée en France depuis 1983, reconnue pour ses travaux sur l’islamisme. Le personnage central de Demande au miroir, Guita Salim, regarde la vie de sa fenêtre. « Entre la fenêtre et le voir, il y a toujours un écart », écrit Forough Farrokhzâd, poétesse persane qui illumina les années 1950-1960, dont la poésie traverse ce roman. Adolescente, dans une ruelle de Téhéran, la jeune héroï...

  7. Premier Li Keqiang and Indian Prime Minister Modi Attend Regional Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2015-01-01

    The First Forum of Leaders of the Regions of China and India,cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA),was held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on May 15.Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi gave addresses.Premier Li expressed his congrat-

  8. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  9. Three million years of monsoon variability over the northern Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrasoana, J.C.; Roberts, A.P.; Rohling, E.J.; Winklhofer, M. [School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Wehausen, R. [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universitaet, 26111, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    We present a 3 million year record of aeolian dust supply into the eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on hematite contents derived from magnetic properties of sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Site 967. Our record has an average temporal resolution of {proportional_to}400 years. Geochemical data validate this record of hematite content as a proxy for the supply of aeolian dust from the Sahara. We deduce that the aeolian hematite in eastern Mediterranean sediments derives from the eastern Algerian, Libyan, and western Egyptian lowlands located north of the central Saharan watershed ({proportional_to}21 N). In corroboration of earlier work, we relate dust flux minima to penetration of the African summer monsoon front to the north of the central Saharan watershed. This would have enhanced soil humidity and vegetation cover in the source regions, in agreement with results from ''green Sahara'' climate models. Our results indicate that this northward monsoon penetration recurred during insolation maxima throughout the last 3 million years. As would be expected, this orbital precession-scale mechanism is modulated on both short ({proportional_to}100-kyr) and long ({proportional_to}400-kyr) eccentricity time scales. We also observe a strong expression of the {proportional_to}41-kyr (obliquity) cycle, which we discuss in terms of high- and low-latitude mechanisms that involve Southern Hemisphere meridional temperature contrasts and shifts in the latitudes of the tropics, respectively. We also observe a marked increase in sub-Milankovitch variability around the mid-Pleistocene transition ({proportional_to}0.95 Ma), which suggests a link between millennial-scale climate variability, including monsoon dynamics, and the size of northern hemisphere ice sheets. (orig.)

  10. Notes on Old Stone Constructions of West and Central Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark MILBURN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo trata acerca de la tumba de TIN-HUMAN, HOGGAR, y la describe presentándola en relacón con los «monumentos en capilla» de Négrine, Tafilalet y Oeste del Sahara. Además, incluye comentarios sobre la rareza de las tumbas rectangulares con habitaciones interiores. Se hace una razonable exposición de los «monumentos fusiformes», conectados con la tradición del tránsito por barco a la vida futura. La tumba de TIN-HINAN combina características de los monumentos en capilla o habitación con aquellas otras de «monumentos de deambulatorio complejo».ABSTRACT: This work deals with the tomb of Tin-Hinan, Hoggar, and describes it as presenting a relationship with the «monuments à chapelle» of Négrine, Tafilalet and West Sahara which also have very large chambers. It also includes a commentarity on the rarity of rectangular tombs with interior chambers. It proposes a reasonable explanation of the «fusiformes monuments» as being connected with a tradition of a journey by ship to the after-life (this being suggested by their very shape. The tomb of Tin-Hinan combines characteristics of the «monument à chapelle ou à chambre» with those of a «monument à déambulatoire complexe».

  11. Comment on "Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin

    2008-11-28

    Kröpelin et al. (Research Articles, 9 May 2008, p. 765) interpreted a sediment record from Lake Yoa in the east-central part of North Africa as support for a weak biogeophysical climate-vegetation feedback in the Sahara during the mid-Holocene. We argue that the new data do not invalidate earlier modeling results on strong land-atmosphere coupling in the Western Sahara for which the Lake Yoa record is far less representative.

  12. Building Fit-for-Purpose Spatial Frameworks for Sustainable Land Governaqnce in Sub-Sahara Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    countries this countrywide spatial framework has been developed over centuries. In contrast, most developing countries have a cadastral coverage of less than 30 per cent of the country. This means that over 70 per cent of the land in many developing countries, such as the sub-Sahara region, is generally......, economic, legal, and social issues related to building such fit-for purpose spatial frameworks as a means of paving the way towards sustainable and land governance in Sub-Sahara Africa...

  13. Effective Factors on Reducing the Number of Spectators in Iran Football Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khadem Azghadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of reducing the number of spectators of football premier league, this study is seeking for identifying factors put the most impact on this decline. The statistical population consisted of all spectators in Iran football premier league in 2015-16, out of which 395 spectators were randomly selected as the research samples. The data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic information and the second part, at 6 aspects, includes 35 questions analyzing the reasons for reducing the number of spectators in Iran's football Premier League. For analyzing data, it was used from first and second order confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equations through using SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.8 software. The results of first order confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measurement model of factors affecting on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league is an appropriate model and model parameters are significant. All factors are approved as effective variables on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. The results also showed that the second order measurement model of effective factors on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league are also appropriate, and economic, facilitative, administrative, technical, cultural-social, and personal-family respectively put the most effects on reducing the number of spectators of football premier league. It is suggested for the sport marketers to analyze identified factors in this research and develop applicable strategies and guidelines for them.

  14. Remote sensing of the hydrologic history of the eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Blom, R. G.; Paillou, P.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert has never been thoroughly mapped in terms of the landforms and subsurface signs of past climates conducive to human occupation. As part of ongoing work and through a new proposal to NASA, we are generating new maps of the paleohydrology, topography, geomorphology, and surficial deposits of the area and developing GIS-based models which use the data to pinpoint past resources and travel pathways. The maps we are generating will constitute a unique resource for exploration for water and archeological sites in the Gilf Kebir and other regions of NE Africa. That the Sahara was favorable for human habitation at times has long been known. With the remarkable paleo-landscape revealed by the L-band (25 cm) Shuttle Imaging Radar-A in 1981, it became clear that ancient humans concentrated along integrated drainage systems dubbed “radar rivers” by McCauley and colleagues. However SIR-A and subsequent long-wavelength radar coverage was limited and regional understanding of the drainage network has remained elusive. We are mapping the area with three sensors optimized for mapping and characterizing arid regions: The Japanese PALSAR L-band imaging radar, NASA’s SRTM, and ASTER. Together these sensors provide full coverage of the area allowing characterization and mapping of surface and subsurface landforms formed and modified by former wetter climates. In particular and following the work of Ghoneim, Robinson, El Baz and others, we are mapping the regional drainage network revealed by the radar images and applying modern analysis tools to the drainage basins and channels. These include drainage density, channel gradient vs. distance, and longitudinal and cross-channel topographic profiles. We use these quantities to estimate a stream’s past approach to equilibrium and this to infer balances between climate, tectonic uplift, and other changes in base level. Discovery over the last few years of large paleolakes (e.g. Mega Lake Chad, North Darfur

  15. Cities and adaptation to climate change. Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament; Villes et adaptation au changement climatique. Rapport au Premier ministre et au Parlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this report sets the general problematic framework: positive and negative impacts of climate change on cities, city vulnerability factors, and adaptation ways to reduce urban vulnerability. The second part addresses adaptation strategies. It is based on an analysis of the implementation of adaptation actions by several French and foreign cities. It highlights levers and obstacles for adaptation, and identifies other policies which could support the adaptation effort. It also highlights the recent multidisciplinary dynamics of research on the sustainable city, and the implementation of projects for the reduction of city vulnerability and the adaptation of cities to climate change. Some programs are presented in appendix

  16. NE TIGER Premieres New Hua Fu At Bird’s Nest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the evening of September 25, China’s leading luxury fashion brand NE TIGER presented its premiere fashion show of Hua Fu(Chinese national dress) at a concert of superstars from China, Japan and South Korea,

  17. New Instructional Materials on Africa South of the Sahara (1969-1970). A Supplement to Africa South of the Sahara: A Resource and Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Barry K.

    This guide cites instructional materials on Africa south of the Sahara which have become available since February 1969. Acknowledging the probability of inaccuracies in the majority of the materials cited, the guide neither evaluates nor promotes items, but simply presents annotations of readings, textbooks, fact sheets, atlases, African…

  18. Low 60Fe abundance in Semarkona and Sahara 99555

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Haolan

    2015-01-01

    Iron-60 (t1/2=2.62 Myr) is a short-lived nuclide that can help constrain the astrophysical context of solar system formation and date early solar system events. A high abundance of 60Fe (60Fe/56Fe= 4x10-7) was reported by in situ techniques in some chondrules from the LL3.00 Semarkona meteorite, which was taken as evidence that a supernova exploded in the vicinity of the birthplace of the Sun. However, our previous MC-ICPMS measurements of a wide range of meteoritic materials, including chondrules, showed that 60Fe was present in the early solar system at a much lower level (60Fe/56Fe=10-8). The reason for the discrepancy is unknown but only two Semarkona chondrules were measured by MC-ICPMS and these had Fe/Ni ratios below ~2x chondritic. Here, we show that the initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio in Semarkona chondrules with Fe/Ni ratios up to ~24x chondritic is 5.4x10-9. We also establish the initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio at the time of crystallization of the Sahara 99555 angrite, a chronological anchor, to be 1.97x10-9. The...

  19. Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nick A; Blench, Roger M; Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; White, Kevin H

    2011-01-11

    Evidence increasingly suggests that sub-Saharan Africa is at the center of human evolution and understanding routes of dispersal "out of Africa" is thus becoming increasingly important. The Sahara Desert is considered by many to be an obstacle to these dispersals and a Nile corridor route has been proposed to cross it. Here we provide evidence that the Sahara was not an effective barrier and indicate how both animals and humans populated it during past humid phases. Analysis of the zoogeography of the Sahara shows that more animals crossed via this route than used the Nile corridor. Furthermore, many of these species are aquatic. This dispersal was possible because during the Holocene humid period the region contained a series of linked lakes, rivers, and inland deltas comprising a large interlinked waterway, channeling water and animals into and across the Sahara, thus facilitating these dispersals. This system was last active in the early Holocene when many species appear to have occupied the entire Sahara. However, species that require deep water did not reach northern regions because of weak hydrological connections. Human dispersals were influenced by this distribution; Nilo-Saharan speakers hunting aquatic fauna with barbed bone points occupied the southern Sahara, while people hunting Savannah fauna with the bow and arrow spread southward. The dating of lacustrine sediments show that the "green Sahara" also existed during the last interglacial (∼125 ka) and provided green corridors that could have formed dispersal routes at a likely time for the migration of modern humans out of Africa.

  20. Le mobilier domestique à Lille au XVIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Canneva-Tétu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L'exposition « Lille au XVIIe siècle » présentée au musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille du 15 septembre au 27 décembre 2000 a fourni l'occasion de dresser un premier état des connaissances sur le mobilier civil lillois entre 1600 et 1715. Ce court essai s'appuie sur quelques exemples recensés dans les collections publiques lilloises.

  1. Low 60Fe Abundance in Semarkona and Sahara 99555

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haolan; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Iron-60 (t1/2 = 2.62 Myr) is a short-lived nuclide that can help constrain the astrophysical context of Solar System formation and date early Solar System events. A high abundance of 60Fe(60Fe/56Fe ≈ 4 × 10-7) was reported by in situ techniques in some chondrules from the LL3.00 Semarkona meteorite, which was taken as evidence that a supernova exploded in the vicinity of the birthplace of the Sun. However, our previous multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements of a wide range of meteoritic materials, including chondrules, showed that 60Fe was present in the early Solar System at a much lower level (60Fe/56Fe ≈ 10-8). The reason for the discrepancy is unknown but only two Semarkona chondrules were measured by MC-ICPMS and these had Fe/Ni ratios below ˜2× chondritic. Here, we show that the initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio in Semarkona chondrules with Fe/Ni ratios up to ˜24× chondritic is (5.39 ± 3.27) × 10-9. We also establish the initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio at the time of crystallization of the Sahara 99555 angrite, a chronological anchor, to be (1.97 ± 0.77) × 10-9. These results demonstrate that the initial abundance of 60Fe at Solar System birth was low, corresponding to an initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio of (1.01 ± 0.27) × 10-8.

  2. LOW {sup 60}FE ABUNDANCE IN SEMARKONA AND SAHARA 99555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haolan; Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: haolantang@ucla.edu [Origins Lab, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Iron-60 (t{sub 1/2} = 2.62 Myr) is a short-lived nuclide that can help constrain the astrophysical context of Solar System formation and date early Solar System events. A high abundance of {sup 60}Fe({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 4 × 10{sup −7}) was reported by in situ techniques in some chondrules from the LL3.00 Semarkona meteorite, which was taken as evidence that a supernova exploded in the vicinity of the birthplace of the Sun. However, our previous multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements of a wide range of meteoritic materials, including chondrules, showed that {sup 60}Fe was present in the early Solar System at a much lower level ({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 10{sup −8}). The reason for the discrepancy is unknown but only two Semarkona chondrules were measured by MC-ICPMS and these had Fe/Ni ratios below ∼2× chondritic. Here, we show that the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio in Semarkona chondrules with Fe/Ni ratios up to ∼24× chondritic is (5.39 ± 3.27) × 10{sup −9}. We also establish the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio at the time of crystallization of the Sahara 99555 angrite, a chronological anchor, to be (1.97 ± 0.77) × 10{sup −9}. These results demonstrate that the initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe at Solar System birth was low, corresponding to an initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio of (1.01 ± 0.27) × 10{sup −8}.

  3. Teaching About Africa South of the Sahara; A Guide and Resource Packet for Ninth Grade Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Barbara; And Others

    This guide provides a sampling of reference materials which are pertinent for two ninth grade units: Africa South of the Sahara: Land and People, and Africa South of the Sahara: Historic Trends. The effect of urbanization upon traditional tribalistic cultures is the focus. A case study is used to encourage an inductive approach to the learning…

  4. Health effects from Sahara dust episodes in Europe: literature review and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanasiou, A; Moreno, N; Moreno, T; Viana, M; de Leeuw, F; Querol, X

    2012-10-15

    The adverse consequences of particulate matter (PM) on human health have been well documented. Recently, special attention has been given to mineral dust particles, which may be a serious health threat. The main global source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the annual mineral dust. Sahara dust transport can lead to PM levels that substantially exceed the established limit values. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to identify all studies presenting results on the potential health impact from Sahara dust particles. The review of the literature shows that the association of fine particles, PM₂.₅, with total or cause-specific daily mortality is not significant during Saharan dust intrusions. However, regarding coarser fractions PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅₋₁₀ an explicit answer cannot be given. Some of the published studies state that they increase mortality during Sahara dust days while other studies find no association between mortality and PM₁₀ or PM₂.₅₋₁₀. The main conclusion of this review is that health impact of Saharan dust outbreaks needs to be further explored. Considering the diverse outcomes for PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅₋₁₀, future studies should focus on the chemical characterization and potential toxicity of coarse particles transported from Sahara desert mixed or not with anthropogenic pollutants. The results of this review may be considered to establish the objectives and strategies of a new European directive on ambient air quality. An implication for public policy in Europe is that to protect public health, anthropogenic sources of particulate pollution need to be more rigorously controlled in areas highly impacted by the Sahara dust.

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  6. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... with and without ball possession is reduced during various phases of elite-standard soccer matches and the activity profiles and fatigue patterns vary among playing positions. The current findings provide valuable information about the high-intensity running patterns of a large sample of elite-standard soccer...

  7. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal flight

  8. African South of the Sahara: An Objective Test for Secondary Schools. A World Regions Perception Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed by Project Africa of Carnegie-Mellon University, these two test instruments have been used to discover what selected American secondary school students know or believe about Africa and other regions of the world. The first instrument, a 30-minute objective test, "Africa South of the Sahara," is comprised of 60 multiple-choice…

  9. Sahara: Barrier or corridor? Nonmetric cranial traits and biological affinities of North African late Holocene populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2012-02-01

    The Garamantes flourished in southwestern Libya, in the core of the Sahara Desert ~3,000 years ago and largely controlled trans-Saharan trade. Their biological affinities to other North African populations, including the Egyptian, Algerian, Tunisian and Sudanese, roughly contemporary to them, are examined by means of cranial nonmetric traits using the Mean Measure of Divergence and Mahalanobis D(2) distance. The aim is to shed light on the extent to which the Sahara Desert inhibited extensive population movements and gene flow. Our results show that the Garamantes possess distant affinities to their neighbors. This relationship may be due to the Central Sahara forming a barrier among groups, despite the archaeological evidence for extended networks of contact. The role of the Sahara as a barrier is further corroborated by the significant correlation between the Mahalanobis D(2) distance and geographic distance between the Garamantes and the other populations under study. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when all North African populations were examined, indicating that there was no uniform gene flow in the region.

  10. Abrupt shifts of the Sahara-Sahel boundary during Heinrich Stadials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Relict dune fields that are found at 14° N in the modern-day African Sahel are testament to equatorward expansions of the Sahara desert during the late Pleistocene. However, difficulties of dating dune formation mean that abrupt millennial-scale climate events are not always resolved in these records. High-resolution marine core studies have identified Heinrich Stadials as the dustiest periods of the last glacial, although no studies have mapped the spatio-temporal evolution of dust export from West Africa. We use the major-element composition of four marine sediment cores to reconstruct the spatial extent of Saharan-dust versus river-sediment input to the continental margin from West Africa over the last 60 ka. This allows us to map the position of the sediment composition corresponding to the Sahara-Sahel boundary. Our records indicate that the Sahara-Sahel boundary reached its most southerly position (13° N during Heinrich Stadials, suggesting that these were the periods when the sand dunes formed at 14° N on the continent, rather than at the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that SSB position was closely linked to North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, which during Heinrich Stadials triggered abrupt increases of aridity and wind strength in the Sahel, exposing new dust sources. This result illustrates the influence of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on the southerly extent of the Sahara desert and has implications for global atmospheric dust loading.

  11. Africa South of the Sahara. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit IV.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the fourth of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is Africa south of the Sahara. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and instructional materials.…

  12. Preliminary Bibliography on Africa South of the Sahara for Undergraduate Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on Africa south of the Sahara and similar bibliographies on South Asia (LI 000 061) and East Asia (LI 000 881) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  13. Africa South of the Sahara: A Resource Guide for Secondary School Teachers. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Barry K., Ed.

    Information to help educators develop a program of study about Africa south of the Sahara is presented in this guide for use with secondary school students. Appropriate objectives for a study of this region and its people are stated: the acquisition of sufficient information to make contemporary Africa intelligible, the formulation of concepts…

  14. Evaluation of Africa South of the Sahara. An Inquiry Program for Grades 7-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Barry K.; And Others

    Project Africa, a social studies curriculum research and development project, is primarily engaged in testing new materials and techniques for teaching about Africa south of the Sahara in American secondary schools. The purpose of this technical report is to highlight the program's strengths and weaknesses from a variety of viewpoints -- those of…

  15. Le Sahara marocain : désenclavement et développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan Sahara: opening-up and sustainable development. The enclosing of the Moroccan Sahara results from the inversion and old situation. Indeed, during a very long time, the area was a way of passage, a platform in the south of Morocco. In testify the Tran-Saharan commercial routes, which were the main transportation routes back in time, like the goal of integration of the area in the country and compared to western Africa. It is with the economic crisis, and even a political crisis causing a fold on itself of this area until 1975.Since Sahara belongs to Morocco, it still profits a considerable public effort to carry out its opening-up and its economic insertion within the country. Massive investments carried out by the State give to the area the structuring which it missed. Which are the aspects of the Sahara development? Which role played the State in this development? The intervention of the State contributes to bring effective solutions to the problem of the opening-up of this surrounding space?

  16. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C; Godinho, Raquel; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Rebelo, Hugo; Santos, Xavier; Vale, Cândida G; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Ferreira, Sónia; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Silva, Teresa L; Tarroso, Pedro; Campos, João C; Leite, João V; Nogueira, Joana; Alvares, Francisco; Sillero, Neftalí; Sow, Andack S; Fahd, Soumia; Crochet, Pierre-André; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key

  18. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  19. Dynamiques sectorielles et emploi au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Palméro, Sandra; Roux, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Plus de dix ans après la mise en place des accords de Barcelone, le constat des effets de l’ouverture des Pays méditerranéens est décevant quant à leur impact sur la croissance et la dynamique d’emploi. Il s’agit dans ce papier d’identifier les secteurs dynamiques d’emploi et de richesse au Maroc et d’apprécier si les choix de spécialisation permettent une croissance de longue période qui absorberait l’excédent de main-d’œuvre. Dans un premier temps, nous analysons les potentiels d’emploi des...

  20. Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the central Sahara (NE-Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneck, J.; Baumhauer, R.

    2009-04-01

    Although a high number of investigations focussed on the succession of climatological conditions in the Central Sahara, some uncertainties still exist as some of the results show discontinuities and mostly are of low temporal and spatial resolution. Two expeditions in 2005 and 2006 headed to the northeastern parts of Niger to investigate the known remains of palaeolakes and search some new and undetected ones. The sediments found at several sites were investigated in order to receive a complete picture of the Late Quaternary environmental settings and to produce high-resolution proxies for palaeoclimate modelling. The most valuable and best-investigated study site is the sebkha of Seggedim, where a core of 15 meters length could be extracted which revealed a composition of high-resolution sections. Stratigraphical, structural and geochemical investigations as well as the analysis of thin sections allow the characterisation of different environmental conditions throughout the core. Most importantly, a complex age-depth model could be constructed, based on 21 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurements and reaching from Early to Mid Holocene. Driven by climate and hydrogeological influence, the water body developed from a water pond of several metres depth within a stable, grass and shrub vegetated landscape, to a freshwater lake in a more dynamic environmental setting. Radiocarbon dates set the beginning of the stage at about 10.6 ka cal BP, with an exceptionally stable regime to 6.6 ka cal BP (at 12.6 metres' depth), when a major change in the sedimentation regime of the basin is recorded in the core. Increased erosion, likely due to decreased vegetation cover within the basin, led to the filling of the lake within a few hundred years and the subsequent development of a sebkha due to massive evaporation. Due to the lack of dateable material in the upper core section, the termination of the lake stage and the onset of the subsequent sebkha stage

  1. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacem

  2. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  3. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs, CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party. Deutsche Bank AG, a global multipurpose bank

  4. Premiere of TV Documentary Choe Chi-won Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The premiere of the TV documentary Choe Chi-won was held in Beijing on August 19. The TV documentary,a joint production by the CPAFFC,the Jiangsu Provincial Association for Cultural Exchange with Foreign Countries,the

  5. Les objets en matière osseuse au Levant sud du treizième au quatrième millénaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Le Dosseur

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available L’organisation des sociétés préhistoriques du Proche-Orient a connu de profonds changements au cours de la vaste période qui s’étend du treizième au quatrième millénaire avant le présent. Celle-ci s’articule autour de deux grands processus : la Néolithisation et la Chalcolithisation. Le premier marque le passage progressif des sociétés mobiles prédatrices, qui prévalaient au Paléolithique, aux sociétés productrices, souvent sédentaires. C’est au Néolithique, en effet, qu’apparaissent l’agricu...

  6. Review: Steffen Wippel, Wirtschaft, Politik und Raum: Territoriale und regionale Prozesse in der westlichen Sahara (2012 Buchbesprechung: Steffen Wippel, Wirtschaft, Politik und Raum: Territoriale und regionale Prozesse in der westlichen Sahara (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Marfaing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Steffen Wippel, Wirtschaft, Politik und Raum: Territoriale und regionale Prozesse in der westlichen Sahara, 2 volumes, Berlin/Tübingen: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2012, ISBN 9783899303674, xiv + 1,438 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Steffen Wippel, Wirtschaft, Politik und Raum: Territoriale und regionale Prozesse in der westlichen Sahara, 2 Bände, Berlin/Tübingen: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2012, ISBN 9783899303674, xiv + 1,438 Seiten

  7. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inlfammatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey:In vivo approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline). In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration) reduced significantly (P Conclusions:Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Aux sources de l’herméneutique occidentale :les premiers commentaires dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rico

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article nuance, à propos de l’Antiquité, la distinction établie par Michel Charles entre rhétorique, entendue au sens de « production littéraire », et commentaire : dans le premier cas une œuvre littéraire constitue un modèle d’écriture que l’on peut imiter et parfaire ; dans le second, elle est transmise comme un monument intouchable que l’on peut citer et commenter, mais non pas imiter.Dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne, le commentaire, en effet, doit plutôt être considéré comme une œuvre littéraire au second degré dans la mesure où il se fonde sur un texte commenté qui l’engendre et le suscite. L’article évoque dans cette perspective l’herméneutique du mot dans l’école d’Alexandrie, l’herméneutique de l’énoncé dans les écoles de philosophie antiques, les commentaires juifs anciens et médiévaux, l’herméneutique chrétienne ancienne, et leurs variations autour du sens littéral et du sens spirituel.

  9. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  10. Pre-Islamic Dry-Stone Monuments of the Central and Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Yves

    Saharan dry-stone monuments are important cultural markers: not only do they highlight the boundaries of the areas occupied by different prehistoric populations, but they also reveal information about the rites and beliefs of Holocene Saharan populations. As climate deteriorated in the Middle Holocene, ways of life changed, with indirect impacts on the architecture of the monuments and on the way they were oriented. Tens of thousands of recorded monuments, of various types, allow us to understand what the orientation rules were and how they changed with location. Data compiled for the eleven types of monuments reveal that many monuments of the central Sahara and Tibesti were probably aligned toward the rising sun or moon, that three types of the Atlantic Sahara show instead a random distribution, and that monuments with a pan-Saharan distribution have a complex orientation pattern. A correlation or orientation with key landscape features is likely for three monument types, coexisting with criteria based on lunisolar alignment.

  11. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Tom J; Ramirez, Jorge A; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Brücher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  12. Revision of the genus Achmonia of Africa south of the Sahara (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janák, Jiří; Bordoni, Arnaldo

    2014-10-09

    A redescription of the genus Achmonia Bordoni, 2004 is presented. Based on a revision of types and of additional material, seven species are recognized in Africa south of the Sahara and placed into two species groups. All species are described or redescribed and illustrated, four of them for the first time: Achmonia carinata sp. nov., A. kapangana sp. nov., A. knirschi sp. nov., and A. simulator sp. nov. A lectotype is designated for Xantholinus amabilis Boheman, 1848, Eulissus flavomarginatus Bernhauer, 1929 and E. congoensis Bernhauer, 1932. These species are transferred to Achmonia. A lectotype is designated for Eulissus semiflavus Bernhauer, 1913, and E. gerardi Bernhauer, 1929 and the following synonymy is proposed: Achmonia amabilis (Boheman, 1848) = Eulissus semiflavus Bernhauer, 1913, syn. nov. = Eulissus gerardi Bernhauer, 1929, syn. nov. The distribution of the genus in Africa south of Sahara is mapped and a key to species is presented.

  13. Improved performance of agriculture in Africa South of the Sahara: Taking off or bouncing back?

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael E.; Yu, Bingxin

    2012-01-01

    The improved performance of the agricultural sector in Africa south of the Sahara during the most recent decade (2000–2010) has raised questions about the drivers behind the growth. Skeptics argue that rising commodity prices, as world markets experience a commodity boom, are the main cause of the agricultural growth. Others point to improvements in the policy environment and increased investments in agriculture at a time when African governments and donors have been rallying to increase th...

  14. Characterizing land surface phenology and responses to rainfall in the Sahara desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yu, Yunyue; Guo, Wei; Hanan, Niall P.

    2016-08-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) in the Sahara desert is poorly understood due to the difficulty in detecting subtle variations in vegetation greenness. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of LSP and its responses to rainfall seasonality in the Sahara desert. We first generated daily two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) from half-hourly observations acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation series of geostationary satellites from 2006 to 2012. The EVI2 time series was used to retrieve LSP based on the Hybrid Piecewise Logistic Model. We further investigated the associations of spatial and temporal patterns in LSP with those in rainfall seasonality derived from the daily rainfall time series of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission. Results show that the spatial shifts in the start of the vegetation growing season generally follow the rainy season onset that is controlled by the summer rainfall regime in the southern Sahara desert. In contrast, the end of the growing season significantly lags the end of the rainy season without any significant dependence. Vegetation growing season can unfold during the dry seasons after onset is triggered during rainy seasons. Vegetation growing season can be as long as 300 days or more in some areas and years. However, the EVI2 amplitude and accumulation across the Sahara region was very low indicating sparse vegetation as expected in desert regions. EVI2 amplitude and accumulated EVI2 strongly depended on rainfall received during the growing season and the preceding dormancy period.

  15. Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Ramstein, Gilles; Schuster, Mathieu; Li, Camille; Contoux, Camille; Yan, Qing

    2014-09-18

    It is widely believed that the Sahara desert is no more than ∼2-3 million years (Myr) old, with geological evidence showing a remarkable aridification of north Africa at the onset of the Quaternary ice ages. Before that time, north African aridity was mainly controlled by the African summer monsoon (ASM), which oscillated with Earth's orbital precession cycles. Afterwards, the Northern Hemisphere glaciation added an ice volume forcing on the ASM, which additionally oscillated with glacial-interglacial cycles. These findings led to the idea that the Sahara desert came into existence when the Northern Hemisphere glaciated ∼2-3 Myr ago. The later discovery, however, of aeolian dune deposits ∼7 Myr old suggested a much older age, although this interpretation is hotly challenged and there is no clear mechanism for aridification around this time. Here we use climate model simulations to identify the Tortonian stage (∼7-11 Myr ago) of the Late Miocene epoch as the pivotal period for triggering north African aridity and creating the Sahara desert. Through a set of experiments with the Norwegian Earth System Model and the Community Atmosphere Model, we demonstrate that the African summer monsoon was drastically weakened by the Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Tortonian, allowing arid, desert conditions to expand across north Africa. Not only did the Tethys shrinkage alter the mean climate of the region, it also enhanced the sensitivity of the African monsoon to orbital forcing, which subsequently became the major driver of Sahara extent fluctuations. These important climatic changes probably caused the shifts in Asian and African flora and fauna observed during the same period, with possible links to the emergence of early hominins in north Africa.

  16. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  17. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region.

  18. How hazardous is the Sahara Desert crossing for migratory birds? Indications from satellite tracking of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Alerstam, Thomas

    2010-06-23

    We investigated the risk associated with crossing the Sahara Desert for migrating birds by evaluating more than 90 journeys across this desert by four species of raptors (osprey Pandion haliaetus, honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo) recorded by satellite telemetry. Forty per cent of the crossings included events of aberrant behaviours, such as abrupt course changes, slow travel speeds, interruptions, aborted crossings followed by retreats from the desert and failed crossings due to death, indicating difficulties for the migrants. The mortality during the Sahara crossing was 31 per cent per crossing attempt for juveniles (first autumn migration), compared with only 2 per cent for adults (autumn and spring combined). Mortality associated with the Sahara passage made up a substantial fraction (up to about half for juveniles) of the total annual mortality, demonstrating that this passage has a profound influence on survival and fitness of migrants. Aberrant behaviours resulted in late arrival at the breeding grounds and an increased probability of breeding failure (carry-over effects). This study also demonstrates that satellite tracking can be a powerful method to reveal when and where birds are exposed to enhanced risk and mortality during their annual cycles.

  19. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  20. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; Bevan-Dye, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  1. Time evolution of relativistic d + Au and Au + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolschin, G; Mizoguchi, T; Suzuki, N; Biyajima, Minoru; Mizoguchi, Takuya; Suzuki, Naomichi; Wolschin, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of charged-particle production in collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies is investigated as function of centrality in a nonequilibrium-statistical framework. Precise agreement with recent d + Au and Au + Au data at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV is found in a Relativistic Diffusion Model with three sources for particle production. Only the midrapidity source comes very close to local equilibrium, whereas the analyses of the overall pseudorapidity distributions show that the systems remain far from statistical equilibrium.

  2. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs,CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party.

  3. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU YAN

    2011-01-01

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12,Putin's first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.The visit strengthened diversified practical cooperation and promoted the SinoRussian strategic cooperative partnership in an all-around way,said Chinese analysts.

  4. Premier Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and Russia look to move beyond resources and light manufacturing to hi-tech trade Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin paid an official visit to China at the invitation of his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao on October 11-12, Putin’s first visit abroad since he declared his intention to run for president next year.

  5. Facteurs liés au diagnostic tardif du cancer du sein: expérience du CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech

    OpenAIRE

    Aloulou, Sofia; El Mahfoudi, Amal; El Omrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer féminin en termes d'incidence et de mortalité. Au Maroc, il vient au premier rang des cancers de la femme avant celui du col utérin Il constitue un problème de santé publique. Son pronostic est étroitement lié au stade auquel le diagnostic est posé. Il s'agit d'une pathologie dont les moyens diagnostiques sont de nos jours développés, allant de la détection précoce à la mise en évidence de lésions infra-cliniques, ce qui a nettement amélioré le pronosti...

  6. ‘Cap au Sud’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    International and national media are currently showing increased attention to Morocco’s economic presence in sub-Saharan Africa. After a brief survey of the country’s trade relations and economic agreements across the Sahara, the paper focuses on Moroccan investment and firm cooperation, illustra......International and national media are currently showing increased attention to Morocco’s economic presence in sub-Saharan Africa. After a brief survey of the country’s trade relations and economic agreements across the Sahara, the paper focuses on Moroccan investment and firm cooperation...

  7. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of three endemic plants from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELmouloud Bouchouka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saharan plants are known by their high content of antioxidant products like phenolic compounds due to the extreme climatic conditions. They constitute the basis of treatments used by local population for various diseases. The purposes of this study were to measure the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoid compounds, to determine antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three wild Saharan medicinal plants. Material and methods. Hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of ethanol:water extract and the residu of the extracted aqueous layer of Ferula vesceritensis fruits, Genista saharae aerial parts and Zilla macropterae fruits were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method against: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. In addition, the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoids and antioxydant activity using DPPH test of ethyl acetate fractions (EAF of plant parts studied were investigated. Gallic acid, quercetin and vitamin C were used for these parameters. Results. Among the extracts tested, ethyl acetate fractions of all plants and hexane fraction of F. vesceritensis showed activity against S. aureus. Good activity was shown by EAF of G. saharae. According to the results, it is observed that Z. macropterae fruits possess a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion. The results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of G. sahara Aerial parts possesses a good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which justifi es its use in traditional medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Furthermore, evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ethyl acetate fractions of these plants, particular Z. macroptera fruits, has also provided interesting results. Zilla macroptera fruits may therefore be a good source of antioxidants.

  8. How much rainfall sustained a Green Sahara during the mid-Holocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Peter; Valdes, Paul; Harper, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The present-day Sahara desert has periodically transformed to an area of lakes and vegetation during the Quaternary in response to orbitally-induced changes in the monsoon circulation. Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations of the mid-Holocene generally underestimate the required monsoon shift, casting doubt on the fidelity of these models. However, the climatic regime that characterised this period remains unclear. To address this, we applied an ensemble of dynamic vegetation model simulations using two different models: JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) a comprehensive land surface model, and LPJ (Lund-Potsdam-Jena model) a widely used dynamic vegetation model. The simulations are forced with a number of idealized climate scenarios, in which an observational climatology is progressively altered with imposed anomalies of precipitation and other related variables, including cloud cover and humidity. The applied anomalies are based on an ensemble of general circulation model simulations, and include seasonal variations but are spatially uniform across the region. When perturbing precipitation alone, a significant increase of at least 700mm/year is required to produce model simulations with non-negligible vegetation coverage in the Sahara region. Changes in related variables including cloud cover, surface radiation fluxes and humidity are found to be important in the models, as they modify the water balance and so affect plant growth. Including anomalies in all of these variables together reduces the precipitation change required for a Green Sahara compared to the case of increasing precipitation alone. We assess whether the precipitation changes implied by these vegetation model simulations are consistent with reconstructions for the mid-Holocene from pollen samples. Further, Earth System models predict precipitation increases that are significantly smaller than that inferred from these vegetation model simulations. Understanding

  9. Hubs and Authorities of the English Premier League for 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Leznik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this work author applies well known web search algorithm Hyperlink - Induced Topic Search (HITS) to problem of ranking football teams in English Premier League (EPL). The algorithm allows the ranking of the teams using the notions of hubs and authorities well known for ranking pages in the World Wide Web. Results of the games introduced as a graph where losing team 'gives a link' to a winning team and, if draw registered both team give links to each other. In case of a win link is weighted...

  10. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM) phase images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, G.; Andreae, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  11. El papel de la ONU en el conflicto del Sahara Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La democracia hoy: una mirada desde el temor a la El conflicto del Sahara Occidental comienza en el período de descolonización del continente africano, en la década de los setenta ms exactamente. Este confr. Acto se ha caracterizado por contar con dos tendencias que hasta el momento se presentan totalmente irreconciliables: los intereses de las partes, Marruecos y la República arave Saharaui Democrática (RASD), que han llegado a despertar la atención de otras naciones, quienes por efectos de ...

  12. How well do analyses capture dust-generating winds in the Sahara and Sahel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alexander; Marsham, John; Knippertz, Peter; Parker, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust is important for weather, climate and earth-system prediction. Uncertainty in winds, as well as the land-surface, are known to be key to model uncertainties for dust uplift. Recent research has shown that during the summer wet season in the Sahel strong winds generated by the cold outflow from organized convective systems are an important dust storm mechanism (so called haboobs), while over the inner Sahara nocturnal low-level jets forming on the pressure gradient around the heat low dominate. Together the Sahel and Sahara are the world's largest dust source. Until now there has been a severe shortage of data for evaluating models for this region. Here, we bring together new observations from the remote Sahara, made during the Fennec project, with Sahelian data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), to provide an unprecedented evaluation of dust-generating winds in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis. Differences between observations and ERA-I are explored with specific attention to monsoon and non-monsoon influenced regions. The main results are: (1) High speed winds in instantaneous ERA-I grid-box mean winds are lacking compared to time-averaged wind speed observations; (2) agreement between ERA-I and observations is lower during the monsoon season, even in parts of the Sahara not directly affected by the monsoon; and (3) both the seasonal and diurnal variability is under-represented in ERA-I. ERA-I fails to capture the summertime maximum for monsoon-affected stations and seasonally, correlations between daily-mean ERA-I and observed winds vary from 0.8 to 0.4, with lower correlations for 3-hourly data. These differences demonstrate that the model used in the production of the ERA-I reanalysis is unable to represent some important dust uplift processes, especially during the monsoon season when moist convection plays a key role, and that the product is not sufficiently

  13. Stress hydrique et adaptation au changement climatique pour la viticulture et l'oenologie : le projet LACCAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Ollat, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Les effets du stress hydrique sur la vigne et la qualité du vin doivent être analysés aujourd’hui au regard des enjeux du changement climatique. L’article présente les enjeux et les premières synthèses du projet LACCAVE qui fédère les chercheurs INRA travaillant en France sur l’adaptation du secteur vigne et vin au changement climatique. Le projet vise à coordonner les travaux en cours dans différentes disciplines en les inscrivant dans une démarche de prospective. Dans un premier temps, nous...

  14. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    and dreams for the future become intertwined with their financial possibilities, limitations and responsibilities. The following three articles employ the notion of relatedness to explore the transnational and local social networks, including family relations, of which the au pairs are part. Arguing...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality...... important remittances back home. Their time in Denmark is also often part of long-term migration trajectories involving future stays in Scandinavia and southern Europe. Based on ten months of fieldwork among current and former au pairs in Denmark and ten weeks of fieldwork among prospective au pairs and au...

  15. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Coaches in Premier Under-20 Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among coaches in premier Under-20 football league. The research method was descriptive-correlative, the performance method was survey, and data collection was done through field study. Research population consisted of 56 coaching staff in 14 teams participating in premier Under-20 football league. Finally, there were 48 questionnaires useable in data analysis. Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Syber Yashring and JDI (Wysocki & Kromm were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to describe data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to know whether the distribution of data was normal, and Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were applied to investigate the significance of hypotheses. Results showed that there was significant association between emotional intelligence, subscale self-awareness, subscale empathy, and subscale social skills with job satisfaction (p≤0.05. However, there was not significant association between subscale self-motivation and subscale self-control with job satisfaction. Self-awareness, empathy, and social skills (predictors predicted job satisfaction (criterion significantly. Predicted value of self-awareness, empathy, and social skills was 0.4, 0.29, and 0.26 respectively. Training and aging increase emotional intelligence so it is predicted more job satisfaction over the time. From other side, clubs and football federation as the head can create scientific atmosphere and instruct psychological coaching principles. It will lead to enjoy creative, willing players as output.

  16. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.

  17. Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Pio, C A; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.

  18. Eolian sediment responses to late Quaternary climate changes: Temporal and spatial patterns in the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a compilation of eolian-based records of late Quaternary climate changes in the Sahara. Although the data are relatively sparse, when viewed as a whole, they reveal a general pattern of widespread eolian sediment mobilization prior to 11,000 cal. years BP, eolian sediment stabilization from 11,000 to 5000 cal. years BP, and a return to widespread eolian sediment mobilization after 5000 cal. years BP. Furthermore, an eolian-based record from southern Tunisia reveals the existence of millennial-scale changes in eolian sediment behavior. These millennial-scale variations provide examples of eolian sediment responses to climate changes at a scale intermediate between seasonal and orbital ('Milankovitch') changes, and they are also coincident with abrupt atmospheric and oceanic changes. The general synchroneity of the eolian stratigraphic records and their coincidence with various oceanic and atmospheric changes suggest that global forcing mechanisms have influenced late Quaternary eolian sediment behavior in the Sahara. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lernia, Savino; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Gallinaro, Marina; Alhaique, Francesca; Balasse, Marie; Cavorsi, Lucia; Fullagar, Paul D; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Monaco, Andrea; Perego, Alessandro; Zerboni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC). This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O) analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  20. Quality and management of hot water of intercalary continental, northern Sahara of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tifrani, Ala Eddine; Nezli, Imed Eddine

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian Sahara is the biggest desert in the world, and it is known by that the main climatic characters which are the high temperature and the low precipitations. The northern Sahara is a part of this big area, located on the south-east of Algeria. Due to the rarely and insufficient precipitations (1 to 180 mm per year) the need for water is a rising problem, so the main source are the ground water. There are three ground water aquifers in the area, the phreatic table, the terminal complex and the intercalary continental, our study is focused on the intercalary continental which is the biggest non recharged aquifer in the world, many studies national and international estimated the reserve of the water around 6 million m3. Existing between 1000 and 2000 m depth, this depth gives the water a lot of characterization which need to be noted and updated for example the temperature (around 50°C), and the high mineralization, because of the vast area and the difference in depths between wells, which is a reason of variety, the main goal is the determination of chemical and physical setting of this water.

  1. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA. Obj

  2. Images of Africa: A Report on What American Secondary School Students Know and Believe about Africa South of the Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Barry K.; Hicks, E. Perry

    "Project Africa" surveyed selected seventh- and 12th-grade students in 24 states to determine (1) the specific nature of their images of Africa south of the Sahara, both before and after any formal study of this region, and (2) the types and accuracy of the students' knowledge about the region and its peoples. In one survey, students…

  3. Libraries in National Literacy Education Programmes in Africa South of the Sahara: The State-of-the-Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newa, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the involvement of public and village libraries in literacy and postliteracy programs in Africa south of the Sahara during the last two decades. Issues discussed include the extent of illiteracy in Black Africa, populations served by village libraries, African rural strategies of development, and the implications for library services. (44…

  4. Long-distance autumn migration across the Sahara by painted lady butterflies: exploiting resource pulses in the tropical savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Soto, David X; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    The painted lady, Vanessa cardui, is a migratory butterfly that performs an annual multi-generational migration between Europe and North Africa. Its seasonal appearance south of the Sahara in autumn is well known and has led to the suggestion that it results from extremely long migratory flights by European butterflies to seasonally exploit the Sahel and the tropical savannah. However, this possibility has remained unproven. Here, we analyse the isotopic composition of butterflies from seven European and seven African countries to provide new support for this hypothesis. Each individual was assigned a geographical natal origin, based on its wing stable hydrogen isotope (δ(2)Hw) value and a predicted δ(2)Hw basemap for Europe and northern Africa. Natal assignments of autumn migrants collected south of the Sahara confirmed long-distance movements (of 4000 km or more) starting in Europe. Samples from Maghreb revealed a mixed origin of migrants, with most individuals with a European origin, but others having originated in the Sahel. Therefore, autumn movements are not only directed to northwestern Africa, but also include southward and northward flights across the Sahara. Through this remarkable behaviour, the productive but highly seasonal region south of the Sahara is incorporated into the migratory circuit of V. cardui.

  5. A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on Africa South of the Sahara. World History Series, Bulletin No. 252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Harry; And Others

    This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the study of the history and culture of Africa south of the Sahara. The primary purpose of this course is to stimulate thought and to encourage students to make valid generalizations and intelligent assessments of the forces and events that have and are shaping…

  6. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  7. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  8. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  9. Rekommendation av miljömärke : Case: Best Western Premier Hotel Katajanokka

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Hållbar utveckling är ett aktuellt ämne inom turismen och hotellsektorn. Det finns många sätt att uttrycka sin miljöpolitik bland hotellverksamheter och miljömärkning är en av dem. Syftet med detta arbere är att tillsammans med Best Western Premier Hotel Katajanokka reda ut vilka miljömärken det finns tillhanda i Finland och vilket av dessa skulle passa bäst till hotellverksamheten. Som metod använde jag mig av skrivbordsundersökning och främst internet som materialsamlingskanal, men också in...

  10. Forsterite and Olivine in Sahara-97210 (LL3.2) and Chainpur (LL3.4) Chondrules: Compositional Evolution and the Influence of Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that chondrules contain relict grains that did not crystallize in situ, and that forsterite is one type of relict grain which is a likely precursor for chondrules. Chemically and morphologically similar forsterite is also found as "isolated grains", especially in carbonaceous chondrites. Using SIMS, we analyzed forsterite, ferrous overgrowths around forsterite, and coexisting normal olivine in 5 chondrules and 2 isolated grains in the Sahara-97210 ('Sahara") LL3.2 chondrite. We earlier used the same methods to study olivine in 3 Chainpur chondrules that contain relict forsterite. Our new data for Sahara provide additional insight into the processes affecting chondrules and their precursors.

  11. Scènes et coulisses de l’élection au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Bennani-Chraïbi, Mounia; Catusse, Myriam; Ilahiane, Hsain; Leveau, Rémy; Santucci, Jean-Claude; Veguilla, Victoria; Zaki, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    Les élections législatives marocaines de septembre 2002 , premier scrutin organisé sous le règne de Mohammed VI. ont été l'objet de nombreuses espérances et conjectures de la part des observateurs comme des élites politiques marocaines. Au-delà de cet horizon d'attentes, fait de représentations multiples des évolutions du régime et concentré sur le face-à-face entre la monarchie et les partis politiques, quelles lectures proposer de ce scrutin ? Que nous apprennent les expériences multiples v...

  12. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  13. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Helas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  14. Wars Without Beginning or End: Violent Political Organizations and Irregular Warfare in the Sahel-Sahara

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Olivier; Skillicorn, David

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the structure and spatial patterns of violent political organizations in the Sahel-Sahara, a region characterized by growing political instability over the last 20 years. Drawing on a public collection of disaggregated data, the article uses network science to represent alliances and conflicts of 179 organizations that were involved in violent events between 1997 and 2014. To this end, we combine two spectral embedding techniques that have previously been considered separately: one for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric), and one for signed graphs (relationships are positive or negative). Our result show that groups that are net attackers are indistinguishable at the level of their individual behavior, but clearly separate into pro- and anti-political violence based on the groups to which they are close. The second part of the article maps a series of 389 events related to nine Trans-Saharan Islamist groups between 2004 and 2014. Spatial analysis suggests that cross-border mov...

  15. Structure, composition, and location of organic matter in the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Laurette; Beyssac, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Derenne, Sylvie; Guillou, Corentin Le; Marrocchi, Yves; Mostefaoui, Smail; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Thomen, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of an unequilibrated enstatite chondrite Sahara (SAH) 97096 has been investigated using a battery of analytical techniques. As the enstatite chondrites are thought to have formed in a reduced environment at higher temperatures than carbonaceous chondrites, they constitute an interesting comparative material to test the heterogeneities of the IOM in the solar system and to constrain the processes that could affect IOM during solar system evolution. The SAH 97096 IOM is found in situ: as submicrometer grains in the network of fine-grained matrix occurring mostly around chondrules and as inclusions in metallic nodules, where the carbonaceous matter appears to be more graphitized. IOM in these two settings has very similar $\\delta^{15}N$ and $\\delta^{13}C$; this supports the idea that graphitized inclusions in metal could be formed by metal catalytic graphitization of matrix IOM. A detailed comparison between the IOM extracted from a fresh part and a terrestrially weathered part...

  16. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  17. Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women’s experiences in the Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sahrawi women are active agents in the social dynamics of the refugee camps, in which they have developeda number of coping strategies to overcome the hardships of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Since the outbreak of the con#ict and the forced settlement in Tindouf, Algeria, women have been responsible for the entire management of refugee camps, assuming leadership roles in many sectors of society.This paper highlights the Sahrawi women’s contribution to the process of local human development in a context of protracted refuge such as the one in the Western Sahara. In addition to the enlargement of the refugee population’s capacities in relation to material and physical assets, social and organizational abilities, and motivational strengths, one of the major achievements of Sahrawi women has been their own individual and collective process of empowerment within the camp life.

  18. Comparison of efifcacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods:Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results:The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions:The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  19. Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamean, Jessie; Suski, Kaitlyn; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; White, Allen B.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-03-29

    Winter storms in California’s Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation (1), while few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols likely serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  20. Microbial diversity and organic matter fractions under two arid soils in Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabi, Mokhtar; Hamdi, Aissa Baelhadj; Zenkhri, Salah

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian Sahara is characterized by a heterogeneity of edaphic conditions and climatic dissimilarities; however, information on biological indicators of arid soils is weakly documented in this area. The researchers who have studied the biological activities of the soils of the arid regions have underlined their low organic matter content, particularly their very low rates of organic nitrogen; a low humification because seriously inhibited by a significant mineralization. The objective of the current work is to study the microbial biomass densities and organic matter fractions for different types of soil, under two arid soil in Algerian Sahara. The experiment was conducted in an alluvial soil in traditional palm grove of Guerrara, and in a saline soil in experimental field of university of Ouargla. Composite soil samples (10 subsamples each) were collected aseptically at 0-20 cm depth on two diagonal transects drawn over an area of 12 ha. The following germs densities were determined: Bacteria, Fungi and Actinomycetes. The soil organic matter fractions, the textural fractions, chemical attributes (organic C, total N, total limestone and gypsum) were also determined. The microbial groups count on both soils reveals that the bacterianmicroflora present a numerical superiority followed by the actinomycetes and finally fungi. The micro-organisms densities except fungal density, showed a prevalence of the bacterianmicroflora, and actinomycetes in alluvial soil compared to saline soil. Fractionation of soil organic matter show that all fractions are better represented in alluvial soil except non-extractable organic carbon (NEOC) which are better represented in saline soil. This confirms that alluvial soil has a relatively large biological activity than saline soil and that humification process is relatively pronounced by comparing it with the saline soil, which tends to contain little polycondenseshumic compounds.

  1. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  2. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possessio...

  3. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  4. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  5. Savez-vous à qui vous avez affaire ? De la vengeance au don, de l’offense au pardon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Anspach

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Pardonner, c’est renoncer au désir de se venger, c’est donc éviter de s’engager dans le cercle de la réciprocité négative. Or, il est difficile d’échapper à ce cercle vicieux sans accepter d’entrer dans le cercle vertueux de la réciprocité positive : voilà du moins la thèse que nous avons soutenue dans un premier travail sur la violence et le don. Nous nous proposons ici de partir de cette même thèse pour entamer une nouvelle réflexion sur le pardon. Comment le passage de la vengeance au don ...

  6. The Sahara from the Middle Jurassic to the Middle Cretaceous: Data on environments and climates based on outcrops in the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, G.; Cornée, A.

    The period investigated, succeeded the Upper Triassic and Liassic-Lower Dogger arid sedimentation which was characterized by the development of large evaporitic deposits. The north-eastern part of the Algerian Sahara is specially interesting as it constitutes part of the few dated continental Jurassic outcrops in North Africa (except in the Maghreb). Continental Lower-Middle Cretaceous is also well developed in the same region. The grading of these continental series into marine series particularly in the north-eastern part of the Maghreb has been investigated from an adequate number of well spaced wells. The Middle-Upper Jurassic (Lower Taouratine) consists of an argillaceous-sandy-ferruginous series, often grey coloured and rich in filicean wood and vertebrate remains in some levels. The ferralitic alteration products denote a more humid climate than that which prevailed during the Liassic-Lower-Dogger times. These products alternate with sandy conglomeratic events confirming the influences of alternating important run-off and aeolian winnowing. The large continental Lower and Middle Cretaceous detrital nappes are discussed. They constitute the uppermost part of the series, south of the Tinrhert Hamada (Alba-Vraconian series with the more detrital lateral equivalent), west of Tademait (Gara Samani). Data on lithology and paleobiology (fishes, Dinosaurs, other vertebrates, pelecypods, gastropods, wood debris, palynoflora) permit the reconstruction of the palaeo-environment and the conditions of deposition. This is similar to the sub-desertic terrestrial sedimentation by violent and ephemeral hydrodynamism model based on the modern Darfour example. The desertic conditions which prevailed in these Saharan areas during the Cretaceous are reflected as well as their possible consequences on the sedimentation of nearby oceanic areas (Atlantic and Tethys). This detrital sedimentation is finally reviewed in the context of its tectonic origins and an attempt is made to

  7. Rentrer au village

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Le titre pourrait sembler teinté d’ironie si, bien sûr, il ne s’agissait d’une question grave et de haute importance dès lors que l’on vise un projet comme celui que je défends dans Comparer l’incomparable, à savoir un comparatisme constructif entre historiens et anthropologues. Depuis le xvie siècle, on s’en souvient, le Grec et l’Américain conversent : mêmes récits fabuleux, des coutumes si proches, l’apparition de l’un questionne les commencements de l’autre. Les premiers anthropologues, c...

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Qui révélera le premier la particule de Dieu

    CERN Multimedia

    Dessibourg, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    L'accélérateur LHC reprend du service le 20 février. Dés les découvertes, dont celle peut-être du fameux "boson de Higgs", la tentation sera grande pour les chercheurs de les annoncer, sur des blogs, afin de se faire connaître. Au risque de se faire exclure. (1 page)

  10. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  11. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to obtain a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to perform radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways, are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous all-wave (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 Wm−2 and the – (44–20 Wm−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous all-wave DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within – (13–7 Wm−2 and – (18–11 Wm−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41

  12. Evidence of Laurussian affinity for parts of the Mauritanides and Souttoufides (Moroccan Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Villeneuve, Michel; Linnemann, Ulf; El Archi, Abdelkrim; Bellon, Hervé

    2013-04-01

    The Soutouffide belt is located in the southern part of the Moroccan Sahara. Representing the northern section of the Carboniferous Mauritanide belt, it extends from Morocco to Senegal. The Dhlou and Adrar Souttouf Massifs, both of which belong to the Souttoufide belt, are located on the western margin of the Archean Reguibat Shield. Previously, the Adrar Souttouf Massif has been suggested to be part of the Variscan Mauritanian-Appalachian system. To date the Moroccan Sahara has been one of the least studied regions in West Africa. This study presents new zircon ages from two units of the Adrar Souttouf Massif which have nevertheless allowed us to hypothesise a complex polyphased history. The Massif can be subdivided into four NNE-SSW trending units (listed here from east to west). The Sebkha Matallah unit represents the eastern margin of the Adrar Souttouf Massif and is thrust over the Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary Dhloat Ensour Group to the east. A central (Dayet Lawda) unit consisting of mafic and ultramafic rocks is interpreted as a possible remnant of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust or mafic terranes. The western Sebkha Gezmayet and Oued Togba units are mainly composed of granitoids and orthogneisses. Zircon ages of the Tonian-Stenian (1.4-1.0 Ga) were recorded in the Oued Togba and Sebkha Gezmayet units and suggest an Avalonian-Meguman-like relationship. Three other age groups were obtained in these two units: 610 to 570 Ma (Pan-African), 530 to 490 Ma (Cambrian), and 440 to 270 Ma. The latter population cannot result from Variscan orogeny alone, and is possibly linked to the Salinic and Acadian orogenies of Laurentia. Zircon age populations at ~3.0 Ga and ~2.65 Ga determined for two granite samples from the Archean foreland are in accordance to data already published. Ages of between 226 Ma (Upper Triassic) and 158 Ma (Upper Jurassic) result from lower intercepts of discordia lines and are interpreted as a Mesozoic thermal overprint of the area attributed

  13. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to get a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to initialize radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous net (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 W m−2 and the – (44–20 W m−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous net DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within −(13–8 W m−2 and −(17–11 W m−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41 up to 89

  14. Spin resonance transport properties of a single Au atom in S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangyuan, Wang; Guiqin, Li

    2016-07-01

    The spin transport properties of S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction between Au nanowires are investigated with density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function. We mainly focus on the spin resonance transport properties of the center Au atom. The breaking of chemical bonds between anchor atoms and center Au atom significantly influences their spin transmission characteristics. We find the 0.8 eV orbital energy shift between anchor S atoms and the center Au atom can well protect the spin state stored in the S-Au-S junction and efficiently extract its spin state to the current by spin resonance mechanism, while the spin interaction of itinerant electrons and the valence electron of the center Au atom in the Au-Au-Au junction can extract the current spin information into the center Au atom. Fermi energy drift and bias-dependent spin filtering properties of the Au-Au-Au junction may transform information between distance, bias, and electron spin. Those unique properties make them potential candidates for a logical nanocircuit. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 20121318158).

  15. Indicateurs cles au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  16. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  17. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yoshida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the role of mineral dust aerosols in the earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction, are poorly understood because ground observations are limited to several locations and the satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength. We develop a method in this paper to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0 and optical depth (τa, with daily 1 degree latitude and 1 degree longitude resolution, using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We confirm that the uncertainties in our estimation of ω0 and τa are suitably minor and that the characteristic spatial distributions estimated over the Sahara and Asia are significant. The results for the Sahara indicate good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance and between ω0 and τa. Therefore, ω0 is determined mainly by the mineral composition of surface dust and/or the optical depth of airborne dust in the Sahara. On the other hand, the relationships between ω0, τa, and the surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the values of ω0 are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are thought to be transported, as reported in previous studies. Because the coal-burning and carbonaceous

  18. Diatom-inferred salinity and carbonate oxygen isotopes in Holocene waterbodies of the western Sahara and Sahel (Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Françoise

    2002-03-01

    Thirteen Holocene palaeolakes in the western Sahara and Sahel have provided diatom records, with carbonate oxygen isotope profiles available from eight of them. Most of these palaeolakes were groundwater-fed. Lake water chemistry is reconstructed using diatom transfer functions. Lake water salinity and 18O records are assembled with some isotopic and chemical groundwater data to better understand the response of the hydrological systems to climate changes over the past 15,000 yr. Data are in general agreement with climate simulations using coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models which show a mid-Holocene wetting over the whole of northwest Africa, and a rapid drying by 6-4 ka. The lake record also shows that at many sites the major lake infilling lags the end of the Younger Dryas by 1-2 ka. Regional differences also appear in the timing of the lake hydrological optimum: ca. 10.5-8.5 and 7.5-4.5 ka in the northern Sahara, 10-8.5 ka in the Aı̈r-Ténéré, 10-5.7 or 4.5 in the Sahel, and 7.5 ka in Lake Chad. The whole of the Holocene is punctuated by short-term drying events. Changes in water isotopic composition through time are partly explained by changes in rainfall amount and air humidity. During the wet Holocene period however, the very low δ values in the southern Sahara also imply changes in the moisture transport pattern or rainfall mechanisms. Data suggest an apparent decrease in 18O content of precipitation along the monsoon flow, in contrast with modern patterns. Changes in water availability and quality have driven population migrations in and out of the Sahara-Sahel, but relationships between climate and cultures are complex. Short-term dry events might have driven inventive adaptations. In the Sahara, drying at 5-4.5 ka coincides with both the collapse of the classical Neolithic civilization and the settlement of new cultures.

  19. Philibert Delorme’s Divine Proportions and the Composition of the Premier Tome de l’Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Galletti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 'Premier tome de l’architecture' (1567 — the first original, comprehensive architectural treatise written by a French author — Philibert Delorme (c. 1514–1570 claims to be the first to formulate a theory of divine proportions, which he describes as a set of rules recorded in the Old Testament as directly dictated by God to men for the construction of the Ark of Noah, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Temple and House of Solomon. Yet the author does not develop the theory of divine proportions in the 'Premier tome' and postpones it instead to the second volume of his treatise. As a second volume was never published (and likely never written, Delorme readers are left with a handful of less-than-coherent references and illustrations of a theory that remains largely obscure. Yet the elements of theory of divine proportions contained in the 'Premier tome' provide historians with an understanding of the genesis of the treatise itself, thus ultimately helping to raise broader questions about the book and its author. This paper shows how Delorme’s divine proportions offer a key to understanding the conception and composition of his treatise as well as to the process of intellectual development of the author and the changes in the nature and scope of his written work.

  20. Model Simulations of Complex Dust Emissions over the Sahara during the West African Monsoon Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cavazos-Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing limitations in ground-based observations in remote areas in West Africa determine the dependence on numerical models to represent the atmospheric mechanisms that contribute to dust outbreaks at different space-time scales. In this work, the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Chemistry (WRF-Chem model using the GOCART dust scheme is evaluated. The period comprises the West African Monsoon onset phase (the 7th to 12th of June, 2006 coinciding with the AMMA Special Observing Period (SOP. Different features in the horizontal and vertical dynamical structure of the Saharan atmosphere are analyzed with a combination of satellite and ground-based observations and model experimentation at 10 and 30 km model resolution. The main features of key Saharan dust processes during summer are identifiable, and WRF-CHEM replicates these adequately. Observations and model analyses have shown that cold pools (haboobs contributed a substantial proportion of total dust during the study period. The comparative analysis between observations and WRF-Chem simulations demonstrates the model efficiency to simulate the spatial and 3D structure of dust transport over the Sahara and Sahel. There is, therefore, a strong basis for accurate forecasting of dust events associated with synoptic scale events when model dust emission parameterization is suitably calibrated.

  1. Satellite imagery and airborne geophysics for geologic mapping of the Edembo area, Eastern Hoggar (Algerian Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri, Takfarinas; Djemaï, Safouane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Zoheir, Basem; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Amara, Massinissa

    2016-03-01

    Satellite imagery combined with airborne geophysical data and field observations were employed for new geologic mapping of the Edembo area in the Eastern Hoggar (Tuareg Shield, Sahara). Multi-spectral band fusion, filtering, and transformation techniques, i.e., band combination, band-rationing and principal component analysis of ETM+ and ASTER data are used for better spectral discrimination of the different rocks units. A thematic map assessed by field data and available geologic information is compiled by supervised classification of satellite data with high overall accuracy (>90%). The automated extraction technique efficiently aided the detection of the structural lineaments, i.e., faults, shear zones, and joints. Airborne magnetic and Gamma-ray spectrometry data showed the pervasiveness of the large structures beneath the Paleozoic sedimentary cover and aeolian sands. The aeroradiometric K-range is used for discrimination of the high-K granitoids of Djanet from the peralumineous granites of Edembo, and to verify the Silurian sediments with their high K-bearing minerals. The new geological map is considered to be a high resolution improvement on all pre-existing maps of this hardly accessible area in the Tuareg Shield. Integration of the airborne geophysical and space-borne imagery data can hence provide a rapid means of geologically mapping areas hitherto poorly known or difficult to access.

  2. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  3. Dynamics of green Sahara periods and their role in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, Juan C; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-01

    Astronomically forced insolation changes have driven monsoon dynamics and recurrent humid episodes in North Africa, resulting in green Sahara Periods (GSPs) with savannah expansion throughout most of the desert. Despite their potential for expanding the area of prime hominin habitats and favouring out-of-Africa dispersals, GSPs have not been incorporated into the narrative of hominin evolution due to poor knowledge of their timing, dynamics and landscape composition at evolutionary timescales. We present a compilation of continental and marine paleoenvironmental records from within and around North Africa, which enables identification of over 230 GSPs within the last 8 million years. By combining the main climatological determinants of woody cover in tropical Africa with paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data for representative (Holocene and Eemian) GSPs, we estimate precipitation regimes and habitat distributions during GSPs. Their chronology is consistent with the ages of Saharan archeological and fossil hominin sites. Each GSP took 2-3 kyr to develop, peaked over 4-8 kyr, biogeographically connected the African tropics to African and Eurasian mid latitudes, and ended within 2-3 kyr, which resulted in rapid habitat fragmentation. We argue that the well-dated succession of GSPs presented here may have played an important role in migration and evolution of hominins.

  4. SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR: PHYSICAL CONTROLS ON SIGNAL PENETRATION AND SUBSURFACE SCATTERING IN THE EASTERN SAHARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Gerald G.; McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carol S.; Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    It is found that the Shuttle Imaging Radar A (SIR-A) signal penetration and subsurface backscatter within the upper meter or so of the sediment blanket in the Eastern Sahara of southern Egypt and northern Sudan are enhanced both by radar sensor parameters and by the physical and chemical characteristics of eolian and alluvial materials. The near-surface stratigraphy, the electrical properties of materials, and the types of radar interfaces found to be responsible for different classes of SIR-A tonal response are summarized. The dominant factors related to efficient microwave signal penetration into the sediment blanket include 1) favorable distribution of particle sizes, 2) extremely low moisture content and 3) reduced geometric scattering at the SIR-A frequency (1. 3 GHz). The depth of signal penetration that results in a recorded backscatter, called radar imaging depth, was documented in the field to be a maximum of 1. 5 m, or 0. 25 times the calculated skin depth, for the sediment blanket. The radar imaging depth is estimated to be between 2 and 3 m for active sand dune materials.

  5. Dental indicators of adaptation in the Sahara Desert during the Late Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, E; Mattingly, D; Lahr, M M

    2014-10-01

    The present paper examines dental diseases and linear enamel hypoplasia among the Garamantes, a Late Holocene Saharan population, and aims to draw conclusions about nutrition and adaptation to a hyper-arid environment. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Garamantian diet included animal protein and local, Mediterranean and Near Eastern plants. Moreoever, although the Garamantes had developed urban centres, the size of these was not large enough to allow for particularly unhygienic conditions to appear. The above archaeological findings were partly corroborated by the current bioarchaeological study. At an intra-population level, the Garamantes showed limited sex differences in dental disease prevalence, while all dental conditions increased in frequency with age, as expected. At an inter-population level, the frequency of all dental conditions was comparable to that found among other North African groups, with the exception of ante-mortem tooth loss. The low frequency of most dental conditions is an indication that the Garamantian diet was overall balanced, while the high frequency of ante-mortem tooth loss may be related to factors such as oral hygiene, food preparation or eating mode, which cannot be controlled for osteologically. Finally, the low frequency of enamel hypoplasia suggests either that the Sahara did not inflict particular stresses on the population, or, more likely, that the Garamantes had developed effective mechanisms for coping with their natural environment.

  6. Characterization and antimicrobial potential of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from hypersaline environments of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Inès; Hassani, Imene Ikrame; l'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Hacène, Hocine; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Halophilic archaea were isolated from different chotts and sebkha, dry salt lakes and salt flat respectively, of the Algerian Sahara and characterized using phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. From 102 extremely halophilic strains isolated, forty three were selected and studied. These strains were also screened for their antagonistic potential and the production of hydrolytic enzymes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis allowed the identification of 10 archaeal genera within the class Halobacteria: Natrinema (13 strains), Natrialba (12 strains), Haloarcula (4 strains), Halopiger (4 strains), Haloterrigena (3 strains), Halorubrum (2 strains), Halostagnicola (2 strains), Natronococcus, Halogeometricum and Haloferax (1 strain each). The most common producers of antimicrobial compounds belong to the genus Natrinema while the most hydrolytic isolates, with combined production of several enzymes, belong to the genus Natrialba. The strain affiliated to Halopiger djelfamassilliensis was found to produce some substances of interest (halocins, anti-Candida, enzymes). After partial purification and characterization of one of the strains Natrinema gari QI1, we found similarities between the antimicrobial compound and the halocin C8. Therefore, the gene encoding halocin C8 was amplified and sequenced.

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachina RJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Júlio de Freitas Guina Fachina,1,2 Marília dos Santos Andrade,3 Fernando Roberto Silva,4 Silas Waszczuk-Junior,4 Paulo César Montagner,1 João Paulo Borin,1 Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira5 1Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Confederação Brasileira de Basketball (CBB, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Grêmio Barueri Futebol LTDA, Barueri, Brazil; 5Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, Brazil Abstract: Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2% were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8% during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. Keywords: injuries, epidemiology, soccer players

  8. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  9. PREMIERS RESULTATS SUR LES COMPORTEMENTS DE SUBSISTANCE SOLUTREENS A LA GROTTE ROCHEFORT (MAYENNE, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bemilli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Le site de la grotte Rochefort (Mayenne, France a livré depuis 2005 plusieurs centaines de restes fauniques issus des couches Solutréennes. Le Renne et le Cheval en sont les principales composantes et reflètent le fond commun du régime alimentaire des Solutréens. Nous présenterons ici les premiers résultats de l’analyse archéozoologique concernant l’exploitation de ces deux principaux taxons. Plusieurs recollages ont été réalisés. L’exceptionnelle conservation des restes permet, outre une excellente lecture des traces de découpe, une première reconstitution des modalités d’acquisition et d’exploitation des animaux, ainsi que leur saison d’abattage. La rareté des ensembles fauniques solutréens fouillés et étudiés récemment donne à celui de la grotte Rochefort un impact particulier et inédit.Several hundreds faunal remains were discovered since 2005 in the Solutrean‘s level at Rochefort cave (Mayenne, France. Reindeer and Horse are the main taxa identified and are the baseline of the Solutrean diet. We present here the preliminary results of the faunal analysis and discuss the exploitation of these two main taxa. A number of refits were possible. At the same time, the exceptional preservation of the artefacts together with well-defined cut marks allows to reconstruct procurement and use patterns of these animals as well as the season they were killed. Recently excavated and analysed Solutrean faunal assemblages are rare which make the yet unreported Rochefort cave faunal assemblage even more important and unprecedented.

  10. Les livres de recettes « francisés » au Mexique au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bak-Geller Corona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’apparition des premiers livres de cuisine au Mexique - publiés par des maisons d’édition françaises spécialisées en ouvrages en espagnol - marque le début de l’histoire de la cuisine mexicaine. Cet événement s’inscrit par ailleurs dans une histoire plus large : celle de la construction de l’État-nation, entre nationalisme et cosmopolitisme. L’article s’intéresse aux idéaux de nation et de cuisine cohabitant dans deux des livres de recettes francisés du XIXe siècle au Mexique : l’Arte novísimo de cocina et le Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario.French-fashioned Mexican recipe books in the 19th century. Globalization and construction of a national culinary modelThe first Mexican recipe books were published in the early 1830’s by French publishing houses specialized in Spanish written books. This article deals with the different nationalistic and cuisine models in two French-fashioned Mexican recipe books -the Arte novísimo de cocina and the Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario- and their relationship with the nation-building context in nineteenth century Mexico.

  11. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  12. Premier Wen Jiabao Chaired a State Council Executive Meeting to Review and Deploy the Program to Further Implement the Restructuring and Reinvigoration Plan for Key Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to review and deploy the program to further implement the restructuring and reinvigoration plan for key industries on February 24th,2010.

  13. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  14. Solid-Phase Equilibria in the Au-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    AD6i5 469 SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Ru-As AU-GA-SB AU-IN-AS- 1/17 AND AU-IN-SB TERNAR (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF CHEMISTRY AND...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb Thchnical Report Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb TEARIEIS S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEMI*n Does Entepd) 4./ lie- . .- - - - - -- -- Solid Phase Equilibria in the Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries C

  15. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, PO43−.

    About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources.

    About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference.

    Enhanced SO42− and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42−, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories.

    Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of

  16. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: ◦l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires ◦l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à ◦la répartition géographique des nécropoles ◦les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires ◦l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales ◦les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles ◦les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  17. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à -la répartition géographique des nécropoles -les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires -l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales -les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles -les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  18. /Au Back Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  19. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Thong [IS Services - Institut de Soudure - ZI Paris-Nord II - 90 rue des Vanesses 93420 Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  20. Areva. Nine-month 2007 sales revenue and data; Areva. Informations et chiffre d'affaires relatifs au neuf premiers mois de l'exercice 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The main information concerning the nine-month 2007 financial data of the Areva group is a steady growth of 9-month sales revenue, at euro 8.066 billion (+6.8% like-for-like), including euro 2.692 billion in the 3. quarter, i.e. +7.6% like-for-like. The group confirms its strong sales revenue growth objective for 2007.

  1. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of new battery materials. (author)

  2. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J.L

    1998-12-31

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  3. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Ryder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1 the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, (2 dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3 vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4 in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at −15 °C, (5 dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL, (6 airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7 the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8 coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9 discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer

  4. Actinopolyspora biskrensis sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from Northern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, Rafika; Bouras, Noureddine; Meklat, Atika; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sabaou, Nasserdine

    2015-03-01

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete, designated H254(T), was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected from Biskra (Northern Sahara), and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The strain is Gram-positive, aerobic, and halophilic, and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth is 15-20 % (w/v). The cell-wall hydrolysate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the diagnostic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine, and MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acid profiles were anteiso-C17:0 (32.8 %), C15:0 (28 %), and iso-C17:0 (12.3 %). Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain H254(T) formed a well-separated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Actinopolyspora, and the microorganism was most closely related to Actinopolyspora saharensis DSM 45459(T) (99.2 %), Actinopolyspora halophila DSM 43834(T) (99.1 %), and Actinopolyspora algeriensis DSM 45476(T) (99.0 %). Nevertheless, the strain had relatively lower mean values for DNA-DNA relatedness with the above strains (57.2, 68.4, and 45.6 %, respectively). Based on phenotypic features and phylogenetic position, we propose that strain H254(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinopolyspora, for which the name Actinopolyspora biskrensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. biskrensis is strain H254(T) (=DSM 46684(T) =CECT 8576(T)).

  5. Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Groot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts, we report the first complete genome sequence and proteome analysis of a bacterium, Deinococcus deserti VCD115, isolated from Sahara surface sand. Its genome consists of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and three large plasmids of 324 kb, 314 kb, and 396 kb. Accurate primary genome annotation of its 3,455 genes was guided by extensive proteome shotgun analysis. From the large corpus of MS/MS spectra recorded, 1,348 proteins were uncovered and semiquantified by spectral counting. Among the highly detected proteins are several orphans and Deinococcus-specific proteins of unknown function. The alliance of proteomics and genomics high-throughput techniques allowed identification of 15 unpredicted genes and, surprisingly, reversal of incorrectly predicted orientation of 11 genes. Reversal of orientation of two Deinococcus-specific radiation-induced genes, ddrC and ddrH, and identification in D. deserti of supplementary genes involved in manganese import extend our knowledge of the radiotolerance toolbox of Deinococcaceae. Additional genes involved in nutrient import and in DNA repair (i.e., two extra recA, three translesion DNA polymerases, a photolyase were also identified and found to be expressed under standard growth conditions, and, for these DNA repair genes, after exposure of the cells to UV. The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment.

  6. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity.

  7. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  8. A new cichlid fish in the Sahara: The Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad), a biodiversity hotspot in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer. Astatotilapia tchadensis sp. nov. is characterized by a black bar between eye and corner of mouth, rounded orange spots on anal fin, scales ctenoid, lower limb of first gill arch with 7-8 gill rackers, dorsal fin with 13-14 spines and 9-11 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays, 29 or 30 lateral line scales, and lower pharyngeal dentition with enlarged molariform teeth. The new species is easily distinguished from A. desfontainii and A. flaviijosephii, the northernmost haplochromine species currently isolated from its other group members, and appears close to an unnamed species of Lake Chad basin. Ounianga Serir lakes and especially Lake Boukou present a remarkable diversity of fish, the highest known in the Sahara desert with a total of at least six fish species belonging to six genera and three families. They also constitute an exceptional natural landscape inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list in 2012 and a biodiversity hotspot for desert vertebrate species.

  9. Role of surface wind and vegetation cover in multi-decadal variations of dust emission in the Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Diehl, Thomas; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin; Brown, Molly E.; Stockwell, William R.

    2017-01-01

    North Africa, the world's largest dust source, is non-uniform, consisting of a permanently arid region (Sahara), a semi-arid region (Sahel), and a relatively moist vegetated region (Savanna), each with very different rainfall patterns and surface conditions. This study aims to better understand the controlling factors that determine the variation of dust emission in North Africa over a 27-year period from 1982 to 2008, using observational data and model simulations. The results show that the model-derived Saharan dust emission is only correlated with the 10-m winds (W10m) obtained from reanalysis data, but the model-derived Sahel dust emission is correlated with both W10m and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that is obtained from satellite. While the Saharan dust accounts for 82% of the continental North Africa dust emission (1340-1570 Tg year-1) in the 27-year average, the Sahel accounts for 17% with a larger seasonal and inter-annual variation (230-380 Tg year-1), contributing about a quarter of the transatlantic dust transported to the northern part of South America. The decreasing dust emission trend over the 27-year period is highly correlated with W10m over the Sahara (R = 0.92). Over the Sahel, the dust emission is correlated with W10m (R = 0.69) but is also anti-correlated with the trend of NDVI (R = -0.65). W10m is decreasing over both the Sahara and the Sahel between 1982 and 2008, and the trends are correlated (R = 0.53), suggesting that Saharan/Sahelian surface winds are a coupled system, driving the inter-annual variation of dust emission.

  10. Alexandre Theotokis la notion de l'évolution et le premier texte de zoologie grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas B. Krimbas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Theotokis, membre de l'illustre famille de Corfou, ayant fait des études de zoologie et paléontologie au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle à Paris, publie en 1848 les Tableaux zoologiques généraux ou Prodrome à la zoologie hellénique, un livre dans lequel pour la première fois est présenté en langue grecque la notion d'évolution, onze ans avant la publication de l'Origine des espèces de Darwin. Theotokis est anti-évolutionniste et suit fidèlement les opinions de son maître Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. Theotokis exerça une forte influence sur son neveu Constantin, auteur bien connu de la littérature grecque moderne.

  11. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  12. The Role of Meteorology and Surface Condition to Multi-Decadal Variations of Dust Emission in Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Bian, H.; Brown, M. E.; Remer, L. A.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest dust source region influencing regional and global climate, human health, and even the local economy. However North Africa as a dust source is not uniform but it consists of the arid region (Sahara) and the semi-arid region (Sahel) with emission rates depending on meteorological and surface conditions. Several recent studies have shown that dust from North Africa seems to have a decreasing trend in the past three decades. The goal of this study is to better understand the controlling factors that determine the change of dust in North Africa using observational data and model simulations. First we analyze surface bareness conditions determined from a long-term satellite observed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for 1980-2008. Then we examine the key meteorological variables of precipitation and surface winds. Modeling experiments were conducted using the NASA Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which has been recently updated with a dynamic dust source function. Using the method we separate the dust originating from the Sahel from that of the Sahara desert. We find that the surface wind speed is the most dominant factor affecting Sahelian dust emission while vegetation has a modulating effect. We will show regional differences in meteorological variables, surface conditions, dust emission, and dust distribution and address the relationships among meteorology, surface conditions, and dust emission/loading in the past three decades (1980-2008).

  13. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed E. Nezli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouargla, rarely examined in the Algerian Sahara. Approach: Is based on the following aspects: Sampling and physico-chemicals analysis of water, statistical treatment of the physico-chemical water parameters and simulation to natural and isotherm 25°C evaporation of water parameters. Results: The results show the presence of fluoride in the studied water. The rates vary between 1 and 2 mg L-1. The calculation of water saturation index in relation with the preponderant minerals, using the thermodynamic model ‹‹phreeqci›› reveals a sensitivity of carbonate minerals towards precipitation and dissolution of evaporitic minerals and clayey fluorides as well. Conclusions/Recommendations: The increasing alkalinity of water in contact with the aquifer during long periods of stay decreases the chemical activity of calcium and helps with alteration of clayey minerals and fluoride as a necessary condition for a possible fluorite mineralization. Knowing the origin of that fluoridation leads to possible solutions, through the optimization of a water treatment meets the standards.

  14. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  15. Impacts of dust reduction on the northward expansion of the African monsoon during the Green Sahara period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the West African Monsoon (WAM) occurred between 15000-5000 yr BP, when increased summer rainfall led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. However, model experiments are unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the WAM during this period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is considered. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 yr BP (Mid-Holocene) in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A closer agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both the Saharan vegetation changes and dust decrease are taken into account. The dust reduction strengthens the vegetation-albedo feedback, extending the monsoon's northern limit approximately 500 km further than the vegetation-change case only. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the WAM during the Mid-Holocene.

  16. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estelles, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Trembath, J.; Woolley, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Fennec climate programme aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed for and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sizes of up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager) satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas Mountains, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area

  17. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental information inferred from terrestrial archives in the central Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneck, J.; Baumhauer, R.

    2009-04-01

    Reconnaissance surveys in northeastern Niger since 1977 have revealed, from such evidence as diatomite-lined depressions, the existence of palaeolakes there. Initial research has shown that the palaeolimnic sediments and palaeosoils found are suitable for reconstructing its Late Quaternary palaeoenvironment. The most valuable and best-investigated study site is the sebkha of Seggedim, where a core of 15 meters length could be extracted which revealed a composition of high-resolution sections. Stratigraphical, structural and geochemical investigations as well as the analysis of thin sections allow the characterisation of different environmental conditions throughout the core. Most importantly, a complex age-depth model could be constructed, based on 21 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurements and reaching from Early to Mid Holocene. The results obtained from the core are compared with those from terrestrial and lacustrine sediments from outside the depression, situated a few hundred kilometres further to the north. Within the plateau landscape of Djado, Mangueni and Tchigai, two depressions and a valley containing lacustrine deposits, were investigated for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Depending on modifying local factors, these sediment archives were of shorter existence than the lake, but reveal additional information about the landscape dynamics from Early to Mid Holocene. The few perennial lacustrine climate archives still active to present day within the Sahara reveal apparently unique characteristics, as the local conditions that led to their existence are indeed exceptional. The interpretation of such a standalone location has to be performed with caution, as it inhibits several sources of error. The Seggedim depression may be considered such a unique spot at least for a limited time. The information obtained from the initial and freshwater lake sediments showed no noticeable signs of climatic alterations until Mid Holocene

  18. The place of sub-Sahara Africa in the world sport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dejonghe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world sportsystem is developed through globalisation with its homogenisation and heterogenisation processes. The result of these opposite forces is the division of the world in 6 classes. Sub-Sahara Africa underwent, with the exception of South-Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, a total and passive acceptance of the western (British modern sports. The place of that part of Africa is analogue to and correlates with its place in Wallerstein's world-system periphery. The introduction of modern sports is associated with the spatial diffusion of the 19th century British hegemonic cultural imperialism. The purpose of this policy was a transformation of the traditional society into a modern functional world-culture and the incorporation of that part of the world in the world-system. The anti-western feelings after the independence resulted in a political Pan-Africanism. However, sport and more specific soccer, a typical product of the western domination, has not been rejected. On the contrary, local politicians used it to create a national identity. The strong link between soccer and soil resulted in a strong form of topophily. This connection was transformed into sportnationalism and created in the, through artificial borders developed, nations a unity and a national pride. The outcome of sport games was used to demonstrate the successes in politics and economics. The absence of any political platform on which the Third World had a strong voice brought about that the international sport scene, such as the FIFA, was used for the unification of the Third World against the former colonial powers. Nowadays, the globalisation processes result in an increasing labour migration of African football players to the rich core competitions in Europe. This form of migration can be classified as another form of "cash crop" or in this case "foot drain.. ""As Roman imperialism laid the foundation of modern civilisation and led wild barbarians of these

  19. La santé et la sécurité du travail au Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Dionne, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Monsieur Jean-Claude Dionne, hygiéniste industriel, a développé depuis quelques années une passion pour l’histoire du développement de la santé et de la sécurité du travail au Québec. Il a accepté de nous faire partager le résultat de ses recherches dans les documents d’archives. Le texte qui suit est le premier d’une trilogie qui nous fera suivre la piste des pionniers de la santé publique et de la santé et sécurité du travail au Québec jusqu’à l’époque actuelle. In the last few years, Je...

  20. Approche dynamique du premier harmonique pour la modélisation de convertisseurs AC-AC à étage intermédiaire continu. Application aux générateurs à induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, S.; Rognon, J. P.; Ferrieux, J. P.; Bendaas, M. L.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modelling technique for power electronics converters with both DC and AC stages. This technique is based on a dynamical approach of the first harmonic method. The approach is first applied to an idealized converter and second is extended to a framework working under discontinuous conduction mode. At the end, comparative simulations are done to validate the continuous built model. Dans cet article, il est présenté une technique de modélisation de convertisseurs présentant à la fois des étages continus et alternatifs. Cette technique est basée sur une approche dynamique de la méthode du premier harmonique. La technique est tout d'abord appliquée à un convertisseur idéalisé pour être ensuite étendue à une structure travaillant en conclusion discontinue. En dernier lieu, des simulations viennent valider le modèle continu mis au point.

  1. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  2. Energie nominale atteinte au SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    * Le 9 juillet les premiers essais du système d'extraction ont permis de réaliser l'extraction rapide sur un tour de la quasi-totalité du faisceau circulant qui a été envoyé sur une décharge externe. Des difficultés entre les dipôles et les quadrupô/es principaux ont été surmontées et, le 15 juillet, plus de 4 x lu'2 protons par impulsion étaient accélérés à 200 GeV.

  3. Problématique pour une meilleure gestion du multilinguisme social de type afro-européen en Afrique au sud du Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally two types of multilinguism are distinguished: individual multilinguism and social multilinguism. This paper has a double aim:1. The analysis of the solutions designed for the management of social multilinguism in general and afro-european multilinguism in particular.2. The proposal of a language policy approach, which takes into account ethnic differences, cultural particularities and the importanceof languages of mass communication. This approach will allow democratise the education system by an augmentation of school attendance rates, the limitation of failures and school desertion and annihilation of illiteracy and rural exodus.The approach offered is exemplified by the case of Republic of Congo.

  4. Évolution nycthémérale des composantes biochimiques du phytoplancton de la retenue du barrage Idriss premier (Fès, Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahhou, J.; Alaoui Mhamdi, M.

    1999-03-01

    The diel changes of the biochemical composition of the phytoplankton were studied in the Idriss first reservoir (located on the Inaouen river at thirty Km from the city of Fes, Morrocco) during September 1994. Several biomass and metabolic indicators (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, chlorophyll a and primary production) were assessed every fourth hour over tow days (7, 8 and 9 September). Since the Protein/Carbohydrates ratio (P/C) is largely recognised as a good integrator of the metabolic functions of the cells, we examined its distribution pattern concomitantly with aforementioned parameters. The results demonstrated enhanced P/C ratios clearly indicating that nutrients were sufficiently available for growth. In addition, this index showed a diel significant variation with levels higher in the night than in the day. Moreover, these results suggest that phytoplankton species during the night used the day-synthesised carbohydrates to insure the cell metabolic functioning. The P/C presents relatively high values in proposition to the ones that have been recorded in temperate regions, and seems to be related to azotic inputs of the Inaouen river. Dans le but de parfaire nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement du sous écosystème phytoplancton, nous nous sommes intéressés à étudier son cycle nycthéméral et son métabolisme cellulaire dans la retenue du barrage Idriss premier. Cette dernière, construite sur l'Oued Inaouène, est située à une trentaine de Km de la ville de Fès. Au cours de ce cycle, les prélèvements ont été effectués selon une séquence temporelle de 4 heures pendant 48 heures, les 7, 8 et 9 septembre 1994. L'étude de l'évolution des composantes biochimiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques à savoir les protéines, les glucides et les lipides a permis de mettre en évidence des variations nycthémérales importantes. Ces variations sont d'autant plus importantes que les variations spatiales observées entre les profondeurs. De plus

  5. A reward for patience and suffering – Ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Rossi, D.; Dentoni, D.

    2013-01-01

    A Reward for Patience and Suffering: Ethnomycology and Commodification of Desert Truffles among Sahrawi Refugees and Nomads of Western Sahara. This paper reflects on the role of ethnobiological knowledge and practices for refugees’ agency by focusing on the use and commodification of desert truffles

  6. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES BETWEEN 9500 BP AND 4500 BP: A CONTRIBUTION FROM THE SAHARA TO UNDERSTAND EXPANDING DROUGHTS IN THE “GREAT MEDITERRANEAN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A.A. Garcea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sahara is more connected to the Mediterranean than often assumed and palynology, in particular, has provided evidence of past interrelations between the Mediterranean and the Sahara with pollen spectra from prehistoric Saharan deposits including Mediterranean taxa. In order to show human-environment relationships and populations’ strategies in response to changing environments, this paper presents a case study from the southern Sahara. This region offered a natural laboratory for the study of human/climate interaction as the range of environmental change extended from flood to drought, forcing people to cope with periodic environmental instability. When the tropical rainfall belt migrated northward, watertable outcropped in interdunal depressions and formed permanent lakes, which alternated with severe arid spells. As a case study, this paper presents the results of interdisciplinary investigations on climate changes, human adaptations and subsistence strategies at Gobero, in the southern Sahara of Niger. Gobero is a restricted archaeological area comprising 8 sites that surround the shores of a palaeolake. It was intermittently occupied between about 9500 cal years BP and 4500 BP. Due to alternating environmental conditions it could only be occupied at the beginning and at the end of the most humid periods.

  7. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching/Learning Process for Sustainable Development of Adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Anthonia; Ngozi, Ugwuoke; Rufina, Nwachukwu; Ogbonnaya, Kingsley A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of information technology in the teaching/learning process for sustainable development of adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region (WASSR). Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 3071 participants and instructors drawn from 10 education centres that were…

  8. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-10-28

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

  9. Africa South of the Sahara, Rationale and Introduction: An Experimental Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    The articulation of a rationale for Project Africa's instructional program, the collection of materials for improving inquiry-oriented instruction at the secondary level about Africa south of the Sahara, and the preparation of teaching and study guides have been completed. This geographic region, rather than the whole continent, was chosen to…

  10. Peoples of Africa, Topic 1. Africa South of the Sahara: A Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. (Teaching and Student Guides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    This teaching guide and student text for Project Africa's curriculum program, "Africa South of the Sahara," deal with how four typical contemporary African peoples acquired their present way of life: (1) the Hausa of Northern Nigeria, (2) the Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, (3) the Mech'a Galla of Ethiopa, and (4) the Kikuyu of…

  11. Contribution de la consolidation au maintien du patrimoine

    CERN Document Server

    Chevret, P

    2001-01-01

    Les premiers bâtiments du Laboratoire datent de 1954 et les équipements techniques les plus anciens encore en service dans ces bâtiments datent de 1956. Nombre d'entre eux sont toujours constitués des matériels d'origine qui ont largement dépassé leur espérance de vie normale et ne satisfont plus aux normes de sécurité. La non disponibilité fréquente de pièces de rechange sur des matériels obsolètes, les risques encourus tant par les exploitants que par les utilisateurs du point de vue de la sécurité, et les co ts de maintenance qui ne peuvent être contenus en l'absence de budget d'investissement, ont conduit le groupe ST-TFM, au cours des dernières années, à lancer un minimum de projets de consolidation pour empêcher la dégradation du patrimoine. Ce document synthétise les différentes actions entreprises et montre que l'effort doit être maintenu, voire accru, si l'on veut globaliser vers l'extérieur les opérations de maintenance dans de bonnes conditions.

  12. Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte V; Brito, José C; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Padial, José M; Harris, D James

    2012-09-01

    The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have

  13. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  14. Les énergies renouvelables au fil des siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Hladik, Jean; Hladik, Claude Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Il nous faut remonter dans l'histoire de l'humanité vers des périodes beaucoup plus lointaines que celles des moulins à vent, de la fusion et de la forge des métaux ou même de la découverte et de l'utilisation des premiers récipients de terre cuite, pour comprendre le rôle des énergies fossiles ou renouvelables. Ce rôle ne se limite pas au développement des techniques car il apparaît comme une contribution essentielle à l'émergence des être humains, dans le cadre des seules théories actuelles...

  15. Mise au point de deux nouveaux matériaux à base de cobalt

    OpenAIRE

    CEA

    2014-01-01

    Des chercheurs du CEA, du CNRS, du Collège de France et de l’Université de Grenoble ont mis au point deux nouveaux matériaux à base de cobalt capables de remplacer le platine, métal rare et cher, dans la production d’hydrogène à partir d’eau (électrolyse). L’un peut fonctionner en solution aqueuse de pH neutre. Le second constitue le premier matériau catalytique « commutable » et sans métaux nobles jamais créé capable d’intervenir dans les deux réactions chimiques essentielles à l’électrolys...

  16. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anup K; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-11-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe.

  17. Dust and biological aerosols from the Sahara and Asia influence precipitation in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M; Suski, Kaitlyn J; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J; Sullivan, Ryan C; White, Allen B; Ralph, F Martin; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M; Tomlinson, Jason M; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-03-29

    Winter storms in California's Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources and hydropower for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation, whereas few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols probably serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  18. Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Sahara African city: Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gaita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Sahara Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, airborne fine particles matter (particle diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5 were collected between May 2008 and April 2010 at two sites (urban background site and suburban site within the Nairobi metropolitan area. A total of 780 samples were collected and analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC and thirteen trace elements. The average PM2.5 concentration at the urban background site was 20 ± 8 μg m−3 whereas the concentration at the suburban site was 13 ± 8 μg m−3. The daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 25 μg m−3 (the World Health Organization 24 h guideline value 29% of the days at the urban background site and 7% of the days at the suburban site. At both sites, BC, Fe, S and Cl accounted for approximately 80% of all detected elements. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis identified five source factors that contribute to PM2.5 in Nairobi; traffic, mineral dust, secondary aerosol, industrial and combustion. Mineral dust and traffic factors were related to approximately 74% of PM2.5. Identified source factors exhibited seasonal variation though traffic factor was prominently consistent throughout the sampling period. The results provide information that can be exploited for policy formulation and mitigation strategies to control air pollution in Sub-Sahara African cities.

  19. Discrimination and validation of clouds and dust aerosol layers over the Sahara desert with combined CALIOP and IIR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Bin; Huang, Jianping

    2014-02-01

    This study validates a method for discriminating between daytime clouds and dust aerosol layers over the Sahara Desert that uses a combination of active CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) and passive IIR (Infrared Imaging Radiometer) measurements; hereafter, the CLIM method. The CLIM method reduces misclassification of dense dust aerosol layers in the Sahara region relative to other techniques. When evaluated against a suite of simultaneous measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), CloudSat, and the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), the misclassification rate for dust using the CLIM technique is 1.16% during boreal spring 2007. This rate is lower than the misclassification rates for dust using the cloud aerosol discriminations performed for version 2 (V2-CAD; 16.39%) or version 3 (V3-CAD; 2.01%) of the CALIPSO data processing algorithm. The total identification errors for data from in spring 2007 are 13.46% for V2-CAD, 3.39% for V3-CAD, and 1.99% for CLIM. These results indicate that CLIM and V3-CAD are both significantly better than V2-CAD for discriminating between clouds and dust aerosol layers. Misclassifications by CLIM in this region are mainly limited to mixed cloud-dust aerosol layers. V3-CAD sometimes misidentifies low-level aerosol layers adjacent to the surface as thin clouds, and sometimes fails to detect thin clouds entirely. The CLIM method is both simple and fast, and may be useful as a reference for testing or validating other discrimination techniques and methods.

  20. Discrimination and Validation of Clouds and Dust Aerosol Layers over the Sahara Desert with Combined CALIOP and IIR Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingjing; CHEN Bin; HUANG Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study validates a method for discriminating between daytime clouds and dust aerosol layers over the Sahara Desert that uses a combination of active CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polar-ization) and passive IIR (Infrared Imaging Radiometer) measurements; hereafter, the CLIM method. The CLIM method reduces misclassification of dense dust aerosol layers in the Sahara region relative to other techniques. When evaluated against a suite of simultaneous measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), CloudSat, and the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imag-ing Spectroradiometer), the misclassification rate for dust using the CLIM technique is 1.16%during boreal spring 2007. This rate is lower than the misclassification rates for dust using the cloud aerosol discriminations performed for version 2 (V2-CAD;16.39%) or version 3 (V3-CAD;2.01%) of the CALIPSO data processing algorithm. The total identification errors for data from in spring 2007 are 13.46% for V2-CAD, 3.39% for V3-CAD, and 1.99%for CLIM. These results indicate that CLIM and V3-CAD are both significantly better than V2-CAD for discriminating between clouds and dust aerosol layers. Misclassifications by CLIM in this region are mainly limited to mixed cloud-dust aerosol layers. V3-CAD sometimes misidentifies low-level aerosol layers adjacent to the surface as thin clouds, and sometimes fails to detect thin clouds entirely. The CLIM method is both simple and fast, and may be useful as a reference for testing or validating other discrimination techniques and methods.

  1. Quantifying the "Energy-Return-on-Investment" of desert greening in the Sahara/Sahel using a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-08-01

    "Greening" the world's deserts has been proposed as a way to produce additional food, sequester carbon, and alter the climate of desert regions. Here, we quantify the potential benefits in terms of energetic quantities and compare these to the energetic costs. We then compare these using the metric of Energy-Return-On-Investment (EROI). We apply EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the arid Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with various rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio > 1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was > 1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture-recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth System, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. Furthermore, we suggest that this type of EROI-analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth System.

  2. Centrality dependence of antiproton production in Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D.; Bennett, M.J.; Carroll, J.B.; Chiba, J.; Chikanian, A.; Crawford, H.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Debbe, R.; Doke, T.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Hallman, T.J.; Hayano, R.S.; Heckman, H.H.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, C.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Stankus, P.; Tanaka, K.H.; Welsh, R.C.; Zhan, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)]|[A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)]|[University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles California (United States)]|[National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)]|[University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley California (United States)]|[Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)]|[University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley California (United States)]|[Universities Space Sciences Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)]|[Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, New York (United States)]|[Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); (E878 Collaboration)

    1995-11-13

    We have measured the yields of antiprotons in Au+Au interactions in the rapidity range 1.2{lt}{ital y}{lt}2.8 as a function of centrality using a beam line spectrometer. The shapes of the invariant multiplicity distributions at {ital p}{sub {ital t}}=0 are used to explore the dynamics of antiproton production and annihilation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  4. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  5. “You are back home!”——On Premier Wen Jiabao’s Meeting with Japanese Orphans Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Beijing,November 11,2009 The sky was exceptionally blue after the first snow.The temperature was low,but people could feel the bright sunshine’s warmth.For the members of the Japanese orphans delegation, they felt especially so because they would soon meet Premier Wen Jiabao whom they had been longing to see.

  6. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Zr system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 金展鹏; 刘华山

    2003-01-01

    Au-Zr binary system was reassessed by using the calculation phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique based on experimental thermodynamic data and newly reported phase diagrams. The excess Gibbs energies of the three terminal solutions and the liquid phases were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial. All the intermetallic phases were treated as stoichiometric compounds with the exception of ZrAu which is modeled by a two-sublattice model, (Au,Zr) : (Au, Zr). The results show that there exist seven intermetallics: Zr3Au, Zr2Au, Zr5Au4,Zr7Au10, ZrAu2 , ZrAu3, and ZrAu4 in the system. The eutectoid reaction: β(Zr) →α(Zr)+Zr3Au takes place at 1 048 K and the maximal solubility of Au in α-Zr is 4.7 % (mole fraction). The maximal solubility of Zr in Au is 6.0%(mole fraction) at 1 347 K. The homogeneity range of ZrAu phase is about 44.5%-52.9%(mole fraction) of Au. The present assessment fits experimental data very well.

  8. Sahara Coal Pressure Filter ditch optimize operational efifciency%哈拉沟选煤厂加压过滤机运行效率优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴华; 蒋淑丽; 马敬坡

    2015-01-01

    针对哈拉沟选煤厂细煤泥含量大,细煤泥水分高,加压过滤机小时处理量达不到设计要求等问题,通过改善哈拉沟选煤厂的细煤泥处理设备即加压过滤机的入料性质、运行参数、工艺系统等方法,提出了解决方案。%aiming Sahara Coal ditch fine slime content of large, thin slime high moisture, pressure filter hour processing capacity of less than the design requirements and other issues, by improving the Sahara Coal ditch ifne slime treatment equipment that pressure filter feed properties, operating parameters, process systems and other methods proposed solutions.

  9. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir.

  10. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  12. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  13. Premiers éléments de caractérisation génétique de l'alose du Rhône (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE CORRE M.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La systématique des deux espèces du genre Alosa (A. alosa Linné, 1758-grande alose- et A. fallax Lacépède, 1803 -alose feinte- colonisant l'Atlantique-est et la Méditerranée reste encore confuse en l'absence de caractérisation génétique. En particulier, six sous-espèces ont été reconnues chez l'alose feinte uniquement à partir de critères morphométriques et méristiques. Parmi ces sous-espèces, l'une d'entre elles (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924 -alose du Rhône- est inféodée au bassin méditerranéen français et notamment au fleuve Rhône. Les critères morphométriques et méristiques de ce taxon le rattachent sans équivoque à A. fallax. Cependant, son gabarit moyen et certaines de ses caractéristiques écologiques le rapprochent fortement d'A. alosa. Ainsi, pour connaître la véritable identité de l'alose du Rhône, une première caractérisation génétique a été entreprise à l'aide d'une analyse électrophorétique des protéines du foie (gel d'amidon et du sang (isoélectrofocalisation prélevées sur des échantillons d'adultes. Dans un premier temps, deux des loci les plus performants pour différencier les deux aloses atlantiques (MPI, Mannose Phosphate Isomérase et HBA, chaîne α de l'Hémoglobine ont été utilisés. L'observation des fréquences allèliques montre que l'alose du Rhône semble appartenir à l'espèce A. fallax. Dans un deuxième temps, un troisième locus (ADH, Alcool Déshydrogénase a été utilisé car il a été reconnu comme permettant de discriminer les populations d'alose feinte du Portugal. L'expression de sa fréquence allèlique montre que la population du Rhône resterait proche de celle des fleuves du nord du Portugal. Ces premiers résultats sont discutés en fonction des récentes études génétiques réalisées sur les aloses de l'Atlantique. Elles montrent que, compte tenu du caractère particulier de ce taxon, sa caractérisation génétique doit être compl

  14. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  15. Réactions multicomposant, couplages catalysés au palladium, et synthèses d'hétérocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Gizzi, Marion

    2010-01-01

    New MCR-Heck-Isomerization Cascade towards Indoles ; Ammonia in Ugi-Smiles couplings ; 1,2,4-Triazole synthesis via amidrazones; Notre laboratoire a mis au point en 2005 les premiers réarrangements de Smiles dans des réactions de type Ugi conduisant à des couplages à quatre composants entre isonitriles, phénols électroniquement appauvris, amines et dérivés carbonylés. Les travaux réalisés au cours de la première année de thèse ont essentiellement porté sur la fonctionnalisation de phénols par...

  16. Du bon maniement de l’argent du roi en Espagne au XVIIIe siècle. Les enseignements d’un procès pour fraude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dubet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pour nombre d’historiens – dont je fais partie – les réformes financières entreprises par les premiers Bourbons d’Espagne au XVIIIe siècle n’affectent pas tant l’organisation fiscale de leurs territoires que leur administration. Avant que de modifier la répartition sociale des contributions, il s’agit de rendre au roi et à ses ministres de confiance la décision en matière de dépenses et de s’assurer de son exécution. Ce projet de contrôle accru du roi sur ses propres deniers se traduit certes...

  17. Give me refuge : transforming the most contaminated square mile on earth into a premier urban wildlife refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.

  18. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachkar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Au-Island Ripening on Au(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kleiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiscale modeling hierarchy for the particular case of Au-island ripening on Au(100. Starting at the microscopic scale, density functional theory was used to investigate a limited number of self-diffusion processes on perfect and imperfect Au(100 surfaces. The obtained structural and energetic information served as basis for optimizing a reactive forcefield (here ReaxFF, which afterwards was used to address the mesoscopic scale. Reactive force field simulations were performed to investigate more diffusion possibilities at a lower computational cost but with similar accuracy. Finally, we reached the macroscale by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC simulations. The reaction rates for the reaction process database used in the kMC simulations were generated using the reactive force field. Using this strategy, we simulated nucleation, aggregation, and fluctuation processes for monoatomic high islands on Au(100 and modeled their equilibrium shape structures. Finally, by calculating the step line tension at different temperatures, we were able to make a direct comparison with available experimental data.

  20. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  1. Electricity from the Sahara and hydropower - moving forward with renewable energies; Saharastrom und Wasserkraft - mit erneuerbaren Energien in die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolle, Christian (comp.)

    2009-07-01

    On 13 July a launch meeting took place under the auspices of Muenchner Rueck to initiate the largest private green electricity project of all times. Twenty German companies are preparing themselves to participate in the construction of photovoltaic systems and solar power plants in the Sahara. Even the technical problem of transporting the electricity to Europe, hitherto an obstacle to profitability, seems to have been brought to a solution. The following information was sourced from the GESIS databases SOLIS and SOFIS and the six English-language databases of the producer Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) which are integrated in www.sowiport.de via the national licences. The SOLIS database mostly covers German-language publications, i.e. journal contributions, monographies as well as contributions to compilations in the major social sciences. SOFIS largely procures its information through surveys among institutions in German speaking countries where social science research is conducted. The CSA databases offer references to research results centering on sociology and political science as well as neighbouring disciplines in the social and economic sciences. They largely cover international journals, but also books, book chapters and in some cases publication reviews.

  2. Implementation of triple helix clusters procedure in the sub-Sahara Africa energy sector. Case study: Academia - CREEC Photovoltaic Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Izael [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

    2011-07-01

    Penetration of decentralized power supply for households and commercial enterprises is low in Sub-Sahara Africa. Solar Home Systems (SHS), despite their widespread use in other continents have failed to attain much success in Africa. One of the reasons is the high rate of failure of existing implementations. Data shows earlier failure rates of 50%. This is largely attributed to poor quality of products used, inefficient installation, mismanagement and lack of maintenance. To address this problem, the Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is setting up a Solar PV test laboratory in Uganda. This paper describes the installation process and how to sustain the laboratory after implementation. The lab is intended to provide a forum for training, research and consultancy under CREEC. It is intended as a tool to implement the triple helix and clusters procedure in the PV industry in particular and the energy sector in a more general scope. This paper offers details covering the current situation of the energy sector in Uganda and how the lab supports capacity building in the university to support the upcoming demand. (orig.)

  3. Holocene freshwater carbonate structures in the hyper-arid Gebel Uweinat region of the Sahara Desert (Southwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita M.; Meckler, A. Nele; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of the Sahara is at present the driest region of the desert. Yet the extensive animal rock art in the area, presumed to depict real activities in the lives of the painters, suggests that environmental conditions were significantly different when the rock art was produced. Here we report on exploration of the area, which led to the discovery of morphologically-distinct carbonate structures that line the walls of two valleys in Gebel Uweinat, and were likely formed in standing water. The carbonate structures comprise what appear to be shoreline carbonate formations, and date back to 8100 and 9400 years BP. The chemical and morphological similarity of these formations to carbonate structures from modern lakes suggests that these lakes contained fresh, standing water suitable for human and animal use. However, the significant quartz content suggests that windblown sand was pervasive, and thus the vegetation cover may have been sparse. This discovery supports the possibility of grasslands in the area, which may have been able to support human habitation, and adds to the evidence for a wetter climate in the area in the early Holocene.

  4. Organization of drainage networks from space imagery in the Tanezrouft plateau (Western Sahara) : implications for recent intracratonic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, J.; Fabre, J.

    1997-12-01

    Analyses of satellite images (Landsat TM, SPOT and SAR ERS-1) of the Tanezrouft Plateau (Sahara) together with observations in the field have provided evidence of palaeo-drainage networks and intracratonic tectonic activity. The central network was a large braided system which collected waters from the western Hoggar in the Holocene. This network is connected northwesterly with Wadi Mouilah, the Reggan topographic depression and Sebkha Meqerghane. It is affected by conjugate northwest- and northeast-striking recent faults which reactivate older faults related to the north-south-trending Pan-African suture zone. The southern network comprises the wadis Tamanrasset, El Djouf and El Djouf his. They formerly constituted a large system running from southeast to northwest, captured and turning south in western Tanezrouft. This wadi system is presently cut into two parts as a result of recent tectonic deformations, i.e. uplift affecting the western border of the Tanezrouft plateau and north-striking faults paralleling the Pan-African suture zone.

  5. Impacts of the Sahel-Sahara Interface Reforestation on West African Climate: Intraseasonal Variability and Extreme Precipitation Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Diba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the Sahel-Sahara interface reforestation on spatiotemporal variability of the summer rainfall and extreme precipitation events over West Africa using the RegCM4 model. The land surface scheme of RegCM4 was modified to incorporate an East-West reforested zone (15°N and 20°N. Two runs were performed using the standard version of RegCM4 and the modified one of the same model taking into account the incorporated forest. The reforestation significantly modifies rainfall signal over West Africa by increasing it over the reforested zone and the Fouta Jallon highlands (FJH. This rainfall increase is associated with a strengthening of the atmospheric moisture over the reforested area. This atmospheric moisture content increase associated with the wind dynamic may explain the spatiotemporal change of the rainfall and extreme precipitation events. The analysis of the impacts of the reforestation on some rainfall indices shows an increase of the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles over the reforested zone and off the FJH. This reforestation also causes an increase of the maximum length of the consecutive wet days over and off FJH and a decrease of the maximum length of the consecutive dry days over the northern Sahel and the reforested zone.

  6. Viruses in the desert: a metagenomic survey of viral communities in four perennial ponds of the Mauritanian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Laura; Trape, Sébatien; Robert, Catherine; Boyer, Mickaël; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2013-02-01

    Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities from four perennial ponds (gueltas) located in the central Sahara (Mauritania). Three of the four gueltas (Ilij, Molomhar and Hamdoun) are located at the source of three different wadis belonging to the same hydrologic basin, whereas the fourth (El Berbera) belongs to a different basin. Overall, sequences belonging to tailed bacteriophages were the most abundant in all four metagenomes although electron microscopy and sequencing confirmed the presence of other viral groups, such as large DNA viruses. We observed a decrease in the local viral biodiversity in El Berbera, a guelta with sustained human activities, compared with the pristine Ilij and Molomhar, and sequences related to viruses infecting crop pests were also detected as a probable consequence of the agricultural use of the soil. However, the structure of the El Berbera viral community shared the common global characteristics of the pristine gueltas, that is, it was dominated by Myoviridae and, more particularly, by virulent phages infecting photosynthetic cyanobacteria, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus spp. In contrast, the Hamdoun viral community was characterized by a larger proportion of phages with the potential for a temperate lifestyle and by dominant species related to phages infecting heterotrophic bacteria commonly found in terrestrial environments. We hypothesized that the differences observed in the structural and functional composition of the Hamdoun viral community resulted from the critically low water level experienced by the guelta.

  7. A Review of e-Health Interventions for Maternal and Child Health in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasola, Oluwaseun Ireti; Mabawonku, Iyabo; Lagunju, Ikeoluwa

    2015-08-01

    To review e-health interventions for maternal and child health (MCH) and to explore their influence on MCH practices in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). Keyword searches were used to retrieve articles from four databases and the websites of organisations involved in e-health projects for MCH in SSA. A total of 18relevant articles were retrieved using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researchers reveal the prevalence of the application of mobile phones for MCH care and the influence of the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering MCH information and services to target populations. There is a need to move the application of ICT for MCH care from pilot initiatives to interventions involving all stakeholders on a sub-regional scale. These interventions should also adopt an integrated approach that takes care of the information needs at every stage along the continuum of care. It is anticipated that the study would be useful in the evolution and implementation of future ICT-based programmes for MCH in the region.

  8. Energy policy on the move. Vademecum 2000; La politique energetique en mouvement. Au seuil du XXIe siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlome, J.

    1999-10-01

    Energy policy is going to be an important issue of the period of functions 1999-2003 of the Swiss parliament. In Switzerland, it has received a significant impulse in the recent years. The present vademecum is targeted at politicians and speakers. The first part `Global aspects of energy issues` locates todays energy supply on the way form the the first to the second solar age. The second part `The nineties` is a summary of the energy policy evolution in Switzerland in the past ten years. The third part `Possible solutions on the threshold of the future` describes five trends for the energy policy debate in the next few years [Francais] La politique energetique va etre un important sujet de la legislature de 1999 a 2003. Ces dernieres annees, elle a gagne en dynamisme en Suisse. La presente brochure veut servir les milieux politiques et les conferenciers. La premiere partie, `Les points cardinaux des questions energetiques`, situe l`approvisionnement energetique actuel sur le chemin qui mene de la premiere a la seconde ere solaire. La seconde partie, `Les annees nonante`, est une retrospective de l`evolution de la politique energetique suisse durant la derniere decennie. La troisieme partie, `Des pistes au seuil de l`avenir`, propose une ebauche du debat de politique energetique de ces prochaines annees

  9. Relative Distribution of Au48+ ~ Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Yan; ZHU Zheng-He; JIANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. AU Political Solution in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 3,2011 The African Union(AU),through its High-Level ad hoc Committee on the Situation in Libya and the Commission, is driven by the conviction that, ultimately,only a political solution will make it possible to promote,in a sustainable way,the legitimate aspira-

  11. Histoire et devenir des paysages en Himalaya. Représentations des milieux et gestion des ressources au Népal et au Ladakh, Joëlle Smadja (éd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Schlemmer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage s’ouvre par une exposition des théories alarmistes de l’équilibre du « système Himalaya », qui conçoit cette région du monde comme formant un vaste écosystème stable, mais fragile, et menacé par l’homme. Cette théorie, qui place au premier chef le paysan himalayen comme principal responsable des dégradations environnementales qui touchent cette région, influe tant sur les discours écologiques portés par les organismes de développement que sur les politiques publiques. L’éditrice, ...

  12. Comparative study of anchoring groups for molecular electronics: structure and conductance of Au-S-Au and Au-NH2-Au junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Iben Sig; Mowbray, Duncan; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of single-molecule junctions, consisting of an organic molecule coupled to metal electrodes, are sensitive to the detailed atomic structure of the molecule-metal contact. This, in turn, is determined by the anchoring group linking the molecule to the metal. With the aim...... of identifying and comparing the intrinsic properties of two commonly used anchoring groups, namely thiol and amine groups, we have calculated the atomic structure and conductance traces of different Au-S-Au and Au-NH2-Au nanojunctions using density functional theory (DFT). Whereas NH2 shows a strong structural...... selectivity towards atop-gold configurations, S shows large variability in its bonding geometries. As a result, the conductance of the Au-NH2-Au junction is less sensitive to the structure of the gold contacts than the Au-S-Au junction. These findings support recent experiments which show that amine...

  13. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  14. Case study: Muscle atrophy and hypertrophy in a premier league soccer player during rehabilitation from ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Jordan; Barreira, Paulo; Burgess, Darren J; Iqbal, Zafar; Morton, James P

    2014-10-01

    The onset of injury and subsequent period of immobilization and disuse present major challenges to maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although the characteristics of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy are well documented in laboratory studies, comparable data from elite athletes in free-living conditions are not readily available. We present a 6-month case-study account from a professional soccer player of the English Premier League characterizing rates of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy (as assessed by DXA) during immobilization and rehabilitation after ACL injury. During 8 weeks of inactivity and immobilization, where the athlete adhered to a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, total body mass decreased by 5 kg attributable to 5.8 kg loss and 0.8 kg gain in lean and fat mass, respectively. Changes in whole-body lean mass was attributable to comparable relative decreases in the trunk (12%, 3.8 kg) and immobilized limb (13%, 1.4 kg) whereas the nonimmobilized limb exhibited smaller declines (7%, 0.8 kg). In Weeks 8 to 24, the athlete adhered to a moderate carbohydrate-high protein diet combined with structured resistance and field based training for both the lower and upper-body that resulted in whole-body muscle hypertrophy (varying from 0.5 to 1 kg per week). Regional hypertrophy was particularly pronounced in the trunk and nonimmobilized limb during weeks 8 to 12 (2.6 kg) and 13 to 16 (1.3 kg), respectively, whereas the previously immobilized limb exhibited slower but progressive increases in lean mass from Week 12 to 24 (1.2 kg). The athlete presented after the totality of the injured period with an improved anthropometrical and physical profile.

  15. Adalimumab reduces hand bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis independent of clinical response: Subanalysis of the PREMIER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elden Aake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-TNF therapy has been shown to reduce radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA independent of clinical response. This has previously not been examined for periarticular bone loss, the other characteristic feature of bone involvement in RA. The objective of this study was to examine if treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab also could reduce periarticular bone loss in RA patients independent of disease activity. Methods RA patients were recruited from the PREMIER study and included 214 patients treated with methotrexate (MTX plus adalimumab and 188 patients treated with MTX monotherapy. Periarticular bone loss was assessed by digital X-ray radiogrammetry metacarpal cortical index (DXR-MCI. Change in DXR-MCI was evaluated in patients with different levels of clinical response, as assessed by changes in DAS28 score at 52 weeks and in mean C-reactive protein (CRP levels during follow-up. Results In the MTX group, there was a greater median DXR-MCI loss among patients with moderate and high disease activity compared to those in remission or with low disease activity (-3.3% vs. -2.2%, p = 0.01. In contrast, periarticular bone loss was independent of disease activity (-1.9% vs. -2.4%, p = 0.99 in the combination group. In the MTX group patients with a mean CRP of ≥ 10 mg/l lost significantly more DXR-MCI than patients with low CRP (-3.1% vs. -1.9%, p Conclusion Adalimumab in combination with MTX reduces periarticular bone loss independently of clinical response. These results support the hypothesis that TNF-α stimulates the osteoclast not only by the inflammatory pathway but do also have a direct effect on the osteoclast. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT001195663

  16. Continuations intra- et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkova Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuations intra et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux Cet article rend compte d’un certain nombre d’observations pour l’étude des continuations mineures et majeures en français. Ces observations ont été obtenues dans le cadre d’un projet en cours sur les patrons prosodiques non-conclusifs en français et en anglais. Ici, Nous discutons plus particulièrement les variations de pente concernant deux types de configurations continuatives : (i le segment final d’un SN sujet dans une phrase simple déclarative, suivie ou non d’une autre phrase, (ii le segment final de X dans une suite complexe de type XY où X et Y sont des phrases simples reliées par une relation de discours, marquée ou non par une conjonction. A l’issu d’un protocole expérimental contrastant huit configurations proposées à trente deux sujets, nous avons relevé les valeurs de F0 toutes les 10 ms sur les segments finaux du SN et de X. En calculant le coefficient de la droite de régression correspondant à ce segment, nous avons contrasté les différentes configurations. Les résultats vont dans le sens de l’existence deux types de continuation, conformément à une intuition répandue dans la littérature, mais montrent aussi que leur différence doit se décrire à l’aide paramètres plus complexes que ce qui est généralement proposé.

  17. Laëtitia Atlani-Duault, Au bonheur des autres : anthropologie de l’aide humanitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    L’ouvrage de Laëtitia Atlani-Duault vient combler un vide et résoudre un paradoxe : le premier découle de l’absence d’étude anthropologique sur le fonctionnement de l’aide humanitaire appréhendée de l’intérieur de son organisation alors que – paradoxe – l’humanitaire est l’objet de discours d’origines diverses (journalistique, sociologique, historique et anthropologique) mais jamais fondés sur l’observation attentive des pratiques de leurs acteurs. Au bonheur des autres met en scène ces acteu...

  18. Spiral Patterning of Au Nanoparticles on Au Nanorod Surface to Form Chiral AuNR@AuNP Helical Superstructures Templated by DNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenqi; Lan, Xiang; Zhu, Chenggan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Leyu; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-02-20

    Plasmonic motifs with precise surface recognition sites are crucial for assembling defined nanostructures with novel functionalities and properties. In this work, a unique and effective strategy is successfully developed to pattern DNA recognition sites in a helical arrangement around a gold nanorod (AuNR), and a new set of heterogeneous AuNR@AuNP plasmonic helices is fabricated by attaching complementary-DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the predesigned sites on the AuNR surface. AuNR is first assembled to one side of a bifacial rectangular DNA origami, where eight groups of capture strands are selectively patterned on the other side. The subsequently added link strands make the rectangular DNA origami roll up around the AuNR into a tubular shape, therefore giving birth to a chiral patterning of DNA recognition sites on the surface of AuNR. Following the hybridization with the AuNPs capped with the complementary strands to the capture strands on the DNA origami, left-handed and right-handed AuNR@AuNP helical superstructures are precisely formed by tuning the pattern of the recognition sites on the AuNR surface. Our strategy of nanoparticle surface patterning innovatively realizes hierarchical self-assembly of plasmonic superstructures with tunable chiroptical responses, and will certainly broaden the horizon of bottom-up construction of other functional nanoarchitectures with growing complexity.

  19. Charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Xu(蔡勖); ZHOU; Daimei(周代梅); SA; Benhao(萨本豪)

    2003-01-01

    A hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, together with the corresponding Monte Carlo eventgenerator, has been employed in this paper to investigate further the charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at√Snn= 130 GeV. The default JPCIAE calculations are in good agreement with PHENIX and STAR data. Wefound that the thermal predictions for the π gas, the resonance π gas and quark matter deviate, respectively,from the corresponding dynamical simulations from the JPCIAE model. The discrepancies were also foundbetween the π charge fluctuations and the charge fluctuations of all species of hadrons. However the chargefluctuations for "π from ρ and ω decay" and for all the hadrons from resonance decay are close to each other,indicating the correlation between positively and negatively charged hadrons is not sensitive to the species ofhadrons. This work shows further that it is questionable to use the charge fluctuations as a signature of QGP.

  20. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Crochet, Philippe; Gobbi, A; Donà, R; Coffin, J P; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Roy, C; De Schauenburg, B; Tizniti, L; Wagner, P; Alard, J P; Amouroux, V; Andronic, A; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Best, D; Biegansky, J; Butà, A; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fan, Z G; Fodor, Z; Fraysse, L; Freifelder, R P; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Hong, B H; Jeong, S C; Kecskeméti, J; Kirejczyk, M; Koncz, P; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Lebedev, A; Leifels, Y; Man'ko, V I; Moisa, D; Mösner, J; Neubert, W; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Pinkenburg, C H; Pras, P; Ramillien, V; Reisdorf, W; Ritman, J L; Sadchikov, A G; Schüll, D; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Sodan, U; Teh, K M; Trzaska, M; Vasilev, M A; Wang, G S; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Zhilin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100AMeV to 800AMeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z>2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  1. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  2. Les Lieux de pouvoir au Moyen Âge en Normandie et sur ses marges ‖ Études de castellologie médiévale. Château et peuplement ‖ Cadre de vi

    OpenAIRE

    Giordanengo, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Le CRAHM de Caen n’est pas particulariste, il sait ratisser large et publier des travaux qui n’ont qu’un rapport lointain avec la Normandie ; il accueille même dans le premier volume recensé une étude sur le pont de Londres, sans doute au nom d’une histoire partagée, mais aussi une communication sur la seigneurie de Boves, près d’Amiens, et sur le Rouergue, la qualité desdites contributions balayant toute perplexité sur leur hypothétique localisation aux marges de la Normandie. Même si le châ...

  3. Takarkori rock shelter (SW Libya): an archive of Holocene climate and environmental changes in the central Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Zerboni, Andrea; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Olmi, Linda; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2014-10-01

    Rock shelters in the central Saharan massifs preserve anthropogenic stratigraphic sequences that represent both a precious archive for the prehistory of the region and a powerful proxy data for Holocene palaeoenvironments. The geoarchaeological (micromorphology) and archaeobotanical (pollen analysis) approaches were integrated to investigate the anthropogenic sedimentary sequence preserved within the Takarkori rock shelter, a Holocene archaeological site located in the Libyan central Sahara (southern Tadrart Acacus massif). The site was occupied throughout the Early and Middle Holocene (African Humid Period) by groups of hunter-gatherers before and by pastoral communities later. The investigation on the inner part of the sequence allows to recognize the anthropogenic contribution to sedimentation process, and to reconstruct the major changes in the Holocene climate. At the bottom of the stratigraphic sequence, evidence for the earliest frequentation of the site by hunters and gatherers has been recognized; it is dated to c. 10,170 cal yr BP and is characterized by high availability of water, freshwater habitats and sparsely wooded savannah vegetation. A second Early Holocene occupation ended at c. 8180 cal yr BP; this phase is marked by increased aridity: sediments progressively richer in organics, testifying to a more intense occupation of the site, and pollen spectra indicating a decrease of grassland and the spreading of cattails, which followed a general lowering of lake level or widening of shallow-water marginal habitats near the site. After this period, a new occupational phase is dated between c. 8180 and 5610 cal yr BP; this period saw the beginning of the frequentation of pastoral groups and is marked by an important change in the forming processes of the sequence. Sediments and pollen spectra confirm a new increase in water availability, which led to a change in the landscape surrounding the Takarkori rock shelter with the spreading of water bodies. The

  4. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickles, Anne M., E-mail: anne@bnl.gov

    2014-06-15

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v{sub 2} at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v{sub 2} in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  5. Massignon and Zionism Massignon face au sionisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Mayeres

    2010-03-01

    sioniste qui, pour lui, est avant tout un problème de politique orientale.Sous l’influence de Aaron Aaronsohn, l’islamologue éprouve d’abord pour les pionniers d’Eretz Israel, au regard de leurs réalisations agricoles, une sympathie enthousiaste qui lui fait souhaiter la réussite de l’établissement du Foyer national juif en Palestine. Son engagement l’incite notamment à rédiger, conjointement avec Maritain, un « rapport sur le sionisme », adressé à Pie XI en 1925, dans le but d’obtenir du Saint-Siège un soutien pour les Juifs convertis au catholicisme qui souhaiteraient participer à l’œuvre commune de la résurrection d’Israël. Cependant, les procédés « colonisateurs » et l’athéisme affiché de nombreux dirigeants sionistes, allant à l’encontre des convictions religieuses des Arabes autochtones chrétiens et musulmans, provoquent peu à peu chez Massignon un revirement total qui lui dicte à l’égard des Juifs des « propos excessifs ». Massignon considère qu’en Terre Sainte, il est impossible de séparer le temporel du spirituel et que les faits doivent être lus à la lumière des événements de l’histoire religieuse qui s’y sont déroulés depuis Abraham, « premier héros de l’hospitalité ».La prise de conscience de la pureté de Marie lui paraît la condition nécessaire à une reconnaissance juive dans l’esprit du Patriarche, bien plus, un préalable à toute paix. Massignon voit dans l’Immaculée Conception le « signe marial » de ralliement des diverses confessions de la famille abrahamique.

  6. Massignon face au sionisme Massignon and Zionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Mayeres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1916, Louis Massignon participe aux négociations franco-britanniques qui envisagent, dans la perspective de la capitulation probable des empires centraux, le futur partage de l’Empire ottoman. Dans ce contexte, Massignon cherche à se situer face la question sioniste qui, pour lui, est avant tout un problème de politique orientale.Sous l’influence d'Aaron Aaronsohn, l’islamologue éprouve d’abord pour les pionniers d’Eretz Israel, au regard de leurs réalisations agricoles, une sympathie enthousiaste qui lui fait souhaiter la réussite de l’établissement du Foyer national juif en Palestine. Son engagement l’incite notamment à rédiger, conjointement avec Maritain, un « rapport sur le sionisme », adressé à Pie XI en 1925, dans le but d’obtenir du Saint-Siège un soutien pour les Juifs convertis au catholicisme qui souhaiteraient participer à l’œuvre commune de la résurrection d’Israël. Cependant, les procédés « colonisateurs » et l’athéisme affiché de nombreux dirigeants sionistes, allant à l’encontre des convictions religieuses des Arabes autochtones chrétiens et musulmans, provoquent peu à peu chez Massignon un revirement total qui lui dicte à l’égard des Juifs des « propos excessifs ». Massignon considère qu’en Terre Sainte, il est impossible de séparer le temporel du spirituel et que les faits doivent être lus à la lumière des événements de l’histoire religieuse qui s’y sont déroulés depuis Abraham, « premier héros de l’hospitalité ».La prise de conscience de la pureté de Marie lui paraît la condition nécessaire à une reconnaissance juive dans l’esprit du Patriarche, bien plus, un préalable à toute paix. Massignon voit dans l’Immaculée Conception le « signe marial » de ralliement des diverses confessions de la famille abrahamique.In 1916, facing the probable capitulation of the Central Powers, Louis Massignon participates in French

  7. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  8. Intraseasonal variability and atmospheric controls on daily dust occurrence frequency over the central and western Sahara during the boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Ian; Washington, Richard

    2013-12-01

    classify satellite-derived maps of daily dust occurrence frequency over the central and western Sahara (CWS) during the boreal summer in order to identify typical patterns using the neural network based system of self-organized maps. Resulting dust states vary in terms of the frequency of dust occurrence and its location. The most commonly occurring dust states are those of relatively low dust detection frequency. On days with relatively high dust occurrence, dust tends to favor either a location close to the Algeria-Mali-Niger border triple point (TP) or further to the northwest across the western half of the Mali-Algeria border (MAB). States in which dust is detected at both locations simultaneously are rare. There is a distinct intraseasonal progression in preferred dust location from the TP in the early season to the MAB later in the season. The evolution of dust states reveals a one-way transition from dust at the TP to dust at the MAB and then to reduced daily dust occurrence frequency. There is a distinct degree of interannual variability in the occurrence frequency of the different states, dominated by the extremes of high and low dust detection frequency. Analysis of climatological composites demonstrates that monsoon surges into the Saharan heat low are associated with days of high dust detection frequency, while a strong Harmattan into the CWS is linked to days with less frequent dust presence. The CWS atmospheric dust budget for June-August is thus strongly linked to the dynamics of the West African monsoon.

  9. Flash floods in the Sahara: a case study for the 28 January 2013 flood in Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad Badawy Moawad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the torrential rainfall and its consequent surface runoff in the Sahara is a crucial issue for better flood protection and water management plans. This is often hampered by the lack of appropriate in situ measurements. Even now the satellite-derived rainfall suffers from great uncertainty. Thus, we adjusted the data obtained from real-time satellite rainfall coverage (HYDIS using the in situ observed rainfall (Robs. Hydro-morphological parameters were then integrated with the empirical curve number (CN approach to estimate the surface runoff in Qena, Egypt during the 28 January 2013 flash flood event. We deduced that the study area received a total precipitation (∑Rcum of ∼35.6 × 106 [mm] and a total rain volume (∑Rvol of ∼88.9 × 109 [m3] mainly from wadi Qena (89.8%. The majority of the rainfalls fell at light intensity (<2.5 [mm hr−1]. The estimated total surface runoff (∑Qsur was 26.5 × 106 mm and the total runoff volume (∑Qvol was 66.2 × 106 [m3]. The total surface transmission losses (∑Tlos were calculated as 9.1 × 106 [mm], which represents about 25.6% of the total precipitation (∑Rcum and creates substantial opportunities for alluvial aquifer recharge. The total surface runoff (∑Qsur and flood magnitude were generally low, therefore, flood influences were restricted to the destruction of some roads in Qena but no fatalities were involved, nevertheless. Most of the running water was contained by El Sail Canal and poured into the Nile River. It is expected that the applied method in this study will be helpful for our understanding and quantification of flood hydrology and contribute to better risk management plan in the arid and hyper-arid regions.

  10. Endophytic actinomycetes from spontaneous plants of Algerian Sahara: indole-3-acetic acid production and tomato plants growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Barakate, Mustapha; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-seven endophytic actinomycete strains were isolated from five spontaneous plants well adapted to the poor sandy soil and arid climatic conditions of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemotaxonomical analysis indicated that twenty-two isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and the remaining five were non-Streptomyces. All endophytic strains were screened for their ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro on a chemically defined medium. Eighteen strains were able to produce IAA and the maximum production occurred with the Streptomyces sp. PT2 strain. The IAA produced was further extracted, partially purified and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that strain PT2 was closely related to Streptomyces enissocaecilis NRRL B 16365(T), Streptomyces rochei NBRC 12908(T) and Streptomyces plicatus NBRC 13071(T), with 99.52 % similarity. The production of IAA was affected by cultural conditions such as temperature, pH, incubation period and L-tryptophan concentration. The highest level of IAA production (127 μg/ml) was obtained by cultivating the Streptomyces sp. PT2 strain in yeast extract-tryptone broth supplemented with 5 mg L-tryptophan/ml at pH 7 and incubated on a rotary shaker (200 rpm) at 30 °C for 5 days. Twenty-four-hour treatment of tomato cv. Marmande seeds with the supernatant culture of Streptomyces sp. PT2 that contained the crude IAA showed the maximum effect in promoting seed germination and root elongation.

  11. Intercomparison of Satellite Dust Retrieval Products over the West African Sahara During the Fennec Campaign in June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J.R.; Brindley, H. E.; Flamant, C.; Garay, M. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Klueser, L.; Sayer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dust retrievals over the Sahara Desert during June 2011 from the IASI, MISR, MODIS, and SEVIRI satellite instruments are compared against each other in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each retrieval approach. Particular attention is paid to the effects of meteorological conditions, land surface properties, and the magnitude of the dust loading. The period of study corresponds to the time of the first Fennec intensive measurement campaign, which provides new ground-based and aircraft measurements of the dust characteristics and loading. Validation using ground-based AERONET sunphotometer data indicate that of the satellite instruments, SEVIRI is most able to retrieve dust during optically thick dust events, whereas IASI and MODIS perform better at low dust loadings. This may significantly affect observations of dust emission and the mean dust climatology. MISR and MODIS are least sensitive to variations in meteorological conditions, while SEVIRI tends to overestimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) under moist conditions (with a bias against AERONET of 0.31), especially at low dust loadings where the AOD<1. Further comparisons are made with airborne LIDAR measurements taken during the Fennec campaign, which provide further evidence for the inferences made from the AERONET comparisons. The effect of surface properties on the retrievals is also investigated. Over elevated surfaces IASI retrieves AODs which are most consistent with AERONET observations, while the AODs retrieved by MODIS tend to be biased low. In contrast, over the least emissive surfaces IASI significantly underestimates the AOD (with a bias of -0.41), while MISR and SEVIRI show closest agreement.

  12. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  13. Decay spectroscopy of $^{178}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B

    In this thesis, the neutron-deficient nucleus $^{178}$Au is investigated through decay spectroscopy. Si and HPGe detectors were used to analyse the decay radiation of $^{178}$Au and its daughter nuclei. Previous studies have been unable to distinguish decay radiation from different isomeric states of this nucleus. This thesis represents the first time such isomeric discrimination has been achieved, and presents tentative spin assignments of both the ground state and an isomer. The neutron-deficient gold isotopes are an area of interest for the study of shape coexistence. This is the phenomenon exhibited by nuclei able to exist at a number of close lying energy minima, each reflecting a distinct type of deformation. It is hoped that studies such as this can help identify the evolution of nuclear deformation in this region of the nuclear chart.

  14. Ferromagnetism of polythiophene-capped Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Zhang, H.; Saito, K.; Garitaonandia, J. S.; Goikolea, E.; Insausti, M.

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic and electrical transport properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)-capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) doped with iodine have been investigated to clarify the effectiveness of conductive polymer capping on the induction of ferromagnetism in Au. The room-temperature magnetization curve of the undoped polythiophene-capped Au NPs exhibits a clear hysteresis behavior with a coercive force of 160 Oe. The spontaneous magnetization normalized by the mass of Au is 2.0 × 10-2 emu/g. The spontaneous magnetization was found virtually unaffected by iodine doping, whereas the electrical conductivity is enhanced dramatically to ˜10 S/cm. Our results show that polythiophene capping could lead to spontaneous magnetic polarization in Au NPs, and the conductivity of the polymer capping does not affect the ferromagnetism of the Au nanoparticles, opening a possibility for further investigation into the magnetotransport behavior of ferromagnetic Au NPs.

  15. Progressions arithmétiques dans les nombres premiers, d'après B. Green et T. Tao

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Notes pour l'exposé No 944 (2004-2005) au Séminaire Bourbaki; B. Green and T. Tao have recently proved that 'the set of primes contains arbitrary long arithmetic progressions', answering to an old question with a remarkably simple formulation. The proof does not use any "transcendental" method and any of the deep theorems of analytic number theory. It is written in a 'spirit' close to ergodic theory and in particular of Furstenberg's proof of Szemerédi's Theorem, but it does not use any resul...

  16. Stable oxygen isotopic composition of corals from the Gulf of Guinea as indicators of periods of extreme precipitation conditions in the sub-Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Peter K.; White, Kathy S.; Enfield, David; Dodge, Richard E.; Milne, Peter

    1998-11-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic analyses of scleractinian coral skeletons from the Gulf of Guinea in the eastern Atlantic reveal that the corals from this region can be used to identify periods of severe drought and above average precipitation in sub-Sahara Africa. Data presented in this paper show an inverse correlation between precipitation in the Sahel and the δ18O values of a coral skeletons of the species Siderastrea spp. collected from the island of Principe in the Gulf of Guinea. This is opposite to the correlation expected, as previous work has suggested that higher sea surface temperatures occur in the Gulf of Guinea during periods of low rainfall in the Sahel. Such an association would lead to a positive correlation between Sahel precipitation and skeletal δ18O. The explanation for the observed inverse correlation is that the salinity of the Gulf of Guinea is strongly influenced by the outflow from the Niger and Congo rivers. These periods of high freshwater input also correlate with periods of higher rainfall in the sub-Sahara and therefore affect the δ18O values of the coral skeleton. The correlation between δ18O values of the coral skeleton and temperature in the northern subtropical Atlantic Ocean (r = -0.34), the magnitude of the dipole (r = -0.45), and the latitudinal position of the intertropical convergence zone (r = -0.37) illustrate that the δ18O values in the coral skeleton reflect climate dynamics of the region that affect the precipitation patterns in sub-Sahara Africa.

  17. Introduction au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Ce document est une introduction au filtre optimal de Kalman appliquée aux systèmes linéaires. On suppose connues la théorie des asservissements linéaires et du filtrage fréquentiel (continu et discret) ainsi que les notions d'états pour représenter les systèmes dynamiques linéaires.

  18. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  19. El Sahara Occidental : alimentación y cocina tradicional : aspectos culturales, lingüísticos y etnobotánicos

    OpenAIRE

    Baya E., Moulay-Lahssan

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda diversos aspectos relacionados con la alimentación y la cocina tradicional de las sociedades beduinas o seminómadas del Sahara Occidental. Dichos aspectos se enmarcan dentro de su contexto cultural y sociológico; de modo que, además de los temas alimentarios, se abordan aspectos culturales, lingüísticos y etnobotánicos. La investigación está basada fundamentalmente en fuentes orales, que, a su vez, son contrastadas y complementadas con la documentación que suministran algun...

  20. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  1. High Pt Suppression at Forward Rapidities in d+Au and Au+Au at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ristea, C; Bearden, I G; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Lystad, R; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S; Ristea, Catalin

    2005-01-01

    We present centrality dependent charged hadron yields at several pseudorapidities from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200GeV measured with BRAHMS spectrometers. Nuclear modification factors RAA and RCP for charged hadrons at forward angles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC will be discussed.

  2. Structure and stress in Cu/Au and Fe/Au systems: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientarski, Tomasz, E-mail: martom@dyzio.umcs.lublin.pl [Department for the Modelling of Physico-Chemical Processes, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Gliniana 33, 20-614 Lublin (Poland); Chocyk, Dariusz [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Growth of Fe and Cu thin films on Au substrate and stress evolution were modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions in the system are described by embedded atom method. The kinematical theory of scattering is performed to identify the structure obtained from simulations. The gold layers undergo reconstruction before deposition. The deposited copper atoms do not disturb the atoms in the reconstructed gold layer, but the deposited iron atoms cause the disappearance of the reconstructed gold surfaces. In both systems Cu/Au and Fe/Au, in the early stage of growth one observes compressive stress. Next, Cu/Au systems have the compressive stress, while in the case of Fe/Au the tensile stress is observed. In the Fe/Au system, the body-centered cubic lattice of Fe changes its orientation relative to the Au layer. In the Fe/Au system we observed a larger diffusion of Au atoms than in Cu/Au systems. - Highlights: • The kinematical theory of scattering is performed to identify the structure. • The correlation between the stress and the deformation is observed. • The relaxation of the stress depends on the orientation of layers. • The lattice of Fe changes its orientation relative to the Au layer in the Fe/Au system. • The Cu layer continues the lattice of Au in the Cu/Au system.

  3. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  4. 电测深法在撒哈拉沙漠地区找水应用%The Application of Electrical Sounding to Water Exploration in Sahara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英杰

    2014-01-01

    Because of the arid climate and water scarcity, few study on geology and hydrogeology of Sahara has been taken.The lack of study in this field has made water exploration in Sahara harder .On the basis of previous research data , the study is taken step by step to explore the unknown research field.With the help of electrical sounding, aquifers'location are identified and physical properties of them are concluded.The study is scientific and its results can be a reference for further work on hydrogeology .%撒哈拉沙漠地区气候干燥,水资源缺乏,相应的地质、水文地质工作研究程度低,为水源地勘探工作带来很大困难。结合实例,采用电测深法,遵循从已知到未知原则,经过点、线、面逐步开展工作,总结含水层物性特征,划定主要含水区域,为水文工作的开展提供重要的基础资料。

  5. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep...... by including the migrants’ broader social network within the frame of research.......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...... interdependence, whilst they continuously form their trajectories in relation to opportunities and restraints posed along the way by their local and transnational social relations. The article argues that examinations of migration trajectories benefit from broadening the research out in both time and space...

  6. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence......Over the past decade, growing numbers of young Filipinas have entered Denmark on the au pair scheme. While its official aim is to broaden the cultural horizons of youth, researchers generally view Filipina au pairing as a form of labour migration using au pairs as inexpensive domestic workers...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  7. Crimes, faits divers, cinématographe et premiers interdits français en 1899 et 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Montagne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Les crimes et criminels dans le cinéma de fiction furent abordés, en 1990, à Perpignan, au XIe Colloque Cinéma et Histoire, Histoire du cinéma, Les grandes affaires criminelles : faits historiques - cinéma et télévision, de l’Institut Jean Vigo, en collaboration avec l’I.N.A. et la Cinémathèque de Toulouse. Les présentes pages, écrites dans la continuité du numéro inhérent des Cahiers de la Cinémathèque de 1993, Les Grandes affaires criminelles françaises, complètent un article personnel, De ...

  8. L’olivier au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    El Mouhtadi Issam; Agouzzal Mohamed; Guy François

    2014-01-01

    L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive) mais pour conq...

  9. Mise au point d'un reacteur epitaxial CBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Hubert

    cm-3, en accord avec la courbe théorique. La croissance du matériau ternaire GaInP a aussi été réalisée en accord de maille avec le substrat de GaAs, et avec une rugosité de 0, 96 nm. Ceci constitue un premier pas dans la croissance d'alliages ternaires au laboratoire. Finalement, la mise en marche du réacteur d'épitaxie par jets chimiques permet maintenant à cinq étudiants gradués de faire progresser des projets reliés directement à la croissance épitaxiale au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Mots-clés : Épitaxie par jets chimiques; Chemical beam epitaxy; CBE; MOMBE; GaAs; GaInP; LabVIEW; Théorie du vide.

  10. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  11. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  12. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  13. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  14. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  15. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  16. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  17. Sot Michel et Barthélemy Dominique (éd., L’Islam au carrefour des civilisations médiévales, Presses de l’université Paris- Sorbonne, 2012, 232 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bouali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage est issu d’un ensemble de conférences données à l’université Paris-Sorbonne Abou Dhabi. La majorité des historiens qui ont participé à cette entreprise enseignent à la Sorbonne. Force est toutefois de constater l’omniprésence d’un historien japonais et d’un autre tunisien. De quoi est-il question dans ce livre ? Le titre, L’Islam au carrefour des civilisations médiévales, démontre aux premiers abords qu’il s’agit de mettre fin au « civilisationnisme » de Fernand Braudel, qui n’env...

  18. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  19. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  20. The Origin and Development of the Sudanese Ports (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkinin the early Islamic Period Origine et développement des ports soudanais (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkin aux premiers siècles de l’Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Power

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avant que la mobilité et les échanges liés au /hajj et au commerce avec l’Inde ne s’imposent de manière prédominante dans la mer Rouge médiévale à partir du xie siècle, les ports soudanais connurent une première phase d’activité (632-969, largement ignorée des historiens. Etablis dès les premiers temps de l’Islam, les ports de ‘Aydhâb et de Bâ/di‘ eurent pour première fonction d’appuyer la conquête islamique et de contenir la puissance d’Aksûm en Ethiopie. Les échanges marchands ne se développèrent que lentement. Dans la seconde moitié du viiie siècle se mit en place la traite des esclaves africains, avant que la « ruée vers l’or » du ixe siècle n’accélère la croissance des ports soudanais, entraînant notamment l’établissement du port de Sawâkin.The origin and early development of the Sudanese ports [AD 632-969] has been obscured by a fixation with the medieval ‘India trade’ and /hajj traffic. It can alternatively be shown that ‘Aidhâb and Bâ/di‘ were established to further the Muslim conquests and contain Aksumite Ethiopia. Trade was slow to develop. An African slave trade emerged in the mid eighth century. Gold mining thereafter assumed central importance, with Souakin established in a ninth-century ‘gold rush.’

  1. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  2. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  3. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  4. Swimming in the Sahara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Stone; 于文

    2007-01-01

    非洲的撒哈拉大沙漠总会使人想起干旱、贫瘠和荒凉的画面。然而,是不是盘古开天地以来,它就是一望无际、了无人烟的沙漠呢?历史上的撒哈拉沙漠究竟是什么样子?德国科隆大学的地质考古学家Stefan Kropclin通过对东撒哈拉长达30年的挖掘,以及对其出土的文物,例如动物骨骼、山洞艺术品等研究,对以上问题给出了明确的答案。他认为,过去的撒哈拉大沙漠曾是一个生机勃勃的绿色伊甸园,将来它必将重现昔日草木葱茏的景像。

  5. United States Counterterrorism Strategy In the Trans-Sahara and the Rise of Salafi-Jihadism In the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aftermath of the September 11th attacks fit easily into the developing narrative, with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq delivering convenient ...frappée au cœur: une première depuis l’opération Serval,” RFI, March 7, 2015. http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/2min/20150307-mali-attaque- restaurant -terrasse...depuis l’opération Serval.” RFI, March 7, 2015. http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/2min/20150307-mali-attaque- restaurant -terrasse-attentat- bamako-terrorisme

  6. Au microstructure and the functional properties of Ni/Au finishes on ceramic IC packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, E.D.; Baxter, W.K. [Coors Electronic Package Co., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Braski, D.N.; Watkins, T.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ni/Au plated finishes used on thick-film metallized multilayer ceramic packages for integrated circuits must meet functional requirements such as bondability, sealability, and solderability. Their ability to do so is dependent, among other things, on the ability of the Au deposit to inhibit the grain boundary diffusion and subsequent surface oxidation of Ni. In this study, the relation between functional performance, Ni diffusionr ate, and Au microstructure was examined. Extent of Ni diffusion during heating was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy for several electrolytic and electroless Ni/Au finishing processes. Results were correlated with differences in Au microstructures determined by SEM, atomic force microscopy, and XRD.

  7. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  8. Chemisorption of Au on Si(001) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shu-Yi; Wang Jian-Guang; Ma Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The chemisorption of one monolayer of Au atoms on an ideal Si(001) surface is studied by using the self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin orbital method. Energies of the adsorption system of a Au atom on different sites are calculated. It is found that the most stable position is A site (top site) for the adsorbed Au atoms above the Si(001)surface. It is possible for the adsorbed Au atoms to sit below the Si(001) surface at the B1 site(bridge site), resulting in a Au-Si mixed layer. This is in agreement with the experiment results. The layer projected density of states is calculated and compared with that of the clean surface. The charge transfer is also investigated.

  9. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  10. Enhanced activity for supported Au clusters: Methanol oxidation on Au/TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Samuel A.; Cagg, Brett A.; Levine, Mara S.; He, Wei; Manandhar, Kedar; Chen, Donna A.

    2012-08-01

    Gold clusters supported on TiO2(110) exhibit unusual activity for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Temperature programmed desorption studies of methanol on Au clusters show that both Au and titania sites are necessary for methanol reaction. Isotopic labeling experiments with CD3OH demonstrate that reaction occurs via Osbnd H bond scission to form a methoxy intermediate. When the TiO2 surface is oxidized with 18O2 before or after Au deposition, methanol reaction produces H218O below 300 K, indicating that oxygen from titania promotes Osbnd H bond scission and is incorporated into desorbing products. XPS experiments provide additional evidence that during methanol reaction on the Au/TiO2 surface, methanol adsorption occurs on TiO2, given that the titania support becomes slightly oxidized after exposure to methanol in the presence of Au clusters. While the role of TiO2 is to dissociate the Osbnd H bond and form the reactive methoxy intermediate, the role of the Au sites is to remove hydrogen from the surface as H2, thus preventing the recombination of methoxy and hydrogen to methanol. The decrease in formaldehyde yield with increasing Au coverage above 0.25 ML suggests that reaction occurs at Au-titania interfacial sites; scanning tunneling microscopy images of various Au coverages confirm that the number of interfacial sites at the perimeter of the Au clusters decreases as the Au coverage is increased between 0.25 and 5 ML.

  11. Filière huile de palme au Bénin : une dynamique essentiellement artisanale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Stéphane

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Après un premier siècle prometteur (de la moitié du xixe siècle à la moitié du xxe siècle, la filière huile de palme béninoise semble actuellement confrontée à un certain nombre de problèmes. Un secteur industriel assez peu développé et un secteur artisanal très peu mécanisé la rendent atypique parmi les autres pays de la sous-région du golfe de Guinée. Cet article se propose de tenter d’expliquer cette situation, en revenant sur les conditions d’évolution de cette filière au Bénin. Dans l’actuel mouvement de relance qu’opèrent gouvernement, centres de recherche nationaux, organisations internationales et ONG, la compréhension des dynamiques internes serait un atout.

  12. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  13. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  14. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria of Sn-Cu-Au Ternary and Ag-Sn-Cu-Au Quaternary Systems and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-Cu/Au Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Jao, Chien-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lee, Chiapyng

    2007-02-01

    The phase equilibria of the Sn-Cu-Au ternary, Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary systems and interfacial reactions between Sn-Cu alloys and Au were experimentally investigated at specific temperatures in this study. The experimental results indicated that there existed three ternary intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and a complete solid solubility between AuSn and Cu6Sn5 phases in the Sn-Cu-Au ternary system at 200°C. No quaternary IMC was found in the isoplethal section of the Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary system. Three IMCs, AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4, were found in all couples. The same three IMCs and (Au,Cu)Sn/(Cu,Au)6Sn5 phases were found in all Sn-Cu/Au couples. The thickness of these reaction layers increased with increasing temperature and time. The mechanism of IMC growth can be described by using the parabolic law. In addition, when the reaction time was extended and the Cu content of the alloy was increased, the AuSn4 phase disappeared gradually. The (Au, Cu)Sn and (Cu,Au)6Sn5 layers played roles as diffusion barriers against Sn in Sn-Cu/Au reaction couple systems.

  15. Reevaluation of the Premier Clostridium difficile toxin A and B immunoassay with comparison to glutamate dehydrogenase common antigen testing evaluating Bartels cytotoxin and Prodesse ProGastro Cd polymerase chain reaction as confirmatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doing, Kirk M; Hintz, Marilyn S; Keefe, Calvin; Horne, Sarah; LeVasseur, Shelby; Kulikowski, Martha L

    2010-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are currently the most common tests used in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins; however, significant problems with their performance have recently been described. We prospectively reevaluated the Meridian Premier C. difficile toxin A/B assay with direct comparison to a 2-step algorithm that screened for C. difficile common antigen and compared cytotoxin and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory procedures. The Premier assay lacked sufficient sensitivity, missing 25% of true-positive samples. PCR was the most sensitive method and the only procedure that allowed same day testing and reporting.

  16. A reference region for the Ordovician-Silurian boundary: the Oued In Djerane, Algerian SaharaUne région de référence pour la limite Ordovicien-Silurien : l'Oued In Djerane, Sahara algérien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    The melting chronology of the Latest Ordovician inlandsis takes on a particular importance in northern Gondwana. A continuous sequence of Diplograptid range zones has been defined from outcrops in the Oued In Djerane, but its comparison with the sequence observed in the stratotype of the Silurian-Ordovician boundary is problematic because of the endemic character of the Saharan species. Moreover, some difficulties are linked to the definition of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, which, in the Algerian Sahara, probably lies in the Pseudorthograptus (?) kiliani zone. A definite regional diachronism in the melting of the ice-cap has also been confirmed.

  17. Daniel Bley (dir., 2005, Cadre de vie et travail. Les dimensions d’une qualité de vie au quotidien, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, Ecologie Humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Devetter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif regroupe des textes issus d’un colloque organisé en 2002 par la Société d’Ecologie Humaine. La diversité des thèmes et des approches peut donner une impression de « patchwork » mais cette diversité est assumée par le coordinateur qui espère au contraire « qu’elle obligera le lecteur à formuler des questionnements croisés » sur un thème qui peut en effet n’être que très large : la qualité de vie. Après un premier chapitre cherchant à mieux cerner cette notion polysémique,...

  18. Georges Lemaître et la théorie du big bang qu'y avait-t-il au commencement de l'univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Georges Lemaître et ses inventions en moins d'une heure !L'origine de l'univers, voilà une problématique qui a tenu en haleine de très nombreux scientifiques. Alors que l'on pourrait croire que l'homme s'est posé cette question depuis la nuit des temps, il n'en est rien. C'est Georges Lemaître, un prêtre belge et grand astrophysicien, qui le premier cherche à dater l'univers et à tenter de découvrir ce qu'il y avait au commencement, alors même que l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique était persuadé qu'il avait toujours exis

  19. Screening for Genes Coding for Putative Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okba Selama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  20. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  1. The formation conditions of enstatite chondrites: Insights from trace element geochemistry of olivine-bearing chondrules in Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We report in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses of silicate phases in olivine-bearing chondrules in the Sahara 97096 (EH3) enstatite chondrite. Most olivine and enstatite present rare earth element (REE) patterns comparable to their counterparts in type I chondrules in ordinary chondrites. They thus likely share a similar igneous origin, likely under similar redox conditions. The mesostasis however frequently shows negative Eu and/or Yb (and more rarely Sm) anomalies, evidently out of equilibrium with olivine and enstatite. We suggest that this reflects crystallization of oldhamite during a sulfidation event, already inferred by others, during which the mesostasis was molten, where the complementary positive Eu and Yb anomalies exhibited by oldhamite would have possibly arisen due to a divalent state of these elements. Much of this igneous oldhamite would have been expelled from the chondrules, presumably by inertial acceleration or surface tension effects, and would have contributed to the high abundance ...

  2. Screening for genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, antimicrobial and enzymatic activities from haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains of Algerian Sahara Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selama, Okba; Amos, Gregory C A; Djenane, Zahia; Borsetto, Chiara; Laidi, Rabah Forar; Porter, David; Nateche, Farida; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Hacène, Hocine

    2014-01-01

    Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  3. Au Fixed Point Development at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedyulin, S. N.; Gotoh, M.; Todd, A. D. W.

    2017-04-01

    Two Au fixed points filled using metal of different nominal purities in carbon crucibles have been developed at the National Research Council Canada (NRC). The primary motivation behind this project was to provide the means for direct thermocouple calibrations at the Au freezing point (1064.18°C). Using a Au fixed point filled with the metal of maximum available purity [99.9997 % pure according to glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS)], multiple freezing plateaus were measured in a commercial high-temperature furnace. Four Pt/Pd thermocouples constructed and calibrated in-house were used to measure the freezing plateaus. From the calibration at Sn, Zn, Al and Ag fixed points, the linear deviation function from the NIST-IMGC reference function (IEC 62460:2008 Standard) was determined and extrapolated to the freezing temperature of Au. For all the Pt/Pd thermocouples used in this study, the measured EMF values agree with the extrapolated values within expanded uncertainty, thus substantiating the use of 99.9997 % pure Au fixed point cell for thermocouple calibrations at NRC. Using the Au fixed point filled with metal of lower purity (99.99 % pure according to GDMS), the effect of impurities on the Au freezing temperature measured with Pt/Pd thermocouple was further investigated.

  4. Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2016-01-01

    Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.

  5. 用Premiere软件为MTV视频添加卡拉OK字幕的方法%Methods to add Karaoke caption for MTV video using software Premiere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如

    2012-01-01

    提出了在Premiere中为MTV视频添加卡拉OK字幕的两种制作途径。一是直接在Premiere中制作卡拉OK字幕,在Premiere中制作又可分为重叠字幕做法、轨道蒙版键做法、彩色蒙版做法三种方法。二是结合制作卡拉OK字幕的第三方插件来制作。%There are two approaches in adding Karaoke caption for MTV video using software Premiere. One is directly to do karaoke caption in the software, withal which includes superposition caption, typewriting by keyboard on the orbital masks, and color masks; another one is that Karaoke caption is added by third party plug-in which has an ability to do Karaoke caption.

  6. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-La and Au-Er binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.Q., E-mail: hongqun.dong@aalto.fi [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland); Tao, X.M. [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, H.S. [Scientific Center of Phase Diagrams and Materials Design, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Laurila, T.; Paulastro-Kroeckel, M. [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > It's the first time that Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were thermodynamically assessed since 1985. > Besides, in the present work, the ab initio approach has been employed to calculate the formation enthalpies of the IMCs involved in Au-Er and Au-La binary systems, and then, by combining with all of the available experimental information, these two-system were thermodynamically optimized via CALPHAD method. Therefore, a more reliable thermodynamic description has been obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Phase relationships in Au-La and Au-Er binary systems have been thermodynamically assessed by using the CALPHAD technique. The existing thermodynamic descriptions of the systems were improved by incorporating the ab initio calculated enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, except for the Au{sub 51}La{sub 14} and Au{sub 10}Er{sub 7} phases. All the binary intermetallic compounds were treated as stoichiometric phases, while the solution phases, including liquid, fcc, bcc, and dhcp, were treated as substitutional solution phases and the excess Gibbs energies were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial function. As a result, two self-consist thermodynamic data sets for describing the Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were obtained.

  8. Engineered fabrication of ordered arrays of Au-NiO-Au nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Daniele; Franz, Silvia; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Cattaneo, Laura; Brivio, Stefano; Tallarida, Grazia; Spiga, Sabina

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, a novel method to fabricate ordered arrays of Au/NiO/Au nanowires is described, with the aim of filling the gap between the fundamental study of the electrical properties of scattered single nanowires and the engineered fabrication of nanowire arrays. This approach mainly consists of the following steps: (a) electrodeposition of Au/Ni/Au nanowires into an ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide template; (b) mechanical polishing of the sample to expose the gold tips of Au/Ni/Au nanowires to the template surface; (c) in situ annealing of the Au/Ni/Au nanowires without removing the template. The resulting structure consists in an ordered array of Au/NiO/Au nanowires slightly protruding out of a flat aluminum oxide template. Unlike current approaches, with the described method it is not necessary to remove the template in order to oxidize the middle metal, thus allowing the availability of an entire set of metal/oxide/metal nanowires ordered in a two-dimensional matrix and where single heterojunctions can be accessed individually.

  9. Engineered fabrication of ordered arrays of Au-NiO-Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Daniele; Franz, Silvia; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Cattaneo, Laura; Brivio, Stefano; Tallarida, Grazia; Spiga, Sabina

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, a novel method to fabricate ordered arrays of Au/NiO/Au nanowires is described, with the aim of filling the gap between the fundamental study of the electrical properties of scattered single nanowires and the engineered fabrication of nanowire arrays. This approach mainly consists of the following steps: (a) electrodeposition of Au/Ni/Au nanowires into an ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide template; (b) mechanical polishing of the sample to expose the gold tips of Au/Ni/Au nanowires to the template surface; (c) in situ annealing of the Au/Ni/Au nanowires without removing the template. The resulting structure consists in an ordered array of Au/NiO/Au nanowires slightly protruding out of a flat aluminum oxide template. Unlike current approaches, with the described method it is not necessary to remove the template in order to oxidize the middle metal, thus allowing the availability of an entire set of metal/oxide/metal nanowires ordered in a two-dimensional matrix and where single heterojunctions can be accessed individually.

  10. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  12. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  13. Temperature profiles from STD casts from the Spanish Sahara from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 1974-03-08 to 1974-05-01 (NCEI Accession 9800112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from STD casts off the Spanish Sahara from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER from 08 March 1974 to 01 May 1974. Data were collected by the...

  14. First industrial application of the auto-adaptative MAG STT welding technique with laser joint tracking; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto-adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Th. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2007-05-15

    The Welding Institute has participated to the plan of construction of the Large Hadron Collider. The hoops of the dipolar magnets are composed of two half cylinders 15 m in length in 10 mm 316LN austenitic stainless steel and are assembled around the magnet in a horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software for carrying out the auto-adaptative welding technique with laser joint tracking, in using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modelling of the welding laws and the strategy of filling the joints in multi-paths absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root..) in dynamic welding condition too. (O.M.)

  15. Le premier écrit philosophique de Paul Ricœur: Méthode réflexive appliquée au problème de Dieu chez Lachelier et Lagneau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Antoine Vallée

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation and an analysis of the first philosophical writing of Paul Ricœur, on the problem of God in the reflexive philosophies of Lachelier and Lagneau. His principal aim is to situate this first writing in the context of Ricœur’s philosophical work, by underlining his belonging to the french reflexive tradition and his refusing of the absolute idealism of Lachelier and Lagneau. The author insists more precisely on the realistic and personalist thesis of the young Ricœur and on the appearance of the problem of evil in his work.  

  16. Détection précoce du cancer de la prostate chez des apparentés de premier degré au Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fall

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Dans cette étude l’association de la race noire et d’un facteur de risque familial ne semblait pas augmenter la fréquence du cancer de la prostate dans notre pays. Cependant d’autres études sur cette question sont nécessaires.

  17. De l’héritier au répondant. La transmission en question dans les deux premiers romans de Sylvie Germain, Le livre des nuits et Nuit-d’Ambre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Traisnel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La saga des Péniel met en scène des personnages prisonniers d’un passé douloureux hérité de leurs ancêtres : c’est que la malignité du mal consiste à parasiter la transmission. Seule la révélation de la porosité humaine permet aux personnages d’échapper à cette logique infernale pour convertir leur passivité de légataire en responsabilité de répondant due à autrui et à un Dieu qui s’est dépouillé de ses forces et de son Verbe pour créer le monde. C’est le sens du silence de Dieu – vestige de ce geste de retrait divin – que Sylvie Germain cherche à nous transmettre. The saga of the Péniel family stages characters imprisoned by a distressful past inherited from their ancestors. Transmission, or what fails to be transmitted, is central to understanding the curse of the bloodline. Only the revelation of the porousness of human interaction makes it possible for the characters to escape from this infernal logic and to convert their passivity as legatees into the responsibility of guarantors responding to others as well as to God. It is the significance of the silence of God–vestige of the gesture of divine withdrawal–that Sylvie Germain seeks to transmit to her reader.

  18. PHENIX results on jets in d + Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J. Ali

    2016-12-01

    We present recently published results [A. Adare, et al., arxiv:arXiv:1509.04657] on fully reconstructed R=0.3 anti-kt jets measured in p+p and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy. The jet yields for four centrality classes along with the p+p reference are presented, as well as both the minimum bias RdAu and centrality dependent RdAu and RCP. We find that while the minimum bias RdA is consistent with unity, providing a strong constraint on models including cold-nuclear-matter effects or energy loss in small systems, the centrality dependent RdAu show a striking variation which presents a challenge to models attempting to describe the interplay between soft and hard processes in these systems.

  19. Centrality Dependent Particle Production at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, I; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Lystad, R; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S

    2005-01-01

    Particle production of identified charged hadrons, $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$, and $\\bar{p}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV has been studied as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality at $y=0$ and $y\\sim1$ by the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC. Significant collective transverse flow at kinetic freeze-out has been observed in the collisions. The magnitude of the flow rises with the collision centrality. Proton and kaon yields relative to the pion production increase strongly as the transverse momentum increases and also increase with centrality. Particle yields per participant nucleon show a weak dependence on the centrality for all particle species. Hadron production remains relatively constant within one unit around midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV.

  20. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  1. Bipolar resistive switching of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au heterostructure nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Perego, D.; Tallarida, G.; Bestetti, M.; Franz, S.; Spiga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Arrays of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires with a diameter of 50 nm were characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, which was used to probe the electrical behavior of single nanowires still included in the array. A bipolar switching of the single Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires is demonstrated and is attributed to the choice of an asymmetric couple of electrode materials and, possibly, to a non-uniform Ni oxidation profile inside the NiOx segments. An analysis of the conduction mechanism in a single nanowire is presented to further support this conclusion.

  2. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  3. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  4. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    PHENIX Collaboration; Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1

  5. De la psycholinguistique slave au folklore ukrainien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Larangé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandr A. Potebnja (1835-1891 est redécouvert en Russie comme un important philosophe grâce à de récentes rééditions ; en Ukraine, il est devenu comme un des premiers folkloristes et pères de la nation, aux côtés de Taras Ševčenko (1814-1861 et Ivan Franko (1856-1916. Pourtant, il s’inscrit dans la tradition de la linguistique allemande, de Friedrich Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835, se référant explicitement à Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781 et Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1742-183...

  6. Radiocarbon and Th/U chronologies of humid episodes of late quaternary from Sahara: selected sites of Palhydaf programme; Chronologie ({sup 14}C et Th/U) des episodes humides majeurs du quaternaire recent au Sahara: sites choisis du programme Palhydaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouari, K. [Ecole Nationale d`ingenieurs de Sfax (Tunisia). Laboratoire de geochimie isotopique et de paleoclimatologie; Gibert, E. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Laboratoire d`Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique; Causse, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Laboratoire de Geologie, MNHN

    1998-12-31

    Paleo-climatic reconstructions from the Last Interglacial period inferred form PALHYDAF results in Boreal Africa, lie on pluri-disciplinary studies of continuous lacustrine sequences cored on selected sites, in order to acquire the most valuable and reliable data. This implies the establishment of reliable chronological frameworks. Major results of the PALHYDAF program presented in this paper document the two main humid phases centered at ca. 90- 100 and 130- 140 ka which could be related to climatic optima defined by the oceanic climato-stratigraphy. A new result is the evidence of one humid period probably marked by several dry/wet spells at around 20-40 ka, in southern Tunisia. (authors) 34 refs.

  7. Isomorphism and solid solutions among Ag- and Au-selenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyanova, Galina A.; Seryotkin, Yurii V. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Kokh, Konstantin A., E-mail: k.a.kokh@gmail.com [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Bakakin, Vladimir V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Au-Ag selenides were synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances of initial compositions Ag{sub 2−x}Au{sub x}Se with a step of x=0.25 (0≤x≤2) to 1050 °C and annealing at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to study synthesized samples. Results of studies of synthesized products revealed the existence of three solid solutions with limited isomorphism Ag↔Au: naumannite Ag{sub 2}Se – Ag{sub 1.94}Au{sub 0.06}Se, fischesserite Ag{sub 3}AuSe{sub 2} - Ag{sub 3.2}Au{sub 0.8}Se{sub 2} and gold selenide AuSe - Au{sub 0.94}Ag{sub 0.06}Se. Solid solutions and AgAuSe phases were added to the phase diagram of Ag-Au-Se system. Crystal-chemical interpretation of Ag-Au isomorphism in selenides was made on the basis of structural features of fischesserite, naumannite, and AuSe. - Highlights: • Au-Ag selenides were synthesized. • Limited Ag-Au isomorphism in the selenides is affected by structural features. • Some new phases were introduced to the phase diagram Ag-Au-Se.

  8. « Quantifier » le paysage au long d’un itinéraire à partir d'un échantillonnage photographique au sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Griselin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Les échantillonnages photographiques représentatifs d'un espace, enregistrés dans des banques d’images, permettent aujourd’hui d’avoir accès à un nouveau panel d’informations sur le paysage (architecture du paysage, ambiances, couleurs…. L’exemple présenté est issu d’une enquête permettant de caractériser de manière objective les paysages vus depuis deux projets d'itinéraires pédestres vers Compostelle en Franche-Comté. Il s’agissait de se mettre dans la situation des futurs utilisateurs en photographiant le paysage tel qu’il s'offre à la vue du piéton marchant vers Compostelle et d'apprécier la variation paysagère qui rythme la marche, pouvant la rendre agréable ou fastidieuse. À partir de l’analyse des photographies, traitées par triptyque, une typologie des paysages rencontrés est réalisée. La navigation dans les banques d'images et l'intégration dans un SIG permettent de visualiser les paysages tout au long des tracés. Une représentation en histogramme facilite la distinction visuelle des types et permet de dégager les variations, les “ rythmes ” du paysage. La prise en compte des processus de perception par les utilisateurs d’un espace montre à quel point le paysage se construit à travers les déplacements. Une même région, assez homogène au premier abord, va se révéler très diversifiée – en approche linéaire – par les rythmes qu'engendre la marche. Cette pratique permet de lier espace, mobilité et temporalité.

  9. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite

  10. Observation of anisotropic event shapes and transverse flow in ultrarelativistic Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Bennett, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.E.; Clemen, M.; Cole, J.; Cormier, T.M.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Dietzsch, O.; Drigert, M.; Gilbert, S.; Hall, J.R.; Hemmick, T.K.; Herrmann, N.; Hong, B.; Jiang, C.L.; Kwon, Y.; Lacasse, R.; Lukaszew, A.; Li, Q.; Ludlam, T.W.; McCorkle, S.; Mark, S.K.; Matheus, R.; O' Brien, E.; Panitkin, S.; Piazza, T.; Pruneau, C.; Rao, M.N.; Rosati, M.; daSilva, N.C.; Sedykh, S.; Sonnadara, U.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Takagui, E.M.; Voloshin, S.; Wang, G.; Wessels, J.P.; Woody, C.L.; Xu, N.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, C. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States) Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83402 (United States) McGill Univesity, Montreal, H3A 2T8 (Canada) University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States) SUNY, Stony Brook, New York, 11794 (United States) University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (B; (E877 Collaboration)

    1994-11-07

    Event shapes for Au + Au collisions at 11.4 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon were studied over nearly the full solid angle with the E877 apparatus. The analysis was performed by Fourier expansion of azimuthal distributions of the transverse energy ([ital E][sub [ital T

  11. EVENT STRUCTURE AT RHIC FROM P-P TO AU-AU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAINOR,T.A.; (FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION)

    2004-03-15

    Several correlation analysis techniques are applied to p-p and Au-Au collisions at RHIC. Strong large-momentum-scale correlations are observed which can be related to local charge and momentum conservation during hadronization and to minijet (minimum-bias parton fragment) correlations.

  12. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  13. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Su, Dangshen [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  14. Collective motion in selected central collisions of Au on Au at 150A MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. C.; Herrmann, N.; Fan, Z. G.; Freifelder, R.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Krämer, M.; Randrup, J.; Reisdorf, W.; Schüll, D.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Pelte, D.; Trzaska, M.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Bini, M.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Frolov, S.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Maurenzig, P.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Petrovici, M.; Poggi, G.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Tezkratt, R.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1994-05-01

    Using the FOPI facility at GSI Darmstadt complete data of Au on Au collisions at 150A MeV were collected for charged products (Z=1-15) at laboratory angles 1°=3) are used to determine the collective energy which is found to be at least 10A MeV.

  15. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides.

  16. LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza, M.; Fernández, L.; Lafuente, S.; Corso, M.; Schiller, F.; Xu, B.; Diakhate, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Ortega, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the crystal structure and electronic bands of LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111). By scanning-tunneling microscopy we study the formation of different alloy phases as a function of growth temperature and lanthanide coverage. We determine the specific growth conditions to achieve monolayers and bilayers of LaAu2 and CeAu2 with high crystalline quality. Due to lattice mismatch with the underlying Au substrate, both LaAu2 and CeAu2 exhibit long-range moiré patterns, which can serve as templates for further nanostructure growth. By angle-resolved photoemission we map the two-dimensional band structure of these surface alloys, discussing the nature of the different spectral features in the light of first-principles calculations.

  17. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by the shape of the seeds used. Exposure of Cu2O{111} and Cu2O{001} favored when the overgrowth happened on Au{111} and Au{001} surface, respectively. The size of the product can also be tuned by the amount of the seeds. The results reported here provide a thinking clue to modulate the shape and size of core-shell nanocrystals, which is useful in developing new materials with desired performance.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  19. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  20. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  1. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon to meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions, and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The p_T dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  2. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2013-08-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (π±, K±, p, p¯) produced in sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to pT=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to pT=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate pT region, between 2 and 5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon-to-meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The pT-dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  3. Relative Distribution of Au48+~Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUZhi-Yan; ZHUZheng-He; JIANGGang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Polymerase chain reaction of Au nanoparticle-bound primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hebai; HU Min; YANG Zhongnan; WANG Chen; ZHU Longzhang

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for in vitro amplification of a DNA fragment. In this paper, a PCR procedure using Au nanoparticle (AuNP) -bound primers was systemically studied. The 5′-SH- (CH2)6-modified primers were covalently attached to the AuNP surface via Au-S bonds, and plasmid pBluescript SK was used as a template. The effects of the concentration of AuNP-bound primers, annealing temperature and PCR cycles were evaluated, respectively. The results indicate that PCR can proceed successfully under optimized condition, with either forward or reverse primers bound to the AuNP surface or with both the two primers bound to the AuNP surface. Development of PCR procedure based on AuNPs not only makes the isolation of PCR products very convenient, but also provides novel methods to prepare AuNP-bound ssDNA and nanostructured material.

  5. Engineering the strain in graphene layers with Au decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannu, Compesh, E-mail: compesh@gmail.com; Singh, Udai B.; Kumar, Sunil; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D.K., E-mail: dka4444@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets decorated with Au nanodots are synthesized by deposition of Au of three different thicknesses and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. Different thicknesses of Au film for the formation of Au nanodots on graphene are measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and morphology is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicates 3–6-fold increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio depending on the content of Au deposited on graphene. The increase in disorder in Au decorated graphene layers is explained on the basis of interaction of Au atoms with Π bonds of graphene. The splitting and blueshift in G band signifies compressive strain in Au deposited graphene. X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation source confirm compressive strain in graphene, which increases with increase of Au film thickness.

  6. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  7. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  8. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  9. Plasmonic Au islands on polymer nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoben, Wout; Brongersma, Sywert H; Crego-Calama, Mercedes, E-mail: wout.knoben@imec-nl.nl [Holst Centre/IMEC, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-22

    The refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors can be improved by placing the plasmonic metal particles on pillars instead of on a planar substrate. In this paper, a simple and versatile colloidal lithography method for the fabrication of plasmonic Au islands on top of polymer nanopillars is described. The pillar height is controlled by varying the thickness of the initial polymer film. An increased pillar height results in a blue shift of the absorption spectrum of the Au islands. This is explained by a decreased effective refractive index around the islands. For pillars higher than approximately 40 nm no further blue shift is observed, in agreement with the decay length of the electromagnetic field around the islands. Pillar-supported Au islands were also fabricated on a flexible foil, demonstrating the potential of the method described here for the fabrication of flexible plasmonic substrates. Benefits and limitations of the method and of using polymers as the pillar material are discussed.

  10. Les premiers romans noirs français : simples exercices de style ou trahisons littéraires complexes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cadin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers romans noirs français, imités des hard-boiled novels, ont été écrits sous pseudonyme : Malet devient Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara et Arcouët, Stewart. Quelle part de trahison anime ces auteurs ? Sert-elle à faire vendre ou à dénoncer l’invasion de la culture américaine et le goût du scandale ? Si stratégie publicitaire et séduction du lecteur entrent en jeu, le processus de trahison est néanmoins volontairement miné par ces romanciers : il devient source de réflexion sur la lecture et l’écriture.The first French romans noirs, modeled on the so-called “hard-boiled” novels, were written under pseudonyms : Malet becomes Harding ; Vian, Sullivan ; Queneau, Mara, and Arcouët, Stewart. To what degree are these authors motivated by betrayal ? Is it employed merely for marketing purposes, or to denounce the invasion of American culture and a certain taste for scandal ? If advertising tactics and the seduction of the reader are undeniable elements of such novels, these writers nevertheless consciously sabotage the process of betrayal, transforming it into a source of reflection about reading and writing.

  11. The Effect of Autonomy-Supportive Behaviors of Coaches on Need Satisfaction and Sport Commitment of Elite Female Players in Handball Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES, satisfaction of the psychological needs in sports and sports Commitment Scale (SCMS questionnaires. We applied multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM to analyze the data. Results showed there was a positive correlation between autonomy-supportive behaviors with the psychological needs of competence and commitment of athletes. On the other hand, the players `commitment correlated positively with psychological needs. Results of multivariate regression showed that the autonomy-supportive behaviors were predictor of psychological needs and commitment of players. The path analysis, also, established mediator role of psychological needs between autonomy-supportive behavior of the coach and players` commitment. Thus, the self-determination Theory among the elite players and sports teams was confirmed.

  12. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  13. Les conditions d’exercice du travail des cadres de premier niveau : une étude de cas First level managers’ working conditions: a case study Las condiciones de ejercicio del trabajo de los supervisores de primer nivel : un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Baril-Gingras

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le travail des cadres de premier niveau a connu, ces dernières années, de nombreux changements. Dans le réseau de la santé au Québec, on a observé réduction importante de leur nombre de cadre de premier niveau. Or, ceux-ci jouent un rôle important quant à la santé (physique et psychologique et à la sécurité des membres des équipes de travail, puisqu’ils définissent certaines des conditions de réalisation de leur travail et certains aspects de leur environnement psychosocial de travail. L’étude, visant à mieux comprendre le travail de ces cadres et l’influence des conditions dans lesquelles il est réalisé, a procédé par des observations auprès de 12 cadres de premier niveau, sous forme de chroniques de travail et par des entretiens sur la base de ces observations. L’article présente et discute trois types de résultats : des exemples de la manière dont la tâche prescrite est convertie en tâche effective et de sa traduction dans leur activité ; une synthèse de la manière dont ils perçoivent leur rôle ou « tâche effective » ; des constats quant à l’écart entre celle-ci et les conditions de réalisation de leur travail, en particulier du fait d’une surcharge quantitative de travail, d’une autonomie réelle limitée et d’obstacles à la planification et au développement à long terme de leurs services, Ces conditions n’apparaissent donc pas favorables au rôle positif qu’ils souhaitent jouer et qui est attendu d’eux, par rapport à leurs équipes de travail.First-level managers’ work has undergone many changes in recent years. In Québec’s public health network, the number of these managers has decreased significantly. However, they play an important role in the health (physical and mental and safety of work team members, since they define some of their working conditions and some aspects of the psycho-social work environment. The aim of the study was to better understand first

  14. Les Outils Informatiques au Service de la Terminologie Saussurienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Emiliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bien que l’œuvre de Ferdinand de Saussure ait été diffusée à travers le monde, sa pensée a été en grande partie reconstruite et interprétée par ses étudiants et disciples. Ses écrits authentiques revêtent pourtant, de notre point de vue, une importance fondamentale : ils mettent en lumière l’attention que Saussure accorde à la terminologie linguistique. Lui-même utilise souvent un vocabulaire particulier. Il forge des néologismes ou confère un sens nouveau à des mots existants, il emploie quelques termes de façon éphémère, change la dénotation de certains concepts au fil du temps, créant ainsi une terminologie qui lui est propre. Dans cet article, nous présentons le premier thésaurus-lexique électronique de la terminologie linguistique saussurienne, en cours de création. La population de ce lexique est constituée par une nomenclature mise à jour, comprenant non seulement la terminologie répertoriée par Godel et Engler mais également de nouveaux termes extraits de manuscrits actuellement à l’étude. À travers ce lexique, nous nous proposons de fournir une représentation structurée de la terminologie saussurienne, de définir le contenu sémantique de chacun des termes ainsi que la nature des relations qui les unissent. À cet effet, nous avons choisi de customiser le modèle lexical SIMPLE qui, dans le panorama de la Lexicographie Computationnelle, s’est imposé comme standard de facto et offre une représentation sémantique hautement structurée des unités lexicales. Le processus de customisation du modèle de base s’est tout d’abord focalisé sur la conception d’une ontologie lexicale de domaine (ontologie SIMPLE_FdS, et sa traduction dans le langage de représentation d’ontologie Web OWL. Puis, les deux autres composants du modèle de base, i.e. un réseau de relations sémantiques et un ensemble de traits sémantiques, ont été également adaptés aux exigences du domaine traité. Les

  15. Au/Au2S复合纳米球壳微粒的发光特性%Luminescence Properties of Au/Au2S Nanoshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席聪; 刁佳杰; 陈光德; 邱复生

    2003-01-01

    观测了金纳米球壳微粒(纳米级Au2S介质外包裹一层纳米级厚的金壳)的荧光光谱,与块状Au2S的荧光峰相比,金纳米球壳的荧光峰蓝移到蓝绿区域.蓝移的主要原因是核壳纳米复合结构中的表面态和量子尺寸效应.

  16. Au-Ag@Au Hollow Nanostructure with Enhanced Chemical Stability and Improved Photothermal Transduction Efficiency for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tongtong; Song, Jiangluqi; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Xia, Ruixiang; Zhu, Lixin; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2015-10-07

    Despite the fact that Au-Ag hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have gained much attention as ablation agents for photothermal therapy, the instability of the Ag element limits their applications. Herein, excess Au atoms were deposited on the surface of a Au-Ag HNP by improving the reduction power of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and thereby preventing the reaction between HAuCl4 and the Ag element in the Au-Ag alloy nanostructure. Significantly, the obtained Au-Ag@Au HNPs show excellent chemical stability in an oxidative environment, together with remarkable increase in extinction peak intensity and obvious narrowing in peak width. Moreover, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) was used to simulate the optical properties and electric field distribution of HNPs. The calculated results show that the proportion of absorption cross section in total extinction cross section increases with the improvement of Au content in HNP. As predicted by the theoretical calculation results, Au-Ag@Au nanocages (NCs) exhibit a photothermal transduction efficiency (η) as high as 36.5% at 808 nm, which is higher than that of Au-Ag NCs (31.2%). Irradiated by 808 nm laser at power densities of 1 W/cm(2), MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with PEGylated Au-Ag@Au NCs were seriously destroyed. Combined together, Au-Ag@Au HNPs with enhanced chemical stability and improved photothermal transduction efficiency show superior competitiveness as photothermal agents.

  17. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pavia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes. Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the genus worldwide, but also the first record of a species of Athene in Africa south of the Sahara. Proportions of its hind limb indicate that At. inexpectata sp. nov. probably has been as terrestrial as its modern relative At. cunicularia. A few additional remains represent the earliest fossil evidence for the genera Asio and Bubo on the African continent, though the poor preservation of these bones prevents more detailed identifications. A distal tibiotarsus of a small owl about the size of At. inexpectata sp. nov. indicates the presence of a fifth, as yet indeterminate, species of owl at Langebaanweg. Biogeographical and palaeoecological implications of this assemblage of owls are discussed.

  18. Desert Dust Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, using Particle Properties Derived from Space-based Multi-angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Fiebig, Marcus; Schladitz, Alexander; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the SAhara Mineral dUst experiMent (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the sub-orbital aerosol measurements into the satellite's larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days for which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 to 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR's ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (a) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (b) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow, and (c) show an air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometers away.

  19. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  20. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (P<0.05) the severity of damping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed. Furthermore, they resulted in a significant increase in the seedling fresh weight, the seedling length and the root length of the seed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively.

  1. Surviving in mountain climate refugia: new insights from the genetic diversity and structure of the relict shrub Myrtus nivellei (Myrtaceae) in the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Jérémy; Baumel, Alex; Juin, Marianick; Fady, Bruno; Roig, Anne; Duong, Nathalie; Médail, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The identification of past glacial refugia has become a key topic for conservation under environmental change, since they contribute importantly to shaping current patterns of biodiversity. However, little attention has been paid so far to interglacial refugia despite their key role for the survival of relict species currently occurring in climate refugia. Here, we focus on the genetic consequences of range contraction on the relict populations of the evergreen shrub Myrtus nivellei, endemic in the Saharan mountains since at least the end of the last Green Sahara period, around 5.5 ka B.P. Multilocus genotypes (nuclear microsatellites and AFLP) were obtained from 215 individuals collected from 23 wadis (temporary rivers) in the three main mountain ranges in southern Algeria (the Hoggar, Tassili n'Ajjer and Tassili n'Immidir ranges). Identical genotypes were found in several plants growing far apart within the same wadis, a pattern taken as evidence of clonality. Multivariate analyses and Bayesian clustering revealed that genetic diversity was mainly structured among the mountain ranges, while low isolation by distance was observed within each mountain range. The range contraction induced by the last episode of aridification has likely increased the genetic isolation of the populations of M. nivellei, without greatly affecting the genetic diversity of the species as a whole. The pattern of genetic diversity observed here suggests that high connectivity may have prevailed during humid periods, which is consistent with recent paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  2. Determination of the specific activities of the cosmogenic nuclides {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in meteorites from the Sahara by means of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzow, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie; Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearchemie; Romstedt, J. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Planetologie; Dittrich-Hannen, B. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik

    1996-06-01

    In 30 samples of meteorites from the Sahara the specific activity of {sup 26}Al, and in the case of rare meteorite types also that of {sup 10}Be was determined. In most cases, the measured data are consistent with the suggestions about possible pairings which were based on mineralogical and petrographical investigations. The investigated CR and CH chondrites were found to be saturated in {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be. The {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be production rates can be assumed to be (44.5{+-}0.9) dpm/kg and (20.7{+-}0.3) dpm/kg, respectively, for CR as well as (30.1{+-}0.9) dpm/kg and (16.7{+-}0.4) dpm/kg for CH chondrites. Furthermore the {sup 26}Al data of 11 ordinary chondrites can also be interpreted as saturation activities and allow the assumption of 3.10{sup 6} y to be the lower limit of the exposure ages of these meteorites. In the case of Acfer 277, in addition to the {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al determinations, a study on nuclear tracks was performed. These data suggest that the investigated sample was located at no more than 8 cm below the original surface of a meteoroid of a radius between 25 cm and 65 cm which traveled through space (0.3{+-}0.1).10{sup 6} y before entering the earth`s atmosphere. (orig.)

  3. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and e...

  4. Nanoporous Au structures by dealloying Au/Ag thermal- or laser-dewetted bilayers on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grillo, R.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoporous Au attracts great technological interest and it is a promising candidate for optical and electrochemical sensors. In addition to nanoporous Au leafs and films, recently, interest was focused on nanoporous Au micro- and nano-structures on surfaces. In this work we report on the study of the characteristics of nanoporous Au structures produced on surfaces. We developed the following procedures to fabricate the nanoporous Au structures: we deposited thin Au/Ag bilayers on SiO2 or FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates with thickness xAu and xAg of the Au and Ag layers; we induced the alloying and dewetting processes of the bilayers by furnace annealing processes of the bilayers deposited on SiO2 and by laser irradiations of the bilayers deposited on FTO; the alloying and dewetting processes result in the formation of AuxAgy alloy sub-micron particles being x and y tunable by xAu and xAg. These particles are dealloyed in HNO3 solution to remove the Ag atoms. We obtain, so, nanoporous sub-micron Au particles on the substrates. Analyzing the characteristics of these particles we find that: a) the size and shape of the particles depend on the nature of the dewetting process (solid-state dewetting on SiO2, molten-state dewetting on FTO); b) the porosity fraction of the particles depends on how the alloying process is reached: about 32% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the furnace annealing at 900 °C, about 45% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the laser irradiation at 0.5 J/cm2, in both cases independently on the Ag concentration in the alloy; c) After the dealloying process the mean volume of the Au particles shrinks of about 39%; d) After an annealing at 400 °C the nanoporous Au particles reprise their initial volume while the porosity fraction is reduced. Arguments to justify these behaviors are presented.

  5. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Li, X H; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R_AA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  6. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  7. La politique de financement public du sport au Cameroun. Quels enjeux pour quelle politique fiscale ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obam Richard Evina

    2016-01-01

    Pour ce faire, cinq paliers doivent être successivement franchis. Le premier serait constitué par l'adoption d'une loi sur l'organisation et la promotion des activités physiques et sportives au Cameroun ayant comme caractéristiques essentielles l'obligation de constitution des clubs en société anonyme à objet sportif (SAOS avant toute affiliation à une Fédération et la création d'une Direction Nationale de Contrôle et de Gestion (DNCG ; Le deuxième palier consisterait dans l'opérationnalisation de la loi de 2006 sur le partenariat public-privé qui permettrait aux entreprises privées d'intervenir dans le domaine de la construction des infrastructures sur le modèle Build-operate-transfer (BOT ; Le troisième palier serait l'adoption d'un dispositif fiscal incitatif pour le mécénat, le sponsoring, le bénévolat, le marchandising et les droits télé ; Enfin, outre la dynamisation de la coopération internationale dans la perspective de diversification des financements viendrait parachever cette architecture de reconstruction du mouvement sportif camerounais.

  8. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  9. ETUDE DU DEVELOPPEMENT DE Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae SUR QUELQUES ESPECES VEGETALES ASSOCIEES AU CHENE-LIEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L OUAKID

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae est un important ravageur du chêne-liège dans la région d’El Tarf (Algérie. Son cycle de développement a déjà été précisé. Lors du retard de débourrement des chênes, espèces végétales préférentielles du ravageur, les chenilles envahissent et consomment d’autres plantes du sous-bois. Différentes espèces végétales ont été testées comme substrat alimentaire des chenilles: le chêne-liège (Quercus suber, le chêne-zeen (Q. faginea, l’aubépine (Crataegus oxyacanta et le garou (Daphne gnidium. Nos résultats montrent que les chenilles ne consomment pas le garou et que les larves des premiers stades (L1, L2 manifestent une préférence alimentaire pour l’aubépine. Les larves des stades avances (L3 à L5 se développent relativement mieux sur le chêne. Toutefois, le chêne-liège demeure l’aliment le plus consommé. Il assure au ravageur les meilleures performances biologiques.

  10. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  11. 370 emplois auraient ete supprimes au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit-Godet, S

    2002-01-01

    "La FTMH demande un plan social pour les salaries des sous-traitants.  Environ 370 postes ont ete supprimes au CERN ces douze derniers mois.» Alain Perrat, secretaire de la FTMH, tire la sonnette d'alarme" (1 page).

  12. Melamine structures on the Au(111) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silly, Fabien; Shaw, Adam Q.; Castell, Martin R.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Mura, Manuela; Martsinovich, Natalia; Kantorovich, Lev

    2008-01-01

    We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of the ordered structures of melamine molecules formed on the Au(111)-(22 x root 3) surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images taken under UHV conditions reveal two distinct monolayers one of which has never been reported before on gol

  13. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... her prior experience, skills, or training in the care of special needs children and the host family has reviewed and acknowledged in writing the au pair's prior experience, skills, or training so... participant with more than one host family; (4) A report by a certified public accountant, conducted...

  14. La photographie au temps de Baudelaire

    OpenAIRE

    Nachtergael, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Conférence prononcée à l'Alliance Française de Turin dans le cadre de l'exposition "Paris au temps de Baudelaire" (25 mai-26 juin 2010, Turin, Italie).; Ce texte revient sur l'histoire des relations qu'entretenait Charles Baudelaire et la photographie mais aussi Nadar.

  15. Didaktik des außerschulischen Lernens

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerborn, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Kernprobleme schulischer Bildung sind die zunehmenden Verluste an Realitäts- und Praxisbezug sowie die einseitige Betonung der fachwissenschaftlichen Kenntnisse. In jüngster Zeit werden insbesondere moderne didaktisch-methodische Konzepte näher diskutiert und praktiziert. So finden sich etwa die Stichwörter Handlungsorientierter Unterricht und Offener Unterricht in der fachdidaktischen Diskussion wieder. Eine wesentlich aktuellere Form stellt das außerschulische Lernen dar. Ein modernes pädagogisches Verständnis sieht den Unterricht heute nicht mehr als ausschließliche Tätigkeit des Lehrers an, sondern als Aktivität der Lernenden. Außerschulisches Lernen beschreibt die originale Begegnung im Unterricht außerhalb des Klassenzimmers. An außerschulischen Lernorten findet eine unmittelbare AuseinanderSetzung des Lernenden mit seiner räumlichen Umgebung statt. Charakteristisch sind hierbei vor allem die aktive(Mit-)Gestaltung sowie die eigenständige Wahrnehmung mehrperspektivischer Bildungsinhalte d...

  16. 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — According to official estimates, 222,570 people killed, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince...

  17. Order twins in (111)-evaporated thin films of CuAu I. [Cu-Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.; Broitman, E. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Harriague, S.; Terlisky, S. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-10-15

    The structure of evaporated CuAu I films in (111) orientation was studied by electron transmission and diffraction microscopy. The single-crystal films of Cu-Au alloy were prepared by vacuum evaporation and CuAu I ordered alloy was obtained by heating the disordered f.c.c. alloy to a temperature of 350deg C for 1 h. The electron micrograph revealed the presence of an intricate pattern of antiphase domain boundaries and the presence of twin lamellae. No microtwinning was observed. The CuAu I films exhibit a complex diffraction pattern. The geometry of the expected (111) reciprocal lattice plane has been calculated and described in detail. Extra reflections were identified as {l brace}101{r brace} twin spots and double-diffraction spots which originated from the twins. (orig.).

  18. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  19. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu to UU collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloczynski, John [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Huang, Xu-Guang, E-mail: huangxuguang@fudan.edu.cn [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Physics Department and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Xilin [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We study the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as motivated by the search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) and the investigation of related background contributions. In particular we aim to understand how these correlations induced by various proposed effects evolve from collisions with AuAu system to that with UU system. To do that, we quantify the generation of magnetic field in UU collisions at RHIC energy and its azimuthal correlation with the matter geometry using event-by-event simulations. Taking the experimental data for charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu collisions and extrapolating to UU with reasonable assumptions, we examine the resulting correlations to be expected in UU collisions and compare them with recent STAR measurements. Based on such analysis we discuss the viability for explaining the data with a combination of the CME-like and flow-induced contributions.

  20. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  1. Comparative toxicity study of Ag, Au, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Albee, Brian; Alemayehu, Matti; Diaz, Rocio; Ingham, Leigha; Kamal, Shawn; Rodriguez, Maritza; Bishnoi, Sandra Whaley

    2010-09-01

    A comparative assessment of the 48-h acute toxicity of aqueous nanoparticles synthesized using the same methodology, including Au, Ag, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles, was conducted to determine their ecological effect in freshwater environments through the use of Daphnia magna, using their mortality as a toxicological endpoint. D. magna are one of the standard organisms used for ecotoxicity studies due to their sensitivity to chemical toxicants. Particle suspensions used in toxicity testing were well-characterized through a combination of absorbance measurements, atomic force or electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering to determine composition, aggregation state, and particle size. The toxicity of all nanoparticles tested was found to be dose and composition dependent. The concentration of Au nanoparticles that killed 50% of the test organisms (LC(50)) ranged from 65-75 mg/L. In addition, three different sized Ag nanoparticles (diameters = 36, 52, and 66 nm) were studied to analyze the toxicological effects of particle size on D. magna; however, it was found that toxicity was not a function of size and ranged from 3-4 μg/L for all three sets of Ag nanoparticles tested. This was possibly due to the large degree of aggregation when these nanoparticles were suspended in standard synthetic freshwater. Moreover, the LC(50) values for Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were found to be between that of Ag and Au but much closer to that of Ag. The bimetallic particles containing 80% Ag and 20% Au were found to have a significantly lower toxicity to Daphnia (LC(50) of 15 μg/L) compared to Ag nanoparticles, while the toxicity of the nanoparticles containing 20% Ag and 80% Au was greater than expected at 12 μg/L. The comparison results confirm that Ag nanoparticles were much more toxic than Au nanoparticles, and that the introduction of gold into silver nanoparticles may lower their environmental impact by lowering the amount

  2. Critical Behavior in Peripheral Au + Au Collisions at 35 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, M; Belkacem, M; Agostino, M D; Milazzo, P M; Vannini, G; Bowman, D R; Dinius, J D; Ferrero, A; Fiandri, M L; Gelbke, C K; Glasmacher, T; Gramegna, F; Handzy, D O; Horn, D; Hsi, W C; Huang, M; Iori, I; Kunde, G J; Lisa, M A; Lynch, W G; Margagliotti, G V; Montoya, C P; Moroni, A; Peaslee, G F; Rui, R; Schwarz, C; Tsang, M B; Williams, C; Latora, V; Bonasera, A

    1996-01-01

    The signals theoretically predicted for the occurrence of a critical behavior (conditional moments of charge distributions, Campi scatter plot, fluctuations of the size of the largest fragment, power law in the charge distribution, intermittency) have been found for peripheral events in the reaction Au+Au at 35 MeV/u. The same signals have been studied with a dynamical model which foresees phase transition, like the Classical Molecular Dynamics.

  3. Net baryon density in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S A; Srivastava, D K; Bass, Steffen A.; Müller, Berndt; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the net baryon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the framework of the Parton Cascade Model (PCM). Parton rescattering and fragmentation leads to a substantial increase in the net baryon density at mid-rapidity over the density produced by initial primary parton-parton scatterings. The PCM is able to describe the measured net baryon density at RHIC.

  4. Baryonic Effect on XcJ Suppression in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ru; XU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We predict that xcJ mesons at low transverse momentum in the central rapidity region are almost dissociated by nucleons and antinucleons in hadronic matter produced in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic high-ion collider (RHIC) energies √SNN = 130 and 200 GeV. In the calculations the nucleon and antinucleon distributions in hadronic matter are results of evolution from their freeze-out distributions which well fit the experimental transverse momentum spectra of proton and antiproton.

  5. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  6. Anti-flow of K$^0_s$ Mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, P; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L; Srivastava, B; BStone, N T; Symons, T J M; Wienold, T; Whitfield, R W J; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sideward flow of neutral strange ($K^0_s$) mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au collisions. A prominent anti-flow signal is observed for an impact parameter range (b $\\lesssim 7$ fm) which spans central and mid-central events. Since the $K^0_s$ scattering cross section is relatively small in nuclear matter, this observation suggests that the in-medium kaon vector potential plays an important role in high density nuclear matter.

  7. Du don aux églises au don pour le salut de l’âme en Occident (ive-xie siècle : le paradigme eucharistique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Magnani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce sont les historiens du droit les premiers qui se sont intéressés à ce qu’il a été convenu d’appeler les « donations pro anima » : ces actes de donation indépendants des actes de dernière volonté, apparus au début du viie siècle à Ravenne et dès la deuxième moitié du siècle en Gaule  ou dans l’Espagne wisigothique , qui se sont multipliés et devenus le « prototype » de l’acte juridique à l’âge féodal . Les médiévistes, ensuite, incorporant sans les discuter les catégories de l’anthropologie...

  8. Maîtrise de la cohérence des modèles UML d'applications critiques. Approche par l'analyse des risques liés au langage UML

    OpenAIRE

    Seuma Vidal, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Le langage UML permet la description de systèmes informatiques complexes dont la sécurité est parfois critique. Lors de la conception de telles applications, des fautes de modélisation peuvent être introduites dans les diagrammes UML représentant différentes vues du système. Ces fautes peuvent mener à des incohérences entre diagrammes ou au sein même d'un seul diagramme. Outre les propriétés spécifiques de l'application, il convient de vérifier en premier lieu que les modèles sont cohérents v...

  9. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1Au+Au collisions, the R_AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is lin...

  10. Suppression of Upsilon Production in d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hill, K; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wimsatt, G; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of Upsilon meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Upsilon yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of R_dAu = 0.67 +/- 0.12 (stat.) +/- 0.04 (sys.) +/- 0.08 (pp sys.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R_AA=0.36 +/- 0.09 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (sys.) +/- 0.04 (pp sys.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matte...

  11. Magnetism of Au Nanoparticles on Sulfolubus Acidocaldarius S-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Juan; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, L. M.; Figueroa, A. I.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Skrotzki, R.; Schoenemann, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geissler, A.; Reitz, T.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2011-03-01

    Au nanoparticles (NP) with diameters of a few nm have been synthesized on a protein S-layer of Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius bacteria. SQUID magnetization (1.8 K T 300 Kand 0 B 7 T) showssuperparamagneticbehavioratlow - T . ItsoriginlaysattheAuNP ' s , ashasbeenprovenbyAuL 2,3- edgeXMCDspectroscopy , performedintherange 2.2 T 20 KanduptoB app = 17 T . XMCDanalysisyieldsatotalmagneticmomentperAuatom μAu = 0.050 (1) μB , aparticleaveragemomentm part = 2.3 μB , Auorbitaltospinmomentratioofm L / m S = 0.29 Curie and - like superparamagnetism. Au - S bonds are detected by S K - edge XAS measurements. Besides , EXAFS at the Au L 3 -edge shows that the Au NP internal structure is fcc, and Au-S bonds are located at the particle surface. An increase of the hole charge carrier density in the Au 5d band due to electron transfer with the S-layer explains the Au magnetism. The observed magnetic moment per Au atom is 25 times larger than those previously found by XMCD in Au-thiol capped NPs.

  12. Au pair på ulige vilkår

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2008-01-01

    Antallet af au pairs i Danmark fra Fillipinerne er steget markant i de seneste år. Mens danske myndigheder betragter au pair-ordningen som kulturudveksling blandt unge mennesker, ser fillipinske au pairs derimod den som en mulighed for at tjene penge så de kan forsørge deres egen familie i Fillip...

  13. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...... of states, charge transfer and frontier molecular orbitals. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Identified particle distributions in pp and Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gutíerrez, T D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Sen-Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, Thomas W; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de, M M; Moura, A A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    Transverse mass and rapidity distributions for charged pions, charged kaons, protons and antiprotons are reported for sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV pp and Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The transverse mass distributions are rapidity independent within |y|<0.5, consistent with a boost-invariant system in this rapidity interval. Spectral shapes and relative particle yields are similar in pp and peripheral Au+Au collisions and change smoothly to central Au+Au collisions. No centrality dependence was observed in the kaon and antiproton production rates relative to the pion production rate from medium-central to central collisions. Chemical and kinetic equilibrium model fits to our data reveal strong radial flow and relatively long duration from chemical to kinetic freeze-out in central Au+Au collisions. The chemical freeze-out temperature appears to be independent of initial conditions at RHIC energies.

  15. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-06

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  16. Microwave Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles with the System of AuCl4-CH3CH2OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Au nanoparticles has been prepared by microwave high-pressure procedure with alcohol as the reducing agent. The color of colloidal Au nanoparticles is blue-violet. The maximum absorption spectrum of colloidal Au is at 580 nm, and the resonance scattering peak is at 580 nm. Using this method, the colloidal Au of long-time stability can be prepared simply and quickly.

  17. Centrality Dependence of Direct Photon Production in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Yu A; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S R; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L A; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V P; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A G; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarjan, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torie, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L S

    2005-01-01

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au+Au collision centrality and compared to NLO pQCD calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities.

  18. AU-FREDI - AUTONOMOUS FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification program, AU-FREDI, is a system of methods, algorithms and software that was developed for the identification of structural dynamic parameters and system transfer function characterization for control of large space platforms and flexible spacecraft. It was validated in the CALTECH/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory. Due to the unique characteristics of this laboratory environment, and the environment-specific nature of many of the software's routines, AU-FREDI should be considered to be a collection of routines which can be modified and reassembled to suit system identification and control experiments on large flexible structures. The AU-FREDI software was originally designed to command plant excitation and handle subsequent input/output data transfer, and to conduct system identification based on the I/O data. Key features of the AU-FREDI methodology are as follows: 1. AU-FREDI has on-line digital filter design to support on-orbit optimal input design and data composition. 2. Data composition of experimental data in overlapping frequency bands overcomes finite actuator power constraints. 3. Recursive least squares sine-dwell estimation accurately handles digitized sinusoids and low frequency modes. 4. The system also includes automated estimation of model order using a product moment matrix. 5. A sample-data transfer function parametrization supports digital control design. 6. Minimum variance estimation is assured with a curve fitting algorithm with iterative reweighting. 7. Robust root solvers accurately factorize high order polynomials to determine frequency and damping estimates. 8. Output error characterization of model additive uncertainty supports robustness analysis. The research objectives associated with AU-FREDI were particularly useful in focusing the identification methodology for realistic on-orbit testing conditions. Rather than estimating the entire structure, as is

  19. La chasse au guépard et au lynx en Syrie et en Irak au Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Buquet, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    http://ifpo.hypotheses.org/1916; Billet sur les Carnets de l'Ifpo (La recherche en train de faire à l'Institut français du Proche-Orient), blog sur Hypotheses.org; Le guépard était encore présent au Moyen Âge à l'état sauvage au Proche-Orient. On trouvait des guépards sur la côte, notamment dans la région d'Antioche et dans le nord de la Syrie médiévale, dans les déserts de l'actuelle Jordanie et dans ceux situés à l'ouest de l'Euphrate (région de la Samāwa) et en Irak. Le billet présente les...

  20. Seed-mediated growth and manipulation of Au nanorods via size-controlled synthesis of Au seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Juncheng; Duggan, Jennifer N.; Morgan, Joshua; Roberts, Christopher B., E-mail: croberts@eng.auburn.edu [Auburn University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Seed-mediated growth of gold (Au) nanorods with highly controllable length, width, and aspect ratio was accomplished via carefully size-controlled synthesis of the original Au seeds. A slow dynamic growth of Au nanoparticle seeds was observed after reduction of the Au salt (i.e., hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate) by sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). As such, the size of the Au nanoparticle seeds can therefore be manipulated through control over the duration of the reaction period (i.e., aging times of 2, 8, 48, 72, and 144 h were used in this study). These differently sized Au nanoparticles were subsequently used as seeds for the growth of Au nanorods, where the additions of Au salt, CTAB, AgNO{sub 3}, and ascorbic acid were employed. Smaller Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via short growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with higher aspect ratio and thus longer longitudinal surface plasmon wavelength (LSPW). The larger Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via longer growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with lower aspect ratio and shorter LSPW.

  1. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111...

  2. A hydrological-economic model for sustainable groundwater use in sparse-data drylands: Application to the Amtoudi Oasis in southern Morocco, northern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Robles-Marín, Pedro; Guerrera, Francesco; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Raffaelli, Giuliana; de León, Julián Tejera; Asebriy, Lahcen

    2015-12-15

    A hydrological-economic model is introduced to describe the dynamics of groundwater-dependent economics (agriculture and tourism) for sustainable use in sparse-data drylands. The Amtoudi Oasis, a remote area in southern Morocco, in the northern Sahara attractive for tourism and with evidence of groundwater degradation, was chosen to show the model operation. Governing system variables were identified and put into action through System Dynamics (SD) modeling causal diagrams to program basic formulations into a model having two modules coupled by the nexus 'pumping': (1) the hydrological module represents the net groundwater balance (G) dynamics; and (2) the economic module reproduces the variation in the consumers of water, both the population and tourists. The model was operated under similar influx of tourists and different scenarios of water availability, such as the wet 2009-2010 and the average 2010-2011 hydrological years. The rise in international tourism is identified as the main driving force reducing emigration and introducing new social habits in the population, in particular concerning water consumption. Urban water allotment (PU) was doubled for less than a 100-inhabitant net increase in recent decades. The water allocation for agriculture (PI), the largest consumer of water, had remained constant for decades. Despite that the 2-year monitoring period is not long enough to draw long-term conclusions, groundwater imbalance was reflected by net aquifer recharge (R) less than PI+PU (Gtechnology actions are tentatively proposed to mitigate groundwater degradation, such as: wastewater capture, treatment, and reuse for irrigation; storm-water harvesting for irrigation; and active maintenance of the irrigation system to improve its efficiency.

  3. The daytime cycle in dust aerosol direct radiative effects observed in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.

    2014-12-16

    © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The direct clear-sky radiative effect (DRE) of atmospheric mineral dust is diagnosed over the Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) supersite in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011. During this period, thick dust events were observed, with aerosol optical depth values peaking at 3.5. Satellite observations from Meteosat-9 are combined with ground-based radiative flux measurements to obtain estimates of DRE at the surface, top-of-atmosphere (TOA), and within the atmosphere. At TOA, there is a distinct daytime cycle in net DRE. Both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) DRE peak around noon and induce a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system. Toward dusk and dawn, the LW DRE reduces while the SW effect can switch sign triggering net radiative cooling. The net TOA DRE mean values range from -9 Wm-2 in the morning to heating of +59 Wm-2 near midday. At the surface, the SW dust impact is larger than at TOA: SW scattering and absorption by dust results in a mean surface radiative cooling of 145Wm-2. The corresponding mean surface heating caused by increased downward LW emission from the dust layer is a factor of 6 smaller. The dust impact on the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric radiative divergence is dominated by the SW cooling of the surface, modified by the smaller SW and LW effects at TOA. Consequently, dust has a mean daytime net radiative warming effect on the atmosphere of 153Wm-2.

  4. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  5. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum-bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  6. Di-Hadron Correlations with Identified Leading Hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au Collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelwahab, N M; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    The STAR collaboration presents new two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of quark recombination. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the \\emph{ridge region}, is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  7. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow 30-059 (Poland); Adkins, J.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506-0055 (United States); Agakishiev, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Aggarwal, M.M. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Alekseev, I. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Aparin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Averichev, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Bai, X. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Bairathi, V. [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Banerjee, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bhasin, A. [University of Jammu, Jammu 180001 (India); Bhati, A.K. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Bhattarai, P. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bielcik, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Bielcikova, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, 250 68 Řež/Prague (Czech Republic); Bland, L.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2015-12-17

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  8. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  10. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  11. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Chaloupka, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezanka, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Chemistry, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  12. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  13. Unidirectional thermal diffusion in bimetallic Cu@Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shoujie; Sun, Zhihu; Liu, Qinghua; Wu, Lihui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yao, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Tiandou; Ge, Mengran; Hu, Fengchun; Xie, Zhi; Pan, Guoqiang; Wei, Shiqiang

    2014-02-25

    Understanding the atomic diffusions at the nanoscale is important for controlling the synthesis and utilization of nanomaterials. Here, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with theoretical calculations, we demonstrate a so far unexplored unidirectional diffusion from the Au shell to the Cu core in thermally alloying Cu@Au core@shell architecture of ca. 7.1 nm. The initial diffusion step at 423 K is found to be characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer composed of a Au-dilute substitutional CuAu-like intermetallic compound with short Cu-Au bond length (2.61 Å). The diffusion further happens by the migration of the Au atoms with large disorder into the interior Cu matrix at higher temperatures (453 and 553 K). These results suggest that the structural preference of a CuAu-like compound, along with the nanosized effect, plays a critical role in determining the atomic diffusion dynamics.

  14. Ammonoids from the Dalle des Iridet of the Mouydir and Ahnet (Central Sahara and the Formation d'Hassi Sguilma of the Saoura Valley (Late Tournaisian–Early Viséan; Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Four ammonoid species are described from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian Iridet Formation of the Ahnet and Mouydir (Central Sahara, Algeria; three of which are new: Eurites temertassetensis n. sp., Trimorphoceras teguentourense n. sp., and Trimorphoceras azzelmattiense n. sp. The species can be attributed to the North African Ammonellipsites-Merocanites Assemblage (Fascipericyclus-Ammonellipsites Genus Zone; Late Tournaisian to Early Viséan. Additionally, the two new species Ammonellipsites sguilmensis n. sp. and Muensteroceras beniabbesense n. sp. are described from the time equivalent Hassi Sguilma Formation of the Saoura Valley (north-western Algeria. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900012

  15. Critical Appraisal of Information on the Web in Practice: Undergraduate Students’ Knowledge, Reported Use, and Behaviour / Évaluation critique de l’information sur la toile : une vision pratique : les connaissances des étudiants de premier cycle, leur uti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Hogan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates use a wide range of information resources for academic and nonacademic purposes, including web sites that range from credible, peer reviewed, online journal sites, to biased and inaccurate promotional web sites. Students are taught basic critical appraisal skills, but do they apply these skills to make decisions about information in different web sites? In an experimental setting, undergraduate students examined pairs of web sites containing conflicting information based on different aspects of critical appraisal, namely credibility of the author of the information, purpose of the web site, and last update of the site, and answered multiple choice questions about the conflicting information. Results indicated that students failed to use critical appraisal criteria, and that while knowledge of and self-reported use of these criteria were related to each other, they were not related to behaviour. This research demonstrates the need for alternative strategies for critical appraisal instruction and assessment. Les étudiants de premier cycle consultent une vaste gamme de sources d’information à des fins universitaires et non universitaires, y compris des sites Web allant de revues en ligne crédibles et évaluées par des pairs à des sites Web promotionnels partials et inexacts. On enseigne aux étudiants des méthodes de base d’évaluation critique, mais mettent-ils ces méthodes en pratique pour prendre des décisions relativement à l’information tirée de différents sites Web? Dans un cadre expérimental, les étudiants de premier cycle ont étudié des paires de sites Web contenant des informations contradictoires en se fondant sur différents aspects de l’évaluation critique, notamment la crédibilité de l’auteur de l’information, l’intention du site Web et la dernière mise à jour du site, et ont répondu à des questions à choix multiples concernant les informations contradictoires. Les r

  16. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  17. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  18. Structure-activity relationships in cytotoxic Au(I)/Au(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiore, Laura; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Deiana, Carlo; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Pintus, Anna; Serratrice, Maria; Arca, Massimiliano

    2014-04-21

    Gold(I) and gold(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pbiH) were proven to be a promising class of in vitro antitumor agents against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. In this paper, a comparative electrochemical, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopic investigation is reported on pbiH, the two mononuclear Au(III) complexes [(pbi)AuX2] (X = Cl (1), AcO (2)), the four mononuclear Au(I) derivatives [(pbiH)AuCl] (3), [(pbiH)Au(PPh3)]PF6 ((4(+))(PF6(-))), [(pbi)Au(PPh3)] (5), and [(pbi)Au(TPA)] (6), the three mixed-valence Au(III)/Au(I) complexes [(μ-pbi)Au2Cl3] (7), [(Ph3P)Au(μ-pbi)AuX2]PF6 (X = Cl ((8(+))(PF6(-))), AcO ((9(+))(PF6(-)))), and the binuclear Au(I)-Au(I) compound [(μ-pbi)Au2(PPh3)2]PF6 ((10(+))(PF6(-))). All complexes feature irreversible reduction processes related to the Au(III)/Au(I) or Au(I)/Au(0) processes and peculiar luminescent emission at about 360-370 nm in CH2Cl2, with quantum yields that are remarkably lower ((0.7-14.5) × 10(-2)) in comparison to that determined for the free pbiH ligand (31.5 × 10(-2)) in the same solvent. The spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of all complexes were interpreted on the grounds of time-dependent PBE0/DFT calculations carried out both in the gas phase and in CH2Cl2 implicitly considered within the IEF-PCM SCRF approach. The electronic structure of the complexes, and in particular the energy and composition of the Kohn-Sham LUMOs, can be related to the antiproliferative properties against the A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line, providing sound quantitative structure-activity relationships and shedding a light on the role played by the global charge and nature of ancillary ligands in the effectiveness of Au-based antitumor drugs.

  19. Shell Thickness-Dependent Strain Distributions of Confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Liu; Honghua Huang; Ying Zhang; Ting Yu; Cailei Yuan; Shuangli Ye

    2015-01-01

    The shell thickness-dependent strain distributions of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au core-shell nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrix have been investigated by finite element method (FEM) calculations, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that there is a substantial strain applied on both the Au/Ag and Ag/Au core-shell nanoparticles by the Al2O3 matrix. For the Au/Ag nanoparticles, it can be found that the compressive strain existing in the shell is stronger than that on the center of ...

  20. Simulation des dynamiques spatiales d'un territoire agro-viticole : premier pas vers le modèle VitiTerroir

    OpenAIRE

    Lammoglia, Adrien; Delay, Etienne; Leturcq, Samuel; Rouvellac, Éric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Loin d'être figés, les territoires viticoles, espaces vivants, évoluent au rythme des pulsations de la société. Les communautés humaines créent, exploitent, entretiennent, adaptent à leurs besoins les vignobles sous l'influence des considérations culturelles (évolution des goûts, sentiment d'attachement identitaire à la vigne), sociales (exigences nouvelles des consommateurs en matière de santé publique et de bien-être), économiques (évolution de la demande, pression d...

  1. Suppression of high transverse momentum π0 spectra in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2008-02-01

    Au + Au, s1/2 = 200 GeV measurements at RHIC, obtained with the PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS and BRAHMS detectors, have all indicated a suppression of high p⊥ particle production, relative to an appropriately normalized NN level. For central collisions and vanishing pseudo-rapidity these experiments exhibit suppression in charged meson production, especially at medium-to-large transverse momenta. In the PHENIX experiment similar behaviour has been reported for π0 spectra. In a recent work [1] on the simpler D + Au interaction, to be considered perhaps as a tune-up for Au + Au, we reported on a pre-hadronic cascade mechanism which can explain the mixed observation of moderately reduced p⊥ suppression at higher pseudo-rapidity as well as the Cronin enhancement at mid-rapidity. Here, we present the extension of this work to the more massive ion-ion collisions. Our major thesis is that much of the suppression is generated in a late stage cascade of colourless pre-hadrons produced after an initial short-lived coloured phase. We present a pQCD argument to justify this approach and to estimate the time duration τp of this initial phase. Of essential importance is the brevity in time of the coloured phase existence relative to that of the strongly interacting pre-hadron phase, the latter essentially an interactive cascade. These distinctions in phase are of course not strict, but adequate for treating the suppression of moderate and high p⊥ mesons.

  2. Le système d’aide au développement de la France et du Royaume-Uni : points de repère sur cinquante ans d’évolutions depuis la décolonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pacquement

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Anciennes puissances coloniales, la France et le Royaume-Uni sont des bailleurs de fonds influents dans la gouvernance globale de l’aide. Cet article décrit de façon très synthétique l’histoire de leur contribution au développement, sous l’angle des institutions, des stratégies et des financements. Les institutions ont connu des évolutions complexes depuis les premiers pas de la mise en valeur coloniale jusqu’aux réformes les plus récentes. Les stratégies sont ambitieuses, ancrées dans une recherche substantielle, et assurent une audience multilatérale par laquelle la question coloniale a été portée au rang de défi global. L’un et l’autre pays ont une vision plus large de l’aide au développement que la comptabilisation du Comité d’aide au développement de l’OCDE. Leurs financements, dont le montant n’échappe pas aux aléas politiques, assurent une contribution importante, qui vise à répondre aux multiples besoins du développement.

  3. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  4. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of single Au-Ni/NiO-Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, Corinna; Sewcz, Rene; Baldus, Sabrina; Fischer, Saskia F. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Daub, Mihaela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Nielsch, Kornelius [Multifunctional Nanostructures, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ferromagnetic metallic nanowires are of high interest for magnetic sensing and storage applications. However, due to surface oxidation of the nanowires electrical contacts easily lead to high-contact resistances of a few k{omega}. Here, we present multisegmented Au-Ni(NiO)-Au nanowires with a direct Au-Ni interface. Individual nanowires were laterally contacted in a four-terminal geometry via optical lithography, electron-beam lithography, thermal evaporation and lift-off patterning. The nanowires exhibit low-ohmic contacts of about 20 {omega}. The resistivity decreases with the temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) and is in the order of that of high-purity bulk nickel. The longitudinal anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is about 1.5 % at 80 K and decreases with higher temperatures, 0.5 % at 300 K. The coercive field and the AMR are investigated for different angles between the current and magnetic field.

  5. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dan; WU Gang; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    Aucore-Ptshell (Au@Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by reducing K2PtCl6 with hydrogen in the solution containing Au colloids and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The particles obtained were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM and XPS techniques. UV-Vis spectra show that the surface plasmon absorption feature of Au colloids is significantly reduced with increasing the amount of reduced Pt. TEM images that the metals are found always appear as spherical nanoparticles and their sizes grow apparently due to the reduction of PtCl62- ions, indicating that Pt is deposited from solution onto Au particle surface and forms a Pt-layer with uniform thickness. In the XPS spectra, the signals of Au metal decrease due to the reductive deposition of Pt on the surface of the Au colloids. UV-Vis and XPS data are consistent in showing that when the amount of Pt in the AuPt colloids is increased to reach an overall atomic ratio of Pt/Au=2, the Pt deposits form a shell covering completely the surface of Au particles, demonstrating the core-shell structure of the synthesized AuPt particles.

  7. Electron beam induced evolution in Au, Ag, and interfaced heterogeneous Au/Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzi; Sun, Yugang

    2015-08-28

    A sintering process of nanoparticles made of Ag, Au, and interfaced Ag/Au heterodimers was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy at room temperature. Such a process is driven by the illumination of a high-energy electron beam accelerated at 200 kV that promotes atom diffusion in the nanoparticles that are in physical contact. Upon electron illumination, adjacent Au nanoparticles gradually merge together to form a larger particle along with the reduction of the surface area despite the fact that orientated attachment is not observed. According to the detailed analysis of the size change of the particles and the contact area, it was found that the nanoparticle fusion process is significantly different from the well-established thermal diffusion mechanism. In addition to the similar fusion process of Au nanoparticles, Ag nanoparticles undergo apparent sublimation induced by knock on damage because the transferred energy from the electron beam to nanoparticles is higher than the surface binding energy of Ag atoms when the electron scattering angle is larger than 112°. The particles with a smaller size diffuse faster. Surface diffusion dominates at the beginning of the fusion process followed by slower lattice diffusion. Electron beam illumination can transform the interfaced Au/Ag dimers to Au@Ag core-shell particles followed by a slow removal of the Ag shells. This process under normal electron beam illumination is a lot faster than the thermally driven process. Both diffusion and sublimation of Ag atoms are dependent on the intensity of the electron beam, i.e., a higher beam intensity is favorable to accelerate both the processes.

  8. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}$=130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, K H; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A R; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M E; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M A; Blyth, C O; Böhm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A B; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chathopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Díaz, H; De Young, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, Wojciech; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelyanov, V I; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, Kenneth J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Grau, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E M; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I V; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kühn, C E; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Leonhardt, W; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, Jean Robert; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R S; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; Matyushevsky, E A; McParland, C P; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D M; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N T; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J E; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Röhrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sánchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlüter, R; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimansky, S S; Shuman, D B; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Symons, T J M; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tonse, S R; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V N; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevskii, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV using the STAR TPC at RHIC. The elliptic flow signal, v_2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  9. D and $^{3}He$ production in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 GeV Au + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, C; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A B; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, Kenneth J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Greiner, D E; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Guschin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A V; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Oson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.262301

    2001-01-01

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d and /sup 3/He are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the 3He freeze-out volume is smaller than the d freeze-out volume. (22 refs).

  10. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  11. Low-power resistive switching in Au/NiO/Au nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Tallarida, G.; Perego, D.; Franz, S.; Deleruyelle, D.; Muller, C.; Spiga, S.

    2012-11-01

    Arrays of vertical nanowires structured in Au/NiO/Au segments with 50 nm diameter are characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy to investigate unipolar resistive switching in NiO at the nanoscale. The switching cycles are characterized by extremely low power consumption down to 1.3 nW, which constitutes a significant improvement in nanowire-based resistive switching memory devices. The trend of the reset current as a function of the set resistance, typical of unipolar memories, is extended to a much wider current range than what is reported in literature, confirming the role of Joule heating in the reset process for very low reset currents.

  12. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  13. Nuclear Stopping in Central Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear stopping in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC energies is studied in the framework of a cascade mode and the modified ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD transport model. In the modified mode, the mean field potentials of both formed and “preformed” hadrons (from string fragmentation are considered. It is found that the nuclear stopping is increasingly influenced by the mean-field potentials in the projectile and target regions with the increase of the reaction energy. In the central region, the calculations of the cascade model considering the modifying factor can describe the experimental data of the PHOBOS collaboration.

  14. Ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in multifragmentation of Au + Au

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, C. L; Ma, Y. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Li, S.X.; G.Q. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of the shear viscosity ($\\eta$) to entropy density ($s$) for the intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions has been calculated by using the Green-Kubo method in the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The theoretical curve of $\\eta/s$ as a function of the incident energy for the head-on Au+Au collisions displays that a minimum region of $\\eta/s$ has been approached at higher incident energies, where the minimum $\\eta/s$ value is about 7 times Kovtun-Son- Starinets (KSS...

  15. Manipulation of superparamagnetic beads on patterned Au/Co/Au multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, A.; Holzinger, D.; Urbaniak, M.; Ehresmann, A.; Stobiecki, F.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetophoresis of water-suspended 4 μm-diameter superparamagnetic beads above topographically patterned, sputter deposited Ti(4 nm)/Au(60 nm)/[Co(0.7 nm)/Au(1 nm)] × 3 multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated. The results impressively demonstrate that the magnetic stray field landscape above the stripe structure when superimposed with an external, slowly rotating, field enables the directed transport of magnetic beads across the stripe panel with velocities up to 12 μm s-1.

  16. Beam Energy Scan a Case for the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Au-Au Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-01-05

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is predicted for Au-Au collisions at RHIC. However, many backgrounds can give signals that make the measurement hard to interpret. The STAR experiment has made measurements at different collisions energy ranging from √(sNN)=7.7 GeV to 62.4 GeV. In the analysis that is presented we show that the CME turns on with energy and is not present in central collisions where the induced magnetic is small.

  17. Charged Pion Production in 2 to 8 AGeV Central Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klay, J L; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M G; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K; Das, A C; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Law, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Wells, R; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2003-01-01

    Momentum spectra of charged pions over nearly full rapidity coverage from target to beam rapidity have been measured in the 0-5% most central Au+Au collisions in the beam energy range from 2 to 8 AGeV by the E895 Experiment. Using a thermal parameterization to fit the transverse mass spectra, rapidity density distributions are extracted. The observed spectra are compared with predictions from the RQMD v2.3 cascade model and also to a thermal model including longitudinal flow. The total 4$pi$ yields of the charged pions are used to infer an initial state entropy produced in the collisions.

  18. Sideward Flow in Au + Au Collisions Between 2 AGeV and 8 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H; Alexander, J; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L S; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Yang, X; Zhang Wei Ning; Zhang, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using the large acceptance Time Projection Chamber of experiment E895 at Brookhaven, measurements of collective sideward flow in Au + Au collisions at beam energies of 2, 4, 6 and 8A GeV are presented in the form of in-plane transverse momentum and the first Fourier coefficient of azimuthal anisotropy v_1. These measurements indicate a smooth variation of sideward flow as a function of beam energy. The data are compared with four nuclear transport models which have an orientation towards this energy range. All four exhibit some qualitative trends similar to those found in the data, although none shows a consistent pattern of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  19. Etude de la Production des Mesons d* Sur le PIC de Resonance du Boson Z Observes AU Lep avec le Detecteur Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysiezniak, Helenka

    L'etude de la production des mesons D* est effectuee a partir d'evenements multihadroniques rm Z^0to q| q, avec des donnees prises en 1990, 1991 et 1992 avec le detecteur OPAL au LEP. La notation q definit les quarks des cinq saveurs pouvant etre observees au LEP: up (u), down (d), strange (s), charme (c), beaute (b). Les D* et les correlations D*-leptons sont identifiees et ces dernieres servent a effecteur une separation claire entre les evenements rm Z^0to b| b et Z^0to c| c. On mesure la distribution de la variable de fragmentation x_{rm D^ *}=E_{rm D^*}/E _{rm faisceau} pour les D* produits dans les evenements rm Z^0 to c| c. Elle est notee f _{rm cto D^*}. Ce resultat est a la base d'une publication OPAL (1), avec trois autres methodes de separation etudiees en parallele, donnat la premiere mesure OPAL de f _{rm cto D^*} qui soit independante de toute modelisation de la fragmentation des quarks lourds, ainsi qu'une mesure de Gamma_{rm c| c} parmi les plus precises effectuees a ce jour, ou Gamma_{rm c| c} est la largeur partielle de la desintegration du Z^0 en une paire cc. En ce qui concerne les resultats obtenus dans le cadre de cette these, la valeur moyenne de la distribution f_ {rm cto D^*}, notee cto D^*}>, est donnee par:cto D^*}>=0.530+/-0.027 +/-0.022ou la premiere erreur est statistique, et la seconde est systematique. On mesure aussi le taux de production des mesons D*, donnee par: {Gamma({rm Z^0to D^ *}X)overGamma_{rm hadrons}}=0.207+/-0.007+/-0.017 ou Gamma_{rm hadrons } est la largeur totale de la desintegration du Z^0 en paires de qq des cinq saveurs. La separation entre evenements rm Z^0to b| b et Z^0 to c| c, dans lesquels sont produits des D* se desintegrant selon rm D^ *to D^0pito (Kpi)pi, nous donne:(DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI)La variable de fragmentation x_ {rm cto D^*} est utilisee pour tester les modeles des processes perturbatifs et non-perturbatifs qui entrent en jeu lors de la fragmentation des quarks b et c

  20. Que fait le salariat au militantisme dans les associations féministes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Loiseau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Les associations de défense des droits des femmes, créées en France dans le contexte militant du féminisme des décennies 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS femmes, CIDFF, affrontent aujourd'hui des difficultés paradoxales, au sens où elles résultent en partie de leur succès et de leur pérennisation. En effet, pour accroître l'efficacité militante, pour satisfaire aux besoins toujours existants de la population féminine à laquelle elles s'adressent, elles ont eu recours à la salarisation et se sont transformées en associations employeuses. Dans un contexte où elles ne peuvent guère offrir à leurs salariées que des emplois dévalorisés du fait de leur difficulté à assurer leur survie économique, elles entrent en contradiction avec leurs valeurs, sans en avoir toujours conscience dans un premier temps. L’arrivée des salariées interroge donc le militantisme des « militantes employeuses ». Mais passés les premiers temps de déstabilisation, les associations tentent de rebondir et de mettre en place des solutions ménageant les deux dimensions militante et professionnelle qu’elles souhaitent continuer à concilier.Las asociaciones de defensa de los derechos de las mujeres, creadas en Francia en el contexto del feminismo militante de las décadas 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS CIDFF mujeres, se enfrentan actualmente a dificultades paradójicas, en el sentido de que, en parte, resultan de su éxito y su sostenibilidad. De hecho, para aumentar la eficiencia de la militancia, para satisfacer las necesidades aún existentes de la población femenina a la que se dirigen, han recurrido a empleados y se han convertido en asociaciones de empleadores. En un contexto en el que sólo pueden ofrecer a sus empleados puestos de trabajo devaluados a causa de su dificultad para garantizar su supervivencia económica, están en contradicción con sus valores, pero no siempre son conscientes de esto. La llegada de las empleadas entrevistadas, por lo tanto

  1. Archéologie des monastères du premier millénaire dans le Centre-Est de la France. Conditions d’implantation et de diffusion, topographie historique et organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bully

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’en 1997 le Conseil national de la recherche archéologique publiait le bilan 1990-1994 de la recherche en France et sa nouvelle programmation, figurait parmi les thèmes prioritaires : « Les origines et les fonctions des premiers bâtiments monastiques : églises et organisation des bâtiments communautaires, relations entre architecture et règle monastique » . Il était alors rappelé que l’on ne savait rien des fondations colombaniennes et très peu des abbayes carolingiennes. Depuis lors, d...

  2. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  3. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  4. Effect of Au clustering on ferromagnetism in Au doped TiO2 films: theory and experiments investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhaorui; Zhou, Zhongpo; Wang, Haiying; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the physical properties especially the magnetic properties of the TiO2 films and Au cluster doped TiO2 films fabricated by sol-gel and sputtering methods combined experiments and first-principles calculations. All the samples annealed under air and N2 atmosphere respectively exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism with the crystal phase of anatase. The values of the saturation magnetizations are in the order of Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in N2)>undoped TiO2 (annealed in air)>Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in air). The first principles calculation results show that the formation energy of Au cluster doped TiO2 films is lower than that of the oxygen vacancy and Au cluster codoped TiO2 films. The effects of the Au cluster dopant are the retard of the formation of surface oxygen vacancy and the electrons transfer from 3d states of Ti atoms to Au 5d states in Au cluster doped TiO2 films. The codoping of surface oxygen vacancies, bulk oxygen vacancies and Au clusters led to the spin-split of Ti 3d and O 2p in Au cluster doped TiO2 films (annealed in N2) which yield the highest saturation magnetization.

  5. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ultrathin Au/Pt Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, X.; Feygenson, M; Wang, Q; He, J; Du, W; Frenkel, A; Han, W; Aronson, M

    2009-01-01

    We have reported the synthesis of Au25Pt75 and Au48Pt52 alloyed ultrathin nanowires with average widths of less than 3 nm via a wet chemistry approach at room temperature. Using a combination of techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we identified the stoichiometry-dependent heterogeneous crystalline structures, as well as electronic structures with respect to the charge transfer between Pt and Au within both nanowires. In particular, we observed d-charge depletion at the Au site and the d-charge gain at the Pt site in Au48Pt52 nanowires, which accounted for its ferromagnetic magnetic behavior, in contrast to the paramagnetism and diamagnetism appearing respectively in bulk Pt and Au.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Au/Pt nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaowei; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wang, Qi; He, Jiaqing; Du, Wenxin; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Han, Weiqiang; Aronson, Meigan

    2009-09-01

    We have reported the synthesis of Au(25)Pt(75) and Au(48)Pt(52) alloyed ultrathin nanowires with average widths of less than 3 nm via a wet chemistry approach at room temperature. Using a combination of techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we identified the stoichiometry-dependent heterogeneous crystalline structures, as well as electronic structures with respect to the charge transfer between Pt and Au within both nanowires. In particular, we observed d-charge depletion at the Au site and the d-charge gain at the Pt site in Au(48)Pt(52) nanowires, which accounted for its ferromagnetic magnetic behavior, in contrast to the paramagnetism and diamagnetism appearing respectively in bulk Pt and Au.

  7. Que faisons-nous au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Le CERN a pour vocation la science pure, l'étude des questions les plus fondamentales de la nature:Qu'est-ce que la matière ?D'ou vient-elle ? Comment s'agglomère-t-elle en formes complexes comme les étoiles, les planètes et les êtres humains ? Au CERN, les collisions de particules servent à sonder le coeur de la matière et les chercheurs du Laboratoire étudient ces millions de collisions de particules afin de trouver des réponses à ces questions.

  8. Caroline Datchary, La Dispersion au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lecoeur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impression de ne pas pouvoir faire totalement son travail, insatisfaction, Trouble Musculo- Squelettique, mais aussi sentiment d’efficacité, d’excitation et parfois de plénitude. Ces sensations, bien qu’ambivalentes, ont néanmoins un point commun selon Caroline Datchary : elles sont engendrées par des situations de « dispersion au travail ». Mutation du travail oblige, les toujours Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (NTIC ont fait leur apparition, la pression conc...

  9. Formation of Au-Silane Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Yochelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many intriguing aspects of molecular electronics are attributed to organic-inorganic interactions, yet charge transfer through such junctions still requires fundamental study. Recently, there is a growing interest in anchoring groups, which considered dominating the charge transport. With this respect, we choose to investigate self-assembly of disilane molecules sandwiched between gold surface and gold nanoparticles. These assemblies are found to exhibit covalent bonds not only between the anchoring Si groups and the gold surfaces but also in plane crosslinks that increase the monolayer stability. Finally, using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we demonstrate that the disilane molecules provide strong electrical coupling between the Au nanoparticles and a superconductor substrate.

  10. La bande dessinée en Belgique francophone au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Paques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Belgique a une grande tradition de production de bandes dessinées et reconnaît le neuvième art comme l’un des fleurons de sa culture nationale. Pourtant, la plupart des livres traitant d’histoire de la bande dessinée dans ce pays ignorent totalement l’époque pré-hergéenne. Et pour cause, la production de bande dessinée en Belgique est à la fois relativement peu nombreuse et, pour une bonne part, tributaire de l’influence étrangère. De plus, les bandes dessinées présentant du texte sous l’image ont longtemps été complètement ignorées par les historiens du sujet. Cet article se propose de rechercher les diverses apparitions de séquences d’images au XIXe siècle et de les contextualiser. Nombre des exemples que nous avons trouvés constituent des expériences sans lendemain, produites dans des contextes différents de celui qui donnera naissance à la bande dessinée belge de l’âge d’or : trouver une filiation directe n’était pas notre but premier. Pourtant, du Déluge à Bruxelles créé en 1843 par Richard de Querelles aux images populaires du Liégeois Georges Ista, juste avant la première guerre mondiale, la bande dessinée belge au XIXe siècle se révèle au final d’une richesse et d’un intérêt insoupçonnés jusqu’ici.Belgium has a great tradition of production of comic strips and recognizes the 9th art as one of the jewels of its national culture. Nevertheless, most of the books dealing with history of the comic strip in this country ignore totally the time before Hergé. For a good reasons : the production of comic strip in Belgium is relatively rare and, largely, dependent on the foreign influence. Furthermore, comic strips presenting text under the image were completely ignored for a long time by the historians of the subject. What we suggested making in our work, is looking for the diverse appearances of sequences of images through time and contextualise them. Number of the examples

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of Au/PVP composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hong; Cheng Bo-Lin; Lu Guo-Wei; Wang Wei-Tian; Guan Dong-Yi; Chen Zheng-Hao; Yang Guo-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal Au and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) composite thin films are fabricated by spin-coating method. Linear optical absorption measurements of the Au/PVP composite films indicate an absorption peak around 530 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties are studied using standard Z-scan technique, and experimental results show large optical nonlinearities of the Au/PVP composite films. A large value of films.

  12. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  13. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  14. Premiers resultats experimentaux sur le comportement de Tabebuia heterophylla (DC) Britton et de Hymenaea courbaril L. vis-a vis de la secheresse

    OpenAIRE

    Huc, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Deux espèces de la forêt de basse altitude d’Amérique tropicale (Antilles), Tabebebuia heterophylla (poirier-pays) et Hymenaea courbaril (courbaril), se révèlent intéressantes pour le reboisement des régions les moins arrosées. Le comportement de ces espèces vis-à-vis de la sécheresse est étudié grâce à un traitement sous forme d’arrosage différencié appliqué à des jeunes plants âgés de 1 an, en pépinière. L'évolution de l’état hydrique des plants est suivie au cours de 6 mois d’expéri...

  15. Le tamoxifene comme premier traitement du cancer du sein chez la femme âgée: un recul de 10 ans

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Claude; Lifrange, Eric; Genicot, F.; Castronovo, Vincenzo; Lambotte, René

    1990-01-01

    Cinquante-six patientes, âgées de plus de 70 ans, ont été traitées par tamoxifène pour cancer mammaire T1 à T4. Un délai de 3 à 6 mois est nécessaire pour obtenir une régression de l'opacité tumorale dans 46,4% des cas, une stabilisation dans 30,4% et une augmentation dans 23,2%. Le type de réponse semble indépendant du stade initial de la tumeur. La survie globale à 10 ans n'est pas différente de cette des patientes de même âge qui avaient préféré recourir au traitement loco-régional class...

  16. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  17. Experimental evidence for electron localization on Au upon photo-activation of Au/anatase catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements show that the presence of Au on anatase Hombikat UV100 significantly reduces the lifetime of mobile electrons formed by photo-excitation of this photocatalyst at 300 nm, providing evidence for the widely acclaimed electron localization effect

  18. Charged-particle rapidity density in Au+Au collisions in a quark combination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng-Lan; Yao, Tao; Xie, Qu-Bing

    2007-03-01

    Rapidity/pseudorapidity densities for charged particles and their centrality, rapidity, and energy dependence in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are studied in a quark combination model. Using a Gaussian-type rapidity distribution for constituent quarks as a result of Landau hydrodynamic evolution, the data at sNN=130,200 GeV at various centralities in full pseudorapidity range are well described, and the charged-particle multiplicities are reproduced as functions of the number of participants. The energy dependence of the shape of the dNch/dη distribution is also described at various collision energies sNN=200,130,62.4 GeV in central collisions with same value of parameters except 19.6 GeV. The calculated rapidity distributions and yields for the charged pions and kaons in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration.

  19. Laser nanostructuring of Au/Ag and Au/Ni films for application in SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikov, Ru. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Grochowska, K.; Iwulska, A.; Sliwinski, G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper results on laser nanostructuring of Au/Ag and Au/Ni thin films are presented. The nanostructuring leads to formation of arrays of bimetallic nanoparticles. The fabrication of the these structures is made using a two step procedure. Initially, thin films are deposited on quartz substrates by classical pulsed laser deposition method. In order to produce Au/Ag or Au/Ni thin films, targets with two sections consist the different metals are used. Thin films with different concentrations of the two metals are obtained by changing the area of the different sections in the target. The as prepared films are then annealed by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. It is found that the laser annealing may lead to nanostructuring of the deposited films as at certain conditions decomposition into monolayers of nanoparticles with narrow size distribution is obtained. The performed EDX analyses indicate that the fabricated particles are composed by a bimetallic system of the basic metals used. The transmission spectra of the obtained structures show evidences of plasmon excitations. The bimetal nanostructures are covered with Rhodamine 6G and then tested as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

  20. Nanostructuring thin Au films on transparent conductive oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Crupi, I. [Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Carria, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kimiagar, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Forsat Shirazi St. North Eskanari St. Azadi Rd. No 136, 13185/768 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simone, F.; Grimaldi, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Thermal-induced morphology evolution of Au nanoclusters on ITO is studied. ► Laser irradiation-induced morphology evolution of thin Au film on ITO is studied. ► Au nanorings formation on ITO is presented. ► Au nanoclusters formation on ITO is presented. -- Abstract: Fabrication processes of Au nanostructures on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surface by simple, versatile, and low-cost bottom-up methodologies are investigated in this work. A first methodology exploits the patterning effects induced by nanosecond laser irradiations on thin Au films deposited on ITO surface. We show that after the laser irradiations, the Au film break-up into nanoclusters whose mean size and surface density are tunable by the laser fluence. A second methodology exploits, instead, the patterning effects of standard furnace thermal processes on the Au film deposited on the ITO. We observe, in this case, a peculiar shape evolution from pre-formed nanoclusters during the Au deposition stage on the ITO, to holed nanostructures (i.e. nanorings), during the furnace annealing processes. The nanorings depth, height, width, and surface density are shown to be tunable by annealing temperature and time.