WorldWideScience

Sample records for au sahara premiere

  1. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  2. Morbi-mortalite au cours du premier trimestre de la grossesse a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence des complications de la grossesse au premier trimestre, identifier leurs facteurs de risque et évaluer le pronostic immédiat. L\\'étude prospective, descriptive et multicentrique, conduite sur un an, du 1er Janvier 2005 au 31 Décembre 2005 dans les trois principales ...

  3. Monique VÉRITÉ, Henri Lhote – Une aventure scientifique au Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno LECOQUIERRE

    2015-01-01

    Auteur déjà en 1992 d’Odette du Puigaudeau : une bretonne au Sahara, Monique Vérité vient de livrer une nouvelle biographie passionnante, sur une personnalité saharienne haute en couleur, célèbre en France et au Sahara après-guerre et qui est aujourd’hui un peu oubliée : Henri Lhote (1903-1991). Henri Lhote peut être considéré comme l’un des plus grands explorateurs du Sahara au XXe siècle, aux côtés de Conrad Kilian et de Théodore Monod. Le parallèle avec ce dernier est assez fascinant car c...

  4. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    OpenAIRE

    Houdret Annabelle; Bonnet Simon

    2016-01-01

    Les partenariats public-privé (PPP) sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en te...

  5. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  6. 229 Age au premier vêlage et intervalle entre vêlages de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madjina TELLAH

    intervalle entre vêlages des vaches de quatre races bovines en zone périurbaine de N'Djaména au Tchad. Les races locales concernées ont été : Arabes, Bororo, Bokolodji et Kouri. Un échantillon de 43 vaches pour l'évaluation de l'intervalle entre.

  7. Évaluation échographique des complications au premier trimestre de grossesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-10-01

    RéSULTATS: SOURCES DE DONNéES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE et un examen de la bibliographie des articles recensés. Le Comité d'imagerie diagnostique de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada a passé en revue les données probantes recueillies. Les recommandations reposent sur les lignes directrices élaborées par le Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (tableau 1). AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: Les femmes qui présentent des saignements durant le premier trimestre peuvent recevoir un diagnostic incorrect d'avortement manqué. En outre, on risque de ne pas détecter une grossesse ectopique ou de les rassurer à tort sur la viabilité de l'embryon. L'amélioration de la détection des repères échographiques du développement embryonnaire normal et de la connaissance des facteurs de risque liés à l'échec de grossesse sur le plan échographique pourrait donner lieu à l'élaboration de stratégies de prise en charge mieux adaptées à chaque cas. Le diagnostic d'une grossesse ectopique suspectée repose souvent sur l'évaluation de marqueurs hormonaux et de caractéristiques échographiques. Par ailleurs, le diagnostic précoce de grossesse ectopique peut réduire la morbidité et la mortalité maternelles. RECOMMANDATIONS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Les Campaniformes Pyreneo-Languedociens Premiers Résultats au C 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean GUILAINE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La civilisation des gobelets campaniformes a posé aux préhistoriens, dès son individualisation même, des problèmes de géographie et de diffusion ainsi que des questions de caractère chronologique. C'est essentiellement le mérite des auteurs ibériques d'avoir montré que cette culture s'était fractionnée en ensembles géographiques relativement distincts (P. Bosch-Gimpera, A. del Castillo. Les auteurs anglo-saxons, pour leur part, ont surtout mis l'accent sur les variantes typologiques, en essayant de décortiquer la famille campaniforme en horizons stylistiquement et chronologiquement bien différenciés. Au terme d'une longue tradition (marquée par les travaux de A. Goetze, P. Reinecke, J. Abercromby, V. G. Childe, H. N. Savory, etc., se trouve une série de belles synthèses dont les plus remarquables sont celles de E. Sangmeister (1951, J. D. Van der Waals et W. Glasbergen (1955, D. L. Clarke (1970. De nombreux préhistoriens se sont par ailleurs penchés sur les problèmes de diffusion et diverses thèses ont été émises: théorie de l'origine sud-ibérique (Schmidt, Bosch- Gimpera, Del Castillo; théorie de la genèse centro-européenne (J. et E. Neustupny; thèse, plus complexe, de Sangmeister mettant en jeu divers relais à partir de Liberie et un important phénomène de reflux depuis l'Europe moyenne en direction de la Péninsule (théorie fortement discutée par la suite par son auteur même; enfin, tout récemment, hypothèse de D. L. Clarke sur la formation de cette civilisation dans le Midi de la France, plus particulièrement dans la région bordant le Golfe du Lion.

  9. Tabac et pauvreté au Niger | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tabac et pauvreté au Niger. La majorité des pays africains sud du Sahara sont au premier stade de l'épidémie du tabac mais la consommation du tabac augmente rapidement. Consciente de la menace mondiale, l'Organisation mondiale de santé (OMS) a initié la Convention-cadre pour la lutte anti-tabac et la majorité des ...

  10. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  11. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  12. South of Sahara | Page 54 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Building a Community ICT Network in Mozambique. Language English. Read more about Appui au réseautage et au renforcement des télécentres communautaires au Mali. Language French. Read more about Support for Community Telecentres and Networks in Mali.

  13. South of Sahara | Page 49 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Language English. Read more about Initiative de renforcement des capacités de recherche en santé au Kenya et au Malawi - phase de démarrage. Language French.

  14. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  15. South of Sahara | Page 50 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Interdépendance des zones urbaines et rurales et répercussions des changements climatiques au Malawi et en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Urban-Rural Interdependence and the Impact of Climate Change in Malawi and Tanzania. Language English.

  16. South of Sahara | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Institutional Support : Centre for Research and Technology Development (RESTECH). Language English. Read more about Soutien institutionnel au Centre for Research and Technology Development (RESTECH Centre). Language French. Read more about Economic ...

  17. South of Sahara | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des capacités en matière de sexospécificités au sein du programme ACACIA. Language French. Read more about Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening. Language English. Read more about Soutien ...

  18. South of Sahara | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des connaissances économiques et de la capacité d'adaptation face aux changements climatiques au Bénin. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Economic Skills and Climate Change Adaptive Capacity in Bénin. Language English.

  19. South of Sahara | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening. Language English. Read more about Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des capacités en matière de sexospécificités au sein du programme ACACIA. Language French. Read more about Soutien ...

  20. Ruées vers l’or au Sahara : l’orpaillage dans le désert du Ténéré et le massif de l’Aïr (Niger)

    OpenAIRE

    Grégoire, Emmanuel; Gagnol, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Dans une conjoncture politique et économique préoccupante, une nouvelle activité inattendue émerge soudainement au début de l’année 2014 dans le nord du Niger : l’orpaillage, après la découverte d’un premier site dans la vallée du Djado (2014). Quelques mois plus tard, un deuxième site, Tchibarakaten fut mis en exploitation. Au même moment, plusieurs petits gisements furent découverts dans le massif de l’Aïr. La soif de l’or s’empara alors de nombreux Nigériens et étrangers en quête de fortun...

  1. 21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

  2. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  3. Archéologie et sociabilité: la délégation du Pérou au Premier Congrès international des Américanistes, Nancy, 1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur tente de montrer comment l'analyse de la composition de la délégation péruvienne au premier Congrès International des Américanistes peut fournir une vision différente du mouvement anthropologique au XIXème siècle, dans la mesure où la plupart des membres de cette délégation étaient peut-être plus préoccupés de représentation que de l'avancement des sciences humaines. D'où l'idée d'un intérêt pour l'archéologie considéré alors comme un acte de sociabilité. El autor intenta demostrar que el análisis de la delegación peruana al primer Congreso Internacional de Americanistas puede dar otra visión del movimiento antropológico en el siglo XIX, en la medida en que la mayoría de los miembros de esta delegación estaban tal vez más preocupados por su imagen pública que por el progreso de las ciencias humanas. En este caso, el interés por la arqueología sería sobre todo un acto de sociabilidad. The author intends to show how the analysis of the social composition of the peruvian delegation at the first International Congress of Americanists, can offer a different view upon the anthropological movement in the XlXth century, as far as most of the delegates were more worried of their public image instead of the advancement of human sciences. In this particular case, their interest on archaeology would be seen as a social act.

  4. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  5. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  6. South of Sahara | Page 125 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Exemption communautaire du paiement des services de santé au Burkina Faso. Language French. Read more about Études par pays dans le cadre du HIV/AIDS Monitor. Language French. Read more about HIV/AIDS Monitor Country Studies. Language English. Read more about Gestion ...

  7. South of Sahara | Page 33 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Hybrid Security Arrangements in Africa: Exploring the Implications for State-building. Language English. Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Implications des mécanismes de sécurité hybrides ...

  8. Sahara en mouvement

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    On peut dire du Sahara ce que Fernand Braudel disait naguère de la Méditerranée : lui assigner des bornages est une tâche malaisée. Des géographes s’y sont cependant essayés, et leurs tentatives participent de ce qu’on peut appeler l’« invention » du Sahara. La présente introduction évoque quelques figures marquantes de cette invention (Léon l’Africain, Eugène Daumas, Émile Carette, Henri Duveyrier, Robert Capot-Rey…) puis présente brièvement les diverses contributions du dossier, en les repl...

  9. Premiers récipiendaires d'une bourse du Fonds Hopper-Bhatia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2018 ... Il permet d'appuyer financièrement de jeunes chercheurs en début de carrière, en particulier des femmes, au moyen de bourses et de stages. ... Selon un récent sondage d'opinion mené dans 17 pays latino-américains, les problèmes liés au marché de l'emploi arrivaient au premier rang de 10 enjeux ...

  10. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  11. NEW JULY SAHARA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    Cette communication met à disposition un cadre qui analyse la réponse des sociétés sud-africaines au VIH/SIDA. En tirant sur ..... national crisis or the response opportunities that CSR ... ongoing process of retrenchments that we researched,.

  12. From Raja to Prime Minister Entre rajah et premier ministre. Les étrangers et l’exploitation économique à Bornéo et dans le Pacifique au xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some twenty years after the Sultan of Brunei had bestowed upon the Englishman James Brooke the title of Rajah of Sarawak, giving him extensive authorities over a large tract of land, an American, Joseph William Torrey, United States consul in Brunei, gained the right to call himself Rajah of Marudu and Ambong. Though Torrey’s efforts failed to establish a profitable business in Sabah, they formed the root of the British North Borneo Company. Torrey probably was one of the last of his kind. Elsewhere in the Pacific, European and American residents and adventurers did not bother much about native titles, expanding their hold over land and its inhabitants by economic and political manipulation. In Hawaii and Samoa political reform and becoming cabinet minister or prime minister of a still independent island state served their purposes better.Quelque vingt ans après que le sultan de Brunei eut accordé à l’Anglais James Brooke le titre de rajah de Sarawak, qui lui donnait d’importants pouvoirs sur une vaste région, un Américain, Joseph William Torrey, consul des Etats-Unis à Brunei, obtint le titre de rajah de Marudu et Ambong. Les efforts de Torrey, échouant à établir une affaire profitable à Sabah, constituèrent néanmoins les bases de la British North Borneo Company. Torrey fut sans doute l’un des derniers de ce type d’aventuriers. Ailleurs dans le Pacifique, des résidents et des aventuriers européens et américains, par des manœuvres économiques et politiques, consolidèrent leur contrôle sur les territoires et leurs populations, sans trop se soucier d’obtenir des titres locaux. A Hawaii et à Samoa, il leur fut plus utile d’entreprendre des réformes politiques et de se pourvoir d’un poste de ministre ou de premier ministre d’un Etat insulaire encore indépendant.

  13. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.

  14. Going under the radar in Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alice

    2016-01-01

    At the level of formal attempts at conflict resolution, the Western Sahara conflict has been locked in a political stalemate for years. One consequence is that the people of Western Sahara are often overlooked in their own conflict – despite the fact that the very case for decolonization in Western Sahara hinges upon the right of the people of the territory to self-determination. This essay examines how, despite the ongoing formal stalemate, under the radar of formal politics in recent years ...

  15. Premiere production d'atomes d'antimatiere au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    In September 1995, Prof. Walter Oelert and an international team from J lich IKP-KFA, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, GSI Darmstadt and Genoa University succeeded for the first time in synthesising atoms of antimatter from their constituent antiparticles. Nine of these atoms were produced in collisions between antiprotons and xenon atoms over a period of three weeks. Each one remained in existence for about forty billionths of a second, travelled at nearly the speed of light over a path of ten metres and then annihilated with ordinary matter. The annihilation produced the signal which showed that the anti-atoms had been created.

  16. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  17. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... EPIdEMIOlOgIE ET ETIOPAThOgENIE. Les angiodysplasies osseuses des maxillaires sont rares. Les premiers cas rapportés sont ceux de Berard qui a décrit en 1842 une localisation au niveau du maxillaire supérieur et de Stanley qui a rapporté en 1849 une loca- lisation mandibulaire. une prédisposition ...

  18. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  19. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  20. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  1. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  2. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  3. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced

  4. Cas de Cotonou au Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au nombre de ces nuisances, figurent entre autres, la perte de temps et par ricochet d'importantes recettes .... La méthodologie utilisée est basée sur deux types d'approches : l'approche théorique et celle empirique. Le premier volet de ...... Université de Bordeaux Talence, 456 pages. SEGBEDJI, E. (2001) : Impact du trafic ...

  5. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  6. Sociological Variables Influencing the Nigeria Premier League | Ogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sociological variable influencing the Nigeria premier League. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. The area of the study was Nigeria. The population for the study was 1,118 which comprised of sports administrators, coaches and players in the Nigeria Premier League.

  7. Chapitre premier. Le movimiento (1952-1964)

    OpenAIRE

    Lavaud, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Le 9 avril 1952, les habitants de la Paz apprennent par la radio que des insurgés appartenant au Mouvement Nationaliste Révolutionnaire (MNR), dirigés par Hernán Siles Zuazo, avec l’appui des carabineros, ont évincé la junte militaire qui s’était installée au gouvernement à peine un an auparavant, précisément pour faire barrage au candidat du MNR qui venait de gagner les élections présidentielles. Victor Paz Estenssoro avait, en effet, obtenu 54 049 voix contre 52 940 à l’ensemble de l’opposi...

  8. PREMIERE RECOLTE DE DEUX ESPECES FONGIQUES DU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Au Maroc, les travaux sur les champignons sont rares et aucune liste complète qui répertorie les espèces d'une région donnée n'est encore disponible. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la flore fongique au niveau de la Mamora, Moyen Atlas et le Rif. Des prospections effectuées dans ces régions et la détermination des.

  9. L’iconographie de l’Hymne Acathiste dans les fresques de l’église St.Onuphre du monastère Lavrov et dans la peinture extérieure moldave au temps du premier règne de Petru Rares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L’église St. Onuphre du monastère Lavrov (Ukraine occidentale, près de Staryi Sambir conserve des peintures murales qu’on a datées de la fin du XVe ou du début du XVIe siècle. Le but de la présente étude est de préciser les affinités d’ordre iconographique existentes entre les versions de l’«Hymne Acathiste» de Lavrov et des églises moldaves à peinture extérieure du temp du premier règne de Petru Rareş. Grâce à la rédaction de l’image de l’«Acathiste» de Probota, où le début du texte de la 17e strophe de l’«Hymne» est bien conservé, on peut constater qu’à Lavrov, dans l’image similaire, il ne s’agit pas de la 24e strophe de l’«Hymne» comme le croyait A. I. Rogov, maïs de la 17e strophe. Donc, on peut supposer, qu’à Lavrov il n’y avait pas de lacune dans la présentation des strophes 19–23 de l’«Hymne Acathiste».

  10. Premier numéro bilingue

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-01-01

    Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada) ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  11. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  12. South of Sahara | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa. Language English. Read more about Évolution démographique asymétrique et gouvernance financière mondiale. Language French. Read more about Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance.

  13. South of Sahara | Page 34 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Women's Access to Land and Natural Resources in Pastoralist and Forest Communities in East Africa. Language English. Read more about Pratiques foncières et droit des femmes à la terre : répercussions sur l'accès aux ressources naturelles (Cameroun anglophone).

  14. South of Sahara | Page 55 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Health System through a Maternal Death Review (Kenya and Zimbabwe). Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more ...

  15. South of Sahara | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Pauvreté et vulnérabilité environnementale dans les bidonvilles en pleine croissance en Angola. Language French. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Language English.

  16. South of Sahara | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Legal and Regulatory Framework of the Tobacco Control Campaign in Sénégal. Language English. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Language ...

  17. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When crossing the Sahara it was expected that nocturnal migrants would continue their flight into the day. We investigated whether migration taking place in the Sahara during daytime comprises the normal diurnal migrant species or the nocturnal ones prolonging their flight into the day. Birds departing from the Sahel in ...

  18. South of Sahara | Page 61 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Rainwater and Greywater Harvesting in Urban and Periurban Agriculture in Ariana-Soukra (Tunisia). Language English. Read more about Récupération des eaux grises et des eaux pluviales pour l'agriculture urbaine et périurbaine à La Soukra, dans le gouvernorat ...

  19. South of Sahara | Page 137 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Transition de Bellanet. Language French. Read more about Le coût des conflits dans la zone du Marché commun de l'Afrique orientale et australe (COMESA). Language French. Read more about Cost of Conflicts in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa ...

  20. South of Sahara | Page 65 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Economic Research Forum - Core Support 2012-2014. Language English. Read more about Forum de recherche économique - Financement de base 2012-2014. Language French. Read more about Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

  1. South of Sahara | Page 101 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Compliance with Private Food Safety Standards among Smallholders in Kenya. Language English. Read more about Respect des normes de salubrité des aliments privées chez les petits exploitants agricoles du Kenya. Language French. Read more about Stimulation de ...

  2. South of Sahara | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Changements climatiques et santé des autochtones. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health. Language English. Read more about La législation sur le salaire minimum, son application et la ...

  3. South of Sahara | Page 136 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Nouveau télécentre de Manhiça (Mozambique). Language French. Read more about New Premises Assistance : Manhica Telecentre Association (Mozambique). Language English. Read more about Health Risk Analysis of Cryptosporidiosis and other Hazards in Urban ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Suivi de structures criminelles dans des villes africaines. Language French. Read more about Universities in Innovation for Inclusive Development: Africa. Language English. Read more about How to access funding for non-communicable disease prevention in Africa?

  5. South of Sahara | Page 138 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Savoir émergent - suivi de la progression vers la société de l'information. Language French. Read more about Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide Index. Language English. Read more about Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem ...

  6. South of Sahara | Page 64 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about La protection des renseignements personnels dans l'hémisphère sud (Protecting Privacy in the Global South) - Phase 2. Language French. Read more about Doctoral Awards to Strengthen Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership in HIV Prevention Research. Language English.

  7. South of Sahara | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for Healthcare in Africa. Language English. Read more about Gestion intégrée de l'eau, de l'assainissement et des déchets solides dans de petits centres urbains autour du lac Victoria (Kenya). Language ...

  8. South of Sahara | Page 133 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Vers une structure de sécurité régionale dans la Corne de l'Afrique - phase II. Language French. Read more about Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. Language ...

  9. South of Sahara | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk After Gestational Diabetes in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Essais cliniques d'un vaccin expérimental contre le virus Ebola : une intervention canadienne dans la recherche. Language French. Read more about ...

  10. South of Sahara | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea. Language English. Read more about Taxes sur le tabac, contrebande et vendeurs de rue en Érythrée. Language French. Read more about The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue ...

  11. South of Sahara | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Innovation pharmaceutique, délivrance de brevets sur des variantes mineures et licences obligatoires. Language French. Read more about Pharmaceutical Innovation, Incremental Patenting and Compulsory Licensing. Language English. Read more about Vers une ...

  12. South of Sahara | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des stratégies locales de gestion des zones sylvo-pastorales inter villageoises dans le basin arachidier du Sénégal. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Local Strategies for Managing Inter Village Agro-pastoral Resources in the Groundnut ...

  13. South of Sahara | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Gestion des milieux humides en vue d'une plus grande sécurité alimentaire en Ouganda. Language French. Read more about Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in Argentina, Costa Rica and South Africa. Language English. Read more ...

  14. South of Sahara | Page 50 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Études par pays dans le cadre du HIV/AIDS Monitor. Language French. Read more about HIV/AIDS Monitor Country Studies. Language English. Read more ...

  15. South of Sahara | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renforcement des capacités en Afrique en matière d'indicateurs de S-T et d'innovation. Language French. Read more about Building African Capacity in Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators. Language English. Read more about Transfert du modèle prédictif ...

  16. South of Sahara | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about La protection sociale et les collectivités vulnérables en Afrique de l'Est - retombées sur le bien-être des ménages. Language French. Read more about Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: Implications for Household Welfare. Language English.

  17. South of Sahara | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Kenya. Language English. Read more about Gestion des risques, réduction de la vulnérabilité et accroissement de la productivité dans un contexte de changements climatiques. Language French.

  18. South of Sahara | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Five-City Network to Pioneer Climate Change Adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux changements climatiques (Bénin). Language French. Read more about Protecting the Urban ...

  19. No Otters in the Tassili Mountains (Sahara)

    OpenAIRE

    Smet K. de

    1987-01-01

    The Tassill Mountains are situated in the centre of the Sahara Desert and as they are rather high (summits over 2,000 m), they have a rainfall of more than 50 mm/year. There are many rivers in these mountains and although they only flow after the occasional rains, a great number of small lakes (locally called Guelta) remain in the deep canyons. Some river systems always have running water (Oued Imirhou, Oued Iherir) and most of them contain large quantities of fish (Barbus sp., Tilapia sp.) ...

  20. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  1. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons un cas de grossesse dans un utérus bicorne, avec un épisode de saignement vaginal durant le premier trimestre. L'échographie a été capable de trouver un épaississement de l'endomètre de la corne utérine vide qui pourrait expliquer cette métrorragie. Mots clés : Utérus bicorne, métrorragie, premier ...

  2. Une vie consacrée à la science du Sahara et de son passé

    OpenAIRE

    Sèbe, Berny

    2014-01-01

    Né en 1916, Henri-Jean Hugot est le dernier représentant de l’élite des savants pluri-disciplinaires du Sahara encore parmi nous. A l’instar des Théodore Monod ou des Henri Lhote, qui nous ont quittés dans les deux dernières décennies, il s’est intéressé au cours de sa longue carrière scientifique à de nombreux aspects du passé des grands espaces sahariens, offrant des perspectives pionnières qui ont permis de notables avancées dans la compréhension des populations préhistoriques du Sahara. ...

  3. Perspectives d'introduction d'un marketing des services au sein des banques publiques Algériennes : Cas de la B.A.D.R.

    OpenAIRE

    Lachachi-taleb, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Le premier chapitre présente les fondements théoriques relatifs au marketing des services ainsi qu'au concept de servuction et enfin au marketing mix des services dans le deuxiéme chapitre.Le troisiéme chapitre est consacré au marketing bancaire et au plan marketing dans le chapitre suivant, une étude de cas au sein de la B.A.D.R.Banque.

  4. Inkscape premiers pas en dessin vectoriel

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Avec Inkscape, s'initier au dessin vectoriel devient un jeu d'enfant ! Paramétrez votre espace de travail pour créer avec aisance et précision. Intégrez des photos et des textes à vos dessins. Maniez les outils de forme ou dessinez à main levée avec les courbes de Bézier. Appliquez couleurs et dégradés aux formes et aux contours. Optimisez votre méthode de travail avec les modèles, les calques et les clones. Convertissez les objets en chemin et retouchez le détail de vos tracés. Transformez vos projets avec les filtres et les effets. Validez vos acquis avec 9 études de cas : création de logo, réalisation d'une invitation, conception d'une affiche...

  5. The Late Miocene climate response to a modern Sahara desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Arne; Eronen, Jussi; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2009-06-01

    The climate cooling and vegetation changes in the Miocene/Pliocene are generally well documented by various proxy data. Some important ecosystem changes occurred at that time. Palaeobotanical evidence suggests that the Sahara desert first appeared in the Pliocene, whereas in the Miocene North Africa was green. In the present study, we investigate the Late Miocene climate response to the appearance of the Sahara desert from a climate modelling sensitivity experiment. We compare a model experiment, which includes a full set of Late Miocene boundary conditions, with another one using the same boundary conditions except that the North African vegetation refers to the present-day situation. Our sensitivity study demonstrates that the introduction of the Sahara desert leads to a cooling and an aridification in Africa. In addition, we observe teleconnection patterns related to the North African desertification at around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. From our sensitivity experiment, we observe that the Sahara contributes to a cooling in Central Asia and in North America. As compared to hypsodonty data for Central Asia, an increased aridity is underestimated in the Sahara experiment. Finally, we observe that the introduction of the Sahara leads to a cooling in the northern high latitudes. Hence, our sensitivity experiment indicates that the appearance of the Sahara desert is one piece to better understand Late Cenozoic climate cooling being most pronounced in the high latitudes.

  6. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.

  7. Une forme urbaine du premier âge touristique: les promenades littorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck DEBIÉ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.

  8. Book Review: The writings of Mauritania and the western Sahara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: The writings of Mauritania and the western Sahara: Arabic Literature of Africa vol. 5. Book Authors: compiled by Charles C. Stewart with Sidi Ahmed Wuld Ahmed Salim. (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2016), 2 vols ...

  9. South of Sahara | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa. Language English. Read more about Mobilisation du financement privé aux fins de l'adaptation. Language French. Read more about Une approche des politiques et de la gouvernance en matière d'Internet axée sur le progrès des ...

  10. South of Sahara | Page 121 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. Language English. Read more about Citoyens du monde : les répercussions des programmes de travail rémunéré et de travail bénévole à l'étranger. Language French. Read more ...

  11. Paleohydrology and paleoenvironments at Bir Sahara: Pleistocene lithostratigraphy and sedimentology in the southern Egyptian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher L.; Schild, Romuald

    2017-12-01

    The Bir Sahara area contains a remarkable record of Middle and Late Pleistocene hydrologic and environmental conditions for Saharan North Africa, based on lithostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence from basin-fill deposits. Some of the deposits contain Lower Paleolithic (Acheulean) or Middle Paleolithic artifacts that help to constrain their age, since Acheulian artifacts are assigned to the Middle Pleistocene, while Middle Paleolithic artifacts are limited to either the Middle or Late Pleistocene. Locality BS-14 is in the southern part of Bir Sahara, while localities E-88-15, E-88-2, BS-13, and BS-16 are situated in the south-central part of the deflational basin, closer to the present-day water-hole. Lowered groundwater conditions during arid intervals resulted in erosional topographic basins. These deflational basins were later filled with sediments associated with wetter hydrologic conditions. The oldest studied sedimentary sequence in the Bir Sahara depression (BS-14) contains in situ Acheulian artifacts. Acheulian handaxes are found in sands underlying carbonates that are interpreted as evidence of spring-fed pond and marsh environments during a Middle Pleistocene wet interval. At the E-88-15 locality, the stratigraphic sequence documents deposition in a possible perennial pond or small lake that varied in extent and depth and is associated with Middle Paleolithic artifacts. At E-88-12 and BS-13, lateral and vertical variations in the lithofacies of the basin-fill sediments provide additional records of changing hydrologic conditions during the Late Pleistocene. These hydrologic conditions appear to reflect variations in water-table levels related to groundwater recharge and, at times, local rains.

  12. Library Media Specialists: Premier Information Specialists for the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The information age has given library media specialists an unprecedented opportunity to play a leading role in helping teachers, administrators, and especially students access and use information intelligently. As the school's premier information specialist; the library media specialist has a unique role to play in helping everyone in the school…

  13. Trichoberoard gastrique : Premier cas observe en milieu bur kina be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...

  14. Spain and the Western Sahara: the Political Party Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vaquer i Fanés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Spanish army’s hasty withdrawal from Western Sahara in 1975, the two main parties since Spain acquired its democracy have differed over what stance should be taken with respect to the Sahara issue. The aim of this article is to establish to what extentthis is the result of the opposing government/opposition dynamic and how far it is a result of the parties’ own stances, by analysing the evolution of their attitudes and approaches with respect to the Sahara issue. The hypothesis is that the Spanish parties’ position with respect to Algeria and Morocco was initially very much determined by their view of the Sahara issue, but that there has been an inversion of this attitude. Thus at present, opposing stances on the Sahara issue are mainly the result of different views on Spain’s interests in the Maghreb region and, above all, of different ideas about which country Morocco or Algeria should benefit most from bilateral relations.

  15. Frontières et nationalisme autour du Sahara Occidental (Borders and Nationalism in Western Sahara)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Le conflit du Sahara Occidental apparaît comme le principal facteur de blocage dans la construction d'une intégration régionale. Pour la monarchie marocaine, il lui a permis de s'approprier le sentiment nationaliste alors porté par le mouvement de l'Istiqlal qui faisait de la cause du grand Maroc l'un de ses combats politiques. Pour le régime algérien, il a représenté un moyen de justifier le pouvoir d'une armée et d'entretenir le sentiment nationaliste. L'avantage du conflit saharien était é...

  16. Remise en jeu continue, négociations « dos au mur »: le travail des facteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bouteiller, Jacques; Bouffartigue, Paul

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Le travail a rarement été, en tant que tel, au premier plan de la conflictualité et de la négociation collectives. Les années 1980/1990, avec la venue au premier plan des préoccupations liées à l'emploi et l'affaiblissement considérable du syndicalisme, semblent avoir vu s'accentuer cette marginalisation des enjeux du travail, tant dans la négociation que dans la conflictualité sociale . Mais avec l'éloignement de la perspective d'un retour au compromis fordiste, l'accentua...

  17. Facteurs liés au diagnostic tardif du cancer du sein: expérience du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer féminin en termes d'incidence et de mortalité. Au Maroc, il vient au premier rang des cancers de la femme avant celui du col utérin Il constitue un problème de santé publique. Son pronostic est étroitement lié au stade auquel le diagnostic est posé. Il s'agit d'une pathologie dont les ...

  18. La CPE-Can forge des liens et place les étudiants au premier rang ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders. A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay mee. View moreLeishmaniasis: sickness without borders ...

  19. La CPE-Can forge des liens et place les étudiants au premier rang ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada (CPE-Can) :Dre Margot ParkesDepartment of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, CanadaDre Johanne Saint-CharlesCentre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la santé, la société et ...

  20. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (moss/fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (flora mainly composed of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, indicating a shallow freshwater lake. Both diatomite sequences thus suggest shallow lakes throughout their deposition-whether this is due to their marginal position within the large calderas and/or shallow waters covered the entire calderas is an outstanding question that will be addressed with planned additional investigations. Kr

  1. South of Sahara | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. Pages. « first · ‹ previous … 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8; 9; 10 · next › · last » · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions.

  2. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  3. South of Sahara | Page 118 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about National Innovation Systems in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). Language English. Read more about Strengthening the Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Rural Bénin. Language English. Read more about Renforcement des capacités d'adaptation des acteurs ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Read more about Action multisectorielle en matière de prévention des maladies non transmissibles en Afrique subsaharienne. Language French. Read more about Safe and Inclusive Cities: Research to Reduce Urban Violence, Poverty, and Inequalities. Language English. Read more about Analyse des ...

  5. The Sources Of Protracted Conflict In The Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    increasing unrest, the French and Spanish divided the Sherifian Empire into three territories in (1912). France promoted colonization to secure its...opinions on two questions: 1. Was Western Sahara a territory belonging to no one (terra nullius) at the time of Spanish colonization ? 2. What were the...1. History Leading up to the Occupation .......................................16 2. Spanish Decolonization (1956–1976

  6. Atmospheric feedbacks in North Africa from an irrigated, afforested Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemena, Tronje Peer; Matthes, Katja; Martin, Thomas; Wahl, Sebastian; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Afforestation of the Sahara has been proposed as a climate engineering method to sequester a substantial amount of carbon dioxide, potentially effective to mitigate climate change. Earlier studies predicted changes in the atmospheric circulation system. These atmospheric feedbacks raise questions about the self-sustainability of such an intervention, but have not been investigated in detail. Here, we investigate changes in precipitation and circulation in response to Saharan large-scale afforestation and irrigation with NCAR's CESM-WACCM Earth system model. Our model results show a Saharan temperature reduction by 6 K and weak precipitation enhancement by 267 mm/year over the Sahara. Only 26% of the evapotranspirated water re-precipitates over the Saharan Desert, considerably large amounts are advected southward to the Sahel zone and enhance the West African monsoon (WAM). Different processes cause circulation and precipitation changes over North Africa. The increase in atmospheric moisture leads to radiative cooling above the Sahara and increased high-level cloud coverage as well as atmospheric warming above the Sahel zone. Both lead to a circulation anomaly with descending air over the Sahara and ascending air over the Sahel zone. Together with changes in the meridional temperature gradient, this results in a southward shift of the inner-tropical front. The strengthening of the Tropical easterly jet and the northward displacement of the African easterly jet is associated with a northward displacement and strengthening of the WAM precipitation. Our results suggest complex atmospheric circulation feedbacks, which reduce the precipitation potential over an afforested Sahara and enhance WAM precipitation.

  7. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  8. Les premiers guides français imprimés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Liaroutzos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Au milieu du XVIe siècle, Charles Estienne publie le premier guide routier français, La Guide des chemins de France. S’il ne s’agit pas véritablement d’un guide touristique au sens actuel, Estienne propose déjà, avec une grande économie de moyens, des itinéraires qui renseignent le voyageur sur les curiosités, les monuments, l’hébergement et les particularités des régions parcourues. En un temps où il n’existe pas de représentation cartographique fiable, l’ouvrage construit une vision ordonnée et hiérarchisée du territoire. Les successeurs ou les plagiaires d’Estienne, bien qu’ils s’inscrivent dans la continuité de La Guide, s’efforceront de littéraliser le propos, perdant ainsi, peut-être, ce qui en faisait l’originalité et la modernité.In the middle of the 16th century, Charles Estienne publishes the first French road guide La Guide des chemins de France. Although it is not a tourist guide in the current sense, Estienne proposes routes that inform the traveller about the curiosities, the monuments, the accommodation and the peculiarities of regions travelled through. At a time when there is no reliable cartographic representation, the work offers an orderly and highly hierarchical vision of the territory. Although they write in the continuity of La Guide, the successors or the plagiarists of Estienne will try hard to pursue a more literary purpose, thus losing what made its originality and modernity.

  9. Fennec dust forecast intercomparison over the Sahara in June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Chaboureau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Fennec international programme, a field campaign was conducted in June 2011 over the western Sahara. It led to the first observational data set ever obtained that documents the dynamics, thermodynamics and composition of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL under the influence of the heat low. In support to the aircraft operation, four dust forecasts were run daily at low and high resolutions with convection-parameterizing and convection-permitting models, respectively. The unique airborne and ground-based data sets allowed the first ever intercomparison of dust forecasts over the western Sahara. At monthly scale, large aerosol optical depths (AODs were forecast over the Sahara, a feature observed by satellite retrievals but with different magnitudes. The AOD intensity was correctly predicted by the high-resolution models, while it was underestimated by the low-resolution models. This was partly because of the generation of strong near-surface wind associated with thunderstorm-related density currents that could only be reproduced by models representing convection explicitly. Such models yield emissions mainly in the afternoon that dominate the total emission over the western fringes of the Adrar des Iforas and the Aïr Mountains in the high-resolution forecasts. Over the western Sahara, where the harmattan contributes up to 80 % of dust emission, all the models were successful in forecasting the deep well-mixed SABL. Some of them, however, missed the large near-surface dust concentration generated by density currents and low-level winds. This feature, observed repeatedly by the airborne lidar, was partly forecast by one high-resolution model only.

  10. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  11. Caractéristiques sociodémographiques associées au risque de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caractéristiques sociodémographiques associées au risque de transmission du VIH, du VHC et de Treponema pallidum par les donneurs de sang de premier don de Libreville (Gabon) : dynamique trisannuelle des infections de 2009 à 2015.

  12. Caractéristiques sociodémographiques associées au risque de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Paper http://ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Caractéristiques sociodémographiques associées au risque de transmission du. VIH, du VHC et de Treponema pallidum par les donneurs de sang de premier don de Libreville (Gabon) : dynamique trisannuelle des infections de 2009 à 2015.

  13. L'émergence de l' « artiste » au Burkina Faso | Rousseau | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'art contemporain ne trouve d'acteurs au Burkina Faso que depuis une vingtaine d'années. Le gouvernement révolutionnaire de Thomas Sankara est le premier à offrir aux artistes un cadre de promotion et de perfectionnement technique. Dans les années 1980, les SNC (Semaines Nationales de la Culture), le FESPACO ...

  14. Premiere recolte de deux especes fongiques du genre polyporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Maroc, les travaux sur les champignons sont rares et aucune liste complète qui répertorie les espèces d'une région donnée n'est encore disponible. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la flore fongique au niveau de la Mamora, Moyen Atlas et le Rif. Des prospections effectuées dans ces régions et la détermination des ...

  15. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le premier modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.

  16. Sud du Sahara | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa. Langue English. Read more about Évolution démographique asymétrique et gouvernance financière mondiale. Langue French. Read more about Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance. Langue English.

  17. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara | Solà-Martín | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the democratisation agenda laid out by Western governments for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the Western Sahara conflict. Western policymakers conceive the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara as a safety net that ...

  18. Sud du Sahara | Page 95 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Modèle d'édition et autre modèle d'octroi de licences (PALM Africa). Langue French. Read more about Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa (PALM Africa). Langue English. Read more about Strategic Action Plan for ERNWACA - 2007-2011. Langue English.

  19. Sud du Sahara | Page 96 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Implementation of an Electronic Strategy in Bénin. Langue English. Read more about E-Stratégie du Bénin : programme de recherches multidisciplinaires d'appui à sa mise en oeuvre. Langue French. Read more about Libéralisation du commerce des biens et services TIC ...

  20. Sud du Sahara | Page 108 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region : Actors, Interests and Strategies. Langue English. Read more about Comprendre les obstacles à la paix dans la région des Grands Lacs : acteurs, intérêts et stratégies. Langue French. Read more about ...

  1. Sud du Sahara | Page 55 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Strengthening the Health System through a Maternal Death Review (Kenya and Zimbabwe). Langue English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Langue French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Langue English. Read more about AIDS ...

  2. Sud du Sahara | Page 74 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Bamboo Production : Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase II. Langue English. Read more about Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province ...

  3. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an

  4. Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in northern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, J.A.; Coe, M.T.; Scheffer, M.; Wang, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic "regime shifts" in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of the causes and consequences of two environmental regime shifts in the Sahara and

  5. Sud du Sahara | Page 93 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sud du Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Renouvellement des modes de gouvernance : industries extractives et réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique. Langue French. Read more about Renewing Modes of Governance : Extractive Industries and the Reduction of Poverty in Africa. Langue English. Read more about ...

  6. Wars and conflicts in the Sahara-Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    the traditional lines between what is local and global, military and civilian, domestic and international, politics and identity. The purpose of this paper is to analyse these patterns of violence. The first section presents the geographic distribution and development over time of the main sources of violence...... in North and West Africa before examining the events behind the increase in political violence in the Sahel and the Sahara. The second section analyses the patterns of violence, and focuses on the geographic scales thereof and the strategies of the warring parties. In its conclusion, the paper highlights...

  7. Le premier BRASU | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans l'embrasure des portes et au bout des couloirs étaient suspendues des nattes lâchement tressées sur lesquelles des hommes ne faisaient rien d'autre que les asperger d'eau…tel était le système de refroidissement par évaporation. De l'eau glacée nous était toujours offerte, que nous devions refuser…même si elle ...

  8. South of Sahara | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Vulnérabilité et adaptation face aux changements climatiques et au VIH/sida en Afrique du Sud. Language French. Read more about Interdépendance des zones urbaines et rurales et répercussions des changements climatiques au Malawi et en Tanzanie. Language French.

  9. Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mikola, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Mikola, Noora 2016. "Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches” Sport and Exercise Psychology master's thesis. The Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 50 p. Background: Perceptions of sport psychology consulting in Finnish premier football have not been studied before. The current study was inspired by two earlier studies made in England by Pain and Hardwood (2004) and in Sweden by Johnso...

  10. Eastern Sahara Geology from Orbital Radar: Potential Analog to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Paillou, P.; Heggy, E.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the surface of Mars has been intensely reworked by aeolian processes and key evidence about the history of the Martian environment seems to be hidden beneath a widespread layer of debris (paleo lakes and rivers, faults, impact craters). In the same way, the recent geological and hydrological history of the eastern Sahara is still mainly hidden under large regions of wind-blown sand which represent a possible terrestrial analog to Mars. The subsurface geology there is generally invisible to optical remote sensing techniques, but radar images obtained from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) missions were able to penetrate the superficial sand layer to reveal parts of paleohydrological networks in southern Egypt.

  11. Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Muszyński, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    A specimen of the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite contains shock-produced veins consisting of recrystallised fine-grained pyroxenes that include small droplets of Ni-rich metal. Non-melted olivines and pyroxenes show planar deformations filled by shock-melted and -polluted metal and troilite. Shock-melted feldspathic glass is present close to the shock veins. Geothermometric estimations indicate that the meteorite locally experienced moderate shock metamorphism with a minimum local peak temperature above 1400°C, resulting in partial melting of Ca-poor pyroxene and full melting of feldspars, metal and sulphides. The mineral assemblage in the shock veins suggests a pressure during melt recrystallisation below 10 GPa.

  12. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  13. Introduction au dossier n°11 Catastrophes et Territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Duez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Les risques sont aujourd'hui omniprésents, à tel point que certains voient dans les mutations sociales et organisationnelles actuelles, l'émergence d'une société du risque, avatar, malheureux, d'une société industrielle ayant contribué certes à l'augmentation des richesses, mais au prix d'une absence de maîtrise technique, politique et scientifique des risques inhérents au progrès technique (Beck, 2001.Les sociétés dans leur globalité sont intéressées au premier chef par ces transformations....

  14. Notes on Old Stone Constructions of West and Central Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark MILBURN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo trata acerca de la tumba de TIN-HUMAN, HOGGAR, y la describe presentándola en relacón con los «monumentos en capilla» de Négrine, Tafilalet y Oeste del Sahara. Además, incluye comentarios sobre la rareza de las tumbas rectangulares con habitaciones interiores. Se hace una razonable exposición de los «monumentos fusiformes», conectados con la tradición del tránsito por barco a la vida futura. La tumba de TIN-HINAN combina características de los monumentos en capilla o habitación con aquellas otras de «monumentos de deambulatorio complejo».ABSTRACT: This work deals with the tomb of Tin-Hinan, Hoggar, and describes it as presenting a relationship with the «monuments à chapelle» of Négrine, Tafilalet and West Sahara which also have very large chambers. It also includes a commentarity on the rarity of rectangular tombs with interior chambers. It proposes a reasonable explanation of the «fusiformes monuments» as being connected with a tradition of a journey by ship to the after-life (this being suggested by their very shape. The tomb of Tin-Hinan combines characteristics of the «monument à chapelle ou à chambre» with those of a «monument à déambulatoire complexe».

  15. Crystallization of Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in Sahara 98222, 00293, and 00350: Constraints on Shock Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, C.; Hu, J.; Sharp, T. G.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the coexistence of wadsleyite and ringwoodite in transformed clasts within three ordinary chondrites: Sahara 98222, 00293 and 00350. High-pressure mineralogy is used to constrain conditions of the impact event on the parent body.

  16. South of Sahara | Page 119 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Amélioration et sécurisation de l'accès des femmes au foncier au Sénégal. Language French. Read more about Improving and Securing Women's Access to Land in Sénégal. Language English. Read more about Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Language English. Read more about Recherche d'une ...

  17. South of Sahara | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En août 2013, iHub Research a publié les résultats d'une étude subventionnée par le CRDI qui a porté sur la mise au point d'un cadre d'impartition à grande échelle (collecte d'information auprès des citoyens au moyen de plateformes en ligne telles que Twitter, Facebook et les messageries texte) pour suivre une ...

  18. Comment on "Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin

    2008-11-28

    Kröpelin et al. (Research Articles, 9 May 2008, p. 765) interpreted a sediment record from Lake Yoa in the east-central part of North Africa as support for a weak biogeophysical climate-vegetation feedback in the Sahara during the mid-Holocene. We argue that the new data do not invalidate earlier modeling results on strong land-atmosphere coupling in the Western Sahara for which the Lake Yoa record is far less representative.

  19. Building Fit-for-Purpose Spatial Frameworks for Sustainable Land Governaqnce in Sub-Sahara Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    countries this countrywide spatial framework has been developed over centuries. In contrast, most developing countries have a cadastral coverage of less than 30 per cent of the country. This means that over 70 per cent of the land in many developing countries, such as the sub-Sahara region, is generally......, economic, legal, and social issues related to building such fit-for purpose spatial frameworks as a means of paving the way towards sustainable and land governance in Sub-Sahara Africa...

  20. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  1. Troubles mentaux et VIH au chu Sylvanus Olympio de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des données a été faite à l'aide du tableur Excel 2007. Résultats : La fréquence des sujets séropositifs en milieu psychiatrique au CHU SO de Lomé a été de 3,2%. Les sujets jeunes de la tranche d'âge de 30-39 ans ont représenté 48,6%. Le sexe ratio (H/F) a été de 0,59. Les ménagères ont occupé lé premier ...

  2. Histoire et esthétique de la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle - Quelques aspects au prisme du genre, féminisation du ballet et stigmatisation des danseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Marquié, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    "Histoire et esthétique de la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle - Quelques aspects au prisme du genre, féminisation du ballet et stigmatisation des danseurs" est une synthèse de travaux sur la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle, à partir d'une problématique initiale concernant la fixation de la féminisation - à la fois symbolique et des pratiques - de la danse. Quatre chapitres et un divertissement composent ce mémoire. Le premier chapitre porte sur la question des sources et des spécificités des ma...

  3. [Seroepidemiological study of malaria in the Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerroug, E H; Janssens, P G; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of geoclimatic characteristics, the Saharan region of Algeria (area, 2 million km2) is made up of several subregions; analysis of the historical data on malaria in this region seems to show that the epidemiological situation is closely linked to climatic and hydrographic conditions. A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted in this vast region from September 1983 to April 1985. The general findings do not appear to support the existence of active foci of transmission, but analysis of the data for certain oases and localities leads to a quite different assessment of the epidemiological situation. At Ouargla, for example, the serological results obtained by indirect immunofluorescence show prevalence of under 5% in the four successive surveys, whereas in Heïha oasis over 50% of subjects over 30 years of age were found to be seropositive. The results of the longitudinal seroepidemiological surveys conducted in a number of localities and oases in the Saharan region reflect the diversity of epidemiological settings and provide evidence that there is low-level malaria transmission in some oases such as Heïha, Yakou, Ihérir and probably in In-Salah. These surveys confirm that malaria transmission has been halted in the former foci such as Ouargla and Timimoune. Finally, the longitudinal sero-epidemiological study shows there are movements of potential parasite carriers from countries south of the Sahara and therefore that oases associated with trans-Saharan trade are vulnerable.

  4. L'hégémonie ethnique cyclique au nord Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telles fut celles effectuées en 1906 dans le lamidat de Bindir 01) la cavalerie Foulbé était appuyée par des soldats allemands dans ses missions de collecte des impots et de tn'buts. Cette coalition avait renforce' le sentiment anti—colonial chez les populations moundang. Au lendemain de la Premiere Guerre mondiale, les ...

  5. Financement basé sur les resultats en santé : mise en place au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La vérification et la régulation faites ont permis de décaisser 27% et 29% des fonds prévus respectivement pour l'achat des prestations du paquet minimum et du paquet complémentaire d'activités. Globalement nous avons noté une amélioration significative et progressive des indicateurs à acheter du premier au quatrième ...

  6. Les femmes et la transition au marché du travail en Afrique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quels sont les facteurs qui limitent l'aptitude des femmes à acquérir leur autonomie financière dès leur jeune âge en Afrique ? Ce projet examinera les facteurs qui influent sur la transition des jeunes femmes des études au marché du travail, la façon dont elles choisissent leur premier emploi, ce qui détermine le moment ...

  7. Alphacasting : the first foundry that casts exotic alloys; Alphacasting : premiere fonderie de pieces coulees en alliages exotiques au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legare, B. [Quebec Agence de l' Efficacite Energetique, Charlesbourg, PQ (Canada)

    2004-03-01

    Alphacasting is a precision investment casting manufacturer based in Montreal, Quebec. The Quebec Agence de l'Efficacite Energetique helped finance a research project from 2000 to 2003 in which Alphacasting strived to improve productivity, quality and innovation. Their modern factory employs more than 100 employees and covers 50,000 square feet. The company is a leader in high quality ferrous and non-ferrous casting using the lost wax process. Recently, Alphacasting made its first titanium casting as part of the research project. This publication describes the plant's capacity for production, the specialized engineers and the state of the art equipment used to cast different alloys, including lightweight titanium with high mechanical resistance for use in the aerospace and transport industries.

  8. South of Sahara | Page 122 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Microfinance and Information and Communication Technologies : HIVOS STAR Program (Eastern and Southern Africa). Language English. Read more about Microfinance et les TIC : soutien au programme STAR de Hivos en Afrique de l'Est et en Afrique australe. Language French.

  9. South of Sahara | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Strengthening the Knowledge Base for Public Interest Intellectual Property Policy. Language English. Read more about How to access funding for non-communicable disease prevention in Africa? The case of Ghana. Language English. Read more about Contexte de l'accès au matériel didactique dans ...

  10. South of Sahara | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Social Protection and Labour Market Outcomes of Youth in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Variabilité du climat et conditions d'accès aux ressources en eau et de leur utilisation dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso. Language French.

  11. South of Sahara | Page 123 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - Phase I. Language French. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Language English.

  12. South of Sahara | Page 123 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - Phase I. Language French. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Language English. Read more about ...

  13. South of Sahara | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Détermination des facteurs de sécrétion des muqueuses influant sur la vulnérabilité à l'infection par le VIH chez les travailleuses du sexe au Kenya. Language French. Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in ...

  14. South of Sahara | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Détermination des facteurs de sécrétion des muqueuses influant sur la vulnérabilité à l'infection par le VIH chez les travailleuses du sexe au Kenya. Language French. Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in ...

  15. South of Sahara | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Droit administratif international - amélioration des rapports interinstitutionnels au chapitre de la gouvernance de la réglementation. Language French. Read more about Global Administrative Law: Improving Inter-institutional Connections in Global and National Regulatory Governance.

  16. South of Sahara | Page 70 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Plaque tournante de la recherche et de la formation en santé environnementale et professionnelle en Afrique de l'Ouest. Language French. Read more about Initiative ouest-africaine de renforcement des capacités au moyen de la recherche sur les systèmes de santé. Language French. Read more about ...

  17. South of Sahara | Page 47 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Influence des technologies d'information et de la communication sur les mutations du marché du travail au Sénégal. Language French. Read more about Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Job Market in Sénégal. Language English. Read more about Internet Backbone in ...

  18. South of Sahara | Page 47 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Influence des technologies d'information et de la communication sur les mutations du marché du travail au Sénégal. Language French. Read more about Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Job Market in Sénégal. Language English. Read more about Dorsale Internet ...

  19. L'industrie canadienne de la télévision face au développement du multi-écrans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanny-Ève Tapp; Pierre C Bélanger

    2016-01-01

    ... numériques est un sujet de premier plan pour quatre de nos participants. Ces derniers s'inquiètent d'abord des coûts de production très élevés par rapport au public qu'ils sont en mesure de rejoindre via le multi...

  20. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  1. The Management of Digital Records in the Office of the Premier of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to investigate the management of digital records in the Office of the Premier (OTP) in the Eastern Cape Province. The objectives of the study were to determine the compliance to the legal framework, identify the requisite infrastructure for digital records management (DRM), describe the security and ...

  2. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  3. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  4. LOW {sup 60}FE ABUNDANCE IN SEMARKONA AND SAHARA 99555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haolan; Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: haolantang@ucla.edu [Origins Lab, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Iron-60 (t{sub 1/2} = 2.62 Myr) is a short-lived nuclide that can help constrain the astrophysical context of Solar System formation and date early Solar System events. A high abundance of {sup 60}Fe({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 4 × 10{sup −7}) was reported by in situ techniques in some chondrules from the LL3.00 Semarkona meteorite, which was taken as evidence that a supernova exploded in the vicinity of the birthplace of the Sun. However, our previous multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements of a wide range of meteoritic materials, including chondrules, showed that {sup 60}Fe was present in the early Solar System at a much lower level ({sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ≈ 10{sup −8}). The reason for the discrepancy is unknown but only two Semarkona chondrules were measured by MC-ICPMS and these had Fe/Ni ratios below ∼2× chondritic. Here, we show that the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio in Semarkona chondrules with Fe/Ni ratios up to ∼24× chondritic is (5.39 ± 3.27) × 10{sup −9}. We also establish the initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio at the time of crystallization of the Sahara 99555 angrite, a chronological anchor, to be (1.97 ± 0.77) × 10{sup −9}. These results demonstrate that the initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe at Solar System birth was low, corresponding to an initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratio of (1.01 ± 0.27) × 10{sup −8}.

  5. Du droit de la province au droit de la nation

    OpenAIRE

    Coquard, Claude

    2006-01-01

    Le lecteur de cette revue pourrait éprouver quelque étonnement à voir rendre compte de la totalité d’un ouvrage dont apparemment seule la seconde moitié peut intéresser et éclairer les travaux de l’historien de la Révolution ou de l’Empire : le titre du premier tome Droit bourguignon et droit français semble limiter au seul espace bourguignon et au seul temps médiéval et féodal le contenu des trente textes qui le composent, l’intitulé du second, Le droit en Révolution, paraissant plus proche ...

  6. African humid periods triggered the reactivation of a large river system in Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, C; Paillou, P; Bory, A; Bayon, G; Biscara, L; Crosta, X; Eynaud, F; Malaizé, B; Revel, M; Aleman, N; Barusseau, J-P; Vernet, R; Lopez, S; Grousset, F

    2015-11-10

    The Sahara experienced several humid episodes during the late Quaternary, associated with the development of vast fluvial networks and enhanced freshwater delivery to the surrounding ocean margins. In particular, marine sediment records off Western Sahara indicate deposition of river-borne material at those times, implying sustained fluvial discharges along the West African margin. Today, however, no major river exists in this area; therefore, the origin of these sediments remains unclear. Here, using orbital radar satellite imagery, we present geomorphological data that reveal the existence of a large buried paleodrainage network on the Mauritanian coast. On the basis of evidence from the literature, we propose that reactivation of this major paleoriver during past humid periods contributed to the delivery of sediments to the Tropical Atlantic margin. This finding provides new insights for the interpretation of terrigenous sediment records off Western Africa, with important implications for our understanding of the paleohydrological history of the Sahara.

  7. South of Sahara | Page 149 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hawassa University has become a center of excellence on nutrition in Ethiopia — the University of Saskatchewan has contributed to this achievement as a key ... Bien que les migrants qui se trouvent dans les villes de l'Afrique australe ou qui en proviennent jouent un rôle déterminant au sein du secteur non structuré, les ...

  8. Aux sources de l’herméneutique occidentale :les premiers commentaires dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rico

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article nuance, à propos de l’Antiquité, la distinction établie par Michel Charles entre rhétorique, entendue au sens de « production littéraire », et commentaire : dans le premier cas une œuvre littéraire constitue un modèle d’écriture que l’on peut imiter et parfaire ; dans le second, elle est transmise comme un monument intouchable que l’on peut citer et commenter, mais non pas imiter.Dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne, le commentaire, en effet, doit plutôt être considéré comme une œuvre littéraire au second degré dans la mesure où il se fonde sur un texte commenté qui l’engendre et le suscite. L’article évoque dans cette perspective l’herméneutique du mot dans l’école d’Alexandrie, l’herméneutique de l’énoncé dans les écoles de philosophie antiques, les commentaires juifs anciens et médiévaux, l’herméneutique chrétienne ancienne, et leurs variations autour du sens littéral et du sens spirituel.

  9. A NEW SPECIES OF CYRTOSPIRIFER (BRACHIOPODA FROM THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN OF THE WESTERN SAHARA (NORTHWESTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENA SCHEMM-GREGORY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cyrtospirifer is described from the Middle to Upper Givetian of the Western Sahara (Northwest Africa. Cyrtospirifer tindoufensis new species differs in its smaller number and coarser medial and flank plications and equibiconvex shell profile from the other Givetian species of Cyrtospirifer that all occur in Europe and to which the new species probably gives rise. The new implications of the proposed phylogeny of the earliest cyrtospiriferids and their origin from the Western Sahara are discussed. The palaeogeographic distribution of the cyrtospiriferids during the Givetian and Frasnian is shown and its migration ways are described considering the global transgression and regression cycles. 

  10. The blurred boundaries of political violence in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The Sahel and the Sahara are faced with exceptional political instability involving a combination of rebellions, jihadist insurgencies, coups d’état, protest movements and illegal trafficking. Analysis of the outbreaks of violence reveals that the region is not just the victim of an escalation...... of wars and conflicts that marked the 20th century. The Sahel-Sahara has also become the setting of a globalised security environment, in which boundaries between what is local and global, domestic and international, military and civilian, politics and identity are blurred....

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  13. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... analysed during the 2005-2006 competitive season (n=370), using a multi-camera computerised tracking system. During a typical match, wide midfielders (3138 m, s=565) covered a greater distance in high-intensity running than central midfielders (2825 m, s= 73, P=0.04), full-backs (2605 m, s=387, P ....01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P

  14. Respon Pelanggan Pada Situs Tripadvisor.com Sebagai Bentuk Cyber Public Relations the Premiere Hotel Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Tantri Puspita; Afifah, Adilla

    2015-01-01

    Tripadvisor.com is a site that aims to facilitate the tourists to seek information about lodging such as hotels. By using this site everyone is free to provide feedback and reviews based on their experiences, both positive reviews and negative. Many reviews on this site will indirectly affect customers or prospective customers in selecting and deciding hotel. Reviews on these sites influence for customers and prospective customers in selecting place to stay, the PR The Premiere use the site a...

  15. Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available PREMIER is one of three candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission that are currently undergoing feasibility studies. The main mission objective of PREMIER is to quantify processes controlling atmospheric composition in the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, a region of particular importance for climate change. To achieve this objective, PREMIER will employ the first satellite Fourier transform infrared limb-imager with a 2-D detector array combined with a millimetre-wave limb-sounder. The infrared limb-imager can be operated in a high spatial resolution mode ("dynamics mode" for observations of small-scale structures in atmospheric temperatures and trace gas fields with unprecedented 3-D sampling (0.5 km in the vertical direction, 50 km along track, 25 km across track. In this paper, a fast tomographic retrieval scheme is presented, which is designed to fully exploit the high-resolution radiance observations of the dynamics mode. Based on a detailed analysis of the "observational filter", we show that the dynamics mode provides unique information on global distributions of gravity waves (GW. The achievable vertical resolution for GW observations has values between the vertical sampling (0.5 km of the dynamics mode and the vertical field of view (about 0.75 km. The horizontal across track resolution corresponds to the horizontal across track sampling of 25 km. Since the achievable along track horizontal resolution is about 70 km, the dynamics mode will provide GW limb-observations with a horizontal resolution comparable to nadir sounders. Compared to previous observations, PREMIER will therefore considerably extend the range of detectable GWs in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength.

  16. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace.

  17. Du tourisme culturel au tourisme sexuel. Les logiques du désir d’enchantement

    OpenAIRE

    Cauvin Verner, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Une enquête monographique conduite au Maroc sur des circuits de randonnées « à la rencontre des peuples du Sahara » montre que les touristes sont fréquemment déçus. Ils ne parviennent ni à authentifier des Bédouins devenus des professionnels du tourisme, ni à se singulariser en voyageant en groupe, ni à vivre une aventure tout en respectant un programme. Un type d'interactions semble toutefois réaliser les prophéties d'enchantement délivrées par les brochures, lorsque les randonneuses ont un ...

  18. Quality in primary health care services in sub-Sahara Africa: right or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...

  19. Green Sahara impact on mid-latitudes during mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Marco; Messori, Gabriele; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In the mid-Holocene (6 kyr before present), North Africa was characterised by a vegetated Sahara and a stronger summer monsoon, resulting in a wetter climate. These conditions, induced by the different Earth's orbital parameters, and maintained by the precipitation-vegetation feedback, were associated with a substantial change of the regional atmospheric dynamics, with influences extending across the global Tropics and beyond. In this study, we explore the mid-latitude response to the vegetated Sahara in the mid-Holocene. We use the EC-Earth climate model to simulate the North African environment during mid-Holocene, i.e. extensive vegetation over the Sahara, and a consequent reduced dust emission. Vegetation and dust reduction are prescribed both in combination and in isolation, to determine the specific responses to the individual forcings. A significant response at mid-latitudes is simulated during boreal summer, when the precipitation-vegetation feedback is maximum in the Sahara. Results show increased precipitation over Mediterranean and Middle East, and warm anomalies across western Europe. This response is associated with the modification of the atmospheric circulation in the Euro-Atlantic sector. Specifically, the intensification of the subtropical jetstream favours precipitation across the Middle East, while a positive anomaly in the North Atlantic Oscillation leads the warming further west. These results suggest important implications for the understanding of future climate scenarios in the region, since a number of simulations project wetter conditions in North Africa.

  20. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  1. Sud du Sahara | Page 59 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. According to the International Land Coalition, between 2000 and 2010, foreign actors and country elites acquired an estimated 83 million hectares through large-scale land ...

  2. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal

  3. Le Sahara marocain : désenclavement et développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan Sahara: opening-up and sustainable development. The enclosing of the Moroccan Sahara results from the inversion and old situation. Indeed, during a very long time, the area was a way of passage, a platform in the south of Morocco. In testify the Tran-Saharan commercial routes, which were the main transportation routes back in time, like the goal of integration of the area in the country and compared to western Africa. It is with the economic crisis, and even a political crisis causing a fold on itself of this area until 1975.Since Sahara belongs to Morocco, it still profits a considerable public effort to carry out its opening-up and its economic insertion within the country. Massive investments carried out by the State give to the area the structuring which it missed. Which are the aspects of the Sahara development? Which role played the State in this development? The intervention of the State contributes to bring effective solutions to the problem of the opening-up of this surrounding space?

  4. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  5. Equity in access to ARV drugs in Malawi | Ntata | SAHARA-J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA Journal Mission Statement The journal publishes contributions in English and French from all fields of social aspects of HIV/AIDS (care, support, ... culture, faith-based approaches, evidence-based intervention, health communication, structural and environmental intervention, financing, policy, media, etc).

  7. Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Paul C.; Garcea, Elena A. A.; Jousse, Hélène; Stojanowski, Christopher M.; Saliège, Jean-François; Maga, Abdoulaye; Ide, Oumarou A.; Knudson, Kelly J.; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Stafford, Thomas W.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Giraudi, Carlo; N'siala, Isabella Massamba; Cocca, Enzo; Moots, Hannah M.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Stivers, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene (∼8000 B.C.E. to the present). Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. Methodology/Principal Findings Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand. The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to ∼7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return ∼4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments. Conclusions/Significance The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following: The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700–6200 B.C.E.) were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200–5200 B.C.E).More gracile humans arrived in the mid-Holocene (5200–2500 B.C.E.) employing a diversified

  8. Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of holocene population and environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene ( approximately 8000 B.C.E. to the present. Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand. The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to approximately 7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return approximately 4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following: The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700-6200 B.C.E. were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200-5200 B.C.E.More gracile humans arrived in the mid

  9. Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C; Godinho, Raquel; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Rebelo, Hugo; Santos, Xavier; Vale, Cândida G; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Ferreira, Sónia; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Silva, Teresa L; Tarroso, Pedro; Campos, João C; Leite, João V; Nogueira, Joana; Alvares, Francisco; Sillero, Neftalí; Sow, Andack S; Fahd, Soumia; Crochet, Pierre-André; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key

  10. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R.; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help par...

  11. Relationship between Game Location and Match Result with the Amount of Aggression: Iranian Premier League Football Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Alahvisi; Mohammad Maleki; Farid Zand Salimi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between game location (host advantage), match result (win, lose or tie) and the level of aggression in football teams of the Iranian Premier League. The study population consisted of Premier League Football teams (League XIII), and 60 matches (related to 4 teams) that were available for the researcher, were selected as the sample. The current study can be regarded as applied and descriptive, in terms of purpose and data collection,...

  12. ‘Cap au Sud’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    International and national media are currently showing increased attention to Morocco’s economic presence in sub-Saharan Africa. After a brief survey of the country’s trade relations and economic agreements across the Sahara, the paper focuses on Moroccan investment and firm cooperation, illustra......International and national media are currently showing increased attention to Morocco’s economic presence in sub-Saharan Africa. After a brief survey of the country’s trade relations and economic agreements across the Sahara, the paper focuses on Moroccan investment and firm cooperation...

  13. Etude séroépidémiologique du paludisme au Sahara algérien.

    OpenAIRE

    Benzerroug, E. H.; Janssens, P. G.; Ambroise-Thomas, P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of geoclimatic characteristics, the Saharan region of Algeria (area, 2 million km2) is made up of several subregions; analysis of the historical data on malaria in this region seems to show that the epidemiological situation is closely linked to climatic and hydrographic conditions. A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted in this vast region from September 1983 to April 1985. The general findings do not appear to support the existence of active foci of transmissio...

  14. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land‐use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species A cacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara...

  15. The Sahara as a Large-Scale Mars Analogue and the Activities of the Ibn Battuta Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Dell'Arciprete, I.; Taj Eddine, K.

    2014-07-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions similar to the climatic changes occurred on Mars. Consequently depositional systems show similar depositional patterns.

  16. La survie en hémodialyse chronique au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Hermine; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Kaze, François; Halle, Marie-Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'hémodialyse est le seul traitement de substitution rénale disponible au Cameroun; elle est subventionnée à 95% par l'Etat depuis 2002 et le nombre de centre de dialyse va croissant. Cependant, depuis l'ouverture du premier centre en 1990, aucune donnée n'existe sur la survie des hémodialysés chroniques. Méthodes Nous avons conduit une étude de cohorte prospective multicentrique de 15 mois dans le but d'évaluer la mortalité et les facteurs qui influencent la survie des hémodialysés chroniques camerounais. Résultats Nous avons suivi 197 patients dont 109 incidents. L'âge moyen était de 47,97± 13,19 ans et 55% étaient de sexe masculin. La durée moyenne en dialyse des patients prévalent était de 12,5 mois. Le taux de mortalité était de 57,58% dont 50% pendant les 3 premiers mois et le taux d'abandon était de 8,6%. L'urémie et les sepsis sur cathéter étaient les principales causes de décès. La survie globale à 15 mois était de 30,77%, avec une durée moyenne de vie de 8 mois. Les patients prévalent, la résidence dans la ville du centre de dialyse, la prise en charge non familiale, le suivi pré dialyse > 3 mois, la cholestérolémie à l'entrée en dialyse> 1,5g/l, un score mental > 25 étaient associés à une meilleure survie. Conclusion La mortalité en hémodialyse au Cameroun est élevée, avec une survie moyenne de 8 mois et la plupart des patients décèdent au cours des 3 premiers mois. PMID:28491228

  17. Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Apprécier la perception de l'anatomie par les étudiants du Premier cycle d'études médicales en vue d'améliorer ainsi la qualité de l'enseignement. Méthodes : Il s'est agi d'une enquête effectuée dans les salles de cours de la 1ère et 2ème de la FMMP. Un questionnaire anonyme a été remis aux étudiants.

  18. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Tom J; Ramirez, Jorge A; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Brücher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  19. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  20. Implementing Apache Spark jobs execution and Apache Spark cluster creation for Openstack Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIYANTS A.; Borisenko, O.; TURDAKOV D.; Sher, A; Kuznetsov, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the problem of creating virtual clusters in clouds for big data analysis with Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark is discussed. Existing methods for Apache Spark clusters creation are described in this work. Also the implemented solution for building Apache Spark clusters and Apache Spark jobs execution in Openstack environment is described. The implemented solution is a modification for OpenStack Sahara project and it was featured in Openstack Liberty release.

  1. Sud du Sahara | Page 68 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  2. Sud du Sahara | Page 78 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  3. Sud du Sahara | Page 62 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. La persistance de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne, dans le contexte de progression rapide de la mondialisation et de la libéralisation des échanges commerciaux des deux dernières décennies, a suscité énormément de débats en ...

  4. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relativel...

  5. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T.; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J. Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  6. Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust emissions during the African Humid Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S R; Emanuel, Kerry A; Chiacchio, Marc; Diro, Gulilat T; Zhang, Qiong; Sushama, Laxmi; Stager, J Curt; Donnelly, Jeffrey P

    2017-06-13

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is of interest to apply physical modeling to understanding TC variability under different climate conditions. Here we investigate global TC activity during a warm climate state (mid-Holocene, 6,000 yBP) characterized by increased boreal summer insolation, a vegetated Sahara, and reduced dust emissions. We analyze a set of sensitivity experiments in which not only solar insolation changes are varied but also vegetation and dust concentrations. Our results show that the greening of the Sahara and reduced dust loadings lead to more favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development compared with the orbital forcing alone. In particular, the strengthening of the West African Monsoon induced by the Sahara greening triggers a change in atmospheric circulation that affects the entire tropics. Furthermore, whereas previous studies suggest lower TC activity despite stronger summer insolation and warmer sea surface temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for the Sahara greening and reduced dust concentrations leads instead to an increase of TC activity in both hemispheres, particularly over the Caribbean basin and East Coast of North America. Our study highlights the importance of regional changes in land cover and dust concentrations in affecting the potential intensity and genesis of past TCs and suggests that both factors may have appreciable influence on TC activity in a future warmer climate.

  7. L’Islam des pierres : l’expression de la foi dans les graffiti arabes des premiers siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Imbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les graffiti arabes coufiques des premiers siècles de l’islam, en Arabie comme au Proche-Orient, représentent une source d’information inépuisable sur la société musulmane des origines. Toutefois, la datation des textes du ier/viie siècle, antérieurs aux Umayyades, reste problématique et doit se fonder sur des analyses paléographiques rigoureuses. L’étude du contenu des graffiti relatifs à la foi peut aider à dater ces textes du fait qu’ils connurent des phases progressives de développement. Les plus anciens graffiti datés de 23/643 et 24/644 ne contiennent pas de référence au religieux ; les auteurs, comme leurs contemporains, semblèrent plus intéressés de pérenniser leurs noms sur la pierre, s’inscrivant dans la tradition safaïtique. La question des premières professions de foi montre qu’il a existé des formulations archaïques antérieures à la shahâda traditionnelle, reflet d’un monothéisme tribal très matérialiste. Quant aux demandes de pardon récurrentes dans les graffiti, elles relèveraient d’une stratégie d’écriture. Enfin, la constatation de l’absence de citation du prophète Muḥammad dans les graffiti les plus anciens montre, à elle seule, les enjeux historiques et religieux de cette recherche épigraphique.

  8. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  9. Self-efficacy as a predictor of weight change and behavior change in the PREMIER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Desmond, Renee A; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J; Ard, Jamy D

    2013-01-01

    Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Four academic medical centers. PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (β = -.21, P self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  11. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  12. AU BURKINA FASO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les moyennes sur la même ligne et possédant le même indice ne diffèrent pas significativement au seuil de 5 %. ME : mélange fourrager. 10-20-30 % : pourcentage de concentré. GMQ : Gain Moyen Quotidien. L'analyse des résultats des rations. 1 et 2 montre que l'accès au pâturage permet des performances supérieures.

  13. Au pont du trieur

    CERN Document Server

    Treille, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Une existence qui bifurque, cela tient à très peu. » De son orphelinat népalais, une femme raconte les accidents de la vie qui l’ont menée d’une bourgade vosgienne à cet autre monde. Elle évoque ses premiers souvenirs d’enfance, de dramatiques épisodes de la guerre, son petit frère, la splendeur éphémère de leur famille d’industriels, sa révolte de jeune femme face à son redoutable grand-père. Ses tribulations parisiennes à la recherche de son frère disparu la mènent à rompre soudain avec une existence qu’elle n’aime plus pour partir en vivre une autre toute différente.

  14. Delivering men's health interventions in English Premier League football clubs: key design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Daly-Smith, A; Robertson, S; White, A

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the key design characteristics of Premier League Health (PLH), a national programme of men's health improvement delivered in/by 16 English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Health Trainers (HTs) were hired by EPL clubs to deliver PLH. HTs were the focus of investigations aimed at identifying the active design characteristics of male-specific health promotion interventions. Semi-structured interviews led by researchers were performed with 13/16 HTs and identified the key design characteristics influential in (I) reaching and (II) helping participants adopt health improvement interventions delivered in professional football club settings. HTs believed that combining the appeal of football alongside EPL clubs, offered a unique opportunity to reach adult males, including hard-to-engage-men (HTEM). Awareness raising events held on match days aimed to connect with men, but outreach activities were especially important for engaging participants. Following initial reach, familiar settings, such as the club stadia and community venues were also important for ensuring regular involvement in health improvement sessions. Interventions shaped around men's health needs and delivered at times when participants could more easily attend, were factors which helped to engage men. Supportive social environments and a range of exercise modes and delivery options were also seen by HTs as being similarly important. Both the informality and familiarity of EPL clubs were viewed by HTs as having substantial advantages over conventional NHS settings for reaching and engaging men. Importantly, HTs contributed substantial skills to the delivery of PLH. Although, top flight professional football clubs can recruit men, including those regarded as hard-to-engage into health improvement programmes, considerable attention to delivery refinement is needed to support male participants adopting interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society

  15. Disease activity, physical function, and radiographic progression after longterm therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate: 5-year results of PREMIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2

  16. Assimilation of MODIS AOD measurements during the Sahara dust episode in April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Pagowski, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, an air pollution event with highly elevated surface concentrations of particulate matter (PM) has been observed in Europe. At the Sonnblick observatory (an atmospheric monitoring platform at 3100 m in the Alps in Austria), PM10 surface concentrations were considerably elevated (>100 μg/m3) on April 5, 2016. This event was caused by a Sahara dust storm. In this study we use the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) model to predict the transport of Sahara dust from northern Africa towards Europe. Simulations were performed from April 1, 2016 to April 8, 2016 using the GOCART (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport) aerosol scheme. The GOCART model simulates tropospheric aerosols such as dust and sea salt (both with different size bins), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), and sulfate, enabling the computation of PM2.5 and PM10. Gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) is then used to assimilate data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval products at a wavelength of 550 nm from the Terra and Aqua satellites. Data assimilation is performed at 12 UTC with an assimilation window of ±3 hours. PM10 analyses are evaluated against PM10 surface measurements provided by EEA (European Environment Agency) and the Austrian Environmental Agency. First results indicate that WRF-Chem underestimates surface concentration of PM10 during the Sahara dust event in April 2016 over Europe but the assimilation of MODIS AOD substantially improves PM10 analyses.

  17. Inputs, productivity, and agricultural growth in Africa South of the Sahara:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The evidence of improved performance of agriculture in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) in recent years has indeed been quite striking when compared with the past. For the first time, the sector has maintained a real growth rate of 3.4 percent per year, well above the population growth rate of 2.5 percent. Despite this improved performance, agricultural productivity growth in SSA continues to lag behind every other region of the world, growing at rates that are roughly half of the average rat...

  18. Does wintering north or south of the Sahara correlate with timing and breeding performance in black-tailed godwits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentie, Rosemarie; Marquez-Ferrando, Rocío; Figuerola, Jordi; Gangoso, Laura; Hooijmeijer, Jos C E W; Loonstra, A H Jelle; Robin, Frédéric; Sarasa, Mathieu; Senner, Nathan; Valkema, Haije; Verhoeven, Mo A; Piersma, Theunis

    2017-04-01

    Migrating long distances requires time and energy, and may interact with an individual's performance during breeding. These seasonal interactions in migratory animals are best described in populations with disjunct nonbreeding distributions. The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa limosa), which breeds in agricultural grasslands in Western Europe, has such a disjunct nonbreeding distribution: The majority spend the nonbreeding season in West Africa, while a growing number winters north of the Sahara on the Iberian Peninsula. To test whether crossing the Sahara has an effect on breeding season phenology and reproductive parameters, we examined differences in the timing of arrival, breeding habitat quality, lay date, egg volume, and daily nest survival among godwits (154 females and 157 males), individually marked in a breeding area in the Netherlands for which wintering destination was known on the basis of resightings. We also examined whether individual repeatability in arrival date differed between birds wintering north or south of the Sahara. Contrary to expectation, godwits wintering south of the Sahara arrived two days earlier and initiated their clutch six days earlier than godwits wintering north of the Sahara. Arrival date was equally repeatable for both groups, and egg volume larger in birds wintering north of the Sahara. Despite these differences, we found no association between wintering location and the quality of breeding habitat or nest survival. This suggests that the crossing of an important ecological barrier and doubling of the migration distance, twice a year, do not have clear negative reproductive consequences for some long-distance migrants.

  19. Observatoire National sur les Effets du Réchauffement Climatique (ONERC) : L’adaptation de la France au changement climatique. Rapport au Premier ministre et au Parlement

    OpenAIRE

    Norrant-Romand, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Á l’heure actuelle, le changement climatique, constaté par les experts et qui fait consensus dans la communauté scientifique, a commencé à affecter nos sociétés et les milieux naturels environnants. Ces conséquences seront de plus en plus présentes dans les décennies à venir, c’est pourquoi en plus de la lutte contre le changement climatique, les territoires doivent également s’adapter et anticiper. C’est la raison pour laquelle, en 2001, lorsqu’est promulguée la loi déclarant la lutte contre...

  20. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  1. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  2. Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world Premiers contacts. La recherche des traces de commerce ancien entre l’Afrique de l'Ouest et le reste du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Magnavita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing, more mythical than fact-based assumptions about ancient trade contacts between West Africa and the wider world prior to the Arab conquest of North Africa have only been substantiated by archaeological evidence in recent years. Although the number of imported items known to have been brought into West Africa during late Roman and Byzantine times just started growing, the mechanisms of their diffusion are still far from being understood. This can mainly be set down to the dearth of convincing material evidence from other archaeological sites in West Africa, the Sahara and North Africa — the result of a lack of research and, perhaps too, of trade in “invisible” merchandise Previous archeological studies on this topic are discussed; and the preliminary findings of recent research in the eastern Niger Bend, presented.Les présupposés de longue date – plutôt mythiques que fondés sur des faits – à propos du commerce entre l’Afrique occidentale et le reste du monde avant la conquête arabe de l’Afrique du Nord n’ont été que récemment étayés par des travaux archéologiques. Bien que les découvertes d'articles importés, connus pour avoir été acheminés en Afrique de l'Ouest pendant les périodes romaine tardive et byzantine, sont, depuis peu, de plus en plus nombreuses, nous ne comprenons pas toujours les mécanismes de diffusion de ces derniers. Cette incompréhension est avant tout liée au manque d’indices matériels probants provenant d’autres sites archéologiques en Afrique de l’Ouest, au Sahara et en Afrique du Nord. Cela résulte à la fois d’un manque de recherche et, peut-être aussi, du commerce en marchandise “invisible”. Les études archéologiques antérieures sur le sujet sont ici discutées ; et les résultats préliminaires de recherches récentes dans la partie orientale de la boucle du Niger sont présentés.

  3. La Nuit des Chercheurs au CERN / Researchers' Night at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Pohl, Martin; Paniccia, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Vendredi 29 septembre 2017 de 17h à 23h Entrée libre - pas d'inscription nécessaire. Depuis maintenant 8 ans, le Laboratoire ouvre ses portes en soirée au grand public, à l’occasion de cette fête scientifique. C’est un plaisir d’accueillir tous ces curieux et de partager les découvertes de la science, toutes plus étonnantes les unes que les autres. L’invention du Web en est une particulièrement intégrée au quotidien, mais il y en a tellement d’autres ! Venez découvrir cette science insoupçonnée et en prendre plein les yeux ! Le programme est prêt ! Nous sommes ravis de vous présenter toutes les activités que nous avons prévues pour vous, scientifiques en herbe, novices ou aficionados de tout âge . Il y aura même une surprise pour les 400 premiers visiteurs ! Activités sur le site du CERN Activités en ligne (Facebook Live) Nous avons hâte de vous accueillir !     ...

  4. Biogeochemical inferences of mobility of early Holocene fisher-foragers from the Southern Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Knudson, Kelly J

    2011-09-01

    North Africa is increasingly seen as an important context for understanding modern human evolution and reconstructing biocultural adaptations. The Sahara, in particular, witnessed a fluorescence of hunter-gatherer settlement at the onset of the Holocene after an extended occupational hiatus. Subsequent subsistence changes through the Holocene are contrary to those documented in other areas where mobile foraging gave way to settled agricultural village life. In North Africa, extractive fishing and hunting was supplanted by cattle and caprine pastoralism under deteriorating climatic conditions. Therefore, the initial stage of food production in North Africa witnessed a likely increase in mobility. However, there are few studies of paleomobility in Early Holocene hunter-gatherer Saharan populations and the degree of mobility is generally assumed. Here, we present radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from Early Holocene fisher-forager peoples from the site of Gobero, central Niger, southern Sahara Desert. Data indicate a relatively homogeneous radiogenic strontium isotope signature for this hunter-gather population with limited variability exhibited throughout the life course or among different individuals. Although the overall signature was local, some variation in the radiogenic strontium isotope data likely reflects transhumance into the nearby Aïr Massif. Data from Gobero were significantly less variable than in other worldwide hunter-gatherer populations, including those thought to be fairly sedentary. Strontium data from Gobero were also significantly different from contemporaneous sites in southwestern Libya. These patterns are discussed with respect to archaeological models of community organization and technological evolution. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Coulthard

    Full Text Available Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  7. Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits.

  8. Les livres de recettes « francisés » au Mexique au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bak-Geller Corona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’apparition des premiers livres de cuisine au Mexique - publiés par des maisons d’édition françaises spécialisées en ouvrages en espagnol - marque le début de l’histoire de la cuisine mexicaine. Cet événement s’inscrit par ailleurs dans une histoire plus large : celle de la construction de l’État-nation, entre nationalisme et cosmopolitisme. L’article s’intéresse aux idéaux de nation et de cuisine cohabitant dans deux des livres de recettes francisés du XIXe siècle au Mexique : l’Arte novísimo de cocina et le Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario.French-fashioned Mexican recipe books in the 19th century. Globalization and construction of a national culinary modelThe first Mexican recipe books were published in the early 1830’s by French publishing houses specialized in Spanish written books. This article deals with the different nationalistic and cuisine models in two French-fashioned Mexican recipe books -the Arte novísimo de cocina and the Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario- and their relationship with the nation-building context in nineteenth century Mexico.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722

  10. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-28

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  11. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  12. Design science research for decision support systems development: recent publication trends in the premier IS journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.

  13. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javani Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  14. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  15. Incidence, Nature, and Pattern of Injuries to Referees in a Premier Football (Soccer) League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414

  16. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... laryngocèle interne. Une surinfection a été notée chez trois patients réalisant ainsi le tableau de pyolaryngocèle. Tous les patients ont eu un examen clinique complet comportant un examen OrL et cervico-facial ainsi qu'un examen laryngé au ... pas en communication avec la lumière laryngée. La taille.

  17. Le CRDI au Mali

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sur la sécurité alimentaire internationale. Le CRDI continue de soutenir des travaux de recherche au Mali, quoique dans une moindre mesure en raison de la .... souvent tenues à l'écart du processus décisionnel. Les chercheurs tentent de déterminer de quelles manières les jeunes femmes du Mali et des pays avoisinants ...

  18. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... Le carcinome folliculaire est la deuxième tumeur maligne la plus fréquente de la thyroïde et l'invasion hématologique est le moyen de propagation le plus courant de ses métastases. Les localisations secondaires à ces cancers siègent principalement au niveau des poumons, suivi par les localisations.

  19. Le CRDI au Maroc

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    visant à aider les secteurs de l'agriculture et du tourisme à s'adapter aux changements climatiques. Dans le cadre de recherches antérieures sur la mise au point .... France. Les manifestations et protestations survenues après 2010 et auxquelles on a donné le nom de Printemps arabe ont été annonciatrices de profondes ...

  20. Le CRDI au Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et de l'agriculture. En produisant des connaissances dans ces secteurs essentiels, le programme contribuera à la sécurité alimentaire et améliorera la santé au Kenya. Les noms et les frontières indiqués sur la carte n'impliquent ni reconnaissance ni acceptation officielle de la part du CRDI. C. U. R. T. C. A. R. N. EM. A. R. K.

  1. Sud du Sahara | Page 54 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Examen de la mortalité maternelle pour le renforcement du système de santé au Kenya et au Zimbabwe. Langue French. Read more about Strengthening the Health System through a Maternal Death Review (Kenya and Zimbabwe). Langue English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie.

  2. Long-distance autumn migration across the Sahara by painted lady butterflies: exploiting resource pulses in the tropical savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Soto, David X; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    The painted lady, Vanessa cardui, is a migratory butterfly that performs an annual multi-generational migration between Europe and North Africa. Its seasonal appearance south of the Sahara in autumn is well known and has led to the suggestion that it results from extremely long migratory flights by European butterflies to seasonally exploit the Sahel and the tropical savannah. However, this possibility has remained unproven. Here, we analyse the isotopic composition of butterflies from seven European and seven African countries to provide new support for this hypothesis. Each individual was assigned a geographical natal origin, based on its wing stable hydrogen isotope (δ 2 H w ) value and a predicted δ 2 H w basemap for Europe and northern Africa. Natal assignments of autumn migrants collected south of the Sahara confirmed long-distance movements (of 4000 km or more) starting in Europe. Samples from Maghreb revealed a mixed origin of migrants, with most individuals with a European origin, but others having originated in the Sahel. Therefore, autumn movements are not only directed to northwestern Africa, but also include southward and northward flights across the Sahara. Through this remarkable behaviour, the productive but highly seasonal region south of the Sahara is incorporated into the migratory circuit of V. cardui. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA.

  4. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  5. Chapitre premier. Le cadre de référence : la Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, François-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    En 1900, lorsque s’ouvre le nouveau siècle, Porfirio Díaz est le président constitutionnel de la République mexicaine. Il est arrivé au pouvoir en novembre 1876 après une insurrection victorieuse contre le président Lerdo de Tejada entreprise au nom de la constitution de 1857. Elu président une première fois la même année, il l’est de nouveau en 1884, après un intermède de quatre ans où il a été remplacé par l’un de ses fidèles, le général Manuel González. Constamment réélu depuis lors — ce q...

  6. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  7. Des Carnets aux « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme », et inversement...

    OpenAIRE

    Spiquel, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Les Carnets de Camus sont un laboratoire de l’œuvre ; c’est vrai pour Le Premier Homme comme pour les œuvres précédentes. Il ne s’agira pas ici de voir comment les Carnets recueillent de nombreuses traces de la genèse du roman, mais de se demander si les Carnets fournissent un apport spécifique à ce roman autobiographique. À cet égard, on dispose désormais d’un document essentiel, « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme » dossier de travail qui accompagnait le manuscrit inachevé. Il n’avait pas été ...

  8. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table.

  9. Analisis Kualitas Jasa Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda Dengan Menggunakan Model Kano Dan Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyowati, Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of services on Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda to evaluate customer satisfaction, as well as to identify those attributes that need priority services to be improved. The technique of collecting data by distributing questionnaires. The total sample of 100 respondents using purposive sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is validity, reliability, Kano Model and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). The results showed t...

  10. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  11. Dune ages in the sand deserts of the southern Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Charlie; Armitage, Simon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we aim to document the history of aeolian processes within the southern Sahara as part of the INQUA Dune Atlas. We review available luminescence ages for sand dunes across the southern Sahara and attempt to correlate periods of sand accumulation and to develop an improved understanding of the dune chronology on a regional basis. This was achieved by analysing dune age by country, as well as by latitude and longitude. The results show a very patchy spatial distribution of dune ages with large gaps that encompass some of the largest sand seas. Despite these gaps, some related patterns in dune morphology and stratigraphy appear to be consistent between northern Nigeria and southern Mali where older linear dunes are distinct from younger Late Holocene transverse and barchanoid dunes. Elsewhere in Mauretania linear dunes with different orientations appear to have accumulated at different times, most likely in response to changes in atmospheric circulation. Regional climatic changes are identified where dunes are transgressed by lake deposits within endorehic basins. We identify four locations where dune accumulation is terminated by lacustrine transgressions, two of which, in Lake Chad and the Bodélé Depression, occur shortly after the last glacial maximum (LGM). The third example at Gobiero in Niger occurred later, in the early Holocene, around 8.4 ka and a fourth marks a later transgression of Palaeolake MegaChad after 4.7 ka. Larger-scale latitudinal and longitudinal distributions in dune ages across the southern Sahara do not show any consistent patterns, though this may due to the small sample size relative to the study area. In addition, local variations in external controls such as wind regime, rainfall, vegetation and sand supply need to be considered, sometimes on a site by site basis. Limiting the analysis to dune ages determined using the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol indicates a lack of dune preservation during the LGM and

  12. Shock Metamorphism of L6 Chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the P-T Conditions and the Shock age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, S.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Miyahara, M.; Terada, K.; Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Impact phenomena are the fundamental processes of accretion of the terrestrial planets. Therefore, investigations of meteorites that experienced shock events are useful for understanding mechanisms of planetary impact events and formation of terrestrial planets. Heavily shocked meteorites contain abundant shock melt veins, where some high-pressure minerals have been discovered. In this study, we investigated mineralogy of shock melt veins of two L6 chondrites (Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445) and estimated the P-T conditions during their impact events.We found that the shock melt veins of these meteorites contain several high-pressure minerals such as wadsleyite, jadeite and tuite for Sahara 98222 and ringwoodite (+ wadsleyite), akimotoite and lingunite for Yamato 74445. Tuite is a high-pressure polymorph of whitlockite and lingunite is a high-pressure polymorph of albite with hollandite structure. Based on mineralogy in the shock veins; we estimated the pressure and temperature conditions during their impact events: 13-15 GPa, > 2000°C for Sahara 98222 and 15- 24 GPa, > 2200°C for Yamato 74445, respectively.We also conducted a U-Pb dating of phosphates in and around the shock melt veins of Sahara 98222 using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe (SHRIMP-II) at Hiroshima University to reveal when this shock event occurred. We obtained following radioactive ages: Pb-Pb isochron age: 4466 ± 31 Ma; U-Pb isochron age: 4498 ± 150 Ma; Total U-Pb isochron age: 4467 ± 22 Ma. These ages seem to be slightly younger than the previously reported ages of chondrites, which are usually older than 4500 Ma. This could suggest that Sahara 98222 have recorded a shock event in the very early stage of the solar system where the planetary formation was going on.

  13. Michel Mazoyer, Télipinu, le dieu au marécage. Essai sur les mythes fondateurs du Royaume hittite

    OpenAIRE

    Sergent, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Telipinu est l’un des principaux dieux hittites, l’un de ceux pour lequel on dispose du plus de textes. Le premier mérite de M. Mazoyer est de les rassembler dans cet ouvrage. On a donc ici la transcription des textes hittites, leur traduction et un index des mots hittites, qui rendra évidemment les plus grands services au spécialiste. Les Hittites écrivaient en cunéiformes, de sorte que la hittitologie s’est naturellement développée en relation avec l’orientalisme, dont elle formait en fait ...

  14. Les Compagnons du Devoir face au changement : un modèle de GRH valoriel sous tension

    OpenAIRE

    Maclouf, Etienne; Mazouli, Karim; Abonneau, David

    2011-01-01

    L'Association Ouvrière des Compagnons du Devoir du Tour de France (AOCDTF) présente de nombreuses singularités qui peuvent être perçues par l’observateur extérieur, au premier regard, comme des paradoxes voire des contradictions : paradoxe de la tradition et de l’innovation, paradoxe de la centralisation associative et de la décentralisation corporative et paradoxe du modèle de masse et de la pensée élitiste. Ces paradoxes apparents renvoient à une histoire riche dont la stratification rend d...

  15. General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng on family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Li, P

    1991-06-01

    Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase

  16. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  17. Seasonal training-load quantification in elite English premier league soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, James J; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Burgess, Darren; Morton, James P; Drust, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the seasonal training load completed by professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Thirty players were sampled (using GPS, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) during the daily training sessions of the 2011-12 preseason and in-season period. Preseason data were analyzed across 6×1-wk microcycles. In-season data were analyzed across 6×6-wk mesocycle blocks and 3×1-wk microcycles at start, midpoint, and end-time points. Data were also analyzed with respect to number of days before a match. Typical daily training load (ie, total distance, high-speed distance, percent maximal heart rate [%HRmax], RPE load) did not differ during each week of the preseason phase. However, daily total distance covered was 1304 (95% CI 434-2174) m greater in the 1st mesocycle than in the 6th. %HRmax values were also greater (3.3%, 1.3-5.4%) in the 3rd mesocycle than in the first. Furthermore, training load was lower on the day before match (MD-1) than 2 (MD-2) to 5 (MD-5) d before a match, although no difference was apparent between these latter time points. The authors provide the 1st report of seasonal training load in elite soccer players and observed that periodization of training load was typically confined to MD-1 (regardless of mesocycle), whereas no differences were apparent during MD-2 to MD-5. Future studies should evaluate whether this loading and periodization are facilitative of optimal training adaptations and match-day performance.

  18. Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women’s experiences in the Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sahrawi women are active agents in the social dynamics of the refugee camps, in which they have developeda number of coping strategies to overcome the hardships of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Since the outbreak of the con#ict and the forced settlement in Tindouf, Algeria, women have been responsible for the entire management of refugee camps, assuming leadership roles in many sectors of society.This paper highlights the Sahrawi women’s contribution to the process of local human development in a context of protracted refuge such as the one in the Western Sahara. In addition to the enlargement of the refugee population’s capacities in relation to material and physical assets, social and organizational abilities, and motivational strengths, one of the major achievements of Sahrawi women has been their own individual and collective process of empowerment within the camp life.

  19. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  20. δ13C values of grass species collected in the northern Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Troughton, John H; Card, Kay A

    1976-06-01

    δ13C values were measured for 45 Poaceae species collected in the northern Sahara desert, at the foot of the Saharan Atlas. The results indicate a clear relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and phytogeographical distribution of the grasses. Mediterranean species predominantly had δ13C values indicating the C3 pathway of photosynthesis. By contrast, nearly all species belonging to the Saharo-Arabian and /or Sudanian group showed a C4 like carbon isotope composition. Leaf material of two species, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima, had δ13C values in the region of-20‰, i.e. intermediate between the mean δ13C values of C3 and C4 plants. However, additional speciments of both these grasses obtained from a different source (herbarium of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) yielded a C3 like carbon isotope composition.

  1. Greening of the Sahara suppressed ENSO activity during the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Zhang, Qiong; Muschitiello, Francesco; Lu, Zhengyao; Chafik, Léon; Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Stager, J. Curt; Cobb, Kim M.; Liu, Zhengyu

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the Holocene remains uncertain. In particular, a host of new paleoclimate records suggest that ENSO internal variability or other external forcings may have dwarfed the fairly modest ENSO response to precessional insolation changes simulated in climate models. Here, using fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations, we show that accounting for a vegetated and less dusty Sahara during the mid-Holocene relative to preindustrial climate can reduce ENSO variability by 25%, more than twice the decrease obtained using orbital forcing alone. We identify changes in tropical Atlantic mean state and variability caused by the momentous strengthening of the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) as critical factors in amplifying ENSO's response to insolation forcing through changes in the Walker circulation. Our results thus suggest that potential changes in the WAM due to anthropogenic warming may influence ENSO variability in the future as well.

  2. Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamean, Jessie; Suski, Kaitlyn; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; White, Allen B.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-03-29

    Winter storms in California’s Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation (1), while few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols likely serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  3. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  4. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  5. Nouveaux et anciens espaces de circulation internationale au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alioua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Si la migration transnationale des africains subsahariens vers l’Europe débute de manière hétéroclite, en terme de lieux, de raisons et de situations, une fois partis de chez eux avec un projet migratoire personnel, ces acteurs se réorganisent collectivement durant les étapes qui rythment leur périple. Durant ces étapes, ces individus se « reconnaissent » entre eux et coopèrent, créant peu à peu une histoire commune, une « aventure » : leur projet migratoire et leur mode migratoire se ressemblent et les rassemblent. Une fois le Sahara franchi, les trans-migrants subsahariens s’ancrent dans les sociétés maghrébines en greffant leurs propres circulations sur celles des populations locales. Au Maroc, ce sont les populations vivant dans les lieux de relégation socioéconomique (populations ayant elles aussi une relation étroite avec la migration, notamment celles des quartiers populaires périphériques de Rabat, Casablanca ou Tanger, qui traitent et intègrent les phénomènes du passage et de l’installation plus ou moins temporaire de ces nouveaux venus. Dans ces quartiers, qui sont le produit de l’arrivée de migrants de l’intérieur, se superposent alors des formes de mobilités et des logiques et stratégies migratoires hétéroclites. Ces dynamiques migratoires montrent combien cette altérité introduite « par le bas » au Maghreb, par des populations en constantes mobilité, agit sur les sociétés locales et sur la ville.

  6. Tuberculosis in African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Lior; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Smolyakov, Rorzalia

    2012-02-01

    The southern region of Israel has recently experienced an influx of African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara desert area. These influxes have led to a significant increase in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in that region. To review the data of African refugees diagnosed with TB between January 2008 and August 2010 at a tertiary care regional hospital. Twenty-five TB cases were diagnosed, 22 of which presented with pulmonary TB, 3 with extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and 7 with combined pulmonary and EPTB. Only one case had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Fifteen patients underwent extensive radiological investigations including chest, abdominal and spine computed tomography, 1 was reviewed by magnetic resonance imaging, and 9 underwent tissue biopsy. Eighteen patients were admitted as suspected TB and 4 as suspected pneumonia or pulmonary infiltrates that could have been defined as suspected TB. All 24 HIV-negative cases were sensitive to first-line drugs for TB, except for one case that was resistant to streptomycin and one to rifampicin. All patients responded well to first-line therapy. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.7 days (range 1-36). Following diagnosis 23 patients were transferred to a quarantine facility. We identified overutilization of medical resources and invasive procedures. For African refugees from the eastern Sub-Sahara who were HIV-negative and suspected of having TB, a sputum acid-fast smear and culture should have been the primary investigative tools before initiating treatment with four drugs (first-line), and further investigations should have been postponed and reserved for non-responders or for patients for whom the culture was negative. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for EPTB in this population.

  7. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  8. Cancer du sein bilatéral synchrone au Maroc: caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naïma

    2015-01-01

    Préciser la fréquence, les facteurs de risque et le pronostic du cancer du sein bilatéral, à partir d'une étude rétrospective de 22 cas de cancer du sein bilatéral synchrone dans un pays du Maghreb. De 2002 à 2010, 625 patientes étaient prises en charge pour cancer du sein au service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique «C» du centre hospitalier universitaire de Casablanca. 22 cas de cancer bilatéral synchrone étaient diagnostiqués. Nos résultats sont comparés avec ceux de la littérature. La fréquence de la bilatéralité du cancer du sein synchrone était de 3,52% (22/625). L'intervalle de temps moyen entre les deux cancers est de 4 mois (0 à 6 mois). Les patientes âgées de moins de 40 ans lors du premier cancer avaient six fois plus de risque de développer un cancer au niveau du sein controlatéral que les femmes âgées de plus de 40 ans. Les patientes atteintes d'une tumeur T3 ou T4 avaient un risque neuf fois plus élevé que les autres. 90,9% (2/22) des cas des premiers cancers sont des adénocarcinomes infiltrants. Les types histologiques du premier et du douzième cancer étaient identiques dans 86,4% (19/22) des cas. Quant au pronostic, il dépend à la fois du stade du premier et du deuxième cancer et le traitement de ce dernier doit obéir aux mêmes règles du traitement du premier cancer. L'incidence du cancer bilatéral synchrone du sein est de 3,52% dans notre série. Le cancer du sein unilatéral constitue un facteur de risque de développement d'un cancer du sein controlatéral. Une surveillance à vie est nécessaire au cours d'un cancer du sein pour détecter un cancer controlatéral. PMID:26090066

  9. First principles simulation of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium battery materials; Modelisation du comportement electrochimique de materiaux pour batteries au lithium a partir de calculs de premiers principes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocquefelte, X.

    2001-10-01

    The functioning of a positive electrode in a lithium battery is based on the reversible intercalation of lithium. In some cases, such a reaction can lead to important structural modifications and therefore to an amorphization of the material. A theoretical approach is presented here that leads to structural predictions and simulations of electrochemical behaviour of positive electrode materials. In the first part, DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalisms and the respective advantages of FLAPW (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves) and PP/PW (Pseudopotential / Plane Waves) methods are discussed. In the second part are given some fundamental electrochemistry considerations related to the intercalation process, thermodynamics aspects and relationships with electronic structure. Then, an approach combining experimental data and geometry optimisation of structural hypotheses is given. This approach was first applied to a model compound LiMoS{sub 2}, and has been then generalised to systems of industrial interest such as Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3). The simulated X-ray diagrams of the optimised structures for LiMoS{sub 2} and {omega} - Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are in good agreement with experimental data. In the case of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the first discharge curves starting from {alpha} - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and {gamma}' - V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were then successfully simulated. A chemical bond analysis was carried out to help understand the origin of the distortion in LiMoS{sub 2} and the voltage variations in the electrochemical curves of Li{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This study clearly demonstrates that an approach combining first-principle calculations and available experimental data is invaluable in the structure determination of poorly crystallized compounds. Such a procedure contributes to the understanding of the phase transitions induced by the lithium intercalation in vanadium oxide compounds and can really be used in the research of new battery materials. (author)

  10. First bio-diesel plant from oil-producing in Brazil; Premiere usine de biodiesel a partir d'oleagineux au Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    In march 2005, Brazil implemented its first bio-diesel production plant from vegetal oils. This unit, situated in the Minas Gerais state will produce 12 millions of liter of bio-diesel per year. Cars using bio-diesel fuels generate 16% less of gases and fumes than petrol fuel cars, for the same fuel consumption. (A.L.B.)

  11. Areva. Nine-month 2007 sales revenue and data; Areva. Informations et chiffre d'affaires relatifs au neuf premiers mois de l'exercice 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The main information concerning the nine-month 2007 financial data of the Areva group is a steady growth of 9-month sales revenue, at euro 8.066 billion (+6.8% like-for-like), including euro 2.692 billion in the 3. quarter, i.e. +7.6% like-for-like. The group confirms its strong sales revenue growth objective for 2007.

  12. Fostering future organization of French Electric Power. A report to Prime Minister; Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise. Rapport au Premier Ministre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Jean Louis [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1998-07-02

    This report addressed to the prime minister deals with the main four issues relating to the problem of revamping the French electricity sector. These are featured as: 1. The public electricity supply; 2. The future development of 'Electricite de France'; 3. The social renovation of the electricity sector; 4. Management and the role of policy. In turn these four chapters are detailed. Thus the first one addresses the problems: 1. Customizing the general interest supply; 2. Electricity general supply and the state policy; 3. Sustaining innovation, environmental protection and energy management; 4. The transport and distribution grid, the resistance structure of the public supply. Also, this chapter describes the role of the operators in the public electricity supply and tackles the problem of financing the commitments of the public supply. The second chapter sketches the tasks and management of EDF, considers establishing an agency to ensure accounting transparency, discusses the major significance of local collectivities and personnel. The third chapter addresses the following issues: 1. The range of application of the statute of electric and gas industries; 2. Adaptation of the statute; 3. Development of the statute; 4. Pensioners. The forth chapter deals with the definition of regulation, i.e. the management of the network authority and makes proposals for constituting relating commissions. In conclusion, the author pleads for maintaining and developing a major national operator ensuring public supply requirements as well as promotion of French electricity industry. The proposals made by the report's author concerning the operational ways of renewing the nuclear sector, the management of grid of electric transport, the role of local collectivities, creation of a professional trade, the founding regulation commissions and others are thought to prepare France to cope efficiently to the international competition in the years to come. The report is completed by two appendices containing the proposals of the author and a list of the persons interviewed during the mission.

  13. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J.L

    1998-12-31

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  14. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... L'attitude théra- peutique dépend du type de la laryngocèle. en effet, le traitement endoscopique au laser CO2 a gagné beaucoup d'intérêt ces dernières années. MATÉRIEL ET MÉTHOdES. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 9 patients porteurs d'une laryngocèle colligés sur une période de 14.

  15. Le CRDI au Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    poussée en mathématiques aux spécialistes de demain afin qu'ils puissent relever les défis pressants qui se posent en matière d'environnement, de santé et d'économie. La bourse de chercheur invité que le CRDI a octroyée en 2001 au regretté. John Atta-Mills, qui a par la suite été prési- dent du Ghana de 2009 à 2012, ...

  16. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  17. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... acquis et des anomalies génétiques associées ont été aussi incriminés (mutation du gène Fas ou de la p53, délétion au niveau du chromosome 6q, méthylation excessive de la p73) (15,16). Le mode de révélation de ces lymphomes est peu spéci- fique et parfois banal. L'obstruction nasale représente le.

  18. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: ◦l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires ◦l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à ◦la répartition géographique des nécropoles ◦les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires ◦l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales ◦les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles ◦les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  19. Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers résultats d'une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution vise à présenter les premiers résultats d'un projet de recherche dont les buts sont situés sur deux plans: l'élaboration d'un corpus aussi complet que possible de toutes les traces archéologiques de tombes individuelles et de nécropoles gallo-romaines, y compris les monuments et les inscriptions funéraires l'analyse archéologique proprement dite des structures et des objets (typologie, chronologie etc. ainsi que l'étude des phénomènes religieux, culturels et sociaux qui transparaissent à travers ceux-ci. Le cadre géographique choisi est celui du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg actuel, qui représente une partie importante de l'ancienne civitas treverorum. D'un point de vue chronologique, toutes les découvertes archéologiques datables entre la deuxième moitié du 1er siècle ap. J.-C et le 5e siècle ap.- J.-C. sont pris en compte. Après un aperçu sur l'histoire de la recherche archéologique funéraire gallo-romaine au Luxembourg, l'état actuel du corpus contenant un total de 300 sites différents est présenté à l'aide de cartes et d'une banque de données. Sont ensuite présentés les premiers résultats de l'enquête relatifs à -la répartition géographique des nécropoles -les relations entre l'habitat rural, les nécropoles et les monuments funéraires -l' organisation spatio-temporelle des nécropoles rurales -les pratiques dépositionnelles et la hiérarchisation sociale au sein des nécropoles -les différents modes cinéraires et les rapports entre incinération et inhumation

  20. Charged particle density distributions in Au+ Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed ...

  1. Soutien institutionnel au Centre for Population and Environmental ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Financement total. CAD$ 1,812,500. Pays. Nigéria, Nord du Sahara, Sud du Sahara, Niger. Chargé(e) de projet. Mr. Johnson E. Dudu. Chargé(e) de projet. Andrew G. Onokerhoraye. Chargé(e) de projet. Andrew G. Onokerhoraye. Institution. Centre for Population and Environmental Development. Pays d' institution. Nigeria.

  2. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert

    OpenAIRE

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in thi...

  3. Monitoring project impact on biomass increase in the context of the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    SCHUCKNECHT ANNE; MERONI MICHELE; REMBOLD Felix

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation and desertification represent a major threat to the population and ecosystems of (semi)-arid regions like the Sahel and the Sahara. In 2007, the African Union launched a pan-African programme, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGWSSI) to reverse land degradation and desertification in the region, improve food security and support local people to adapt to climate change. Within the GGWSSI different kinds of projects have been implemented. In order t...

  4. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Malawi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Pays. Malawi, Nord du Sahara, Sud du Sahara. Chargé(e) de projet. Linda Kabwato. Institution. Registered Trustees of the Governance and Development Institute. Pays d' institution. malawi. Extrants. Rapports. Political parties brief. Rapports.

  5. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. L., E-mail: zhangdl@iphy.ac.cn; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10081 (China); Zhang, X.-G., E-mail: xgz@ufl.edu [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6493 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  7. Energie nominale atteinte au SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    * Le 9 juillet les premiers essais du système d'extraction ont permis de réaliser l'extraction rapide sur un tour de la quasi-totalité du faisceau circulant qui a été envoyé sur une décharge externe. Des difficultés entre les dipôles et les quadrupô/es principaux ont été surmontées et, le 15 juillet, plus de 4 x lu'2 protons par impulsion étaient accélérés à 200 GeV.

  8. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Imed E. Nezli; Samia Achour; Mohamed Djidel; Saïd Attalah

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouarg...

  9. Viruses in the desert: a metagenomic survey of viral communities in four perennial ponds of the Mauritanian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Fancello, Laura; Trape, S?batien; Robert, Catherine; Boyer, Micka?l; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities from four perennial ponds (gueltas) located in the central Sahara (Mauritania). Three of the four gueltas (Ilij, Molomhar and Hamdoun) are located at the source of three different wadis belonging to the same hydrologic basin, whereas the fourth (El Berbera) belongs to a different basin. Overall, sequences belonging to tailed bacteriophages were the most abundant in all four metagenomes although electron microscopy and sequencin...

  10. Mosquito records from the Republic of Niger, with reference to the construction of the new 'Trans-Sahara Highway'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1981-06-01

    Construction of a new, fully-tarred 'Trans-Sahara Highway' from the coast of Algeria to Nigeria is well advanced. Information on the distribution of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes collected in Niger during a survey in August and September, 1979 is presented and discussed. Particular reference is made to the dangers of West African malaria vectors being transported north along the Highway as traffic increases. The vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, was found as far north as Agadez (17 degrees N).

  11. Alexandre Theotokis la notion de l'évolution et le premier texte de zoologie grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas B. Krimbas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Theotokis, membre de l'illustre famille de Corfou, ayant fait des études de zoologie et paléontologie au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle à Paris, publie en 1848 les Tableaux zoologiques généraux ou Prodrome à la zoologie hellénique, un livre dans lequel pour la première fois est présenté en langue grecque la notion d'évolution, onze ans avant la publication de l'Origine des espèces de Darwin. Theotokis est anti-évolutionniste et suit fidèlement les opinions de son maître Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. Theotokis exerça une forte influence sur son neveu Constantin, auteur bien connu de la littérature grecque moderne.

  12. Ethnoveterinary of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara: camel diseases and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Lamin Saleh, Saleh Mohamed; Di Nardo, Antonello

    2015-06-20

    Pastoral populations around the world hold complex and detailed ethnoveterinary knowledge, essential for the survival of their herds and securing their livelihood. In recent decades, several studies have given attention to local veterinary remedies and practices and their validation, and to the local conceptualization of livestock diseases. Despite this, relatively little has been reported on indigenous knowledge of camel diseases (e.g., aetiological factors, epidemiological patterns, symptoms, prevention and treatments). This paper focuses on the traditional knowledge of camel diseases and their treatments among Sahrawi nomads, detailing how this knowledge is powerfully reflected on pastoral adaptation strategies to the ecological system of Western Sahara. Between 2005 and 2010, freelisting exercise on camel diseases with 46 Sahrawi nomads and refugees, semi-structured interviews with 36 knowledgeable informants about camel diseases and associated treatments, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited were conducted in the territories administered by the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara. Analytical methods included standard ethnobiological, ethnobotanical and cultural consensus analyses. In total, 42 camel diseases were freelisted by informants, with four (i.e., mange, dermatomycosis, respiratory infections, and mastitis) found to be culturally highly salient. These four represent the most common veterinary conditions experienced by Sahrawi pastoralists. In addition, 42 plant species belonging to 22 botanical families (Hammada scoparia, Acacia tortilis, Zygophyllum gaetulum, Nucularia perrinii, and Panicum turgidum among the species most used) were listed as used in the treatment of these diseases, as well as about 30 remedies of animal (e.g., from camels, donkeys, and/or spiny-tailed lizards) and mineral origin, and of cauterizations. This study provides an overall picture of the most important camel diseases and remedies

  13. Contribution de la consolidation au maintien du patrimoine

    CERN Document Server

    Chevret, P

    2001-01-01

    Les premiers bâtiments du Laboratoire datent de 1954 et les équipements techniques les plus anciens encore en service dans ces bâtiments datent de 1956. Nombre d'entre eux sont toujours constitués des matériels d'origine qui ont largement dépassé leur espérance de vie normale et ne satisfont plus aux normes de sécurité. La non disponibilité fréquente de pièces de rechange sur des matériels obsolètes, les risques encourus tant par les exploitants que par les utilisateurs du point de vue de la sécurité, et les co ts de maintenance qui ne peuvent être contenus en l'absence de budget d'investissement, ont conduit le groupe ST-TFM, au cours des dernières années, à lancer un minimum de projets de consolidation pour empêcher la dégradation du patrimoine. Ce document synthétise les différentes actions entreprises et montre que l'effort doit être maintenu, voire accru, si l'on veut globaliser vers l'extérieur les opérations de maintenance dans de bonnes conditions.

  14. Valence héroïque : premiers poèmes épiques espagnols de la fin du règne de Charles-Quint (Nicolás Espinosa et Francisco Garrido de Villena, 1555

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Plagnard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers poèmes épiques en langue espagnole parurent en 1555, de la plume d’auteurs valenciens ; tout en chantant la victoire des Espagnols sur les Français à Roncevaux et de Bernard del Carpio sur le paladin Roland, ils regorgent d’allusions aux mécènes valenciens et en montrent la puissance. Le recours au genre épique n’est-il pas justifié par l’articulation problématique des dimensions locale et nationale ? Le présent article analyse la réflexion qui s’y tient sur la place de Valence au sein de la monarchie à la veille de la mort de Charles-Quint.En 1555, vieron la luz los primeros poemas épicos en lengua española, de la pluma de autores valencianos; cantan la victoria de los españoles sobre los franceses en Roncesvalles y de Bernardo del Carpio contra el paladín Roldán, a la par que multiplican las alusiones a los mecenas valencianos y ostentan su potencia. El recurso al género épico puede relacionarse con la necesidad de vincular la dimensión local y nacional. Este artículo analiza la reflexión llevada a cabo sobre el papel de Valencia dentro de la monarquía en vísperas de la muerte de Carlos V.

  15. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  16. Multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions studied with AMD-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-07-01

    AMD-V is an optimum model for calculation of multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions. AMD-V consider anti-symmetry of incident nucleus, target nucleus and fragments, furthermore, it treat the quantum effect to exist many channels in the intermediate and final state. 150 and 250 MeV/nucleon incident energy were used in the experiments. The data of multifragment atom in {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions was reproduced by AMD-V calculation using Gognny force, corresponding to the imcompressibility of nuclear substance K = 228 MeV and its mean field depend on momentum. When other interaction (SKG 2 force, corresponding to K = 373 KeV) was used an mean field does not depend on momentum, the calculation results could not reproduce the experimental values, because nucleus and deuteron were estimated too large and {alpha}-particle and intermediate fragments estimated too small. (S.Y.)

  17. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  18. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective match workload of English Premier League referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.

  19. Rapsodie first core fabrication. 2. part: manufacture results; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Deuxieme partie: resultats de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This report is the second in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. It includes a critical study of the results obtained on the pellets, pins and sub-assemblies as compared with their specifications. By the way, the benefit of the linear mass concept as a quality test for a given manufacture is shown. At last performances and balance of the first two production runs are examined. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le second d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides RAPSODIE. Il comporte une etude critique des resultats obtenus pour les pastillles, les aiguilles et les assemblages combustibles, compares a leur specifications. A cette occasion, on montre l'interet de la notion de masse lineaire comme critere de qualite d'une fabrication. Les performances et le bilan des deux premieres campagnes de production sont enfin examines. (auteur)

  20. Barriers to utilisation of cervical cancer screening in Sub Sahara Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J N W; Ojo, A A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA). Both primary and secondary preventive services are available but utilisation remain low. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers preventing women from utilising cervical cancer screening services in SSA. Electronic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS preview, Global Health, PubMed, Cochrane library, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar and quality assessment of the included studies were performed. A meta-analysis was applied to identify major themes. Eight studies exploring reasons women did not utilise cervical cancer screening were included. Women in SSA reported similar barriers despite cultural and language diversity in the region. Women reported fear of screening procedure and negative outcome, low level of awareness of services, embarrassment and possible violation of privacy, lack of spousal support, societal stigmatisation, cost of accessing services and health service factors like proximity to facility, facility navigation, waiting time and health care personnel attitude. Strategies for improving uptake and utilisation of cervical screening in SSA should focus on improving cervical health education, addressing cultural beliefs and practices and improving spousal support and empowering women, as well as addressing physical access problem, costs and improving staff attitude. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed.

  2. Trapping or tethering stones (TS): A multifunctional device in the Pastoral Neolithic of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lernia, Savino

    2018-01-01

    The Pierres de Ben Barour, also known as trapping or tethering stones (TS), are stone artefacts with notches or grooves usually interpreted as hunting devices on the basis of rock art engravings. Though their presence is a peculiar feature of desert landscapes from the Sahara to the Arabian Peninsula, we know little about their age, context and function. Here we present a new approach to the study of these artefacts based on a large dataset (837 items) recorded in the Messak plateau (SW Libya). A statistically-based geoarchaeological survey carried out between 2007 and 2011 in Libya, alongside landscape and intra-site analyses of specific archaeological features (such as rock art, settlement and ceremonial contexts), reveal that these artefacts were used for a prolonged period, probably from the early Holocene. This was followed by a multifunctional use of these devices, particularly during the Pastoral Neolithic phase (ca. 6400–3000 cal BC), with the highest concentrations being found near ceremonial contexts related to cattle burials. PMID:29370242

  3. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: II. Species Identification Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Mota, A.; Betancourt, C.; Detres, Y.; Armstrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fungi samples from filters collected in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July 2002, were previously purified and identified to genus level using classic macroscopic and microscopic techniques. A total of 105 isolated colonies were cultured in liquid media and the mycelial mats used for DNA extraction. PCR was used to amplify the ITS region of the rDNA using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Both strands of the amplified products were sequenced and the final identification to species level was completed by a GenBank search. Fourteen different species and one fungal endophyte were identified from genders Aspergillus,Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia and Phanerochaete. Some of these species such as A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, P. citrinum and C. cladosporoides are known to cause respiratory disorders in humans. A. fumigatus causes an aggressive pulmonary allergic response that might result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Other species such as F. equiseti and C. brachyspora are plant pathogens affecting economically important crops. Sahara dust is an important source of fungal spores of species that are not common in the Caribbean region.

  4. Bacterial composition and survival on Sahara dust particles transported to the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sahara dust (SD particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.. After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria.Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport.

  5. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  6. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  7. Les ateliers de réparation ferroviaire en Italie au XIXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Merger, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Les ateliers de réparation ferroviaires ont joué un rôle de premier ordre dans le développement industriel de la péninsule italienne. Créés dès la mise en exploitation des premières lignes, ils ont permis aux ingénieurs et techniciens étrangers de venir transmettre un savoir-faire encore balbutiant puis, au lendemain de 1860, ils ont constitué d’importants foyers de main-d’œuvre. Leur évolution permet de retracer les grandes phases de l’histoire ferroviaire du pays dans la mesure où leurs act...

  8. Throne of Glass, Celaena Sardothien et la violence au féminin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie Demeule

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En analysant le cas de l’héroïne de la série de fantasy jeunesse Throne of Glass de Sarah J. Maas, cet article désire réfléchir sur la normativité des représentations de la violence physique chez un personnage littéraire de sexe féminin. Pour ce faire, nous examinerons dans un premier temps les stratégies de négociation de la violence du personnage de Celaena Sardothien à travers le dispositif textuel, puis nous observerons la polémique entourant sa réception au sein du lectorat.

  9. Les énergies renouvelables au fil des siècles

    OpenAIRE

    Hladik, Jean; Hladik, Claude Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Il nous faut remonter dans l'histoire de l'humanité vers des périodes beaucoup plus lointaines que celles des moulins à vent, de la fusion et de la forge des métaux ou même de la découverte et de l'utilisation des premiers récipients de terre cuite, pour comprendre le rôle des énergies fossiles ou renouvelables. Ce rôle ne se limite pas au développement des techniques car il apparaît comme une contribution essentielle à l'émergence des être humains, dans le cadre des seules théories actuelles...

  10. Sud du Sahara | Page 20 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Capacités en science du comportement pour relever les facteurs qui entravent ou facilitent les essais d'un vaccin contre le VIH au Nigeria. Langue French. Read more about Collaboration Sud-Sud en innovation génomique. Langue French. Read more about South-to-South Collaboration on Genomics ...

  11. Sud du Sahara | Page 106 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Langue English. Read more about Civil Society and Islamism in Iraq. Langue English. Read more about Société civile et islamisme en Iraq et au Maroc. Langue French. Read more about Microfinance and Information and Communication Technologies : HIVOS STAR Program (Eastern and Southern Africa). Langue English.

  12. Sud du Sahara | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Photo : Tech. Sgt. Daniel St. Pierre. Read more about Élaborer des politiques en matière de cybersanté pour favoriser une plus grande équité au Kenya. Langue French. Developing eHealth policies will increase access to care for rural populations in Kenya. Photo: Tech. Sgt. Daniel St. Pierre. Read more about Developing ...

  13. Sud du Sahara | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Détermination des facteurs de sécrétion des muqueuses influant sur la vulnérabilité à l'infection par le VIH chez les travailleuses du sexe au Kenya. Langue French. Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in ...

  14. Sud du Sahara | Page 51 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about DrumNet : mise sur pied d'un système d'information GSM pour petits exploitants agricoles au Kenya - phase II. Langue French. Read more about DrumNet : Building a GSM-enabled Information System for Smallholder Farmers in Kenya - Phase II. Langue English. Read more about Equity Gauge Zambia ...

  15. Chiral magnetic effect search in p+Au, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; STAR Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is a fundamental property of QCD. A major background source for CME measurements is the intrinsic particle correlations (such as resonances/jets decay) coupled with the azimuthal elliptical anisotropy v2. In heavy-ion collisions, the magnetic field direction and event plane azimuthal angle Ψ2 are correlated, thus the CME and the v2-induced background are entangled. In small system p+Au and d+Au collisions, the Ψ2 is mostly due to geometry fluctuations, and thus magnetic field direction and Ψ2 are uncorrelated. The correlation measurements in small system collisions with respect to Ψ2 are only sensitive to v2-induced background while any CME is averaged to zero. In this talk, we will present the STAR measurements of two-particle correlations with respect to Ψ2 in p+Au, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. These results are analyzed as a function of particle multiplicity to shed light on the background contaminations of the CME measurements in heavy-ion collisions. We will also report results from a new analysis approach as a function of the particle pair invariant mass in order to suppress non-CME related physics backgrounds.

  16. Tentative d'évaluation du systéme d'information marketing au niveau des banques publiques Algériennes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassaine-kazi-tani, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Le premier chapitre présente les fondements théoriques relatifs au marketing, marketing des services et notamment le marketing bancaire.dans le deuxiéme chapitre seront développées les notions de base du concept d'information et celui de systéme d'information et puis le systéme d'information marketing.le troisiéme chapitre pratique présente une étude de cas auprés des banques publiques Algériennes.

  17. Il y a 150 ans...La triste épopée de la légion belge au Mexique. Histoire et fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bénit, André

    2015-01-01

    La versión del editor está disponible en: https://publicaciones.unirioja.es/ojs/index.php/cif/article/view/2735 En mars 1864, un appel est lancé dans la presse belge afin de recruter quelque 2000 hommes pour la future légion belge au Mexique. Le premier contingent partira de Saint-Nazaire à destination de Veracruz à la mi-octobre. En principe, ces volontaires étaient destinés à former une garde autour de leur compatriote l’impératrice Charlotte de Belgique. Mais c’était sans compter sur l’...

  18. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity.

  19. Evidence of Rift Valley fever seroprevalence in the Sahrawi semi-nomadic pastoralist system, Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Antonello; Rossi, Davide; Saleh, Saleh M Lamin; Lejlifa, Saleh M; Hamdi, Sidumu J; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2014-04-24

    The increasing global importance of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is clearly demonstrated by its geographical expansion. The presence of a wide range of host and vector species, and the epidemiological characteristics of RVF, have led to concerns that epidemics will continue to occur in previously unaffected regions of Africa. The proximity of the Sahrawi territories of Western Sahara to endemic countries, such as Mauritania, Senegal, and Mali with periodic isolation of virus and serological evidence of RVF, and the intensive livestock trade in the region results in a serious risk of RVF spread in the Sahrawi territories, and potentially from there to the Maghreb and beyond. A sero-epidemiological survey was conducted in the Saharawi territories between March and April 2008 to investigate the possible presence of the RVF virus (RVFV) and associated risk factors. A two-stage cluster sampling design was used, incorporating 23 sampling sites. A total of 982 serum samples was collected from 461 sheep, 463 goats and 58 camels. Eleven samples (0.97%) tested positive for IgG against the RVFV. There were clusters of high seroprevalence located mostly in the Tifariti (7.69%) and Mehaires (7.14%) regions, with the Tifariti event having been found in one single flock (4/26 positive animals). Goats and older animals were at a significantly increased risk being seropositive (p = 0.007 and p = 0.007, respectively). The results suggest potential RVF activity in the study area, where intense livestock movement and trade with neighbouring countries might be considered as a primary determinant in the spread of the disease. The importance of a continuous field investigation is reinforced, in light of the risk of RVF expansion to historically unaffected regions of Africa.

  20. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  1. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D. [Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Aride Zones, University Kasdi Merbah, BP511 Ouargla (Algeria); Benmoussa, H. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mechanics, University Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria)

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  2. Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Groot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts, we report the first complete genome sequence and proteome analysis of a bacterium, Deinococcus deserti VCD115, isolated from Sahara surface sand. Its genome consists of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and three large plasmids of 324 kb, 314 kb, and 396 kb. Accurate primary genome annotation of its 3,455 genes was guided by extensive proteome shotgun analysis. From the large corpus of MS/MS spectra recorded, 1,348 proteins were uncovered and semiquantified by spectral counting. Among the highly detected proteins are several orphans and Deinococcus-specific proteins of unknown function. The alliance of proteomics and genomics high-throughput techniques allowed identification of 15 unpredicted genes and, surprisingly, reversal of incorrectly predicted orientation of 11 genes. Reversal of orientation of two Deinococcus-specific radiation-induced genes, ddrC and ddrH, and identification in D. deserti of supplementary genes involved in manganese import extend our knowledge of the radiotolerance toolbox of Deinococcaceae. Additional genes involved in nutrient import and in DNA repair (i.e., two extra recA, three translesion DNA polymerases, a photolyase were also identified and found to be expressed under standard growth conditions, and, for these DNA repair genes, after exposure of the cells to UV. The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment.

  3. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  4. Borophene synthesis on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisinger, Nathan; Kiraly, Brian; Zhang, Zhuhua; Mannix, Andrew; Hersam, Mark C.; Yakobson, Boris I.

    The recent experimental discovery of borophene, the metallic 2-dimensional allotrope of boron, has sparked tremendous interest in further exploration of this unique material. The initial synthesis of borophene was accomplished on Ag substrates and serves as a quintessential example of predictive modeling to experimental realization. In this talk, we expand the phase-space of borophene synthesis to Au. Borophene synthesis was accomplished by evaporating elemental boron onto a Au(111) substrate. The synthesized borophene retains its metallic character on Au as verified with scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Most fascinating is the difference in growth dynamics on the Au(111) substrate where the reconstructed surface presents a unique energy landscape for borophene nucleation and growth. We find that the initial low-coverage growth of borophene modifies the herringbone reconstruction into a ``trigonal'' network, where the 2D boron islands are uniformly templated across the surface. Increasing coverage results in the increasing size of the templated borophene islands until they coalesce into larger sheets. The observed growth dynamics are supported by the computational modeling of boron nucleation on Au.

  5. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  6. Transverse Velocity Scaling in Au+Au Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasik, J.; Hudan, S.; Lavaud, F.; Turzo, K.; Auger, G.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bellaize, N.; Bittiger, R.; Bocage, F.; Borderie, B.; Buchet, P.; R. Bougault(LPCC); Bouriquet, B.; Charvet, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Invariant transverse-velocity spectra of intermediate-mass fragments were measured with the 4-pi multi-detector system INDRA for collisions of Au on Au at incident energies between 40 and 150 MeV per nucleon. Their scaling properties as a function of incident energy and atomic number Z are used to distinguish and characterize the emissions in (i) peripheral collisions at the projectile and target rapidities, and in (ii) central and (iii) peripheral collisions near mid-rapidity. The importance...

  7. Detection and Mapping of Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in the Colorado Desert of Southern California using Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan), a plant native to North Africa and the Middle East, has become a troublesome invasive pest in arid ecosystems of the Southwest United States, northern and central Mexico, and Australia. In the desert Southwest, B. tournefortii is commonly found in sandy washes, sand sheets, rocky hillsides, and other disturbed areas at elevations below 1000 m. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Landsat MTMF technique for detecting B. tournefortii presence and biomass density in the Colorado Desert region of California.

  8. Essential oil variation in wild populations of Artemisia saharae (Asteraceae) from Tunisia: chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Sami; Ayadi, Imen; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Jdir, Hamida; Aloui, Latifa; Kossentini, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Zouari, Nacim

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia saharae Pomel is a new taxon of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) which is endemic to Tunisia and Algeria. This shrub, commonly known as white wormwood or desert wormwood, is largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by several factors such as geographic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information about the influence of altitude variation on the essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia saharae growing wild in the same geographical area. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves and flowers of the plant collected from seven different altitudes of the Baten Zamour region (southwest of Tunisia). The highest essential oil yields (2.70-2.80%) were obtained for populations of high altitudes. Seventy-five compounds, representing 92.78 to 96.95% of the total essential oils, were separated and identified. Essential oils were characterized by very high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes (52.1-72.6%) which constituted the predominant class. From the analyzed populations, the major compounds (>7%) were α-thujone, β-thujone, chrysanthenone, camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate, and sabinyl acetate. Sabinyl acetate which was detected in some populations at relatively high percentages (7.7-10.8%) seems to be characteristic to Southern Tunisian A. saharae. The studied essential oil showed a chemical diversity depending on the population altitude as revealed by linear discriminant and cluster analyses. Three population groups associated with altitudinal levels were distinguished. It is worthy to note that the most discriminating compounds of chemical groups were the minor ones. Despite the high variation of essential oil compositions, the high altitude population did not affect severely the antibacterial activity

  9. Le recours aux catégories dans la gestion du choix au cours d’un repas au restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugol-Gential Clémentine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail, ancré dans le champ de l’Analyse Conversationnelle (Sacks, 1992, s’intéresse à une question centrale à laquelle les clients sont perpétuellement confrontés lors de la prise d’un repas au restaurant : le choix. Plus précisément, nous nous intéressons à son caractère situé et à son déploiement en interaction en nous basant sur un corpus audiovisuel collecté en situation « naturelle » de production, lors de repas au restaurant, afin d’étudier la parole-en-interaction telle qu’elle est localement produite et organisée par les participants (Heath, Hindmarsch & Luff, 2010. Après avoir exposé le lien entre identité et alimentation et la notion de catégorisation telle qu’elle a été développée en Analyse Conversationnelle, nous proposerons deux analyses de séquences de prise de commande pendant lesquelles les choix des clients sont discutés et négociés avec le sommelier ou le serveur. Grâce à des analyses séquentielles basées sur des transcriptions fines, nous soulignerons que les participants à l’interaction manifestent de façon reconnaissable qui ils sont (clients experts, non experts, habitués... afin d’organiser de façon intelligible leurs actions et de permettre à leurs partenaires de s’y ajuster. Nous analyserons finement les catégories utilisées par les participants, et nous décrirons les différents procédés mobilisés afin d’organiser et d’orienter la prise de commande. Ainsi, dans un premier extrait, nous verrons que les clients s’orientent, tout d’abord, vers l’exhibition de leur propre identité, tandis que dans un deuxième extrait, c’est le plat à la carte qui fait l’objet d’une première catégorisation. L’ensemble de ce travail nous permettra de montrer que les catégories sont structurantes pour l’organisation du choix et que leur déploiement séquentiel au cours de l’interaction est constitutif des affiliations ou des désaffiliations lors

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  11. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Au-Island Ripening on Au(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kleiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiscale modeling hierarchy for the particular case of Au-island ripening on Au(100. Starting at the microscopic scale, density functional theory was used to investigate a limited number of self-diffusion processes on perfect and imperfect Au(100 surfaces. The obtained structural and energetic information served as basis for optimizing a reactive forcefield (here ReaxFF, which afterwards was used to address the mesoscopic scale. Reactive force field simulations were performed to investigate more diffusion possibilities at a lower computational cost but with similar accuracy. Finally, we reached the macroscale by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC simulations. The reaction rates for the reaction process database used in the kMC simulations were generated using the reactive force field. Using this strategy, we simulated nucleation, aggregation, and fluctuation processes for monoatomic high islands on Au(100 and modeled their equilibrium shape structures. Finally, by calculating the step line tension at different temperatures, we were able to make a direct comparison with available experimental data.

  13. Une équipe de recherche locale aide à créer le premier régime de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des résidents de l'État d'Ekiti au Nigeria reçoivent des prestations au titre d'un régime de protection sociale destiné aux aînés. COLLECTION : RENFORCEMENT DE LA RECHERCHE ÉCONOMIQUE. Felicia Jegede, une veuve de 71 ans, était comblée de joie lorsqu'elle a reçu sa première prestation en espèces sans ...

  14. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Anup K., E-mail: aprasad@chapman.ed [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); El-Askary, Hesham [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharem Bek, Alexandria 21522 (Egypt); National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Kafatos, Menas [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  15. Propolis-Sahara honeys preparation exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against bacterial biofims formed on urinary catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aissat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Sahara honeys (SHs against bacterial biofilms formed on urinary catheters in combination with propolis-Sahara honeys (P-SHs. Methods: Three clinical isolates were subjected to biofilm detection methods. The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity for SHs and P-SHs were determined using agar well diffusion and the percentage of biofilm inhibition (PBI methods. Results: The PBI for Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus] was in the range of 0%–20%, while PBI for Gram-negative bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (E. coli] were in range of 17%–57% and 16%–65%, respectively. The highest PBI (65% was produced by SH2 only on E. coli. In agar well diffusion assay, zones of inhibition ranged from 11–20 mm (S. aureus, 9–19 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 11–19 mm (E. coli. The highest inhibition (20 mm was produced by SH1 only on S. aureus. In addition, the treatment of SHs and P-SHs catheters with a polymicrobial biofilms reduced biofilm formation after 48 h exposure period. Conclussions: SHs and P-SHs applied as a natural agent can be used as a prophylactic agent to prevent the formation of in vitro biofilm.

  16. Asociacionismo y cuestión nacional en el Sahara Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías Barreñada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde mediados de la década pasada se ha operado una emergencia de la contestación política saharaui en los territorios ocupados por Marruecos. Este fenómeno se debe a varios factores entre los que cabe destacar los escasos resultados de las negociaciones políticas auspiciadas por Naciones Unidas, los cambios políticos operados en Marruecos, la frustración de la población saharaui ante la intensificación de la colonización y una creciente sensación de discriminación. Las protestas están en gran medida estructuradas por un tejido de asociaciones, la mayor parte de ellas alegales, que han hecho de la defensa de los derechos humanos su principal eje de actuación. Sus miembros son tanto antiguos militantes políticos como jóvenes que sólo han conocido la ocupación. El artículo aborda el proceso de articulación de estas asociaciones, sus actuaciones, sus nexos con Marruecos y con el resto de los saharauis, y presta especial atención a su carácter sustitutivo ante la imposibilidad de libre organización de los nacionalistas e independentistas. Since the middle of the last decade a growing political protest has emerged in Western Sahara occupied by Morocco. This phenomenon has been caused by several factors: the little results of the political negotiations under the United Nations, the political changes operated in Morocco, the frustration of the Sahrawi population facing the colonization and an increasing sensation of discrimination. To a great extent the protests are structured by associations, most of them non-legal, which have made of the defense of the human rights their main axis of performance. Most of their members are former political militants as young people who have only known the occupation. The article approaches the process of joining these associations, their performances, their ties with Morocco and the other Sahrawi, and gives special attention to its substitute character before the impossibility of free

  17. Integrated Health Care Systems and Indigenous Medicine: Reflections from the Sub-Sahara African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Maina Ahlberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous or traditional medicine has, since the 1970s, been widely regarded as a resource likely to contribute to strengthening the health care systems in low income countries. This paper examines the state of traditional medicine using evidence from three case studies in Central Kenya. While the cases are too few to represent the broad diversity of cultures and related healing systems in the Sub-Sahara African Region, the way they seem to refute the main assumptions in the integration discourse is important, also because studies from other countries in the region report perspectives, similar to the case studies in Kenya. It is often argued that people continue to use traditional medicine because it is affordable, available, and culturally familiar. Its integration into the health care system would therefore promote cultural familiarity. The case studies however point to the loss of essential cultural elements central to traditional medicine in this particular area while users travel long distances to reach the healers. In addition, there are significant paradigm differences that may present obstacles to integration of the two systems. More problematic however is that integration is, as in many development interventions, a top-down policy that is rarely based on contextual realities and conditions. Instead, integration is often defined and dominated by biomedical professionals and health planners who may be unfamiliar or even hostile to some aspects of traditional medicine. Furthermore, integration efforts have tended to embrace selected components mostly herbal medicine. This has led to isolating herbal medicine from spiritualism, which may in turn affect the holistic perspective of traditional medicine. While familiarity and relevance may explain the continued use of traditional medicine, its services may not be as readily available, accessible, or even affordable as is often asserted. Globalization set in motion through colonization and

  18. Liber, Gesta, histoire. Écrire l’histoire des évêques et des papes, de l’Antiquité au XXIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Sot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Très tôt les Églises chrétiennes ont pensé et écrit leur histoire, une histoire organisée autour de la succession des évêques, depuis les apôtres. Les catalogues antiques d’évêques de Rome ont permis d’établir au VIe siècle le premier Liber pontificalis, Livre des papes, continué jusqu’au IXe, puis au XVe siècle, relayé ensuite par une histoire humaniste des pontifes, puis une histoire critique, universitaire et enfin médiatique en notre début de XXIe siècle. C’est à une reprise des travaux s...

  19. Du bon maniement de l’argent du roi en Espagne au XVIIIe siècle. Les enseignements d’un procès pour fraude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dubet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pour nombre d’historiens – dont je fais partie – les réformes financières entreprises par les premiers Bourbons d’Espagne au XVIIIe siècle n’affectent pas tant l’organisation fiscale de leurs territoires que leur administration. Avant que de modifier la répartition sociale des contributions, il s’agit de rendre au roi et à ses ministres de confiance la décision en matière de dépenses et de s’assurer de son exécution. Ce projet de contrôle accru du roi sur ses propres deniers se traduit certes...

  20. Remarques sur certains archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales byzantinisantes de la Pologne au XVe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semoglou Athanassios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski L'étude des certains rarissimes archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales de style byzantin en Pologne de l'époque du roi Ladislas Jagiello (fin du XIVe - début du XVe siècle a révélé la pénétration d'une tradition riche et originale qui remonte au milieu syro-palestinien des premiers siècles du christianisme. Ce langage pictural conservateur traduit le phénomène du retour à des formules archaïques et s'inscrit dans l'effort, de la part du roi, d'harmoniser les tensions politiques et religieuses des deux communautés du pays (orthodoxe et catholique, grandi après l'union du grand Duché de Lituanie au royaume de Pologne en 1386. .

  1. Du bon maniement de l’argent du roi en Espagne au XVIIIe siècle. Les enseignements d’un procès pour fraude

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Dubet

    2010-01-01

    Pour nombre d’historiens – dont je fais partie – les réformes financières entreprises par les premiers Bourbons d’Espagne au XVIIIe siècle n’affectent pas tant l’organisation fiscale de leurs territoires que leur administration. Avant que de modifier la répartition sociale des contributions, il s’agit de rendre au roi et à ses ministres de confiance la décision en matière de dépenses et de s’assurer de son exécution. Ce projet de contrôle accru du roi sur ses propres deniers se traduit certes...

  2. Points de vue de professionnels de la santé et des services sociaux sur un programme de visites à domicile destiné aux jeunes mères d'un premier enfant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-A. Li

    2015-01-01

    domicile ne doit pas être envisagé isolément. Au contraire, le potentiel de ceux-ci est optimisé par la collaboration et l'échange d'information avec d'autres organismes afin d'offrir de meilleurs services aux mères d'un premier enfant.

  3. Au36(SPh)23 nanomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy; Dass, Amala

    2011-06-22

    A new core size protected completely by an aromatic thiol, Au(36)(SPh)(23), is synthesized and characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. The synthesis involving core size changes is studied by MS, and the complete ligand coverage by aromatic thiol group is shown by NMR.

  4. Climats et premiers peuplements des Alpes du Nord françaises : des derniers chasseurs aux premiers paysans (15 000 à 5 000 ans av. JC. Climate and early settlements of the French Northern Alps: From the last hunters to the first farmers (15 000 to 5 000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bintz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près de 40 ans, dans les massifs montagneux des Alpes françaises du Nord, des programmes de recherche ont renouvelé nos connaissances sur les occupations humaines de la Préhistoire récente. Des gisements ont livré des séquences chrono-culturelles et naturelles de référence. Bien calées chronologiquement, elles autorisent une bonne approche des évolutions culturelles de la fin du Paléolithique supérieur au Néolithique, ainsi que bioclimatiques, du Dryas ancien à l’Atlantique. Pour répondre à des problématiques de circulation et d’occupation des territoires, des prospections thématiques ont été mises en œuvre par des chercheurs d’horizons différents. Dans une première partie sont abordés les questions touchant à la chronologie et au paléoenvironnement révélé notamment par les études sur le monde animal et le milieu végétal. Les épisodes du peuplement préhistorique sont présentés dans une seconde partie. Elle traite notamment des modalités du passage des derniers chasseurs-cueilleurs (magdaléniens, aziliens et mésolithiques aux premiers pasteurs-agriculteurs du Néolithique. Dans une troisième partie est présentée l’évolution des grands courants culturels à l’échelle des Alpes occidentales. Une carte met bien en évidence l’appropriation progressive des Alpes occidentales à partir des régions périphériques.For nearly 40 years, in mountain massifs of the northern French Alps, research programs have renewed our knowledges of human occupations for late prehistory. Some sites have yielded chrono-cultural and natural sequences of reference. Chronologically fit snugly, they allow a good approach of the cultural developments during the late Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic and of bioclimats of Oldest Dryas at the Atlantic. To answer the problems of circulation and occupation of the territories, thematic surveys were carried out by researchers from different backgrounds.In the first

  5. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  6. Premiers éléments de caractérisation génétique de l'alose du Rhône (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE CORRE M.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La systématique des deux espèces du genre Alosa (A. alosa Linné, 1758-grande alose- et A. fallax Lacépède, 1803 -alose feinte- colonisant l'Atlantique-est et la Méditerranée reste encore confuse en l'absence de caractérisation génétique. En particulier, six sous-espèces ont été reconnues chez l'alose feinte uniquement à partir de critères morphométriques et méristiques. Parmi ces sous-espèces, l'une d'entre elles (Alosa fallax rhodanensis Roule, 1924 -alose du Rhône- est inféodée au bassin méditerranéen français et notamment au fleuve Rhône. Les critères morphométriques et méristiques de ce taxon le rattachent sans équivoque à A. fallax. Cependant, son gabarit moyen et certaines de ses caractéristiques écologiques le rapprochent fortement d'A. alosa. Ainsi, pour connaître la véritable identité de l'alose du Rhône, une première caractérisation génétique a été entreprise à l'aide d'une analyse électrophorétique des protéines du foie (gel d'amidon et du sang (isoélectrofocalisation prélevées sur des échantillons d'adultes. Dans un premier temps, deux des loci les plus performants pour différencier les deux aloses atlantiques (MPI, Mannose Phosphate Isomérase et HBA, chaîne α de l'Hémoglobine ont été utilisés. L'observation des fréquences allèliques montre que l'alose du Rhône semble appartenir à l'espèce A. fallax. Dans un deuxième temps, un troisième locus (ADH, Alcool Déshydrogénase a été utilisé car il a été reconnu comme permettant de discriminer les populations d'alose feinte du Portugal. L'expression de sa fréquence allèlique montre que la population du Rhône resterait proche de celle des fleuves du nord du Portugal. Ces premiers résultats sont discutés en fonction des récentes études génétiques réalisées sur les aloses de l'Atlantique. Elles montrent que, compte tenu du caractère particulier de ce taxon, sa caractérisation génétique doit être compl

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) change only (p<0.05, β=23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L) with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β=0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L) positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes negatively (p=0.03, β=-0.01±0.00 mg/dL or -0.00±0.00 mmol/L), and significant age interactions were observed for both. GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  9. Prediction du profil de durete de l'acier AISI 4340 traite thermiquement au laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamri, Ilyes

    Les traitements thermiques de surfaces sont des procedes qui visent a conferer au coeur et a la surface des pieces mecaniques des proprietes differentes. Ils permettent d'ameliorer la resistance a l'usure et a la fatigue en durcissant les zones critiques superficielles par des apports thermiques courts et localises. Parmi les procedes qui se distinguent par leur capacite en terme de puissance surfacique, le traitement thermique de surface au laser offre des cycles thermiques rapides, localises et precis tout en limitant les risques de deformations indesirables. Les proprietes mecaniques de la zone durcie obtenue par ce procede dependent des proprietes physicochimiques du materiau a traiter et de plusieurs parametres du procede. Pour etre en mesure d'exploiter adequatement les ressources qu'offre ce procede, il est necessaire de developper des strategies permettant de controler et regler les parametres de maniere a produire avec precision les caracteristiques desirees pour la surface durcie sans recourir au classique long et couteux processus essai-erreur. L'objectif du projet consiste donc a developper des modeles pour predire le profil de durete dans le cas de traitement thermique de pieces en acier AISI 4340. Pour comprendre le comportement du procede et evaluer les effets des differents parametres sur la qualite du traitement, une etude de sensibilite a ete menee en se basant sur une planification experimentale structuree combinee a des techniques d'analyse statistiques eprouvees. Les resultats de cette etude ont permis l'identification des variables les plus pertinentes a exploiter pour la modelisation. Suite a cette analyse et dans le but d'elaborer un premier modele, deux techniques de modelisation ont ete considerees, soient la regression multiple et les reseaux de neurones. Les deux techniques ont conduit a des modeles de qualite acceptable avec une precision d'environ 90%. Pour ameliorer les performances des modeles a base de reseaux de neurones, deux

  10. Peoples of Africa, Topic 1. Africa South of the Sahara: A Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. (Teaching and Student Guides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    This teaching guide and student text for Project Africa's curriculum program, "Africa South of the Sahara," deal with how four typical contemporary African peoples acquired their present way of life: (1) the Hausa of Northern Nigeria, (2) the Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, (3) the Mech'a Galla of Ethiopa, and (4) the Kikuyu of…

  11. A reward for patience and suffering – Ethnomycology and commodification of desert truffles among Sahrawi refugees and nomads of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Rossi, D.; Dentoni, D.

    2013-01-01

    A Reward for Patience and Suffering: Ethnomycology and Commodification of Desert Truffles among Sahrawi Refugees and Nomads of Western Sahara. This paper reflects on the role of ethnobiological knowledge and practices for refugees’ agency by focusing on the use and commodification of desert truffles

  12. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching/Learning Process for Sustainable Development of Adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Anthonia; Ngozi, Ugwuoke; Rufina, Nwachukwu; Ogbonnaya, Kingsley A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of information technology in the teaching/learning process for sustainable development of adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region (WASSR). Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 3071 participants and instructors drawn from 10 education centres that were…

  13. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES BETWEEN 9500 BP AND 4500 BP: A CONTRIBUTION FROM THE SAHARA TO UNDERSTAND EXPANDING DROUGHTS IN THE “GREAT MEDITERRANEAN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A.A. Garcea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sahara is more connected to the Mediterranean than often assumed and palynology, in particular, has provided evidence of past interrelations between the Mediterranean and the Sahara with pollen spectra from prehistoric Saharan deposits including Mediterranean taxa. In order to show human-environment relationships and populations’ strategies in response to changing environments, this paper presents a case study from the southern Sahara. This region offered a natural laboratory for the study of human/climate interaction as the range of environmental change extended from flood to drought, forcing people to cope with periodic environmental instability. When the tropical rainfall belt migrated northward, watertable outcropped in interdunal depressions and formed permanent lakes, which alternated with severe arid spells. As a case study, this paper presents the results of interdisciplinary investigations on climate changes, human adaptations and subsistence strategies at Gobero, in the southern Sahara of Niger. Gobero is a restricted archaeological area comprising 8 sites that surround the shores of a palaeolake. It was intermittently occupied between about 9500 cal years BP and 4500 BP. Due to alternating environmental conditions it could only be occupied at the beginning and at the end of the most humid periods.

  14. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev,V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-08-02

    The system created in non-central relativisticnucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Dueto spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could becomeglobally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. Wepresent the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarizationmeasurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4 GeV and 200 GeVperformed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed globalpolarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance isconsistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. Theobtained upper limit, lbar P Lambda, anti-Lambda rbar<= 0.02, iscompared to the theoretical values discussed recently in theliterature.

  15. Give me refuge : transforming the most contaminated square mile on earth into a premier urban wildlife refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.

  16. An examination of the migratory transition of elite young European soccer players to the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David; Littlewood, Martin; Nesti, Mark; Benstead, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The migration of soccer players has increased in recent years. In this study, we examined the experiences of elite young soccer players as they engaged in a migratory transition from their home country to an English Premier League (EPL) club. Five young players, who made the migratory transition between the ages of 16 and 24, were interviewed. Data were analysed using the principles of content analysis. Verbatim text was then aligned to the emergent themes. Results indicate that young migratory players face the initial frenzy that is associated with an approach from an EPL club before going through a "decision" phase, followed by a period of "migration" and "acculturation" before establishing (or not) their "home from home". The challenges of leaving home and family while trying to establish themselves as a professional player in an environment that (still) appears to be beset with (traditional) English soccer culture (i.e. high tempo, ruthless, macho, and aggressive) are recounted. While the player's family was a significant source of social support, there is still a need for qualified personnel (e.g. sports psychologists) and/or appropriately trained international recruitment staff and football agents (i.e. in areas of social, psychological, and/or performance lifestyle) to support young players through their migratory transition.

  17. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...... did not differ (P > 0.05) between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations (50%, s = 7 vs. 49%, s = 8 vs. 44%, s = 6). No differences were observed in high-intensity running between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations. Compared with 4-4-2 and 4-3-3 formations, players in a 4-5-1 formation performed less very...... high-intensity running when their team was in possession (312 m, s = 196 vs. 433 m, s = 261 vs. 410 m, s = 270; P ...

  18. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshiet, Unyime I; Yusuff, Kazeem B

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. To assess the current utilization pattern of antihypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79%) were females (237) with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%). The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine) significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago) to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared more cognizant of the long term cardio- and renovascular benefits inherent in using ACEIs in a high cardiovascular risk group such as black hypertensive.

  19. Incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries to referees in a premier football (soccer) league: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-09-01

    Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.

  20. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickles, Anne M., E-mail: anne@bnl.gov

    2014-06-15

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v{sub 2} at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v{sub 2} in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  1. L'au-delà à travers les actes des rois de France et les rouleaux mortuaires du Xème au XIIème siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Jean

    1980-01-01

    J'ai essayé de voir si l'image de l'au-delà avait évolué dans les mentalités entre le Xème et le XIIème siècle, à partir de documents apparemment hétéroclites, les actes royaux d'une part, les rouleaux mortuaires d'autre part. Dans un premier temps, je justifierai le choix de ces sources; puis, après une partie bibliographique, je préciserai le champ de mes recherches et donnerai quelques définitions de diplomatique, indispensables à mon propos; enfin, j'examinerai l'expression de l'attent...

  2. Histoire et devenir des paysages en Himalaya. Représentations des milieux et gestion des ressources au Népal et au Ladakh, Joëlle Smadja (éd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Schlemmer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage s’ouvre par une exposition des théories alarmistes de l’équilibre du « système Himalaya », qui conçoit cette région du monde comme formant un vaste écosystème stable, mais fragile, et menacé par l’homme. Cette théorie, qui place au premier chef le paysan himalayen comme principal responsable des dégradations environnementales qui touchent cette région, influe tant sur les discours écologiques portés par les organismes de développement que sur les politiques publiques. L’éditrice, ...

  3. Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte V; Brito, José C; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Padial, José M; Harris, D James

    2012-09-01

    The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have

  4. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  5. South Asian Heart Risk Assessment (SAHARA): Randomized Controlled Trial Design and Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Zainab; Schulze, Karleen M; Middleton, Catherine; Irvine, Jane; Joseph, Phillip; Mente, Andrew; Shah, Baiju R; Pare, Guillaume; Desai, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    Background People of South Asian origin suffer a high burden of premature myocardial infarction (MI). South Asians form a growing proportion of the Canadian population and preventive strategies to mitigate the risk of MI in this group are needed. Prior studies have shown that multimedia interventions are effective and feasible in inducing health behavior changes among the obese, smokers, and among those who are sedentary. Objective Among at-risk South Asians living in Canada, our objectives are to determine: (1) the feasibility of a culturally tailored multimedia intervention to induce positive behavioral changes associated with reduced MI risk factors, and (2) the effectiveness and acceptability of information communicated by individualized MI and genetic risk score (GRS) reports. Methods The South Asian HeArt Risk Assessment (SAHARA) pilot study enrolled 367 individuals of South Asian origin recruited from places of worship and community centers in Ontario, Canada. MI risk factors including the 9p21 genetic variant status were provided to all participants after the baseline visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive a multimedia intervention or control. The intervention group selected health goals and received personalized health messages to promote adherence to their selected goals. After 6 months, all participants had their MI risk factors repeated. The methods and results of this study are reported based on the CONSORT-EHEALTH guidelines. Results The mean age of participants was 53.8 years (SD 11.4), 52.0% (191/367) were women, and 97.5% (358/367) were immigrants to Canada. The mean INTERHEART risk score was 13.0 (SD 5.8) and 73.3% (269/367) had one or two copies of the risk allele for the 9p21 genetic variant. Both the intervention and control groups made some progress in health behavior changes related to diet and physical activity over 6 months. Participants reported that their risk score reports motivated behavioral changes, although half of

  6. Decay spectroscopy of $^{178}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B

    In this thesis, the neutron-deficient nucleus $^{178}$Au is investigated through decay spectroscopy. Si and HPGe detectors were used to analyse the decay radiation of $^{178}$Au and its daughter nuclei. Previous studies have been unable to distinguish decay radiation from different isomeric states of this nucleus. This thesis represents the first time such isomeric discrimination has been achieved, and presents tentative spin assignments of both the ground state and an isomer. The neutron-deficient gold isotopes are an area of interest for the study of shape coexistence. This is the phenomenon exhibited by nuclei able to exist at a number of close lying energy minima, each reflecting a distinct type of deformation. It is hoped that studies such as this can help identify the evolution of nuclear deformation in this region of the nuclear chart.

  7. Franc-maçonnerie et cosmopolitisme au siècle des Lumières

    OpenAIRE

    Belissa, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Cet ouvrage de notre collèque de l’Université d’Artois P. Y. Beaurepaire présente dans cinq chapitres concis une synthèse de la problématique franc-maçonnerie/cosmopolitisme. On retrouve là une partie des thèmes présents dans sa thèse «  L’Autre et le Frère. L’Étranger et la Franc-maçonnerie en France au xviiie siècle », ouvrage qui a obtenu le prix Le Monde de la recherche universitaire, ainsi que le prix Blaise-Pascal. Le premier chapitre rappelle que le cosmopolitisme des maçons est  « la ...

  8. Le CRDI au Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La stabilité politique du Costa Rica a fait de ce pays un partenaire essen- tiel du CRDI en Amérique centrale pour la recherche portant sur l'agriculture, les politiques économiques, la démocratisation et la prévention des catastrophes naturelles. Le CRDI a beaucoup contribué à la recherche en agriculture au Costa Rica,.

  9. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  10. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  11. L’évaluation et le traitement du nourrisson exposé au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans les pays industrialisés, des soins et un traitement sont offerts aux femmes enceintes et aux nourrissons, afin de faire chuter à 2 % ou moins le taux d’infection périnatale au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1 (VIH-1). Le pédiatre joue un rôle de premier plan dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l’enfant par le dépistage des nourrissons exposés au VIH dont l’infection au VIH de la mère n’a pas été diagnostiquée avant l’accouchement. Il prescrit une prophylaxie antirétrovirale à ces nourrissons, afin de réduire le risque d’acquisition de l’infection au VIH-1 et d’en éviter le plus possible la transmission par le lait maternel. De plus, le pédiatre peut soigner les nourrissons exposés au VIH-1 en les surveillant pour obtenir un dépistage précoce de l’infection au VIH-1 et évaluer les toxicités à court et à long terme de l’exposition aux antirétroviraux, assurer une chimioprophylaxie de la pneumonie à Pneumocystis et soutenir les familles qui vivent avec une infection au VIH-1, grâce à des conseils thérapeutiques aux parents ou aux soignants.

  12. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  13. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  14. Les premiers succès obtenus en matière de lutte contre la faim en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 nov. 2013 ... Des spécialistes du sol et des phytologues de l'Université d'Awassa, en Éthiopie, et de l'Université de la Saskatchewan, au Canada, ont collaboré avec des agriculteurs pour mettre à l'essai la culture en rotation de céréales et de légumineuses à graines comme le haricot, la lentille et le pois chiche.

  15. Dust and biological aerosols from the Sahara and Asia influence precipitation in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M; Suski, Kaitlyn J; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cazorla, Alberto; DeMott, Paul J; Sullivan, Ryan C; White, Allen B; Ralph, F Martin; Minnis, Patrick; Comstock, Jennifer M; Tomlinson, Jason M; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-03-29

    Winter storms in California's Sierra Nevada increase seasonal snowpack and provide critical water resources and hydropower for the state. Thus, the mechanisms influencing precipitation in this region have been the subject of research for decades. Previous studies suggest Asian dust enhances cloud ice and precipitation, whereas few studies consider biological aerosols as an important global source of ice nuclei (IN). Here, we show that dust and biological aerosols transported from as far as the Sahara were present in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated IN concentrations and ice-induced precipitation. This study presents the first direct cloud and precipitation measurements showing that Saharan and Asian dust and biological aerosols probably serve as IN and play an important role in orographic precipitation processes over the western United States.

  16. The Sources of Moisture in the Sand Dunes – The Example of the Western Sahara Dune Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzka Elwira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.

  17. [Severe keratomycosis due to Fusarium solani induced by a telluric foreign body: About a case in moroccan Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er-Rami, M; Souhail, H; Lemkhente, Z; El Mellouki, W; Lmimouni, B

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of severe keratitis due to Fusarium solani in a young man in the Sahara in Morocco where the climate is arid. This patient reported had a grain of sand in his right eye for a week after a sandstorm. On admission he had a corneal abscess. Despite rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment with available antifungal drugs: amphotericin B and natamycin eye drops, the prognosis worsened and led to the enucleation of the right eye. Faced with a suspected eye infection after a microtrauma caused by grains of sand carried by a sandstorm, it is important to take biological samples to search for fungal infections among other. It is also important to have new triazole antifungal drugs available to treat ocular mycosis rapidly and effectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. África al sur del Sahara: conflictos y degradación ambiental en el Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Shmite

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sahel is a region located south of the Sahara Desert that is affected by a combination of problems, including droughts, soil degradation, demographic pressure, malnutrition, poverty, migration, conflicts, and refugees, among others. In this region, environmental changes strongly impact sociocultural, political and economic dimensions. These changes also act as multipliers of social tensions and stimulate political instability. The goal of this article is to identify these problems and analyze environmental variables to address the territorial context. This study seeks to interpret a range of sources, such as cartographical data, statistics and academic publications, that may allow for not only the complex network of persisting conflicts but also emerging conflicts in this cross-border African region to be comprehensively visualized and understood.

  19. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick W. Stander; Llewellyn E. Van Zyl

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport ...

  20. The Effect of Autonomy-Supportive Behaviors of Coaches on Need Satisfaction and Sport Commitment of Elite Female Players in Handball Premier League

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar; Shirin Zardoshtian; Behesht Ahmady; Azadeh Azadi

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey) method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES), satisfaction ...

  1. Occurrence and predictors of acute stent recoil-A comparison between the xience prime cobalt chromium stent and the promus premier platinum chromium stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Rutger J; Lemmert, Miguel E; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; van Domburg, Ron T; Daemen, Joost

    2017-05-13

    To compare the occurrence of acute stent recoil in two different stent types (platinum chromium and cobalt chromium) and identify the potential predictors of significant acute stent recoil. Acute stent recoil is frequently observed after percutaneous coronary intervention and has been associated with in-stent restenosis and in-stent thrombosis. Different stent designs may result in varying degrees of stent recoil. From a registry of "all-comers" treated with either the Xience Prime Cobalt Chromium or Promus Premier Platinum Chromium stent, a random sample of 100 patients was drawn. Acute stent recoil was defined as the minimal luminal diameter (MLD) of the last inflated balloon minus the MLD after, divided by the MLD of the last inflated balloon. Significant acute stent recoil was defined as recoil ≥10%. A total of 123 lesions (61 Xience Prime vs 62 Promus Premier) in 100 patients were analyzed. Acute stent recoil of 8.6 ± 4.9% was observed in the Xience Prime group versus 8.7 ± 4.2% in the Promus Premier group, P = 0.970. In a multivariate model for significant acute stent recoil, a stent/vessel ratio ≥1 (hazard ratio 4.64 [1.94-11.12], P = 0.001), a balloon/stent ratio >1 (hazard ratio 3.83 [1.12-13.14], P = 0.032) and direct stenting (hazard ratio 0.42 [0.18-0.96], P = 0.039) were identified as predictors. No significant differences were observed in the extent of acute stent recoil between the Xience Prime and the Promus Premier stent. A larger stent/vessel ratio, a larger balloon/stent ratio, and direct stenting were associated with significant acute stent recoil ≥10%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ethnomycological survey of traditional usage and indigenous knowledge on desert truffles among the native Sahara Desert people of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Lyès; Neffar, Souad; Amrani, Khaled; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-03-13

    Desert truffles are edible hypogeous fungi, highly appreciated by the inhabitants of hot-desert settlements. Native Saharan people use truffles for food, promoting tourism, increasing fertility, and treatment of eye diseases and fatigue. This study consists of a cross-sectional survey focusing on the knowledge, use and ethnomycological practices of desert truffles among the native people of the Algerian Northern Sahara. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 60 truffle-hunters in the regions of Ouargla and Ghardaia. Three species were harvested and consumed by the surveyed subjects: Terfezia claveryi was the most appreciated and most expensive species, followed by Terfezia areanaria moderately preferred, then Tirmania nivea the least appreciated and least expensive. Among the 60 interviewees, 90% rely on the abundance of symbiotic plants (Helianthemum lippii) to harvest truffles, 65% begin harvesting from mid-February to March, after rains of the autumn (38%) and winter (36%), particularly in the Wadi beds (37%) and Daya landscapes (32%). Interviewees harvested truffles mainly for home consumption; however 26.7% sell any harvest surplus, and of those only 15% generate significant revenue from this source, and 73% considered the sale of desert truffles to have low financial value. Desert truffles are used in traditional medicine, especially against eye infections (22%), weakness (19%) and to promote male fertility (19%). In the case of desert truffles for consumption, the surveyed population preferred to prepare the truffles with couscous and meat, or in porridge. Respondents used price as the main criterion for deciding whether to purchase desert truffles. The surveyed trufflers use the knowledge passed from one generation to the next to help ensure a good harvest of truffles during each foray into the desert. Our findings highlight the various uses of truffles in the Sahara Desert, and how these relate to the lifestyle of local people. Copyright

  3. Mineral Dust Analysis and Application in Refining Source Region Information for the Sahara and East Asia Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, E. A.; Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D.; Cliff, S.; Dunlap, M.

    2002-12-01

    The study of transported mineral dust aerosols relies heavily on simplified dust source region parameters. Source regions are broadly defined by soil class and expected erodibility, factors which continuously changes with land use and climate conditions. Mineral dust particles may undergo numerous cycles of deposition and re-entrainment prior to collection and analysis. Using the Sahara Desert and the East Asia deserts as test cases, we investigate the possibility of retrieving source information from receptor sites through single particle and bulk analyses of collected aerosol particles. In June and July of 2000, Saharan mineral dust aerosols transported across the Atlantic Ocean to Puerto Rico were collected for bulk and single particle chemical and morphological analyses. The Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, (PRIDE), involved sampling aerosols upwind of the islands at various altitudes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and Saharan Air Layer (SAL) via a Navajo research aircraft. A surface site included a Davis Rotating Drum (DRUM) cascade impactor to size segregate the aerosols into eight stages, from 12 to 0.1 micrometers, with four-hour time resolution. In April of 2001, size segregated Asian mineral dust aerosols were collected by three hour resolution DRUM samplers at surface sites in Cheju, Taiwan, for bulk chemical analysis. The aircraft samples and selected DRUM samples were subjected to single particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology, and by Energy Dispersive Analysis with X-rays (EDAX) to derive elemental ratios of key soil elements. The DRUM samples were subjected to X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to derive bulk elemental composition for elements Al though Zn. Cluster and principal component analysis of the data derived statistically significant particle groupings. By including particle morphology data, and using ternary analyses, derivation of additional source information was possible. Particle compositions

  4. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... Si les graines occupent une place de premier plan dans l'alimentation des oiseaux, explique M. Karanja, il semble néanmoins que ces derniers .... for International Agricultural Research signed an agreement for a new CA$25 million investment for the second phase of the Cultivate Africa's Future Fund.

  5. Transport characteristics in Au/pentacene/Au diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Naka, Akiyoshi; Hiroki, Masanobu; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao; Fujiwara, Akira

    2018-03-01

    We have used scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM) to study the structure of a pentacene thin film grown on a Au layer with and shown that it consists of randomly oriented amorphous pentacene clusters. We have also investigated the transport properties of amorphous pentacene in a metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) diode structure and shown that the current is logarithmically proportional to the square root of the applied voltage, which indicates that transport occurs as the result of hopping between localized sites randomly distributed in space and energy.

  6. Acces au traitement anticancereux au Togo (access to treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte : Au Togo, l'incidence et la mortalité des cancers ne cessent de croître en raison du diagnostic et de la prise en charge tardifs. D'autres raisons telles que l'absence d'oncologue spécialiste et la faible accessibilité aux médicaments anticancéreux sont de plus en plus évoquées. L'objectif de cette étude était de ...

  7. Soccer Match Play as an Important Component of the Power-Training Stimulus in Premier League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Ryland; Di Michele, Rocco; Drust, Barry

    2018-01-02

    Competitive match play is a dominant component of the physical load completed by soccer players in a training microcycle. Characterizing the temporal disruption in homeostasis that follows exercise may provide some insight on the potential for match play to elicit an adaptive response. Countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance was characterized 3 d postmatch for 15 outfield players from an English Premier League soccer team (age 25.8 ± 4.1 y, stature 1.78 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 71.7 ± 9.1 kg) across a season. These players were classified as either starters (n = 9) or nonstarters (n = 6), according to their average individual playing time (more or less than 60 min/match). Linear mixed models were used to investigate the influence of indicators of match activity (total distance covered [TD] and high-intensity running distance [HI]) on CMJ height and peak power (PP). Starting players covered much greater TD (ES = 1.5) and HI (ES = 1.4) than nonstarters. Furthermore, there was a possible positive effect of HI on CMJ height and PP. This relationship suggests that an additional 0.6 km of HI would increase CMJ height and PP by slightly more than the smallest-worthwhile-change values of 0.6 cm and 1.0 W/kg, respectively. This small yet practically relevant increase in performance may suggest that match play, more specifically the intense activities that are associated with the match, provides a physiological stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. These data may have implications for the preparation of soccer squads, especially the training requirements of starting and nonstarting players.

  8. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  9. Continuations intra- et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkova Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuations intra et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux Cet article rend compte d’un certain nombre d’observations pour l’étude des continuations mineures et majeures en français. Ces observations ont été obtenues dans le cadre d’un projet en cours sur les patrons prosodiques non-conclusifs en français et en anglais. Ici, Nous discutons plus particulièrement les variations de pente concernant deux types de configurations continuatives : (i le segment final d’un SN sujet dans une phrase simple déclarative, suivie ou non d’une autre phrase, (ii le segment final de X dans une suite complexe de type XY où X et Y sont des phrases simples reliées par une relation de discours, marquée ou non par une conjonction. A l’issu d’un protocole expérimental contrastant huit configurations proposées à trente deux sujets, nous avons relevé les valeurs de F0 toutes les 10 ms sur les segments finaux du SN et de X. En calculant le coefficient de la droite de régression correspondant à ce segment, nous avons contrasté les différentes configurations. Les résultats vont dans le sens de l’existence deux types de continuation, conformément à une intuition répandue dans la littérature, mais montrent aussi que leur différence doit se décrire à l’aide paramètres plus complexes que ce qui est généralement proposé.

  10. The Effect of Promotional Tools on Conveying Brand Identity from Sport Consumers’ Viewpoint in the Country’s Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Asadollahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.

  11. High-p(T) Tomography of d+Au and Au+Au at SPS, RHIC, and LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitev, Ivan; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2002-12-16

    The interplay of nuclear effects on the p(T)>2 GeV inclusive hadron spectra in d+Au and Au+Au reactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=17, 200, and 5500 GeV is compared to leading order perturbative QCD calculations for elementary p+p (p+p) collisions. The competition between nuclear shadowing, Cronin effect, and jet energy loss due to medium-induced gluon radiation is predicted to lead to a striking energy dependence of the nuclear suppression/enhancement pattern in A+A reactions. We show that future d+Au data can be used to disentangle the initial and final state effects.

  12. Profiling hot and dense nuclear medium with high transverse momentum hadrons produced in d+Au and Au+Au collisions by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaguchi Takao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PHENIX measurements of high transverse momentum (pT identified hadrons in d+Au and Au+Au collisions are presented. The nuclear modification factors (RdA and RAA for π0 and ƞ are found to be very consistent in both collision systems, respectively. Using large amount of p + p and Au+Au datasets, the fractional momentum loss (Sloss and the path-length dependent yield of π0 in Au+Au collisions are obtained. The hadron spectra in the most central d+Au and the most peripheral Au+Au collisions are studied. The spectra shapes are found to be similar in both systems, but the yield is suppressed in the most peripheral Au+Au collisions.

  13. Au38(SPh)24: Au38 Protected with Aromatic Thiolate Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambukwella, Milan; Burrage, Shayna; Neubrander, Marie; Baseggio, Oscar; Aprà, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Dass, Amala

    2017-04-06

    Au38(SR)24 is one of the most extensively investigated gold nanomolecules along with Au25(SR)18 and Au144(SR)60. However, so far it has only been prepared using aliphatic-like ligands, where R = -SC6H13, -SC12H25 and -SCH2CH2Ph. Au38(SCH2CH2Ph)24 when reacted with HSPh undergoes core-size conversion to Au36(SPh)24, and existing literature suggests that Au38(SPh)24 cannot be synthesized. Here, contrary to prevailing knowledge, we demonstrate that Au38(SPh)24 can be prepared if the ligand exchanged conditions are optimized, under delicate conditions, without any formation of Au36(SPh)24. Conclusive evidence is presented in the form of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS) characterization, and optical spectra of Au38(SPh)24 in a solid glass form showing distinct differences from that of Au38(S-aliphatic)24. Theoretical analysis confirms experimental assignment of the optical spectrum and shows that the stability of Au38(SPh)24 is not negligible with respect to that of its aliphatic analogous, and contains a significant component of ligand-ligand attractive interactions. Thus, while Au38(SPh)24 is stable at RT, it converts to Au36(SPh)24 either on prolonged etching (longer than 2 hours) at RT or when etched at 80 °C.

  14. The Reagan Doctrine, Morocco, and the Conflict in the Western Sahara: An Appraisal of United States Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Malki, H. Etat et Developpement Industriel au Maroc . Casablanca: Les Editions Meghrebines, 1982. * El Ktiri, Mustapha. Fiscalite et Dfveloppement au ...groups, (2) not allowing any segment to depart from the political arena, (3) assuring that the followers of the monarchy are well-treated and that they...involving speculations and assurances of stability "experts" have proven to be disastrously wrong (e.g., the alleged stability of the Shah of Iran

  15. Genre et migration au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    KHACHANI, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Une des principales caractéristiques récentes de la migration marocaine est sa tendance à une féminisation soutenue. Le projet migratoire - qui était un projet d’hommes - intéresse de plus en plus les femmes marocaines au point de constituer actuellement près de la moitié de l’effectif migratoire marocain. Cette reconnaissance de l'importance des femmes dans la construction de l'espace migratoire a placé ...

  16. Genre et migration au Liban

    OpenAIRE

    JOUNI, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) La femme possède un statut bien avancé au sein de la société libanaise : la Constitution libanaise proclame l’égalité entre les citoyens. Quelques lois et pratiques restent, toutefois, discriminatoires à l’égard de la femme, notamment la loi sur la nationalité et la loi sur le statut personnel. Une discrimination sociale très grave existe en ce qui concerne les femmes travaillant à domicile; elles subi...

  17. STEM Curricula. Premiere PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan, Ed.; Ernst, Jeremy, Ed.; Clark, Aaron, Ed.; DeLuca, Bill, Ed.; Kelly, Daniel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This professional development activity on STEM Education is designed to keep Technology and Engineering teachers up to date regarding current and important issues in the discipline. This article describes why there is a focus on STEM Education, defines STEM Education, and discusses curriculum integration and its elements.

  18. Best Practices. Premiere PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, Bill; Kelly, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Educators who engage in best practices utilize a variety of instructional delivery methods to assist all learners in achieving success in concept mastery. Best practices help educators set expectations for completing activities/lessons/projects/units, differentiate instruction, integrate curricula, and provide active learning opportunities for…

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for 181Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to 181Au have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation of 181Au supersedes the previous publication (R. B. Firestone, Nuclear Data Sheets 62, 101 (1991) (literature cutoff date October 1990)), and includes literature available by 2 July 1999. The newly incorporated references are: 1999Mu05, 1999So01, 1995Au04, 1995Bi01, 1991Ry01, 1979Ha10, 1970Ha18.

  20. Nuclear data sheets for 181Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1999-07-02

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to 181Au have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation of 181Au supersedes the previous publication (R. B. Firestone, Nuclear Data Sheets 62, 101 (1991) (literature cutoff date October 1990)), and includes literature available by 2 July 1999. The newly incorporated references are: 1999Mu05, 1999So01, 1995Au04, 1995Bi01, 1991Ry01, 1979Ha10, 1970Ha18.

  1. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  2. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  3. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  4. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  5. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  6. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  7. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  8. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  9. Mise au point d'un reacteur epitaxial CBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Hubert

    cm-3, en accord avec la courbe théorique. La croissance du matériau ternaire GaInP a aussi été réalisée en accord de maille avec le substrat de GaAs, et avec une rugosité de 0, 96 nm. Ceci constitue un premier pas dans la croissance d'alliages ternaires au laboratoire. Finalement, la mise en marche du réacteur d'épitaxie par jets chimiques permet maintenant à cinq étudiants gradués de faire progresser des projets reliés directement à la croissance épitaxiale au Laboratoire d'Épitaxie Avancée de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Mots-clés : Épitaxie par jets chimiques; Chemical beam epitaxy; CBE; MOMBE; GaAs; GaInP; LabVIEW; Théorie du vide.

  10. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshiet UI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. Objective: To assess the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Results: Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79% were females (237 with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%. The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. The use of thiazide diuretic and methyldopa declined significantly from 39.4% and 23.3% (Ten years ago to 16.12% and 9.7% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. Adverse drug reactions due to ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3, while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111 of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75 of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%, ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%. Conclusions: Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared

  12. Le premier examen gynécologique idéal imaginé par les jeunes filles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyens, Anne; Dejeanne, Mélanie; Fabre, Elise; Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Oustric, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les représentations sur l’examen gynécologique (EG) et identifier les critères nécessaires à son bon déroulement chez des adolescentes n’ayant pas encore vécu cet examen. Type d’étude Enquête qualitative par entrevues semi-dirigées. Contexte Midi-Pyrénées (France) et Auvergne (France). Participants Jeunes filles de 15 à 19 ans qui n’ayant pas vécu l’EG. Méthodes Le mode de recrutement de l’échantillon a été double : sélection des jeunes filles par la technique boule-de-neige et sélection par la technique d’échantillonnage ciblé jusqu’à l’obtention de la saturation des données tout en cherchant la variation maximale dans les profils des sujets. Les questions ouvertes portaient sur les sources d’informations, les connaissances, les critères de bon déroulement et l’imaginaire autour de l’EG. Le verbatim a fait l’objet d’une analyse longitudinale immédiate rassemblant le contexte (notes des chercheurs) et les idées principales de l’entretien. Une analyse transversale thématique a été réalisée. Principales constatations Une méconnaissance générale des jeunes filles sur l’EG entretenait l’imaginaire autour de cet examen perçu comme obligatoire. L’EG idéal, selon les jeunes filles interrogées, aurait lieu chez une jeune fille qui se sentirait prête, informée préalablement, pouvant être accompagnée selon son souhait. Cet examen se déroulerait dans un environnement chaleureux et confortable afin de diminuer le sentiment de vulnérabilité. La qualité du lien avec le médecin conditionnerait l’acceptation de cet examen par les jeunes filles. Conclusion Une consultation dédiée à l’information, préalable à la consultation où a lieu l’EG, permettrait de diminuer les appréhensions, d’améliorer les connaissances des jeunes filles et de favoriser le bon déroulement du futur premier EG tant pour le médecin que pour la patiente. PMID:28807971

  13. Genetic analysis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks parasites of dogs in Africa north of the Sahara based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Langguth, Johanna; Pfeffer, Martin; Kattner, Simone; Küpper, Thomas; Friese, Daniela; Dobler, Gerhard; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this work was to determine the evolutionary relationship among tick populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato distributed in Africa north of the Sahara and different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. distributed in different regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, America and Europe through the analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes. One hundred and thirty six 16S rRNA gene sequences and twenty-seven 12S rRNA gene sequences of R. sanguineus s.l. were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed including different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. from America, Europe and Africa, and species belonging to the R. sanguineus group as Rhipicephalus camicasi, Rhipicephalus guilhoni, Rhipicephalus sulcatus, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus pusillus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus leporis. At least two different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. are living in sympatry in Africa north of the Sahara. One of these mitochondrial lineages belongs to the same evolutionary entity that R. sanguineus s.l. from tropical areas of America, R. sanguineus s.l. from Sub-Saharan Africa, R. camicasi and R. guilhoni. The other mitochondrial lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. present in Africa north of the Sahara is phylogenetically associated to R. sanguineus s.l. ticks from southeastern Europe (Romania, Turkey and Greece). Both evolutionary entities are clearly different to the evolutionary entity formed by R. sanguineus s.l. from western Europe and temperate areas of America. Thus, the name R. sanguineus s.s. cannot be assigned to any of the two evolutionary entities present in Africa north of the Sahara. The taxonomic status of these taxa will remain unresolved until new lines of evidence become available to complement the current results based on mitochondrial DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 'Everybody knows', but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Di Nardo, Antonello; Rossi, Davide; Saleh, Saleh M Lamin; Broglia, Alessandro

    2013-01-10

    The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation.

  15. PHENIX results on collectivity in high-multiplicity p + Au, d + Au and 3He + Au collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    We present recent PHENIX results for long-range two-particle correlation functions across a large pseudorapidity(η) gap in high-multiplicity p+Au, d+Au and 3He+Au collisions. Enhanced correlations are observed for particles with small azimuthal separation. Measurements of the second order Fourier coefficients (v 2) in p/d/3He+Au collisions, and the third order Fourier coefficient (v 3) in 3He+Au collision are performed using the event plane method. Scaling of v 2 with the initial eccentricity (ɛ 2) is performed in each system to investigate the role of the initial geometry in the development of a final-state anisotropy in the particle emission. The v 2 coefficients for identified π±, K± and (anti-)proton are measured as a function of transverse kinetic energy (KET) and their magnitudes are found to scale approximately with the number of constituent quarks in the hadron.

  16. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadda eLAALLAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM.Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38±0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5±550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey electrical conductivity. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1±4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive with 3.9±5.4 mm. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5±4.7 mm.Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.Keywords: Honey characterization; antibacterial effects

  17. Comparative study of anchoring groups for molecular electronics: structure and conductance of Au-S-Au and Au-NH{sub 2}-Au junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, I S; Mowbray, D J; Thygesen, K S; Jacobsen, K W [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Building 307, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-09-17

    The electrical properties of single-molecule junctions, consisting of an organic molecule coupled to metal electrodes, are sensitive to the detailed atomic structure of the molecule-metal contact. This, in turn, is determined by the anchoring group linking the molecule to the metal. With the aim of identifying and comparing the intrinsic properties of two commonly used anchoring groups, namely thiol and amine groups, we have calculated the atomic structure and conductance traces of different Au-S-Au and Au-NH{sub 2}-Au nanojunctions using density functional theory (DFT). Whereas NH{sub 2} shows a strong structural selectivity towards atop-gold configurations, S shows large variability in its bonding geometries. As a result, the conductance of the Au-NH{sub 2}-Au junction is less sensitive to the structure of the gold contacts than the Au-S-Au junction. These findings support recent experiments which show that amine-bonded molecules exhibit more well-defined conductance properties than do thiol-bonded molecules.

  18. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  19. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  20. Au microstructure and the functional properties of Ni/Au finishes on ceramic IC packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, E.D.; Baxter, W.K. [Coors Electronic Package Co., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Braski, D.N.; Watkins, T.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ni/Au plated finishes used on thick-film metallized multilayer ceramic packages for integrated circuits must meet functional requirements such as bondability, sealability, and solderability. Their ability to do so is dependent, among other things, on the ability of the Au deposit to inhibit the grain boundary diffusion and subsequent surface oxidation of Ni. In this study, the relation between functional performance, Ni diffusionr ate, and Au microstructure was examined. Extent of Ni diffusion during heating was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy for several electrolytic and electroless Ni/Au finishing processes. Results were correlated with differences in Au microstructures determined by SEM, atomic force microscopy, and XRD.

  1. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation of converge......This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  2. Structure of the thiolated Au130 cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlahuice-Flores, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Bahena, Daniel; Vinogradova, Ekaterina; Conroy, Cecil V; Ahuja, Tarushee; Bach, Stephan B H; Ponce, Arturo; Wang, Gangli; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Whetten, Robert L

    2013-10-10

    The structure of the recently discovered Au130-thiolate and -dithiolate clusters is explored in a combined experiment-theory approach. Rapid electron diffraction in scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) enables atomic-resolution imaging of the gold core and the comparison with density functional theory (DFT)-optimized realistic structure models. The results are consistent with a 105-atom truncated-decahedral core protected by 25 short staple motifs, incorporating disulfide bridges linking the dithiolate ligands. The optimized structure also accounts, via time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) simulation, for the distinctive optical absorption spectrum, and rationalizes the special stability underlying the selective formation of the Au130 cluster in high yield. The structure is distinct from, yet shares some features with, each of the known Au102 and Au144/Au146 systems.

  3. Gas-phase experiments on Au(III) photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jesse C; Kaufman, Sydney H; Weber, J Mathias

    2011-04-14

    Irradiation of AuCl(4)(-) and AuCl(2)(OH)(2)(-) in the gas-phase using ultraviolet light (220-415 nm) leads to their dissociation. Observed fragment ions for AuCl(4)(-) are AuCl(3)(-) and AuCl(2)(-) and for AuCl(2)(OH)(2)(-) are AuCl(2)(-) and AuClOH(-). All fragment channels correspond to photoreduction of the gold atom to either Au(II) or Au(I) depending on the number of neutral ligands lost. Fragment branching ratios of AuCl(4)(-) are observed to be highly energy dependent and can be explained by comparison of the experimental data to calculated threshold energies obtained using density functional theory. The main observed spectral features are attributed to ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. These results are discussed in the context of the molecular-level mechanisms of Au(III) photochemistry.

  4. Magnetic depth profiling of Fe/Au multilayer using neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Au multilayer sample for characterizing the layer structure and magnetic moment density profile. Fe/Au multilayer shows strong spin-dependent scattering at interfaces, making it a prospective GMR material. Fe/Au multilayer with bilayer ...

  5. Sot Michel et Barthélemy Dominique (éd., L’Islam au carrefour des civilisations médiévales, Presses de l’université Paris- Sorbonne, 2012, 232 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bouali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage est issu d’un ensemble de conférences données à l’université Paris-Sorbonne Abou Dhabi. La majorité des historiens qui ont participé à cette entreprise enseignent à la Sorbonne. Force est toutefois de constater l’omniprésence d’un historien japonais et d’un autre tunisien. De quoi est-il question dans ce livre ? Le titre, L’Islam au carrefour des civilisations médiévales, démontre aux premiers abords qu’il s’agit de mettre fin au « civilisationnisme » de Fernand Braudel, qui n’env...

  6. Cinéma d’animation : « Le conte de fées est à l’aise au Moyen Âge »

    OpenAIRE

    Ocelot, Michel; Gorgievski, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Le réalisateur français de cinéma d’animation Michel Ocelot a réalisé une trentaine de courts métrages avant son premier long métrage au succès retentissant, Kirikou et la sorcière (1998), suivi de Kirikou et les bêtes sauvages (2005). Dans cet entretien, il s’exprime sur deux de ses œuvres proches du conte de fées, faisant la part belle au Moyen Âge : Princes et princesses (1999), film d’animation dont le montage suit la technique des ombres chinoises et Azur et Asmar (2006), film d’animatio...

  7. Percepções do tempo e memória de um franco-argelino: estudo do romance Le Premier Homme (1994), de Albert Camus

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Jéssica Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    No fim da década de cinquenta, quando eclodiu o conflito de independência na Argélia e grande parte dos intelectuais franceses apoiavam a causa nacionalista, Albert Camus encontrava-se em posição marginal no cenário francês e escrevia o manuscrito do que viria a ser o romance Le Premier Homme. A narrativa traça a trajetória de um franco-argelino em busca de rastros sobre seu pai morto na Primeira Guerra Mundial enquanto lutava pela França. O texto que viria a ser publicado em 1994 por sua fil...

  8. Hossegor (Landes, une station au cœur des réseaux de villégiature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Laroche

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La station balnéaire d’Hossegor (Landes a connu son véritable lancement à partir de 1923, alors que le site avait été révélé quelques années auparavant, au tout début du siècle, par les séjours d’un groupe d’écrivains, parmi lesquels J.-H. Rosny jeune (1859-1948, Maxime Leroy (1873-1957 et Paul Margueritte (1860-1918. A partir de cet exemple landais, l’exposé tend à démontrer combien la création d’une station balnéaire, de sa découverte à sa promotion en passant par sa révélation au monde extérieur, doit au jeu des réseaux de tous ordres. Contemplatifs, les premiers occupants d’Hossegor n’auront pourtant de cesse de faire connaître le lieu en s’appuyant pour cela sur un puissant réseau de relations, notamment journalistiques. Actif, le promoteur de la station, Alfred Eluère (1893-1985, ne pourra assurer son succès qu’en utilisant le cercle relationnel très ouvert et très efficace que ses multiples activités – immobilières, mais aussi sportives et politiques – l’auront amené à constituer. Sa venue à Hossegor n’est d’ailleurs rien d’autre que le résultat de circonstances permises par le jeu de tout un tissu de relations au milieu duquel on trouve entre autres Maurice Martin (1861-1941, personnage haut en couleur, journaliste cultivant lui aussi au plus haut point le réseau des connaissances. Une fois la station lancée, la promotion immobilière saura jouer de tous les ressorts offerts par ces différents réseaux pour amener sur place la clientèle : de la propagande journalistique au réseau des agences immobilières en passant par le propre réseau relationnel d’Eluère. Parallèlement, le réseau des architectes sera lui aussi particulièrement actif, que ce soit pour s’attirer la commande ou pour propager la formule régionaliste. En conclusion, à côté de l’histoire officielle des stations balnéaires – une histoire au premier degré que les archives documentent

  9. Viruses in the desert: a metagenomic survey of viral communities in four perennial ponds of the Mauritanian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Laura; Trape, Sébatien; Robert, Catherine; Boyer, Mickaël; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2013-02-01

    Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities from four perennial ponds (gueltas) located in the central Sahara (Mauritania). Three of the four gueltas (Ilij, Molomhar and Hamdoun) are located at the source of three different wadis belonging to the same hydrologic basin, whereas the fourth (El Berbera) belongs to a different basin. Overall, sequences belonging to tailed bacteriophages were the most abundant in all four metagenomes although electron microscopy and sequencing confirmed the presence of other viral groups, such as large DNA viruses. We observed a decrease in the local viral biodiversity in El Berbera, a guelta with sustained human activities, compared with the pristine Ilij and Molomhar, and sequences related to viruses infecting crop pests were also detected as a probable consequence of the agricultural use of the soil. However, the structure of the El Berbera viral community shared the common global characteristics of the pristine gueltas, that is, it was dominated by Myoviridae and, more particularly, by virulent phages infecting photosynthetic cyanobacteria, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus spp. In contrast, the Hamdoun viral community was characterized by a larger proportion of phages with the potential for a temperate lifestyle and by dominant species related to phages infecting heterotrophic bacteria commonly found in terrestrial environments. We hypothesized that the differences observed in the structural and functional composition of the Hamdoun viral community resulted from the critically low water level experienced by the guelta.

  10. Holocene freshwater carbonate structures in the hyper-arid Gebel Uweinat region of the Sahara Desert (Southwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita M.; Meckler, A. Nele; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of the Sahara is at present the driest region of the desert. Yet the extensive animal rock art in the area, presumed to depict real activities in the lives of the painters, suggests that environmental conditions were significantly different when the rock art was produced. Here we report on exploration of the area, which led to the discovery of morphologically-distinct carbonate structures that line the walls of two valleys in Gebel Uweinat, and were likely formed in standing water. The carbonate structures comprise what appear to be shoreline carbonate formations, and date back to 8100 and 9400 years BP. The chemical and morphological similarity of these formations to carbonate structures from modern lakes suggests that these lakes contained fresh, standing water suitable for human and animal use. However, the significant quartz content suggests that windblown sand was pervasive, and thus the vegetation cover may have been sparse. This discovery supports the possibility of grasslands in the area, which may have been able to support human habitation, and adds to the evidence for a wetter climate in the area in the early Holocene.

  11. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from Western Sahara and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Assumpció; Cantos, Gemma; Aguilar, Alex; Androukaki, Eugenia; Dendrinos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    Blubber from Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from the Western Sahara coast (Atlantic), sampled during 1996-1999, and from the Greek coast (Mediterranean), sampled during 1995-1999, was analyzed for organochlorine pollutants (OCs). In both populations, no significant difference was found between sexes. In the Atlantic population, mature females presented greater percentages of higher chlorinated PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners in relation to total PCBs (sum of 25 congeners) than pups, indicating a differential transfer of PCB congeners through lactation. In the Mediterranean, the reduced sample size of adult individuals precluded proper statistical investigation of age-related variation. Significant differences in concentrations and pollutant patterns were found between populations. Thus, Mediterranean individuals presented significantly higher levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB, and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) concentrations and DDE/tDDT and tDDT/tPCB ratios than their counterparts from the Atlantic. Moreover, the relative proportion of different congeners in relation to the total PCB load (congener/tPCB) was also different between the two areas. The 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio in Atlantic seals was 38.46, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over those associated with agriculture. Conversely, in the Mediterranean seal population, the 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio was 177.1, denoting a proportionally higher contribution of pollutants of agricultural origin.

  12. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anup K; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-11-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid identification of antioxidant compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by combination of DPPH scavenging assay and HPTLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriane, Djamila; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Kaabeche, Mohamed; Michel, Sylvie; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2014-04-09

    Genista species are sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as O- and C-glycosylflavonoids and isoflavonoids. A combination of a DPPH scavenging assay with HPTLC-MS, a fast and efficient method for identification of bioactive compounds, has been applied for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of metabolites from Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. Different organs collected at various periods have been compared. Identification of antioxidant compounds was obtained by elution of the major DPPH-inhibition zones. The resulting HPTLC-MS analysis under moderately polar conditions, coupled to the DPPH results led to the putative identification of two antioxidant isoflavone aglycones: 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (1) and ficuisoflavone (3), whereas polar migration conditions led to the identification of the glycosides 5-methoxy-4',7-trihydroxy-8-glucopyranosylisoflavone (4) and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5). Evaluation of percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical by the purified isoflavone 4 from the root extract showed that it affords a moderate contribution to the total radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  14. Evaluation By Remote Sensing Of The Withdrawn Water Volume From The Aquifer System Of The Spatientrional Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report shows the contribution of remote sensing to estimate the volume of water withdrawn from aquifers for a semi-arid or arid climate such as that in our study area the Aquifer System of Spatientrional Sahara. The vegetation area was firstly estimated from a spatial distribution of vegetation indices from the MOD13Q1 product of the MODIS sensor for a period from 2001 to 2011 by an algorithm highlighting the pixels in the red and the infrared. Its on average almost constant at 500 km2 for all the years. Furthermore evapotranspiration was defined spatially and statistically by the MOD16A2 product on the whole basin for 2011. The statistics are derived from an algorithm ensuring the logic based on the Penman-Monteith equation. These statistics regarding the area of vegetation gave the annual total volume of withdrawn water because this volume is evaporated in the absence of rainfall in the water balance and the depth of the basin does not allow it to vary in the grounds level. There was extraction more than 25 billion meters-cube. This means that the enormity of the consumption that is indeed a few hundred m3s. It presents a serious risk of salinity and flow reversal towards the sea. Such a calculation is developed depending on remote sensing elements such as the spatial and temporal resolutions.

  15. África al sur del Sahara: conflictos y degradación ambiental en el Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Shmite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sahel es una región ubicada al sur del desierto del Sahara, donde se conjugan múltiples problemáticas: sequías, degradación de suelos, presión demográfica, desnutrición, pobreza, migraciones, conflictos, refugiados, entre otras. Los cambios ambientales provocan un fuerte impacto en las dimensiones socioculturales, políticas y económicas, actúan como multiplicadores de las tensiones sociales y estimulan la inestabilidad política. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar estas problemáticas y analizar las variables ambientales, con el fin de abordar el contexto territorial. La investigación se orientó hacia la interpretación de diversas fuentes como cartografía, estadísticas y publicaciones académicas, que abren la posibilidad de mirar y comprender de manera integral la compleja trama de conflictos que perduran, así como los emergentes en este territorio transfronterizo de África.

  16. Rapid Identification of Antioxidant Compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by Combination of DPPH Scavenging Assay and HPTLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Meriane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genista species are sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as O- and C-glycosylflavonoids and isoflavonoids. A combination of a DPPH scavenging assay with HPTLC-MS, a fast and efficient method for identification of bioactive compounds, has been applied for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of metabolites from Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. Different organs collected at various periods have been compared. Identification of antioxidant compounds was obtained by elution of the major DPPH-inhibition zones. The resulting HPTLC-MS analysis under moderately polar conditions, coupled to the DPPH results led to the putative identification of two antioxidant isoflavone aglycones: 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (1 and ficuisoflavone (3, whereas polar migration conditions led to the identification of the glycosides 5-methoxy-4',7-trihydroxy-8-glucopyranosylisoflavone (4 and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5. Evaluation of percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical by the purified isoflavone 4 from the root extract showed that it affords a moderate contribution to the total radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  17. Implementation of triple helix clusters procedure in the sub-Sahara Africa energy sector. Case study: Academia - CREEC Photovoltaic Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Izael [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

    2011-07-01

    Penetration of decentralized power supply for households and commercial enterprises is low in Sub-Sahara Africa. Solar Home Systems (SHS), despite their widespread use in other continents have failed to attain much success in Africa. One of the reasons is the high rate of failure of existing implementations. Data shows earlier failure rates of 50%. This is largely attributed to poor quality of products used, inefficient installation, mismanagement and lack of maintenance. To address this problem, the Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is setting up a Solar PV test laboratory in Uganda. This paper describes the installation process and how to sustain the laboratory after implementation. The lab is intended to provide a forum for training, research and consultancy under CREEC. It is intended as a tool to implement the triple helix and clusters procedure in the PV industry in particular and the energy sector in a more general scope. This paper offers details covering the current situation of the energy sector in Uganda and how the lab supports capacity building in the university to support the upcoming demand. (orig.)

  18. Enjeux politiques et ethniques dans le champ sportif au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the sports phenomenon and to its political and ethnic instrumentality in Benin. Since this French-speaking country in Africa south of the Sahara broke with Marxist and Leninist regime (which lasted seventeen years), through "the National Conference" in 1990; a democratic and liberal ...

  19. Facteurs liés au diagnostic tardif du cancer du sein: expérience du CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Sofia; El Mahfoudi, Amal; El Omrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer féminin en termes d'incidence et de mortalité. Au Maroc, il vient au premier rang des cancers de la femme avant celui du col utérin Il constitue un problème de santé publique. Son pronostic est étroitement lié au stade auquel le diagnostic est posé. Il s'agit d'une pathologie dont les moyens diagnostiques sont de nos jours développés, allant de la détection précoce à la mise en évidence de lésions infra-cliniques, ce qui a nettement amélioré le pronostic dans les pays développés. Ce travail que nous présentons a pour objectif d'identifier dans notre pratique quotidienne, les facteurs qui amènent les patientes à consulter à des stades tardifs. Une étude rétrospective a été menée de janvier 2012 à janvier 2013 portant sur 130 patientes porteuses d'un cancer du sein au sein du service d'onco-radiotherapie CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech. Un questionnaire a été élaboré et dument renseigné en ayant recours aux dossiers des malades. Ainsi 63,07% des patientes consultaient au-delà de six mois avec un délai moyen de consultation de 8,47 mois avec comme motif de consultation des lésions classées T4 dans 27,69%, et des tumeurs d'emblée métastatiques dans 13,84%. Les facteurs retrouvés à l'interrogatoire étaient le manque de moyens financiers 40%, l’éloignement des structures sanitaires dans 23%, les habitudes socioculturelles avec les traitements traditionnels en première intention 20%, et l'insuffisance de prise en charge thérapeutique 7%. Cependant, pris individuellement, aucune concordance significative n’était retrouvée entre ces facteurs et le long délai diagnostique. Dans notre pratique, c'est la conjonction de la triade ignorance, indigence et habitudes socioculturelles qui constituent le facteur essentiel du diagnostic tardif des cancers du sein. PMID:26327999

  20. Au dissolution during the anodic response of short-chain alkylthiols with polycrystalline Au electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Scott R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Guerra, Eduard [School of Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Shepherd, Jeffrey L., E-mail: jshepherd@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) mediated Au corrosion in aqueous electrolytes at anodic potentials. > Au is roughened and passivated by an insoluble Au-MPA product. > Au is leached into the aqueous electrolyte as a soluble Au-DMSA species ({approx}60 ppb, 12 h). - Abstract: The electrochemical characteristics of polycrystalline Au in LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte solutions containing 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were studied with linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) over a wide range of positive potentials vs. Ag/AgCl. The EIS data exhibited linear capacitive behaviour at 0.0 V with either MPA or DMSA added directly to the electrolyte suggesting the formation of an adsorbed layer of the alkylthiol on the electrode surface. Above this potential, a single well-defined impedance loop appeared for electrolyte solutions containing DMSA or MPA, an observation indicative of a charge transfer reaction that could be related to several processes including oxidative desorption, oxidation of the alkylthiol, or Au oxidation/dissolution. To test for Au dissolution, the electrode was held at 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 12 h in electrolytes containing MPA or DMSA followed by surface analysis with Atomic Force Microscopy and solution analysis with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. When the electrolyte contained MPA, the extended potential holding procedure resulted in significant roughening of the electrode with no detectable quantities of Au in the electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the Au surface revealed an additional species in the Au 4f{sub 7/2} spectrum indicating the presence of an insoluble electrochemically generated Au(I)-MPA species. When the electrolyte contained DMSA, the Au electrode appeared smoother, 56.6 {+-} 9.6 ppb of Au was detected in the electrolyte and the XPS analysis displayed a single species in the

  1. Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres for heterogeneous catalysis of nitroarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Seon; Huh, Seong

    2012-11-01

    Monodisperse Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres were facilely prepared through the reduction of gold precursor, AuCl₄⁻, by 2-thiopheneacetonitrile in an aqueous solution. Concomitantly, 2-thiopheneacetonitrile polymerized during this redox process. As a result, Au nanoparticle was encapsulated by conductive polymer shell to afford novel core/shell nanospheres. Interestingly, the shell was composed of very tiny Au nanoparticles surrounded with thiophene polymers. Thus, the new material is best described as Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the Au nanoparticles were coordinated by the C≡N groups of the polythiophene shell. Some of the C≡N groups were partially hydrolyzed into COOH groups during the redox process because of the acidic reaction condition. The shell was conductive based on the typical ohmic behavior found in electrical measurement. The Au/Au@polythiophene core/shell nanospheres were found to be very active catalysts for the hydrogenation of various nitroarene compounds into corresponding aminoarene compounds in the presence of NaBH₄. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nitroarenes were efficiently hydrogenated under mild conditions.

  2. The Origin and Development of the Sudanese Ports (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkinin the early Islamic Period Origine et développement des ports soudanais (‘Aydhâb, Bâ/di‘, Sawâkin aux premiers siècles de l’Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Power

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avant que la mobilité et les échanges liés au /hajj et au commerce avec l’Inde ne s’imposent de manière prédominante dans la mer Rouge médiévale à partir du xie siècle, les ports soudanais connurent une première phase d’activité (632-969, largement ignorée des historiens. Etablis dès les premiers temps de l’Islam, les ports de ‘Aydhâb et de Bâ/di‘ eurent pour première fonction d’appuyer la conquête islamique et de contenir la puissance d’Aksûm en Ethiopie. Les échanges marchands ne se développèrent que lentement. Dans la seconde moitié du viiie siècle se mit en place la traite des esclaves africains, avant que la « ruée vers l’or » du ixe siècle n’accélère la croissance des ports soudanais, entraînant notamment l’établissement du port de Sawâkin.The origin and early development of the Sudanese ports [AD 632-969] has been obscured by a fixation with the medieval ‘India trade’ and /hajj traffic. It can alternatively be shown that ‘Aidhâb and Bâ/di‘ were established to further the Muslim conquests and contain Aksumite Ethiopia. Trade was slow to develop. An African slave trade emerged in the mid eighth century. Gold mining thereafter assumed central importance, with Souakin established in a ninth-century ‘gold rush.’

  3. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    interdependence, whilst they continuously form their trajectories in relation to opportunities and restraints posed along the way by their local and transnational social relations. The article argues that examinations of migration trajectories benefit from broadening the research out in both time and space......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  4. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  5. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Developpement d'une methode de Monte Carlo dependante du temps et application au reacteur de type CANDU-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Mehdi

    La resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann demeure une etape importante dans la prediction du comportement d'un reacteur nucleaire. Malheureusement, la resolution de cette equation presente toujours un defi pour une geometrie complexe (reacteur) tout comme pour une geometrie simple (cellule). Ainsi, pour predire le comportement d'un reacteur nucleaire,un schema de calcul a deux etapes est necessaire. La premiere etape consiste a obtenir les parametres nucleaires d'une cellule du reacteur apres une etape d'homogeneisation et condensation. La deuxieme etape consiste en un calcul de diffusion pour tout le reacteur en utilisant les resultats de la premiere etape tout en simplifiant la geometrie du reacteur a un ensemble de cellules homogenes le tout entoure de reflecteur. Lors des transitoires (accident), ces deux etapes sont insuffisantes pour pouvoir predire le comportement du reacteur. Comme la resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann dans sa forme dependante du temps presente toujours un defi de taille pour tous types de geometries,un autre schema de calcul est necessaire. Afin de contourner cette difficulte, l'hypothese adiabatique est utilisee. Elle se concretise en un schema de calcul a quatre etapes. La premiere et deuxieme etapes demeurent les memes pour des conditions nominales du reacteur. La troisieme etape se resume a obtenir les nouvelles proprietes nucleaires de la cellule a la suite de la perturbation pour les utiliser, au niveau de la quatrieme etape, dans un nouveau calcul de reacteur et obtenir l'effet de la perturbation sur le reacteur. Ce projet vise a verifier cette hypothese. Ainsi, un nouveau schema de calcul a ete defini. La premiere etape de ce projet a ete de creer un nouveau logiciel capable de resoudre l'equation de Boltzmann dependante du temps par la methode stochastique Monte Carlo dans le but d'obtenir des sections efficaces qui evoluent dans le temps. Ce code a ete utilise pour simuler un accident LOCA dans un reacteur nucleaire de type

  7. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  8. Georges Lemaître et la théorie du big bang qu'y avait-t-il au commencement de l'univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Georges Lemaître et ses inventions en moins d'une heure !L'origine de l'univers, voilà une problématique qui a tenu en haleine de très nombreux scientifiques. Alors que l'on pourrait croire que l'homme s'est posé cette question depuis la nuit des temps, il n'en est rien. C'est Georges Lemaître, un prêtre belge et grand astrophysicien, qui le premier cherche à dater l'univers et à tenter de découvrir ce qu'il y avait au commencement, alors même que l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique était persuadé qu'il avait toujours exis

  9. Du « mur dans les œuvres » au « mur dans les têtes »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Goepper

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Construit dans la nuit du 12 au 13 août 1961, le mur de Berlin matérialisera durant près de trente ans la confrontation entre bloc de l’Ouest et de l’Est, entre idéologie capitaliste et communiste, opposition qui divise non seulement l’Allemagne, mais également le monde entier à l’issue de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Apparu alors même que quelques semaines auparavant Walter Ulbricht, premier secrétaire du Comité central du Parti communiste de RDA, déclarait solennellement : « Nul n’a l’intent...

  10. Réflexions traductologiques d'une future traductrice sur la traduction juridique de l'anglais au français

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Margot

    2017-01-01

    Le présent mémoire aborde de nombreuses questions à mi-chemin entre langues, droits et traductologie. Notre travail s'articule autour de trois grands axes: le premier nous conduit à réfléchir à la pratique de la traduction juridique dans la transmission du droit de la Common Law en français. Le deuxième nous invite à penser à la traduction juridique comme une source de création du droit dans un contexte multilingue, celui de l'Union européenne. Enfin, la dernière partie est consacrés au tradu...

  11. L’enseignement privé français au Sénégal et l’effet établissement

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, Suzie

    2014-01-01

    L’enseignement privé français au Sénégal engendre un effet établissement. Les frais d’écolage élevés, l’obtention de diplômes français et l’origine sociale des élèves conduisent à un recrutement scolaire contrasté. Trois établissements ont été observés : l’école primaire de Saint-Louis du Sénégal, le Lycée Mermoz de Dakar et le Lycée Lamine Gueye (ancien Lycée Van Vollenhoven) de Dakar. Les trois établissements ont des recrutements spécifiques : le premier a une politique de bourses, car l’éc...

  12. Durabilité de joints adhésifs silicone sous conditions environnementales sévères : application au packaging en électronique de puissance

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Céline

    2006-01-01

    Des méthodologies d'étude de la durabilité de systèmes collés existent. Elles consistent à optimiser les assemblages avant vieillissement dans un premier temps de sorte à obtenir des propriétés optimales du collage suivi de l’étude de l'adhérence au cours du vieillissement. En vieillissement, les matériaux à assembler ont montré une résistance remarquable. Puis, nous avons étudié l'adhérence de ces systèmes par l’utilisation d’un test spécifique indiquant une diminution importante de l'adhére...

  13. Comparative efficiencies of photothermal destruction of malignant cells using antibody-coated silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Fong-Yu; Chen, Chen-Tai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng, E-mail: csyeh@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-21

    Three Au-based nanomaterials (silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods) were evaluated for their comparative photothermal efficiencies at killing three types of malignant cells (A549 lung cancer cells, HeLa cervix cancer cells and TCC bladder cancer cells) using a CW NIR laser. Photodestructive efficiency was evaluated as a function of the number of nanoparticles required to destroy the cancer cells under 808 nm laser wavelength at fixed laser power. Of the three nanomaterials, silica/Au nanoshells needed the minimum number of particles to produce effective photodestruction, whereas Au nanorods needed the largest number of particles. Together with the calculated photothermal conversion efficiency, the photothermal efficiency rankings are silica-Au nanoshells > hollow Au/Ag nanospheres > Au nanorods. Additionally, we found that HeLa cells seem to present better heat tolerance than the other two cancer cell lines.

  14. Initial Eccentricity in Deformed 197Au+197Au and 238U+238U Collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filip, Peter; Lednicky, Richard; Masui, Hiroshi; Xu, Nu

    2010-07-07

    Initial eccentricity and eccentricity fluctuations of the interaction volume created in relativistic collisions of deformed {sup 197}Au and {sup 238}U nuclei are studied using optical and Monte-Carlo (MC) Glauber simulations. It is found that the non-sphericity noticeably influences the average eccentricity in central collisions and eccentricity fluctuations are enhanced due to deformation. Quantitative results are obtained for Au+Au and U+U collisions at energy {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV.

  15. Photovoltage responses of graphene-Au heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ying, Xiangxiao; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-10-01

    As an emerging 2D material, graphene's several unique properties, such as high electron mobility, zero-bandgap and low density of states, present new opportunities for light detections. Here, we report on photovoltage responses of graphene-Au heterojunctions, which are made of monolayer graphene sheets atop Au electrodes designed as finger-shape and rectangle-shape, respectively. Besides confirming the critical role of space charge regions located at the graphene-Au boundary, photovoltage responses are measured in the visible to infrared spectral region with a cut-off wavelength at about 980 nm, which is likely imposed by the Pauli blocking of interband transition in the contact-doped graphene. The photoresponsivity is shown to decrease with increasing wavelength. A band diagram of the graphene-Au heterojunction is proposed to understand the photoresponse mechanism.

  16. Intense fluorescence of Au 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-21

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. We show that their fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the HOMO-LUMO diabatic bandgap of the cluster. The cluster shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral), therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorptionand predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in good agreement with experiment.

  17. PHENIX results on jets in d + Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J. Ali

    2016-12-01

    We present recently published results [A. Adare, et al., arxiv:arXiv:1509.04657] on fully reconstructed R=0.3 anti-kt jets measured in p+p and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy. The jet yields for four centrality classes along with the p+p reference are presented, as well as both the minimum bias RdAu and centrality dependent RdAu and RCP. We find that while the minimum bias RdA is consistent with unity, providing a strong constraint on models including cold-nuclear-matter effects or energy loss in small systems, the centrality dependent RdAu show a striking variation which presents a challenge to models attempting to describe the interplay between soft and hard processes in these systems.

  18. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....31 Au pairs. (a) Introduction. This section governs Department of State-designated exchange visitor... requirements set forth at § 62.10 sponsors shall: (1) Inform all host families of the philosophy, rules, and...

  19. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.

    1995-01-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...

  1. RR. PP. A. Jaussen et R. Savignac - Mission archéologique en Arabie (Publication de la Société des fouilles archéologiques, 3 tomes [Tome I : De Jérusalem au Hedjaz Médaine-Saleh (mars-mai 1907, Paris, 1909 ; Tome II : El-'Ela, D'Hégra à Teima, Harrah de Tebouk, Paris, 1914 avec un Atlas (153 planches, cartes et plans et un supplément au volume II : Les coutumes des Fuqarâ ; Tome III : Les châteaux arabes, Quseir 'Amra, Kharâneh et Tûba, Paris, 1922], Paris (P. Geuthner - Le Caire (Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1997 (2ème édition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Farès-Drappeau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Les cinq volumes en trois tomes des Pères Raphaël Savignac (1874-1951 et Antonin Jaussen (1871-1962 furent publiés entre 1909 et 1922 . Ils sont le résultat de leurs missions entreprises en 1907, 1909 et 1910. Les deux premiers tomes relatent le voyage à Madâ’in Sâlih et à al-‘Ulâ, ils sont consacré surtout au récit de voyage, à l'archéologie et à l'épigraphie. Le supplément au tome II contient des notes ethnologiques recueillies au cours de la deuxième expédition, en 1909. Ces notes conce...

  2. Enantioselective separation on chiral Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nisha; Bartel, Melissa A; Gellman, Andrew J

    2010-06-30

    The surfaces of chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles have been modified with d- or l-cysteine to render them chiral and enantioselective for adsorption of chiral molecules. Their enantioselective interaction with chiral compounds has been probed by optical rotation measurements during exposure to enantiomerically pure and racemic propylene oxide. The ability of optical rotation to detect enantiospecific adsorption arises from the fact that the specific rotation of polarized light by (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide is enhanced by interaction with Au nanoparticles. This effect is related to previous observations of enhanced circular dichroism by Au nanoparticles modified by chiral adsorbates. More importantly, chiral Au nanoparticles modified with either d- or l-cysteine selectively adsorb one enantiomer of propylene oxide from a solution of racemic propylene oxide, thus leaving an enantiomeric excess in the solution phase. Au nanoparticles modified with l-cysteine (d-cysteine) selectively adsorb the (R)-propylene oxide ((S)-propylene oxide). A simple model has been developed that allows extraction of the enantiospecific equilibrium constants for (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide adsorption on the chiral Au nanoparticles.

  3. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  4. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 10(6) grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.

  5. Crocodiles in the Sahara Desert: An Update of Distribution, Habitats and Population Status for Conservation Planning in Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C.; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Sierra, Pablo; Sillero, Neftalí; Tarroso, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Background Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. Conclusion/Significance Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on the vulnerability and

  6. Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichová, Iva; Fernandes, Verónica; Deme, Alioune; Nováčková, Jana; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Novelletto, Andrea; Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor

    2017-10-01

    Today, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups. We generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88. We show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool. Despite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East ∼ 10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clouds over the summertime Sahara: an evaluation of Met Office retrievals from Meteosat Second Generation using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, John C.; Marenco, Franco; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Francis, Pete N.; Cooke, Michael C.; Hocking, James

    2017-05-01

    Novel methods of cloud detection are applied to airborne remote sensing observations from the unique Fennec aircraft dataset, to evaluate the Met Office-derived products on cloud properties over the Sahara based on the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Two cloud mask configurations are considered, as well as the retrievals of cloud-top height (CTH), and these products are compared to airborne cloud remote sensing products acquired during the Fennec campaign in June 2011 and June 2012. Most detected clouds (67 % of the total) have a horizontal extent that is smaller than a SEVIRI pixel (3 km × 3 km). We show that, when partially cloud-contaminated pixels are included, a match between the SEVIRI and aircraft datasets is found in 80 ± 8 % of the pixels. Moreover, under clear skies the datasets are shown to agree for more than 90 % of the pixels. The mean cloud field, derived from the satellite cloud mask acquired during the Fennec flights, shows that areas of high surface albedo and orography are preferred sites for Saharan cloud cover, consistent with published theories. Cloud-top height retrievals however show large discrepancies over the region, which are ascribed to limiting factors such as the cloud horizontal extent, the derived effective cloud amount, and the absorption by mineral dust. The results of the CTH analysis presented here may also have further-reaching implications for the techniques employed by other satellite applications facilities across the world.

  8. Intercomparison of Satellite Dust Retrieval Products over the West African Sahara During the Fennec Campaign in June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J.R.; Brindley, H. E.; Flamant, C.; Garay, M. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Klueser, L.; Sayer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dust retrievals over the Sahara Desert during June 2011 from the IASI, MISR, MODIS, and SEVIRI satellite instruments are compared against each other in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each retrieval approach. Particular attention is paid to the effects of meteorological conditions, land surface properties, and the magnitude of the dust loading. The period of study corresponds to the time of the first Fennec intensive measurement campaign, which provides new ground-based and aircraft measurements of the dust characteristics and loading. Validation using ground-based AERONET sunphotometer data indicate that of the satellite instruments, SEVIRI is most able to retrieve dust during optically thick dust events, whereas IASI and MODIS perform better at low dust loadings. This may significantly affect observations of dust emission and the mean dust climatology. MISR and MODIS are least sensitive to variations in meteorological conditions, while SEVIRI tends to overestimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) under moist conditions (with a bias against AERONET of 0.31), especially at low dust loadings where the AOD<1. Further comparisons are made with airborne LIDAR measurements taken during the Fennec campaign, which provide further evidence for the inferences made from the AERONET comparisons. The effect of surface properties on the retrievals is also investigated. Over elevated surfaces IASI retrieves AODs which are most consistent with AERONET observations, while the AODs retrieved by MODIS tend to be biased low. In contrast, over the least emissive surfaces IASI significantly underestimates the AOD (with a bias of -0.41), while MISR and SEVIRI show closest agreement.

  9. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  10. Reevaluation of the Premier Clostridium difficile toxin A and B immunoassay with comparison to glutamate dehydrogenase common antigen testing evaluating Bartels cytotoxin and Prodesse ProGastro Cd polymerase chain reaction as confirmatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doing, Kirk M; Hintz, Marilyn S; Keefe, Calvin; Horne, Sarah; LeVasseur, Shelby; Kulikowski, Martha L

    2010-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are currently the most common tests used in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins; however, significant problems with their performance have recently been described. We prospectively reevaluated the Meridian Premier C. difficile toxin A/B assay with direct comparison to a 2-step algorithm that screened for C. difficile common antigen and compared cytotoxin and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory procedures. The Premier assay lacked sufficient sensitivity, missing 25% of true-positive samples. PCR was the most sensitive method and the only procedure that allowed same day testing and reporting. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fully Cationized Gold Clusters: Synthesis of Au25(SR+)18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yohei; Narita, Kunihiro; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Whetten, Robert L

    2016-10-06

    Although many thiolate-protected Au clusters with different numbers of Au atoms and a variety of thiolate ligands have been synthesized, to date there has been no report of a fully cationized Au cluster protected with cationic thiolates. Herein, we report the synthesis of the first member of a new series of thiolate-protected Au cluster molecules: a fully cationized Au 25 (SR + ) 18 cluster.

  12. Suppression of ϒ production in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Adkins, J.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506-0055 (United States); Agakishiev, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Aggarwal, M.M. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Alekseev, I. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alford, J. [Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Anson, C.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Aparin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Averichev, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Balewski, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Banerjee, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Barnovska, Z. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, 250 68 Řež/Prague (Czech Republic); Beavis, D.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204 (United States); Bhasin, A. [University of Jammu, Jammu 180001 (India); Bhati, A.K. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Bhattarai, P. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-07-30

    We report measurements of ϒ meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the ϒ yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for ϒ(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of R{sub dAu}=0.79±0.24(stat.)±0.03(syst.)±0.10(p+p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R{sub AA}=0.49±0.1(stat.)±0.02(syst.)±0.06(p+psyst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state ϒ mesons in Au+Au collisions. The additional suppression in Au+Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d+Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au+Au can be made.

  13. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seock, E-mail: lee@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  14. Frühe Brutnachweise bei Steinlerche Ammomanes isabellina, Saharasteinschmätzer Oenanthe leucopyga, Akaziendrossling Turdoides fulvus und Hausammer Emberiza striolata in der zentralen Sahara Algeriens

    OpenAIRE

    Hemetsberger, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Auf einer dreiwöchigen ökologischen Exkursion der Universität Wien im Februar 2003 in die zentrale Sahara Algeriens konnten bei 4 Arten von Singvögeln, bei Steinlerche, Saharasteinschmätzer, Akaziendrossling und Hausammer sehr frühe Brutnachweise in verschiedenen Gebieten erbracht werden. Dabei wurden Altvögel futtertragend bzw. ein oder mehrmals gerade flügge Jungvögel fütternd beobachtet. During a 3 week ecological excursion of the University of Vienna in February 2003 to the central Sah...

  15. Paleogeographic significance of the Cardium, Potamids and Foraminifera living in intra-continental salt lakes of North Africa (Sahara Quaternary, Egypt Present lakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaziat, J.-C.

    The widespread Cardium ( Cerastoderma) fauna of Quaternary lakes of the Sahara gave rise to the "Saharian seas" hypothesis. Present Egyptian (Fayum, Siwa) and Algerian Holocene salt lakes show an evolution from a fresh water fauna to a Cardium, Potamids and Foraminifera fauna in spite of their considerable distance from the Mediterranean sea and their altitude above sea level. The inevitable conclusion is that thalassoid or so-called margino-littoral faunas cannot be used as indicative of sea connection, or even proximity, in ancient deposits.

  16. Políticas imperiales y género. La Sección Femenina en la provincia de Sahara (1961-1975).

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Tirado, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, la Sección Femenina empieza a desarrollar en las colonias africanas las labores que venía llevando en la España franquista desde 1939. Esta institución, que nació como la organización de mujeres del partido fascista Falange Española y de las JONS, venía ejerciendo en la metrópolis las funciones de dispositivo de encuadramiento de las mujeres. En 1958 y como una estrategia para alargar su permanencia en Sahara, Ifni, Rio Muni y Fernando Poo, se convirtieron los últimos territorios col...

  17. Toward hybrid Au nanorods @ M (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) core-shell heterostructures for ultrasensitive SERS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Lei, Yanhua; Pan, Zhengyin; Shibayama, Tamaki; Cai, Lintao

    2017-06-01

    Being able to precisely control the morphologies of noble metallic nanostructures is of essential significance for promoting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Herein, we demonstrate an overgrowth strategy for synthesizing Au @ M (M = Au, Ag, Pd, Pt) core-shell heterogeneous nanocrystals with an orientated structural evolution and highly improved properties by using Au nanorods as seeds. With the same reaction condition system applied, we obtain four well-designed heterostructures with diverse shapes, including Au concave nanocuboids (Au CNs), Au @ Ag crystalizing face central cube nanopeanuts, Au @ Pd porous nanocuboids and Au @ Pt nanotrepangs. Subsequently, the exact overgrowth mechanism of the above heterostructural building blocks is further analysed via the systematic optimiziation of a series of fabrications. Remarkably, the well-defined Au CNs and Au @ Ag nanopeanuts both exhibit highly promoted SERS activity. We expect to be able to supply a facile strategy for the fabrication of multimetallic heterogeneous nanostructures, exploring the high SERS effect and catalytic activities.

  18. Leading Hadron Production in d+Au and 3He+Au collisions in the PHENIX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Takao; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    Neutral pions have been measured in 3He+Au collisions at √{sNN } = 200 GeV up to 20 GeV/c in the RHIC Year-2014 run. The nuclear modification factor RAA was measured and compared with that from d+Au collisions. The integrated RAA as a function of Npart was calculated for d+Au, 3He+Au and Au+Au collisions at √{sNN } = 200 GeV, and found to converge for Npart > 12, while a clear system ordering RdAu >RHeAu >RAuAu was observed for Npart > 12. The fractional momentum loss for the most central 3He+Au collisions was also estimated.

  19. INDRA at GSI; INDRA au GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougault, R.; Bocage, F.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration INDRA: IPN-Orsay, DAPNIA-Saclay, SUBATECH-Nantes, IPN- Lyon, GANIL-Caen

    1997-12-31

    In connection to the decision of installing the INDRA detector by the SIS synchrocyclotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) the report presents the tasks taken into account by the LPC-Caen. These refer to the detector displacement and (mechanical) installation at GSI, the tests before beam (i.e. electronics acquisition software, detectors, etc.) as well as the data acquisition and processing. The physical pro-arguments mention the possibility of disposing of heavy ion beams in a range from 50 MeV to several GeV/nucleon so extending the study of multifragmentation done at GANIL between 30 and 90 MeV/nucleon. More specific, the scientific program of INDRA at GSI inserts studies between those done at around Fermi energy, were the reaction mechanisms are of type of deep inelastic scattering/incomplete fusion, and the studies in the relativistic energy domain where the individual properties of nucleons and transparency of nuclear matter implies mechanisms of the participant-spectator type (fire-ball creation). Also mentioned as fields of extensive studies are: the multifragmentation and its fundamental relation with the nuclear matter equation of state, the role of reaction dynamics in the appearance of collective effects of the radial flow type and its relations with the nuclear compressibility and phase transitions and the thermodynamics of nuclear matter. It appeared that the heavy systems Xe + Sn and Au + Au are the best compromise for the different topics to be approached. The bombarding energies extend from 50 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The report ends with the table giving for six heavy systems (Xe + Sn, Au + Au, C + Au, Ar + Au and P + Au) the required bombarding energies 15 refs.

  20. The extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from Au concentrate by thiourea solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Cho, Kanghee; On, Hyunsung; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    The cyanidation process has been used commercially for the past 100 years, there are ores that are not amenable to treatment by cyanide. Interest in alternative lixiviants, such as thiourea, halogens, thiosulfate and malononitrile, has been revived as a result of a major increase in gold price, which has stimulated new developments in extraction technology, combined with environmental concern. The Au extraction process using the thiourea solvent has many advantages over the cyanidation process, including higher leaching rates, faster extraction time and less than toxicity. The purpose of this study was investigated to the extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from two different Au concentrate (sulfuric acid washing and roasting) under various experiment conditions (thiourea concentration, pH of solvent, temperature) by thiourea solvent. The result of extraction experiment showed that the Au-Ag extraction was a fast extraction process, reaching equilibrium (maximum extraction rate) within 30 min. The Au-Ag extraction rate was higher in the roasted concentrate than in the sulfuric acid washing. The higher the Au-Ag extraction rate (Au - 70.87%, Ag - 98.12%) from roasted concentrate was found when the more concentration of thiourea increased, pH decreased and extraction temperature increased. This study informs extraction method basic knowledge when thiourea was a possibility to eco-/economic resources of Au-Ag utilization studies including the hydrometallurgy.

  1. Multistep production of eta and hard pi(0) mesons in subthreshold Au-Au collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appenheimer, M; Averbeck, R; Charbonnier, Y; Diaz, J; Doppenschmidt, A; Hejny, [No Value; Hlavac, S; Holzmann, R; Kugler, A; Lohner, H; Marin, A; Metag, [No Value; Novotny, R; Ostendorf, RW; Pleskac, R; Schubert, A; Schutz, Y; Simon, RS; Stratmann, R; Stroher, H; Tlusty, P; Vogt, PH; Wagner, [No Value; Weiss, J; Wilschut, HW; Wissmann, F; Wolf, M

    1998-01-01

    The neutral pi(o) and eta mesons are studied in Au-197-Au-197 collisions at an incident energy of 800A MeV, substantially below the threshold for eta production in N-N collisions. While the gross pi(o) multiplicity increases almost linearly with the number of participant nucleons, the multiplicities

  2. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng, E-mail: xhliu@mail.njust.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An inversed Au/ZnO nanostructure was fabricated with ZnO loaded onto Au. • The Au/ZnO nanocomposites showed enhanced properties in visible-light photocatalysis. • The SPR effect of Au was considered important for visible-light photocatalysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  3. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Su, Dangshen [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  4. Directed flow of antiprotons in Au+Au collisions at AGS

    OpenAIRE

    Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Bennett, S.; Bersch, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Chang, W. C.; Cleland, W. E.; Clemen, M.; Cole, J.; Cormier, T. M.; Dai, Y.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Dietzsch, O.; Drigert, M.

    2000-01-01

    Directed flow of antiprotons is studied in Au+Au collisions at a beam momentum of 11.5A GeV/c. It is shown that antiproton directed flow is anti-correlated to proton flow. The measured transverse momentum dependence of the antiproton flow is compared with predictions of the RQMD event generator.

  5. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of ...

  6. Charged particle density distributions in Au·Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au·Au collisions using the BRAHMS ... Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; charged hadron production; pseudorapidity distribu- tions; centrality .... the predictions of two different theoretical models: (i) the high density gluon saturation model of Kharzeev and ...

  7. Low-temperature solution synthesis of the non-equilibrium ordered intermetallic compounds Au3Fe, Au3Co, and Au3Ni as nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Luo, Zhiping; Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-09-10

    Alloys and intermetallic compounds of Au with the 3d transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni are nonequilibrium phases that have many useful potential applications as catalytic, magnetic, optic, and multifunctional magneto-optic materials. However, the atomically ordered Au-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni) intermetallics are particularly elusive from a synthetic standpoint. Here we report the low-temperature solution synthesis of the L12 (Cu3Au-type) intermetallic compounds Au3Fe, Au3Co, and Au3Ni using n-butyllithium as a reducing agent. Reaction pathway studies for the Au3Co system indicate that Au nucleates first, followed by Co incorporation to form the intermetallic. The nonequilibrium intermetallic nanocrystals have been characterized by powder XRD, TEM, EDS, selected area electron diffraction, and nanobeam electron diffraction, which collectively confirm the compositions and superlattice structures.

  8. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  9. Le dialogue des « Tableaux » d’August Wilhelm Schlegel et la conception de la peinture dans le premier romantisme

    OpenAIRE

    Behler, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Les frères Schlegel avaient exprimé leur conscience historique essentiellement dans le domaine de la théorie esthétique (« La meilleure théorie de l’art est son histoire ») et s’étaient principalement concentrés sur la littérature (la littérature ancienne et moderne, classique et romantique). Avec son dialogue « Les tableaux » (1799) A. W. Schlegel réalisait un élargissement considérable de l’intérêt esthétique du premier romantisme qui s’orientait désormais sur l’histoire et la théorie de la...

  10. De l’héritier au répondant. La transmission en question dans les deux premiers romans de Sylvie Germain, Le livre des nuits et Nuit-d’Ambre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Traisnel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La saga des Péniel met en scène des personnages prisonniers d’un passé douloureux hérité de leurs ancêtres : c’est que la malignité du mal consiste à parasiter la transmission. Seule la révélation de la porosité humaine permet aux personnages d’échapper à cette logique infernale pour convertir leur passivité de légataire en responsabilité de répondant due à autrui et à un Dieu qui s’est dépouillé de ses forces et de son Verbe pour créer le monde. C’est le sens du silence de Dieu – vestige de ce geste de retrait divin – que Sylvie Germain cherche à nous transmettre. The saga of the Péniel family stages characters imprisoned by a distressful past inherited from their ancestors. Transmission, or what fails to be transmitted, is central to understanding the curse of the bloodline. Only the revelation of the porousness of human interaction makes it possible for the characters to escape from this infernal logic and to convert their passivity as legatees into the responsibility of guarantors responding to others as well as to God. It is the significance of the silence of God–vestige of the gesture of divine withdrawal–that Sylvie Germain seeks to transmit to her reader.

  11. Le premier écrit philosophique de Paul Ricœur: Méthode réflexive appliquée au problème de Dieu chez Lachelier et Lagneau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Antoine Vallée

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation and an analysis of the first philosophical writing of Paul Ricœur, on the problem of God in the reflexive philosophies of Lachelier and Lagneau. His principal aim is to situate this first writing in the context of Ricœur’s philosophical work, by underlining his belonging to the french reflexive tradition and his refusing of the absolute idealism of Lachelier and Lagneau. The author insists more precisely on the realistic and personalist thesis of the young Ricœur and on the appearance of the problem of evil in his work.  

  12. First industrial application of the auto-adaptative MAG STT welding technique with laser joint tracking; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto-adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Th. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2007-05-15

    The Welding Institute has participated to the plan of construction of the Large Hadron Collider. The hoops of the dipolar magnets are composed of two half cylinders 15 m in length in 10 mm 316LN austenitic stainless steel and are assembled around the magnet in a horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software for carrying out the auto-adaptative welding technique with laser joint tracking, in using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modelling of the welding laws and the strategy of filling the joints in multi-paths absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root..) in dynamic welding condition too. (O.M.)

  13. El derecho a la libre autodeterminación de los pueblos y el caso fallido del Sahara Occidental. Los límites del cosmopolitismo y la ecosoberanía como propuesta alternativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Rodríguez Añuez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto del Sahara Occidental es un caso pendiente de descolonización en el continente africano. No obstante, su resolución sigue siendo compleja y difusa. Analizamos el caso a la luz del fracaso del cosmopolitismo y proponemos una lectura nueva de la búsqueda de la independencia del Sahara Occidental a partir del concepto de ecosoberanía, por considerarlo un intento teórico de actualizar el derecho a la libre autodeterminación en las condiciones internacionales del siglo XXI.

  14. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  15. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  16. Rapidity density distributions in Au+Au and Au+Ag interactions at 11.6 A GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, J.I. [Div. of Cosmic and Subatomic Physis, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anzon, Z.V.; Arora, R.; Avetyan, F.A.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.; Bazarov, I.K.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bogdanov, V.G.; Bubnov, V.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Cai, X.; Carshiev, D.A.; Ceitimbetov, A.M.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Graf, C.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Jakobsson, B.; Just, L.; Kachroo, S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kitroo, S.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.D.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanatan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Luo, S.B.; Maksimkina, T.N.; Mangotra, L.K.; Marutyan, N.A.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Mittra, I.S.; Mookerjee, S.; Musulmanbekov, J.J.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Ochs, M.; Orlova, G.I.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Petrov, N.V.; Plyushchev, V.A.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Sarkisova, L.G.; Sarkisyan, V.R.; Shabratova, G.S.; Shakhova, T.I.; Shpilev, S.N.; Skelding, D.; Soederstrom, K.; Solovjeva, Z.I.; Stenlund, E; Surin, E.L.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Tolstov, K.D.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.; Tursunov, B.P.; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Xia, Y.L.; Yang, C.B.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.; EMU01 Collaboration

    1994-01-03

    Pseudorapidity density distributions of charged particles in heavy-ion collisions have been studied. The results from EMU01 have been compared to the results from the experiments WA80 and E802. The recently obtained pseudorapidity distributions from Au+Au and Au+Ag interactions have been compared to a linear extrapolation from lighter systems. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  18. « Quantifier » le paysage au long d’un itinéraire à partir d'un échantillonnage photographique au sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Griselin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Les échantillonnages photographiques représentatifs d'un espace, enregistrés dans des banques d’images, permettent aujourd’hui d’avoir accès à un nouveau panel d’informations sur le paysage (architecture du paysage, ambiances, couleurs…. L’exemple présenté est issu d’une enquête permettant de caractériser de manière objective les paysages vus depuis deux projets d'itinéraires pédestres vers Compostelle en Franche-Comté. Il s’agissait de se mettre dans la situation des futurs utilisateurs en photographiant le paysage tel qu’il s'offre à la vue du piéton marchant vers Compostelle et d'apprécier la variation paysagère qui rythme la marche, pouvant la rendre agréable ou fastidieuse. À partir de l’analyse des photographies, traitées par triptyque, une typologie des paysages rencontrés est réalisée. La navigation dans les banques d'images et l'intégration dans un SIG permettent de visualiser les paysages tout au long des tracés. Une représentation en histogramme facilite la distinction visuelle des types et permet de dégager les variations, les “ rythmes ” du paysage. La prise en compte des processus de perception par les utilisateurs d’un espace montre à quel point le paysage se construit à travers les déplacements. Une même région, assez homogène au premier abord, va se révéler très diversifiée – en approche linéaire – par les rythmes qu'engendre la marche. Cette pratique permet de lier espace, mobilité et temporalité.

  19. Significance of ground-water chemistry in performance of North Sahara Tube wells in Algeria and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Jones, Blair F.

    1972-01-01

    Nine ground-water samples from the principal shallow and deep North Sahara aquifers of Algeria and Tunisia were examined to determine the relation of their chemical composition to corrosion and mineral encrustation thought to be contributing to observed decline in well capacities within a UNESCO/UNDP Special Fund Project area. Although the shallow and deep waters differ significantly in certain quality factors, all are sulfochloride types with corrosion potentials ranging from moderate to extreme. None appear to be sufficiently supersaturated with troublesome mineral species to cause rapid or severe encrustation of filter pipes or other well parts. However, calcium carbonate encrustation of deep-well cooling towers and related irrigation pipes can be expected because of loss of carbon dioxide and water during evaporative cooling. Corrosion products, particularly iron sulfide, can be expected to deposit in wells producing waters from the deep aquifers. This could reduce filterpipe openings and increase casing roughness sufficiently to cause significant reduction in well capacity. It seems likely, however, that normal pressure reduction due to exploitation of the artesian systems is a more important control of well performance. If troublesome corrosion and related encrustation are confirmed by downhole inspection, use of corrosion-resisting materials, such as fiber-glass casing and saw-slotted filter pipe (shallow wells only), or stainless-steel screen, will minimize the effects of the waters represented by these samples. A combination of corrosion-resisting stainless steel filter pipe electrically insulated from the casing with a nonconductive spacer and cathodic protection will minimize external corrosion of steel casing, if this is found to be a problem. However, such installations are difficult to make in very deep wells and difficult to control in remote areas. Both the shallow waters and the deep waters examined in this study will tend to cause soil

  20. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.