WorldWideScience

Sample records for au radon dans

  1. Decree of the 7. august 2008 relative to the risk management in relation with radon in workplaces; Arrete du 7 aout 2008 relatif a la gestion du risque lie au radon dans les lieux de travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This order clarifies measures to be taken in the companies where the level of radon activities involve the health of the personnel: measurements to make regularly, measures to reduce the levels of activity, to assure the dosimetry follow-up, to verify the conditions of work places, the installations of ventilation. (N.C.)

  2. Analyses of atmospheric radon 222 / canisters exposed by Greenpeace in Niger (Arlit / Akokan sector); Analyses du radon 222 dans l'air ambiant / Capteurs exposes par Greenpeace au Niger (secteur Arlit et Akokan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, B.

    2010-07-01

    The companies SOMAIR and COMINAK, subsidiaries of the AREVA group, are mining uranium deposits in northern Niger. In the course of a field mission carried out in November 2009, a Greenpeace International team deposited detectors (canisters of activated charcoal) to measure radon 222, a radioactive gas formed by the decay of the radium 226 present in the uranium ore. This report includes the results of the analysis of the activated charcoal canisters conducted in CRIIRAD's laboratory, and a brief commentary on the interpretation of the results. (authors)

  3. The problem of radon in uranium mines; Le probleme du radon dans les mines d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Pradel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The exploitation of uranium ores constitute the first stage in the use of the atomic energy. With the current methods of exploitation, we meet in these mines various dangers of irradiation and contamination which the presence of the radon constitutes one of the most important aspects. The supportable maximum concentration is currently of 10{sup -10} c of radon by liter of air. It seems, even while considering that the RaA, RaB and RaC descendants are not in balance, that it cannot be fix a less rigorous limit. Indeed the limit proposed by the ''Commission Internationale de Protection Radiologique'' give, for an exhibition of 40 hours per week a dose calculated to the level of the bronchi of: 9,5 rem/week with 100% of RaA and 50% of RaB and RaCs, or 19 rem/week with 100% of RaA, RaB and RaC instead of 0,3 rem. It is necessary, also, to take into account because of the risk is not unique for the miner who is expose to the radiation of ore and breath dusts of uranium. (authors) [French] L'exploitation des minerais d'uranium constitue le premier stade dans l'utilisation de l'energie atomique. Avec les methodes courantes d'exploitation on rencontre dans ces mines des dangers divers d'irradiation et de contamination dont la presence du radon constitue l'un des aspects les plus importants. La concentration maximum tolerable est actuellement de 10{sup -10} c de radon par litre d'air. Il semble, meme en considerant que les descendants RaA, RaB et RaC ne sont pas en equilibre, qu'on ne puisse pas fixer une limite moins rigoureuse. En effet la limite proposee par la Commission Internationale de Protection radiologique donne, pour une exposition de 40 heures par semaine une dose calculee au niveau des bronches de: 9,5 rem/semaine avec 100 % de RaA et 50 % de RaB et RaC, ou 19 rem/semaine avec 100 % de RaA, RaB et RaC au lieu de 0,3 rem. Il faut, en outre, tenir compte du fait que le risque n'est pas unique chez le mineur qui est expose au rayonnement du minerai et respire des

  4. Adaptation dans les zones cruciales au regard des changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) vise à accroître la résilience des populations pauvres dans trois « zones cruciales » au regard des changements climatiques : les bassins hydrographiques, les deltas et les régions semi-arides.

  5. Radon and its short-lived daughter products in the lower atmosphere; Le radon et ses derives a vie courte dans la basse atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servant, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the radioactivity of the air can attain 1.5,10{sup -8} Ci m{sup -3} that is five times the permissible dose for populations. (author) [French] Une etude des variations de la radioactivite naturelle de l'air dans la basse atmosphere en fonction des parametres meteorologiques et du relief est presentee. Les radionuclides doses sont le radon et son depot a vie courte. La concentration en radon est dosee de facon continue a l'aide d'un nouvel appareil dont la sensibilite atteint 0,2.10{sup -11} Ci m{sup -3} soit le cinquantieme de la teneur moyenne de l'air au voisinage du sol, cet appareil permet de montrer que l'equilibre radioactif entre le radon et ses descendants a vie courte est realise pendant les periodes ou l'atmosphere est stable. Les observations dans l'air entre 0 et 100 metres au-dessus du sol indiquent que le radon et son depot actif sont de precieux traceurs marquant la stabilite de l'atmosphere. En periode d'inversion de temperature, la nuit en general, le radon s'accumule dans les 30 premiers metres de la couche d'air, puis est chasse avec te lever du soleil et passe au niveau de 100 metres a 9 heures du matin. Le taux de renouvellement de l'air de la basse atmosphere est calcule d'apres le mouvement de cette masse de radon, il est de 90 pour cent un jour d'ete. On montre que ce radon provient du sol ou il diffuse par mouvement brownien variant avec la teneur en eau du sol, en juin 1958, il est de 6.10{sup -17} Ci m{sup -2} s{sup -1} et en janvier 1959 de 0,2.10{sup -17} Ci cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Pour l'annee 1958-1959, la moyenne generale du degagement de ce terrain sedimentaire est de 3,8 {+-} l,3.10{sup -17} Ci cm{sup -3} s{sup -1}, elle est identique a la moyenne mondiale calculee par H. Israel. Dans un site vallonne du Morvan, les mouvements de l'air sont bien marques par cette radioactivite; on a observe d'une part des brises ascendantes et descendantes ayant des vitesses d'environ 0,2 et 0,7 m s{sup -1} respectivement et d

  6. Adaptation au stress hydrique dans le Comahue, en Argentine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation au stress hydrique dans le Comahue, en Argentine. On prévoit que les changements climatiques entraîneront une diminution des précipitations annuelles dans le Comahue, une région du centre-ouest de l'Argentine. Conjugué à la hausse prévue de la demande en eau et de l'utilisation de la ressource, ...

  7. Concentration en radon dans une maison du Calvados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleyter, Lydia; Riffault, Benoit; Mazenc, Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados. Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home.

  8. Indoor radon concentration: impact of geology in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-affected Bagh area, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan; Concentration de radon interieur: l'impact de la geologie dans la zone Bagh, Azad Jammu et Cachemire, Pakistan affectee par le tremblement de terre de 2005 au Cachemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, A.; Khan, S. [Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad (Pakistan); Baig, M.S. [Institute of Geology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, (Pakistan); Akram, M. [Physics Research Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15

    The early Miocene Murree Formation, late Miocene Nagri Formation and recent alluvium rock units are exposed in the sub-Himalayas of the Bagh area, State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Bagh area was badly affected by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005 which, along the Muzaffarabad Fault, deformed both the hanging and footwall blocks. The cracks, joints, fissures and fractures in houses and bed-rocks might have affected the emission of radon to the surface. Indoor radon concentration measurements were carried out in some dwellings of the Bagh area, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The measurements were based on passive integrative detection of radon using CN-85 plastic track detectors in box-type dosimeters. The radon concentration in dwellings was between 50 {+-} 11.6 Bq.m{sup -3} and 167.1 {+-} 21.4 Bq.m{sup -3} with an overall average of 95.1 {+-} 15.8 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean = 93.4 Bq.m{sup -3}). The average radon concentrations in pucka, semi-pucka and kucha houses were 97.6 {+-} 15.4 Bq.m{sup -3}, 89.7 {+-} 15.2 Bq.m{sup -3} and 101.9 {+-} 15.9 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in the Nagri Formation, Murree Formation and recent alluvium lithology were 99.3 {+-} 15.8, 90.1 and 96.2 {+-} 15.5 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively. The annual effective dose to the Bagh population was calculated as 2.38 {+-} 0.77 (1.33 {+-} 0.2 to 4.7 {+-} 0.5) mSv. The average radon (95.1 {+-} 15.8 B m{sup -3}) concentration in dwellings for the inhabitants of the Bagh area was safe from radon-related health hazards and was within the recommended action level (ICRP publication 65 (1993) Protection against radon at home and at work, International Commission on Radiological Protection, Ann. ICRP 23(2)).The indoor radon values obtained in the present study are more than the world average of 40 Bq.m{sup -3} (UNSCEAR (2000) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic radiation, Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New

  9. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  10. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  11. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  12. Le harcèlement sexuel dans les universités au Royaume-Uni et au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Morteo, Marlen

    2015-01-01

    Harcèlement sexuel et violence de genre dans les universités Le problème de la violence de genre et du harcèlement sexuel dans les universités est une réalité mondiale qui existe tant dans les pays du « Nord » que dans ceux du « Sud ». Contrairement aux  mythes qui relient la violence de genre au statut socio-économique ou au niveau éducatif, la violence de genre est un phénomène indépendant de la classe sociale, de  la formation académique et de la race à laquelle on appartient. Cette étude ...

  13. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  14. Produksi Biofuel dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit dengan Katalis Au/HZSM-5 dan Kompositnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillotama Anindita Sari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkatnya kebutuhan dan konsumsi bahan bakar minyak menyebabkan cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis sehingga perlu adanya pengembangan bahan lain sebagai sumber bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat menggantikannya. Salah satu produk energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan dan dapat diperbaharui adalah biofuel. Perubahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel salah satunya adalah dengan proses perengkahan katalitik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut dimana dalam penelitian ini akan dipelajari kondisi operasi dan  unjuk kerja katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada reaksi perengkahan minyak sawit menjadi biofuel. Penelitian ini diharapakan mampu menghasilkan teknologi pembuatan katalis baru dan teknologi proses baru dalam proses produksi biofuel pada proses perengkahan katalitik asam palmitat dari minyak sawit. Pada penelitian ini biofuel telah berhasil diperoleh pada proses perengkahan minyak sawit menggunakan katalis Au/HZSM-5 sintetis dan kompositnya pada berbagai temperatur dan laju alir gas N2. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tiga tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis, karakterisasi katalis dan proses perengkahan katalitik. Au/HZSM-5 disintesa dengan metode Plank dan katalis komposit disentesa berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh Qjang Tang et all. Hasil yang telah berhasil disintesa dikarakterisasi dengan Energy Difraction X-Ray (EDX, X-Ray Difraction (XRD dan Brunaur Emmet Teller (BET. Dari hasil karakterisasi dapat disimpulkan bahwa katalis yang telah disintetis telah memenuhi syarat untuk digunakan sebagai katalis pada proses perengkahan. Proses perengkahan katalitik dilakukan dalam suatu mikroreaktor fixed bed dengan berat katalis yang digunakan sebanyak 2 gram dan proses perengkahan dimulai saat gas N2 dialirkan selama 60 menit. Proses perengkahan dilakukan pada variasi temperatur 350-550 °C dan laju alir gas N2 90-400 ml/min. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan metode gas kromatografi. Hasil yang

  15. Maximum permissible concentration of radon {sup 222}Rn in air; La concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamard, J; Beau, P G; Ergas, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire, service d' hygiene atomique

    1968-09-01

    In order to verify the validity of the values proposed for the maximum permissible concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air, one can either approach the problem: - by epidemiological studies tending to determine the relation dose-effect both quantitatively and qualitatively; - or by choosing a lung model and clearance constants allowing a more accurate determination of the delivered dose and the localisation of the more severely irradiated portions of the bronchial tree. The radon MPC have been calculated using the model and the respiration constants set up by the I.C.R.P. Task Group on Lung dynamics. Two cases have been considered, i.e. when the radon daughter products behave as soluble materials and as insoluble ones. The values which have been found have been compared with those given up to now by several national and international bodies. (authors) [French] Deux voies d'approche peuvent etre empruntees pour verifier la validite des valeurs proposees pour la concentration maximale admissible du radon 222 dans l'air: - etudes epidemiologiques tendant a preciser qualitativement et quantitativement la relation dose-effet; - choix d'un modele pulmonaire et de constantes d'epuration permettant une determination plus precise de la dose delivree et la localisation des segments de l'arbre pulmonaire les plus irradies. Les auteurs ont utilise pour le calcul de la CMA du radon le modele et les constantes respiratoires proposees par le Task Group on Lungs dynamics de la C.I.P.R. On a pris en consideration le cas ou les descendants du radon se comportent comme des substances solubles et celui ou ils se comportent comme des substances insolubles. Les valeurs trouvees sont comparees a celles proposees jusqu'alors par divers organismes nationaux et internationaux. (auteurs)

  16. Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Elle possède cependant des limitations, dues à l'organisation temporaire d'une .... Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ utilisant le principe de la ... différents types de résidus (soja, luzerne, haricot et maïs) et ...

  17. L'entrepreneuriat au Canada dans le contexte mondial | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 nov. 2014 ... Grâce au Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), des chercheurs canadiens et étrangers acquièrent et mettent en commun des connaissances sur les motivations des entrepreneurs et sur la façon de les aider à prospérer. Les gouvernements s'appuient sur leurs constatations pour élaborer des politiques ...

  18. Une invitation au voyage dans l'univers

    CERN Multimedia

    Garay, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    "Philippe de la Catardière, écrivain et journaliste originaire de Priay, publie un essai chez l'Archipel. "Comsmologie à usage du piéton". Il vulgarise pour le grand public les connaissances sur le ciel et l'étude de l'univers. Sa passion pour l'astronomie est née dans son enfance en regardant les ciels étoilés... elle ne l'a plus quitté" (2 pages)

  19. L'Islam et la femme dans l'espace public au Niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    16 sept. 2010 ... qui était jusqu'alors réservé aux hommes. Timide au départ, cet investissement de la femme nigérienne dans l'espace public deviendra total à partir de la marche du 13 mai 1991 organisée pour revendiquer une représentation plus importante à la Conférence Nationale Souveraine devant se tenir en juillet ...

  20. Pratiques de publicité au point de vente dans l'industrie du tabac ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des études menées dans des pays comme le Canada démontrent que la publicité au point de vente exerce une influence importante sur les écoliers et peut les prédisposer à devenir fumeurs. De plus, les ... Articles de revue. Tobacco point-of-sale advertising in Guatemala city, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  1. Le recours aux catégories dans la gestion du choix au cours d’un repas au restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugol-Gential Clémentine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail, ancré dans le champ de l’Analyse Conversationnelle (Sacks, 1992, s’intéresse à une question centrale à laquelle les clients sont perpétuellement confrontés lors de la prise d’un repas au restaurant : le choix. Plus précisément, nous nous intéressons à son caractère situé et à son déploiement en interaction en nous basant sur un corpus audiovisuel collecté en situation « naturelle » de production, lors de repas au restaurant, afin d’étudier la parole-en-interaction telle qu’elle est localement produite et organisée par les participants (Heath, Hindmarsch & Luff, 2010. Après avoir exposé le lien entre identité et alimentation et la notion de catégorisation telle qu’elle a été développée en Analyse Conversationnelle, nous proposerons deux analyses de séquences de prise de commande pendant lesquelles les choix des clients sont discutés et négociés avec le sommelier ou le serveur. Grâce à des analyses séquentielles basées sur des transcriptions fines, nous soulignerons que les participants à l’interaction manifestent de façon reconnaissable qui ils sont (clients experts, non experts, habitués... afin d’organiser de façon intelligible leurs actions et de permettre à leurs partenaires de s’y ajuster. Nous analyserons finement les catégories utilisées par les participants, et nous décrirons les différents procédés mobilisés afin d’organiser et d’orienter la prise de commande. Ainsi, dans un premier extrait, nous verrons que les clients s’orientent, tout d’abord, vers l’exhibition de leur propre identité, tandis que dans un deuxième extrait, c’est le plat à la carte qui fait l’objet d’une première catégorisation. L’ensemble de ce travail nous permettra de montrer que les catégories sont structurantes pour l’organisation du choix et que leur déploiement séquentiel au cours de l’interaction est constitutif des affiliations ou des désaffiliations lors

  2. Le sociologue dans l’action collective face au risque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Mormont

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Le risque est une composante centrale des sociétés industrielles modernes qui en ont organisé la prise en charge à travers une série de dispositifs complexes. Les questions environnementales font émerger de nouveaux risques dits modernes parce qu’ils échappent à ces dispositifs d’évaluation et de gestion. A côté d’attitudes de déni de ces risques on voit apparaître des dynamiques qui sont vues comme des dispositifs de capture des peurs qui ont pour effet de donner une emprise forte à ceux qui peuvent mettre en place des dispositifs de contrôle, qui peuvent détruire les collectifs organisés autour de pratiques vivantes. Le sociologue ne peut plus se contenter de répondre à une demande d’analyse des perceptions des risques ; il doit s’engager dans l’action collective qui confronte les collectifs aux risques pour aider à leur reconfiguration tout en préservant leur autonomie.Risk is a central component of modern industrial societies that have organised complex systems to tackle with them. Environmental problems progressively reveal new risks that are said modern risks because they can be dealt with through usual systems of risk assessment and management. If some authorities still deny these risks, it is important to observe new dynamics that are here described as capture of fear and that are giving strong power to those who are able to propose control systems. These systems can be destructive of many original and creative practices. Sociologist can not be confined in analysis of risk perception, he has to be involved in collective action that try to deal with risks by confronting different collectives and by reorganising them while preserving autonomy.

  3. Faire territoire au quotidien dans les grands ensembles HLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis la Mache

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une lecture anthropologique de la manière dont les habitants des grands ensembles de périphéries urbaines délimitent, administrent, transforment matériellement et symboliquement les espaces et les lieux de leur quotidien pour faire territoire. Nous nous intéresserons à la fabrication de ces entités spatiales dont chaque individu se donne la liberté de disposer chaque jour selon un usage singulier et qu’il entoure d’un champ symbolique spécifique, garant d’identité. Ces « fabrications sociospatiales » seront abordées à partir d’une recherche empirique menée auprès d’habitants de deux terrains d’enquêtes situés dans des périphéries de villes moyennes.This paper proposes an anthropological reading of how the inhabitants of large urban peripheries define, administer, and process their daily spaces and places from a material as much as symbolical point of view to give sense to their territory. We will focus on the making of these spatial entities, witch everyone can dispose of everyday individually, to guarantee their identity. These “socio spatial creations” will be based on an empirical research, that is to say surveys conducted among the suburbians of two towns.

  4. Traditions matrimoniales dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Hami, H.; Soulaymani, A.; Mokhtari, A.

    2011-01-01

    La pratique des mariages consanguins est très répandue au Moyen-Orient, en Afrique du Nord et dans le Sud-Ouest Asiatique où 20 à plus de 50 % de mariages sont consanguins. L’analyse d’un échantillon de 270 femmes mariées, pris au hasard dans le service de Maternité de l’Hôpital Souissi à Rabat (2004-2005), a fait l’objet d’une étude prospective visant à déterminer la fréquence des mariages consanguins dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer au Maroc. Les résultats obtenus montrent que 20...

  5. Uranium prospecting through radon detection; La prospection de l'uranium par le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Prospecting rests on the determination of the concentration of ground air in radon. Radon diffusing from deep uranium bearing layers is detected in upper ground layers. (author) [French] La prospection est basee sur l'etude de la concentration en radon dans l'air du sol. Dans les terrains superficiels, on decele le radon qui diffuse a partir des couches profondes uraniferes. (auteur)

  6. Intégration des TIC dans la gouvernance locale au Sénégal | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intégration des TIC dans la gouvernance locale au Sénégal. Ce projet s'inscrit dans le contexte de la mise en oeuvre du plan d'action du Somment mondial sur la société de l'information (SMSI). Ce plan met l'accent entre autres sur la nécessité d'un partenariat public-privé pour permettre aux collectivités africaines un ...

  7. Survey: Knowledge level of the population about radon in Switzerland; Enquete: niveau de connaissance de la population au sujet du radon en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruson, M.; Murith, C. [Office Federal de la Sante Publique, Section Risques Radiologiques, Berne (Switzerland); Rumo, S. [CBC Marketing Research, Berne (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    In 1995, a survey was conducted in order to investigate levels of knowledge about radon among the Swiss population. In 2008, a second survey, using a similar methodology, was carried out by the F.O.P.H.. The new study showed that about 40% of the Swiss population has heard of radon, which represents an increase of 8% over the 1995 survey. Most of the respondents knew that radon causes lung cancer, but believed that the gas also produces other health effects (in particular, migraine and skin conditions). In addition, older people, those with a high level of education and property owners tended to be more familiar with the radon issue than the public at large. The inhabitants of high-risk regions achieved markedly better results, which demonstrate that information campaigns in these regions have been successful. At the same time, additional communication efforts are required in low- and medium-risk municipalities, where the majority of the population lives. (authors)

  8. Le paysage dans l’action publique : du patrimoine au bien commun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sgard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est dorénavant partie prenante des politiques publiques locales, souvent affiché au cœur même du projet de territoire. Cependant le débat reste largement ouvert dès lors qu’il s’agit de préciser à quoi « sert le paysage » et de lui associer une/des valeurs particulières, susceptibles de porter et de légitimer la problématique paysagère au cours du montage du projet. Ce texte part du constat que deux termes sont de manière récurrente associés au paysage, le patrimoine et, plus récemment, le bien commun, et se propose d’interroger cette orientation du discours sur le paysage. La pratique et le cadre juridique français, tendent à enfermer le paysage dans un registre avant tout patrimonial, privilégiant une logique de protection. L’expression de bien commun pose question : est-ce un équivalent de patrimoine, une facilité de langage portée par la mode, ou un apport innovant qui permet de réinterroger la place du paysage dans le débat et les méthodes d’intervention? Revenant sur les cadres théoriques de la réflexion sur les biens communs et sur sa diffusion actuelle dans l’ensemble des sciences sociales et environnementales, ce texte cherchera à identifier ce qu’elle peut apporter à la compréhension de la place du paysage dans les projets, en mettant notamment l’accent sur la question de l’accessibilité et de la négociation.The landscape is now part of local public policies, often displayed at the very heart of territorial projects. But the debate remains wide open when it comes to specifying what should be the use of “landscape" and to determine with which particular value, in order to legitimize the thematic of landscape in the building of the territorial project. This text is based on the observation that two notions are consistently associated with landscape: heritage and, more recently, common good. We propose to examine the effect of these notions on the contemporary discourses

  9. Les maisons bâties au village d’origine dans les représentations des migrants roumains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Larionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Les maisons des migrants bâties dans le pays d’origine revêtent de significations différentes: certains migrants les perçoivent comme un moyen de valider leur statut social au sein de la communauté d’origine, tandis que d’autres les conçoivent comme un investissement ou comme une « sécurité » à la retraite, ou bien comme un abri en cas d’échec. Néanmoins, pour la majorité des migrants, la maison reste un « chez soi» lié soit au pays d’origine, soit au pays de destination, le sentiment d’appartenance étant déterminé par l’âge du sujet, le gendre, le niveau d’éducation, les liens familiaux, l’expérience de la migration et les caractéristiques du marché du travail. En utilisant un travail de terrain mené entre 2009 et 2011 dans le village de Marginea, au nord de la Roumanie, l’article examine les facteurs qui influent sur la sémantique de la maison bâtie au village d’origine.

  10. Introduction au dossier « Mutations de l’accompagnement dans les formations en ligne »

    OpenAIRE

    Simonian, Stephane; Savarieau, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Suite au colloque organisé par le laboratoire CIVIIC (Centre interdisciplinaire de recherches sur les valeurs, les idées, les identités et les compétences) qui s’est tenu à Rouen du 8 au 10 octobre 2014 intitulé « Mutations de l’accompagnement dans les formations en ligne », il nous est apparu intéressant – bien que risqué – de traiter d’un sujet pouvant être considéré comme un point aveugle lié à l’accompagnement de la rédaction de mémoires dans le cas des formations à distance ou hybrides. ...

  11. Les réseaux d’investissement dans le thermalisme au XIXe siècle en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Penez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Le XIXe siècle est le siècle de la « fièvre thermale » en France. Pour permettre cet extraordinaire développement, l’argent est nécessaire. La station thermale apparaît comme un eldorado où la fortune est à portée de la main. Cette fortune n’est pourtant pas si facile à obtenir, la gestion thermale est ingrate, et les centaines de villes d’eaux françaises ne peuvent pas toutes obtenir un succès comparable à celui de Vichy ou d’Aix-les-Bains. Le thermalisme français est diversité, diversité dans les réussites, diversité dans les types de gestion (de la gestion étatique à la gestion privée, diversité dans sa fréquentation, diversité dans ses périodes de développement, diversité dans les moyens de son financement. Etudier l’importance ou au contraire la rareté des réseaux d’investissement dans le thermalisme permet de lever une partie du voile de l’histoire encore bien mystérieuse des villes d’eaux françaises.

  12. Contexte de l'accès au matériel didactique dans les universités des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les étudiants ont de plus en plus accès à tout ce dont ils ont besoin, dans une ... de textes électroniques soumis à aucun contrôle et auquel l'on a accès sans ... et de la dynamique des politiques, de même qu'au mouvement émergent en ce qui ... IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau.

  13. L’engagement des femmes catholiques dans des associations familiales en France et au Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rétif

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, résultat d’une enquête sur des associations familiales catholiques, en France et au Portugal, se propose de montrer à quelles conditions des mouvements conservateurs peuvent favoriser la prise de responsabilité des femmes. Dans ces mouvements où l’adhésion se fait en couple et où la différence de nature entre les sexes est en permanence réaffirmée, on observe une nette division sexuelle du travail militant. Les postes les plus prestigieux sont occupés par les hommes, qui sont également majoritairement en charge des tâches de réflexion et d’impulsion politique. Les femmes, quant à elles, prennent en charge l’essentiel des services fournis aux familles, ainsi que la plus grande partie des tâches d’organisation et d’exécution. Cependant, certaines femmes peuvent connaître une ascension très rapide au sein des mouvements et traverser les frontières de la division sexuelle du travail, à condition de disposer d’un capital social important et, surtout, d’une expérience professionnelle. Pour les femmes, peu nombreuses, qui cumulent ces propriétés, l’engagement dans ces mouvements familiaux conservateurs peut constituer le point de départ d’une véritable carrière militante et politique.Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación acerca de unas asociaciones familiares católicas, en Francia y en Portugal. Propone evidenciar cuales son las condiciones que favorecen las toma de responsabilidad por parte de las mujeres en estos grupos conservadores. En estas asociaciones, a las cuales la pareja es la que se afilia, la diferencia “natural” entre hombres y mujeres está permanentemente reafirmada y se observa claramente una división sexual del trabajo militante. Los hombres ocupan las plazas más prestigiosas y se encargan de la mayor parte del trabajo de reflexión e impulsión política, mientras que las mujeres se dedican a los servicios a las familias y a las tareas de organizaci

  14. Modelling and experimental study of the behavior of radon and radon decay products in an enclosure. Application to houses; Modelisation et etude experimentale du comportement du radon et de ses descendants dans une enceinte confinee. Application a une habitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouronnec, A M

    1995-02-03

    Since the eighties, more and more studies were performed about radon and its decay products in houses with one of the aim being the estimation of the dose received by their inhabitants. Then, the principal objective of this work is to describe the behaviour of radon and its decay products within a dwelling. In the first part to the report, a few definitions are given and data from literature give an idea of indoor radon and radon decay products activities and/or size distribution. Aspects of dosimetry are presented too. In the second part of the work, a mathematical model, called `PRADDO` of Physic of Radon and radon Decay products in Domestic environment is developed on the basis of the classical model written by Jacobi in 1972. On the one hand, it has to predict radon decay products activities in systems consisting in one or more enclosure(s), from radon activity and from ambient aerosol concentration and size distribution. On the other hand, one part of the model is assigned to study the influence of the entry model parameters variation on the calculated quantities. Then, in the third part of the work, two experimental studies are realised in order to compare measurements to modelization. The first experimentation is a laboratory work, made on the test bench ICARE from IPSN, and the second one consists in describing the basement of an occupied house from Brittany. In the two cases, the comparison between experiments and modelling shows a good agreement if particles are present in the air, but any conclusion is made when is no aerosol in the enclosure. (author). 158 refs., 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  15. Une stratégie adaptive au changement climatique dans le Moyen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des pratiques d'adaptation et de gestion de risques dans le secteur de l'eau sont en voie d'application dans différents pays et régions du monde à la lumière des impacts de changement climatique prévus. Dans la région MENA, la sensibilisation de toutes les parties prenantes sur la signification du changement climatique ...

  16. About the use of radon in the surveillance of volcanoes from Central America; De l`utilisation du radon dans la surveillance des volcans d`amerique centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E [Obviscori, Heridia (Costa Rica); Garcia Vindas, R; Monnin, M; Seidel, J L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Centre d` Etudes Phytosociologiques et Ecologiques Louis-Emberger; Segovia, N [ININ, Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Anomalous fluctuations of radon content in soil gases, fumaroles or thermal sources associated with volcanic systems are considered as precursors of deep degassing phenomena. Radon measurements in soil gases were performed for several years on three active volcanoes of Costa-Rica (Arenal, Irazu, Poas), also on El Chichon and Colima volcanoes in Mexico and more recently on the Popocatepetl since its reactivation in December 1994. Data acquisition was initially performed using plastic detectors with a 15 days integration. Since 1993, autonomous automatic probes are used and give hourly measurements. A nine stations network for ground measurements is installed on the Poas since 1982. Radon and Cl{sup -}, F{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} variations of the main crater lake are examined and correlated with the volcanic activity which led to the decay and disappearing of the lake in April 1989. On the Irazu, five stations were installed in 1982 and 3 automatic ones were added in November 1993. Results obtained so far are discussed according to the phreatic eruption of December 1994. The Popocatepetl measurements obtained since December 1994 are presented too. Abstract only. (J.S.).

  17. About the use of radon in the surveillance of volcanoes from Central America; De l`utilisation du radon dans la surveillance des volcans d`amerique centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E. [Obviscori, Heridia (Costa Rica); Garcia Vindas, R.; Monnin, M.; Seidel, J.L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Centre d`Etudes Phytosociologiques et Ecologiques Louis-Emberger; Segovia, N. [ININ, Mexico (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Anomalous fluctuations of radon content in soil gases, fumaroles or thermal sources associated with volcanic systems are considered as precursors of deep degassing phenomena. Radon measurements in soil gases were performed for several years on three active volcanoes of Costa-Rica (Arenal, Irazu, Poas), also on El Chichon and Colima volcanoes in Mexico and more recently on the Popocatepetl since its reactivation in December 1994. Data acquisition was initially performed using plastic detectors with a 15 days integration. Since 1993, autonomous automatic probes are used and give hourly measurements. A nine stations network for ground measurements is installed on the Poas since 1982. Radon and Cl{sup -}, F{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} variations of the main crater lake are examined and correlated with the volcanic activity which led to the decay and disappearing of the lake in April 1989. On the Irazu, five stations were installed in 1982 and 3 automatic ones were added in November 1993. Results obtained so far are discussed according to the phreatic eruption of December 1994. The Popocatepetl measurements obtained since December 1994 are presented too. Abstract only. (J.S.).

  18. L’interface Habitat / Habitant : quand le lieu de vie est porteur de maladie - Le cas du radon en PACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissé E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations sont croissantes pour étudier les liens entre des conditions environnementales spécifiques et la fréquence de certaines pathologies. Nous proposons d’analyser ici le lien présupposé entre une exposition au radon et le cancer du poumon. Le radon, est un gaz radioactif d’origine naturelle (issu de la désintégration naturelle de l’uranium présent dans la croûte terrestre et plus particulièrement dans certaines formations géologiques. A partir du sol et de l’eau, le radon se diffuse dans l’air (exhalation et se trouve, par effet de confinement, à des concentrations plus élevées à l’intérieur des bâtiments qu’à l’extérieur. Les descendants solides du radon sont alors inhalés avec l’air respiré et se déposent dans le poumon. Il est établi par diverses études scientifiques que le radon a un impact non négligeable sur certains cancers, notamment du poumon (augmentation de 16 % du risque de cancer du poumon par tranche de 100 Bq/m3, et des cancers digestifs via la consommation d’eau qui s’est chargée en radon au contact du socle. Le nombre annuel de décès par cancer du poumon attribuable à l’exposition domestique au radon en France métropolitaine varie entre 1 200 à 3 575 en fonction des relations exposition-réponse utilisées. Plusieurs régions en France se caractérisent par une problématique radon reconnue et étudiée depuis longtemps (Bretagne, Massif central, Corse. Or, si le radon ne recouvre pas l’ensemble de la région PACA, certaines zones géographiques sont particulièrement concernées et méritent d’être étudiées : le Massif des Maures dans le Var, du Mercantour dans les Alpes-Maritimes et du Briançonnais dans les Hautes-Alpes. La région PACA est une des régions de France et d’Europe les plus touchées par la pollution atmosphérique principalement due à l’augmentation du trafic routier et des contributions de régions industrialisées telles que

  19. Permanences bilatérales dans l’aide au développement en Afrique subsaharienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Simon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le continent africain vient de connaître cinquante années d’aide au développement, entamées au lendemain des indépendances. Elles se sont traduites par un empilement d’aides budgétaires massives et de programmes sectoriels variés, d’une profusion de projets et « micro-projets ». Dans cette véritable nébuleuse du développement, c’est la dynamique de l’aide bilatérale française et britannique que l’on tente de cerner ici, avec le recul de ce demi-siècle, en examinant notamment l’évolution des enveloppes spatiales dans lesquelles cette aide a été concédée et les « projets », inscrits dans un cadre national, qui ont matérialisé une partie importante de cette aide. L’aide bilatérale est toujours fragile, souvent contestée, largement remise en cause, mais elle perdure en s’adaptant et pourrait même trouver une nouvelle dynamique dans un contexte marqué par l’émergence de nouveaux acteurs bilatéraux.The African continent has just experienced fifty years of aid for development that began shortly after its different countries had obtained their own independence. This period witnessed the piling up of a formidable amount of budgetary help and various sectorial programmes, with a wealth of projects and micro-projects. Drawing on the hindsight of this last half-century, this paper attempts to focus on the process of French and British bilateral aid within the nebula of this expansion. Particular attention will be paid to the development of the territorial zones, where this financial assistance was granted and the projects that benefited from a large part of it in the context of nationwide frameworks. Bilateral aid is always vulnerable and the source of much controversy and debate. It continues to endure by adjusting to meet changing circumstances and may well find renewed vigour in the context of a background coloured by the rising of new bilateral players.

  20. L’économie politique du désir dans le rituel et le militantisme au SriLanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le désir est au cœur des interactions complexes entre le développement et la religion. Cet article examine ses différentes expressions, comme étant une des préoccupations fondamentales de nombreuses religions, qui motivent à la fois le développement et les alternatives au développement. Au SriLanka, face au changement social, la forme néolibérale et mondialisée du développement est comprise et réinterprétée à travers des idiomes et des formations locales du désir. L’économie néolibérale cultive le désir et mène à un accroissement présumé de la présence des preta (fantômes affamés et avides qui se manifestent parfois au moment de la mort d’une personne. Les fantômes affamés, en tant que formations fétichisées du désir, trouvent un écho chez les consommateurs et les entrepreneurs, qui montrent unappétit insatiable vis-à-vis d’une richesse matérielle en constante croissance. Ainsi, l’apaisement ritualisé des fantômes affamés et le militantisme social de groupes tels que le Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR sont clairement liés par leur préoccupation mutuelle face à l’insécurité existentielle des êtres humains et non humains, causée par un désir excessif et déséquilibré. L’action rituelle et le militantisme social divergent toutefois dans la formulation explicite de leurs préoccupations spécifiques concernant le désir. Le rituel matérialise et condense l’angoisse liée au désir, alors que le militantisme social décrit la fétichisation du désir en termes économiques, politiques et scientifiques plus abstraits.

  1. La motivation au travail dans un contexte de changement: Cas du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    La mise en œuvre de nouvelles méthodes de gestion des tâches, le développement de .... dynamique motivationnelle dans les services centraux du ministère de ..... tâches qui augmentent le contrôle de chacun sur l'organisation de son travail.

  2. Le CERN au féminin Le Web, Dan Brown et les trous noirs

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel

    2008-01-01

    The image of CERN changed with the birth of the Web: it made internet available for everybody; The other thing that drew a lot the attention on CERN is the book by Dan Brown "Angles and Demons". (1/4 page)

  3. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  4. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  5. LA RÉCENTE DINAMIQUE GEOECONOMIQUE DE LA CHAINE DE PRODUCTION DE SOJA AU BRÉSIL ET DANS LE MONDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Cunha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L’agro-industrie de soja consolidé, au Brésil, à partir des années 1980, se constitue comme une des principales chaînes productives de la structure agricole brésilienne, offrant des grains, son de blé e d’huiles pour l’approvisionnement du marché interne et externe. Dans la récolte 2013/2014, la production a atteint plus de 87 millions de tonnes cultivées en trente millions hectares, qui représentent juste 8,9% dans la domaine cultivées au Bresil. Les exportations de soja em grains couvrent 42 millions de tonnes dans l’année agricole 2012/2013, l’équivalent a U$ 22,8 milliards. Les segments de grains, huile e son de blé ont gagné U$ S 31 milliards, qui signifie 12,8 % de toutes les ventes externes du Brésil et 31 % des exportations de l’agro-industrie brésiliens. Ce texte a pour objectif d’identifier les facteurs responsables de la recente dinamique de cette chaîne productive dans le territoire bresilien et son insertion au marché mondial.

  6. Les nématodes parasites associés au riz dans les trois (3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A survey of rice parasitic nematodes has been conducted in Burkina Faso during the rainy crop ... adjacent soils were collected at 40 locations of rice production. The extraction of ..... de 2ème stade) en pot et de 60,3% au champ.

  7. L'Islam et la femme dans l'espace public au Niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    16 sept. 2010 ... International Woman Year, women came into the public sphere, and ... comme au figuré, l'espace public (la rue, les lieux de meeting, les médias, ...... Madame Ali Mariama, Ministre du développement social, de la Population ... Butter, J., 1990, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New.

  8. Écritures dans les Amériques au féminin

    OpenAIRE

    Alexoae-Zagni, Nicoleta; Anderson-González, Maya; Carrière, Marie; Clarke, Deborah; Courau, Thérèse; Dufaure, Sarah; Durrans, Stéphanie; Faubert, Samantha; Goodman, Audrey; Guicharnaud-Tollis, Michèle; Lauwers, Margot; Lepage, Caroline; Magras, Romain; Manera, Giulia; Marchio, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Issue d’un congrès de l’Institut des Amériques (IdA) organisé à Aix-Marseille Université sur le thème « Femmes dans les Amériques », la vingtaine d’études réunies dans cet ouvrage examine de quelle manière les femmes écrivains confrontent leur écriture à la représentation d’une « expérience américaine » pour en exposer les anxiétés, les failles ou les parasitages idéologiques et fantasmatiques en recourant à une subjectivité féminine travaillée par l’altérité. L’objectif d’ensemble n’est en ...

  9. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  10. Séroprévalence de Mycoplasma gallisepticum et de Mycoplasma synoviae dans les élevages reproducteurs type poulet de chair au Maroc de 1983 au 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia NASSIK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Les mycoplasmoses aviaires, particulièrement Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG et Mycoplasma synoviae (MS sont des infections insidieuses respiratoires, génitales ou articulaires, entraînant de lourdes pertes économiques dans les différents types d’élevage avicole.L’objectif de cette étude est de tracer l’évolution des infections mycoplasmiques aviaires dues à MG et MS à partir d’une synthèse des enquêtes sérologiques réalisées au Maroc et d’évaluer les retombées de la nouvelle loi sanitaire. Ces enquêtes ont concerné 12, 13 et 15 élevages de poules reproductrices situés dans différentes régions, notamment les principaux axes de productions avicoles réalisées respectivement en 1983, 2002 et 2005. Les sérums recueillis ont été testés par Agglutination Rapide sur Lame (ARL afin d’identifier les élevages positifs. Les résultats sérologiques ont révélé la présence des anticorps contre MG et MS avec des taux d’infection variables en fonction de l’année d’étude et du germe. En effet, Les prévalences obtenues sont très importantes surtout pour MS qui dépassent les 50% ; un pic a été noté en 2002 (MG:30,76% et (MS:76,92%, avec une légère régression en 2005 (MG:26,67% et (MS:66,67 %.Ces taux d’infections non négligeables incitent à l’amélioration des normes d’hygiène et de biosécurité avec un accompagnement vétérinaire rigoureux conformément aux directives de la loi.

  11. Gestion de classe dans l'enseignement secondaire au Benin: quels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion de classe (GC) constitue la préoccupation majeure des enseignants débutants ainsi que leur principale source de difficultés. Le but de cette étude est triple à savoir l'exploration des perceptions des enseignants débutants relativement à la GC, la description des problèmes rencontrés par ces derniers au cours ...

  12. Remarques sur certains archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales byzantinisantes de la Pologne au XVe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semoglou Athanassios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski L'étude des certains rarissimes archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales de style byzantin en Pologne de l'époque du roi Ladislas Jagiello (fin du XIVe - début du XVe siècle a révélé la pénétration d'une tradition riche et originale qui remonte au milieu syro-palestinien des premiers siècles du christianisme. Ce langage pictural conservateur traduit le phénomène du retour à des formules archaïques et s'inscrit dans l'effort, de la part du roi, d'harmoniser les tensions politiques et religieuses des deux communautés du pays (orthodoxe et catholique, grandi après l'union du grand Duché de Lituanie au royaume de Pologne en 1386. .

  13. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  14. Les coopérations au développement durable en question dans les pays du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Froger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir identifié la coopération décentralisée, ses champs d’action, l’évolution de ses modalités d’intervention ainsi que les ambiguïtés auxquelles elle est confrontée en matière d’appui au développement durable dans les pays du Sud, nous nous focalisons sur les politiques et programmes de développement durable relevant principalement de formes plus classiques de coopération. Toutefois, la gouvernance décentralisée des ressources naturelles et de l’environnement promue par ces formes classiques de coopération est confrontée à de nombreuses difficultés, notamment à Madagascar. La coopération décentralisée peut agir de manière complémentaire mais ses conditions de réussite dépendent, entre autres, du succès des processus de décentralisation dans les pays du Sud.After identifying decentralized cooperation, its fields of action, changes in its procedures and the ambiguities it faces in supporting sustainable development in developing countries, we focus on sustainable development policies and programs based on more conventional forms of cooperation. However, the decentralized governance of natural resources and environment promoted by these conventional forms of cooperation is facing many difficulties, particularly in Madagascar. Decentralized cooperation can be complementary but its conditions for success depend, among other things, on the success of decentralization processes in the South.

  15. M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

  16. Facteurs influençant l'initiation au traitement antirétroviral des personnes vivant avec le VIH dans les Centres de Traitement Agréés de Bamenda et de Bertoua au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Voundi, Esther Voundi; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Emah, Irène; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs influençant l'initiation au traitement antirétroviral des personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) dans les centres de traitements agrées (CTA) de Bamenda et de Bertoua au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, analytique réalisée de Janvier à Avril 2011, dans les CTA de Bamenda et de Bertoua. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Nous avons étudiés 460 dossiers de patients séropositifs en phase d'initiation au traitement antirétroviral dans les CTA de Bamenda et de Bertoua, 53,9% et 46,1% respectivement. L ‘âge médian était de 36 ans. La plupart des séropositifs à Bertoua (41) avaient fait un dépistage volontaire du VIH par rapport à ceux de Bamenda (22) (p= 0.008). Il y ‘avait plus de VIH de type 1 et 2 dans le CTA de Bamenda (15) par rapport à Bertoua (3) (p= 0.011). La majorité des patients était classé au stade clinique II à Bamenda (54,0%) tandis qu ‘à Bertoua le stade clinique III était prédominant (52,4%) (p = 0,000). Le taux médian de CD4 était de 133 cellules/mm3 dans le CTA de Bamenda et de 175 cellules/mm3 à Bertoua (p = 0,008). La Zidovudine était plus prescrit à Bamenda et le Ténofovir à Bertoua (p = 0,000). L ‘Efavirenz était plus prescrit à Bertoua tandis que la Névirapine l ‘était plus à Bamenda (p = 0,000). Le Lopinavir/r était plus prescrit à Bamenda qu ‘à Bertoua (p = 0,017). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de standardiser la prise en charge des PVVIH dans les CTA du Cameroun. PMID:25184023

  17. Réponse équilibrée aux besoins en eau dans le bassin du Saïss au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ACCA

    par les changements climatiques. Ce projet du programme ACCA met l'accent sur l'agriculture, à l'origine de plus de 82 % de la consommation d'eau dans le bassin. Réponse équilibrée aux besoins en eaudans le bassin du Saïss au Maroc. De petits exploitants agricoles du bassin du Saïss font face aux pénuries d'eau ...

  18. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  19. The radon 222 transport in soils. The case of the storage of residues coming from uranium ores processing; La migration du radon 222 dans un sol. Application aux stockages de residus issus du traitement des minerais d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C

    2000-07-01

    Uranium Mill Tailings (UMT) contain comparatively large quantities of radium-226. This radionuclide yields, by radioactive decay, the radioactive gas radon-222. Tailing piles are routinely covered to reduce the radon release-rate into the atmosphere. In order to assess the long term environmental impact of a UMT repository, mechanisms governing radon exhalation at the soil surface must be deciphered and understood. A model of radon transport in the unsaturated zone is developed for this purpose: water- and air-flow in the porous material are determined, as well as radon transport by diffusion in the pore space and advection by the gas phase. The radon transport model in the unsaturated zone - TRACI (which stands, in French, for Radon Transport within the Unsaturated Layer) - calculates moisture contents in the soil, Darcy's velocities of the liquid and gas phases, radon concentrations in the gas phase and radon flux at the soil surface. TRACI's results are compared with observations carried out on a UMT and a cover layer. Input parameters are derived from the textural analysis of the material under study, whereas upper boundary conditions are given by meteorological data. If we consider measurement errors and uncertainties on the porous medium characterisation, model's results are generally in good agreement with observations, at least on the long run. Moreover, data analysis shows hat transient phenomena are understood as well, in most situations. (author)

  20. Environnement alimentaire de la vente au détail et expériences de magasinage dans les collectivités des Premières nations du nord des provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Burnett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cet article porte sur l'environnement de la vente d’aliments dans les collectivités des Premières nations du nord des provinces, en particulier sur la concurrence éventuelle dans la vente au détail de la North West Company (NWC ainsi que sur les expériences d'achats alimentaires de la population vivant dans le Nord canadien. Méthodologie : Nous avons utilisé deux méthodologies pour évaluer l’environnement alimentaire de la vente au détail dans le Nord. D’abord, nous avons cartographié les détaillants en alimentation du Nord afin d’examiner le degré de concurrence au détail dans les régions nordiques, en prêtant une attention particulière aux collectivités qui ne sont pas accessibles à l’année par la route. Ensuite, nous avons enquêté auprès des personnes vivant dans les collectivités du Nord canadien à propos de leurs expériences d’achat au détail et de magasinage. Résultats : Cinquante‑quatre pour cent des collectivités du nord des provinces et du Grand Nord n’avaient aucune épicerie en concurrence avec la NWC. Les provinces comptant les plus fortes proportions de collectivités nordiques sans concurrence dans la vente au détail étaient l’Ontario (87 %, la Saskatchewan (83 % et le Manitoba (72 %. Les participants au sondage (n = 92 ont fait état de leurs préoccupations quant à leurs expériences d'achat dans trois grands secteurs : le coût des aliments, la qualité et la fraîcheur des aliments et la disponibilité de certains aliments. Conclusion : La concurrence dans la vente au détail est limitée dans le nord des provinces. Au Manitoba, en Saskatchewan et en Ontario, la NWC ne fait face à aucune concurrence dans au moins 70 % des collectivités nordiques. Les consommateurs du Nord canadien considèrent que les aliments nutritifs sont peu abordables, et ils souhaitent avoir accès à un plus grand choix d’aliments périssables en bon état.

  1. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  2. Risque de réémergence du paludisme au Maroc Étude de la capacité vectorielle d’Anopheles labranchiae dans une zone rizicole au nord du pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but d’estimer le risque de réintroduction du paludisme au Maroc, nous avons analysé le potentiel paludogène d’une zone rizicole au nord du pays. Nos résultats ont montré que la capacité vectorielle d’An. labranchiae, vecteur du paludisme au Maroc, était particulièrement élevée pendant la période estivale qui correspond à la période de culture du riz. Le risque d’une reprise de la transmission du paludisme autochtone est élevé du fait de l’éventuelle présence de porteurs de parasite dans le dernier foyer de paludisme limitrophe de la zone d’étude. Le risque d’une introduction du paludisme tropical est faible, vu la faible vulnérabilité de la région et la compétence de ses vecteurs, considérée comme faible. Toutefois, ce risque doit faire l’objet d’une grande attention.

  3. Gestion par projets et risques pour la santé psychologique au travail dans la nouvelle économie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Y a-t-il des problèmes de santé mentale propres au travail dans la nouvelle économie ? Quoiqu’on puisse constater que le modèle de demande psychologique - autonomie décisionnelle de Karasek et Theorell- trouve aussi son application dans les milieux de travail qui empruntent cette forme, on observe, en fait, des formes particulières de ces facteurs dans la forme d’organisation du travail propre à la gestion par projets. Assimilables à « l’hypersollicitation par le client » comme il a été repéré par Christophe Dejours, ces formes ont été observées lors d’une enquête menée récemment sur la conciliation entre la vie privée et la vie professionnelle dans sept organisations montréalaises. La recherche qualitative a recueilli en tout le discours de 88 répondants distribués également selon le sexe et exerçant des fonctions liées au génie informatique. Ces observations permettent d’envisager une nuance au modèle théorique de la santé mentale ci-haut mentionné, visant à tenir compte des effets délétères d’une très grande latitude décisionnelle assortie de très grandes responsabilités chez des travailleurs hautement qualifiés.Are there distinct mental health problems among workers in the new economy? Although we may observe that the psychological demand - decision latitude model of Karakek and Theorell is appropriate and also finds its application in this type of workplace, we also notice some particular forms that these factors take in the management-by-project work organization model. Akin to the so-called "client’s hyper-demanding activity" as identified by Christophe Dejours, these forms were observed during a recent field study about balancing work and family in seven Montreal organizations. The qualitative study collected data from 88 individual interviews of information technology engineers, evenly distributed by gender. These observations allow a nuance of the above-mentioned theoretical

  4. Collective effects in Au(100-800 AMeV) + Au semi-central collisions; Effets collectifs dans les collisions semi-centrales Au(100-800 AMeV) + Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crochet, P.

    1996-04-04

    The present work has been carried out in the framework of the experimental program of the FOPI collaboration. It is devoted to a systematic study of the different forms of collective expansion of nuclear matter in semi-central Au+Au collisions at incident energies ranging from 100 AMeV to 800 AMeV. The aim is to investigate the influence of compressional effects, momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction and nucleon-nucleon cross section on the observed phenomena. Important changes in the reaction mechanisms are evidenced, in particular at low incident energies where one observes, on the one hand, a transition from an enhanced in-plane emission to a preferential out-of-plane emission pattern and, on the other hand, a strong reduction of the directed in-plane component. Experimental results are compared to the predictions of the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model for different parametrizations of the nuclear interaction. (author).

  5. Etude de la production de photons isolés dans les états finals hadroniques des collisions e+e- au LEP dans l'expérience ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Si Mohand, D

    Les photons isolés, observés dans les désintégrations hadroniques du bozon Z0 créé dans les annihilations électron-positron au LEP, proviennent essentiellement du rayonnement électromagnétique des quarks. Ces photons, qui ne sont pas affectés par la fragmentation, sont particulièrement sensibles à l'émission de gluons; leur étude, à l'aide d'algorithmes de simulation tels que JETSET, ARIADNE et HERWIG, constitue un moyen simple et précis de tester les différentes approches de QCD, en particulier dans la description de la compétition photon-gluon. Notre analyse a révélé que JETSET prédit (20±6)% moins de photons directs que le nombre mesuré expérimentalement. ARIADNE, en revanche, semble surestimer légèrement le taux de production de photons directs de (6±4)% alors que HERWIG reproduit fidèlement l'ensemble de nos mesures. Après correction des pertes d'acceptance et des effets d'hadronisation, le rapport d'embranchement du Z0 en hadrons plus photon, normalisé au rapport d'embranc...

  6. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  7. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (pVIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  8. Study of light fragment production in Au + Au collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV; Etude de la production de fragments legers dans les collisions Au + Au a 150 et 400 A.Me V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, V

    1996-12-17

    We study light fragment production in Au + Au collisions at energies between 150 and 400 A.MeV. Experimental data are extracted from Phase I experiments performed with the FOPI detector at GSI-Darmstadt. We first give centrality criteria and the method used in order to have an evaluation of the impact parameter; that permit comparison between experiment and IQMD or FREESCO models. A first study concerns charge distributions and the reduced variance {gamma}{sub 2}. We observe that the amplitude of the reduced variance decreases rapidly as the centrality of the collision increases; this last point shows that there is no liquid-gas phase transition in central collisions. Such a conclusion agrees with theoretical studies made by the Nantes group concerning fragment formation. A second part concerns a systematic study of differential cross sections of fragment production. We show that IQMD model gives a good qualitative agreement with experimental data; nevertheless, charge distributions are not correctly reproduced by theory. A study of the parameter which fix the width of the Gaussian associated with the nucleons of the interacting system can improve the shape of the charge distributions. Finally, we give at the end of the thesis a systematic presentation of experimental invariant cross sections of fragment production. (author) 80 refs.

  9. Collective phenomena in the Au (150 - 400 A MeV) + Au reactions at very low impact parameters; Phenomenes collectifs dans les reactions Au (150 - 400 A MeV) + Au a tres faibles parametres d`impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, CH

    1996-02-07

    In this work, we present a study concerning some collective phenomena in highly central Au (150 - 400 A MeV) + Au collisions, measured with the FOPI detector. The selection of the central reactions is performed by applying a criterion whose definition is based on the concept that low impact parameter reactions imply the non-existence of projectile and target remnants. The analysis of the center-of-mass polar angular distributions indicates that fragments (Z {<=} 3) are emitted preferentially in the direction transverse to the be beam axis. The shape of these distributions depends strongly on the degree of stopping of the nuclear matter. In the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) calculations, this phenomenon is mainly parameterized with the nucleon-nucleon cross-section ({sigma}{sub nn}). The comparison of the experimental polar angle distributions with those predicted by QMD suggests a value of 30 mb for {sigma}{sub nn} to reproduce the experimental trend observed at 150 A MeV incident energy. A simulation of a thermal source whose expansion is partially governed by a transverse flow indicates that the collective energy represents about 75 % of the total transverse energy ({approx} 65 % at 250 and 400 A MeV). (author). 102 refs.

  10. Recherche de leptoquarks de troisième génération dans l’expérience CMS au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chasserat, Julien

    L'expérience CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), construite sur l'anneau du LHC (Large Hadron Collider) a enregistré une quantité colossale de données provenant des collisions proton-proton de 2009 à 2012 à des énergies dans le centre de masse de 7 TeV et 8 TeV. Cette expérience est consacrée aux mesures de précision des paramètres du modèle standard, à l'étude du boson de Higgs ainsi qu'à la mise à l'épreuve de théories au-delà du modèle standard. Un certain nombre de ces théories prévoient l'existence de particules appelées leptoquarks, de nouveaux bosons se couplant à la fois aux leptons et au quarks. La première partie de cette thèse est consacrée à la présentation du Modèle Standard des particules et à une introduction théorique aux leptoquarks. La seconde explique brièvement le fonctionnement du LHC et de l'expérience CMS. La troisième partie est dédiée au travail effectué dans le groupe générateur de CMS au cours de la première année de ma thèse. Cette mission consis...

  11. Radon Concentration in Outdoors and Indoors Around the Flare in Oil Mine Sites; Konsentrasi Gas Radon di Udara di Luar dan Dalam Rumah Sekitar Nyala-api Kawasan Tambang Minyak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarman,; Wahyudi, [Centre for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Luhantara, [University of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-03-15

    The flares are much found at the oil exploration areas which appear the combustion gases emission to the environment that pass through a pipe at about 8 m high from the ground level. The flare is released into the environment together with the hydrocarbon and radon gases. This study has been carried out the measurement of the radon gas concentration only. Radon is a radioactive gas which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium ({sup 238}U). The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 23 locations with the two-filter method. The locations were determined by a circle which the flare as the point center. The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 74 houses (more than distance of 600 m from the flare) with the alpha track detector (CR-39) placed in the living rooms for about three months. The measurements of the radon concentrations were carried out in Cepu, Cirebon, and Prabumulih oil mine sites. The results showed that the outdoor radon concentrations a range of 108 Bq/m{sup 3} to 256 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cepu, 248 Bq/m{sup 3} to 3525 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cirebon, and 51 Bq/m{sup 3} to 114 Bq/m{sup 3} in Prabumulih. The results showed that the indoor radon concentrations a range of 11 Bq/m{sup 3} to 38 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cepu, 28 Bq/m{sup 3} to 184 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cirebon, and 12 Bq/m{sup 3} to 38 Bq/m{sup 3} in Prabumulih. The data of the maximum radon concentration in outdoor air was higher than an actual level which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for workplaces. The maximum radon concentration in indoor air was lower than an actual level which recommended by IAEA for dwellings. IAEA recommends the actual level of 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for workplaces and 200 Bq/m{sup 3} for dwellings. These data will be used for the baseline data of the environmental radioactivity in Indonesia. (author)

  12. Contribution des hôpitaux de jour en psychiatrie dans le champ contemporain de la santé mentale au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laurence Poirel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Actuellement au Québec, les hôpitaux de jour en psychiatrie sont des milieux de jour offrant un programme thérapeutique intensif de courte durée, principalement dans un contexte d'activités de groupe. Alors que les hôpitaux de jour sont des acteurs qui font partie intégrante du système de soins en santé mentale depuis plusieurs décennies, la question de leur rôle et de leur contribution spécifique dans le champ des approches et des pratiques de traitement et pour les personnes qu'ils rejoignent est rarement posée. Cet article s'articule autour de l'hypothèse selon laquelle les repères et les cadres actuellement dominants dans le champ de la psychiatrie et de la santé mentale permettent mal de dégager et de prendre en compte certains des paramètres dont il faut tenir compte pour parvenir à préciser et à situer le rôle et la contribution des hôpitaux de jour, dans le système de soin comme pour les personnes auxquelles ces milieux de pratique s'adressent. À partir des résultats préliminaires d'une étude exploratoire poursuivie dans quatre hôpitaux de jour où différents acteurs ont été rencontrés lors d'entrevues (personnes utilisatrices, intervenants, gestionnaires, cet article propose de dégager quelques pistes d'analyse et de réflexion.

  13. L'institutionnalisation des délibérations dans l'espace public au sein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    16 sept. 2010 ... prise de décision occuperont une place importante dans cette étude, l'accent sera surtout mis sur le processus par lequel la délibération dans l' ...... autorités traditionnelles mettent en œuvre pour essayer de faire face aux.

  14. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  15. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  16. Genre et dynamique organisationnelle au Moyen Atlas : cas du douar Maâmar dans la région de Khénifra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Le droit au développement semble animer tous les efforts visant à promouvoir la montagne marocaine, dans toutes ses dimensions politiques, sociales, organisationnelles à travers des projets de développement dont le plus réputé au Moyen Atlas est le projet MEDA-Khénifra. Ses actions diverses et ambitieuses ont façonné un douar de la région par de nouvelles organisations qui ont impacté les relations sociales et en particulier les relations du genre. Nous analysons à travers ce cas l’impact des projets de développement sur les relations du genre et l’empowerment des femmes dans cet espace. Les enquêtes ont été menées sous forme de questionnaires et d’entretiens collectifs. Le projet a créé deux organisations formelles : une association de développement et une coopérative pour la valorisation des plantes aromatiques et médicinales. Les femmes n’ont pas été impliquées dans ces organisations et certaines d’entre elles ont été invitées à participer à deux groupements informels. Le premier, pour la production de plantes aromatiques et médicinales, est resté sous la tutelle des organisations formelles gérées par les hommes. L’autre, dédié à l’apiculture, est plus autonome et a mieux réussi. Par ailleurs, la montée en puissance des organisations formelles a conduit à une moindre capacité d’action des femmes au niveau du village, car elles n’ont plus sur ces organisations les droits qu’elles ont traditionnellement dans le cadre de la jmâa. Cette expérience montre qu’un projet de développement peut influencer négativement les relations de genre malgré les bonnes volontés. La réflexion sur la question de genre doit alors impérativement animer l’ensemble des actions des projets de développement.

  17. Évaluation du risque de dysglycémie dans la région de Kitikmeot (Nunavut au moyen de l'outil CANRISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : L'Agence de la santé publique du Canada a adapté un outil finlandais de dépistage du diabète (FINDRISC dans le but de créer un outil, CANRISK, conçu sur mesure pour la population multiethnique du Canada. Cet outil a été élaboré à partir de données recueillies dans sept provinces canadiennes. Dans le but d'élargir son applicabilité aux populations des territoires nordiques, nous avons réalisé une étude auprès de la population majoritairement inuite de la région de Kitikmeot (Nunavut. Méthodologie : Nous avons recueilli des questionnaires CANRISK, des mesures physiques et des échantillons de sang auprès de participants vivant dans cinq collectivités de la région de Kitikmeot. Nous avons utilisé une régression logistique pour évaluer l'ajustement du modèle à l'aide des facteurs de risque de l'outil CANRISK d'origine associés à la dysglycémie (prédiabète et diabète. La dysglycémie a été évaluée au moyen d'un test de glycémie plasmatique à jeun (GPJ administré seul ou avec une épreuve d'hyperglycémie provoquée par voie orale. Nous avons mis au point les scores CANRISK des participants pour tester le fonctionnement de cet outil au sein d'une population inuite. Résultats : Au total, 303 personnes ont participé à l'étude. La moitié d'entre elles avaient moins de 45 ans, les deux tiers étaient des femmes et 84 % étaient inuites. Sur les 303 participants, 18 % étaient atteints de prédiabète et 4 % avaient un diabète non diagnostiqué. La probabilité de présenter un état dysglycémique augmentait de façon exponentielle avec l'âge et la relation avec l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC suivait une courbe en U. Par rapport aux résultats d'analyse en laboratoire, l'outil CANRISK avec un seuil de 32 points a présenté une sensibilité de 61 %, une spécificité de 66 %, une valeur prédictive positive de 34 % et un taux d'exactitude de 65 %. Conclusion : L'outil CANRISK a permis de d

  18. La communauté dans l'espace de reproduction des familles paysannes au Pérou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de ce texte est l’étude du changement social dans la communauté paysanne. La recherche porte sur deux communautés des Andes centrales péruviennes, dans une vallée proche de la capitale. L’analyse des comportements des familles paysannes recouvre une période d’une trentaine d’années, durant laquelle les communautés subissent des transformations rapides du fait de l’importance accrue de deux phénomènes : l’éducation scolaire et la monétarisation de l’économie paysanne, qu’accompagne l’ouverture de la communauté à l’espace extérieur. L’analyse des changements économiques et sociaux dans la communauté repose sur la signification de ces facteurs pour une redéfinition de l’organisation collective et, au-delà, du cadre de vie des familles paysannes. L’étude des stratégies que ces dernières développent pour améliorer leurs conditions d’existence montre à la fois que la reproduction familiale ne dépend pas exclusivement de l’organisation communale et que la communauté demeure un repère social et économique pour ses membres. C’est la dialectique des intérêts individuels et collectifs qui impose une dynamique de développement à la communauté. LA COMUNIDAD EN EL ESPACIO DE REPRODUCCIÓN DE LAS FAMILIAS CAMPESINAS DEL PERÚ. El objeto de este texto es el estudio del cambio social en la comunidad campesina. La investigación se hizo en dos comunidades de los Andes centrales del Perú, en un valle cercano a la capital. El análisis de los comportamientos de las familias campesinas cubre un período de unos treinta años, durante los cuales las comunidades viven transformaciones rápidas por la importancia creciente de dos fenómenos: la educación escolar y la monetarización de la economía campesina, acompañados por la apertura de la comunidad al espacio exterior. El análisis de los cambios económicos y sociales en la comunidad se basa en el significado de estos factores para una redefinición de

  19. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  20. Transient Pressure Surges Due to Pipe Movement in an Oil Well Surpressions transitoires dues au mouvement des colonnes de tubes dans les puits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinski A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A pressure surge which could cause lost circulation, results from running a stand of drill pipe or a joint of casing into a hole. Similarly, a negative pressure surge, which could cause a blowout, results from pulling pipe from a hole. In past investigations, pressure surges were calculated on the basis of steady state flow. It is shown in this paper that this led to erroneous results. In thls investigation, pressure surges are calculated on the basis of transient wave propagation phenomena. A computer program was developed to that effect. Results are presented in :the first part of the paper, and the mathematics in the second. La descente d'une longueur de tiges ou d'un tube de casing dans le trou provoque une surpression pouvant entraîner des pertes de circulation. De même, la remontée des tiges provoque une surpression négative pouvant entraîner une éruption. Au cours des précédentes recherches, les surpressions étaient calculées pour des débits en régime permanent. Il est montré dans cet étude que les résultats ainsi obtenus ne sont pas exacts. Dans cette recherche, les calculs des surpressions sont basés sur le phénomène de propagation transitoire des ondes. Un programme de calcul sur ordinateur a été développé à cet effet. Les résultats sont présentés dans la première partie de cet article et les calculs font l'objet de la deuxième partie.

  1. Contribution to the study of stimulated emission in neodymium-doped glass; Contribution a l'etude de l'emission stimulee dans le verre dope au neodyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jego, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes; Faculte des Sciences de Rennes, 35 (France)

    1969-07-01

    annees pour voir les premieres realisations. Le maser fonctionnant dans le domaine des ondes micrometriques apparait en 1954. Dans le domaine optique, le premier 'LASER' est realise par MAIMAN en 1960. L'atome actif etait le chrome au sein d'une matrice d'alumine (rubis). le monocristal fluorescent etait place entre deux reflecteurs charges de maintenir dans le mileu une inversion provoquee de population jusqu'a atteindre les conditions d'emission. L'effet laser a permis de realiser beaucoup de generateurs de raies (plusieurs centaines) couvrant la gamme optique avec les mileux tant gazeux que liquides ou solides. Parmi ceux ci, le neodyme presente une transition entre les niveaux 4 F{sub 3/2} et 4 I{sub 11/2} qui a permis la realisation de lasers de tres grande puissance. Ce travail etudie les conditions de formation d'une impulsion declenchee et de son amplification dans le verre dope au neodyme. Des mesures precises des divers rendements interessants dans ces processus nous ont permis de connaitre la valeur de l'inversion de population realisee dans le milieu et d'etudier le detail de l'emission stimulee. (auteur)

  2. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  3. Oxygen titration in sodium. The mercury method and its use for very low values; Dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium. La methode au mercure : son utilisation dans le cas de tres faibles teneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeix, L; Darras, R; Duflo, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The mercury method for the oxygen titration in sodium has now been known for ten years and is probably the more frequently used. In this text, precision are given to what extent it is valuable when used in microanalysis. Details are given on the apparatus, its manipulation and its calibration. After testing, we have decided to use flame spectroscopy to titrate the sodium hydroxide formed. Discussions are exposed on the errors due to the presence of sodium chloride and calcium. Results are examined from the point of view of their reproducibility and accuracy. If great care is taken, this method allows oxygen titration in sodium even for values below 10 ppm with satisfactory precision. (author) [French] La methode au mercure pour le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium est connue depuis une dizaine d'annees, elle est probablement la plus utilisee. Nous avons voulu preciser dans quelle mesure elle etait valable dans le domaine des faibles teneurs avec une precision acceptable. Nous decrivons en detail l'appareil utilise pour l'analyse, le mode operatoire et la methode d'etalonnage. Nos essais nous ont conduit a adopter la spectrographie de flamme pour le dosage de la soude formee, les erreurs introduites par la presence de chlorure de sodium et de calcium sont discutes. Les resultats obtenus sont examines du point de vue de la reproductibilite, de la justesse. Moyennant un mode operatoire tres soigne, cette methode permet le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium, meme a des teneurs inferieures a 10 ppm avec une precision satisfaisante. (auteur)

  4. Production of {lambda}(1520) in p+p and Au+Au collisions with {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC; Production de {lambda}(1520) dans les collisions p+p et Au+Au a {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV dans l'experience STAR au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudichet, L

    2003-10-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are produced in order to observe the created hot and dense matter. One major goal is to probe the existence of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The QGP would be the state of matter in which temperature and density are high enough to break the quark confinement into hadrons. For that purpose, the RHIC collider has produced p+p and Au+Au collisions at the energy of {radical}s{sub NN}= 200 GeV. This thesis work is focused on the production of {lambda}(1520) resonances in these collisions with the STAR experiment. In comparison with statistical prediction, the measured {lambda}(1520)/{lambda} show a significant lowering in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These results strongly support the decoupling of the system in two stages: a chemical freeze-out followed by a thermal freeze-out. This conclusion constitutes an important step to an understanding of the created matter in high energy heavy ion collisions. (author)

  5. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  6. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  7. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  8. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  9. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoungou J.F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  10. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  11. Nouveaux modes de coordination des acteurs dans le développement local: cas des zones rurales au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Les politiques de développement en cours dans plusieurs pays du sud, notamment dans ceux de l’Afrique sub-saharienne ont amorcé un nouveau tournant à partir de la fin des années 1980. A la faveur de l’instauration du climat de démocratie dans plusieurs de ces pays à partir de cette période, nombre d’entre eux ont procédé à de profondes réformes, donnant à la société civile et aux populations à la base, un droit de regard plus important dans la conduite des affaires les concernant. L’une des manifestations les plus importantes de ces réformes se traduit par la mise en œuvre de la décentralisation. Ce processus vise entre autres, la prise en compte des réalités locales et la responsabilisation des communautés à la base dans la gestion de leur développement. Il s’agit en d’autres termes, de favoriser le renforcement des capacités des populations locales, en vue de leur permettre de prendre en charge de façon durable, la gestion de leurs propres affaires dans le cadre de la gouvernance participative. Amorcé en janvier 1993, avec les états généraux de l’administration territoriale, le processus de la décentralisation au Bénin n’a connu sa phase de concrétisation qu’avec les élections et l’installation des élus locaux en début 2003. En prélude à l’avènement de la décentralisation, plusieurs localités béninoises font l’objet, depuis le milieu des années 1990, d’expériences d’appui au développement des communautés locales. C’est le cas notamment, des villages des départements de l’Atlantique et des Collines. A travers ces expériences, se mettent en place, divers dispositifs de gouvernance locale au sein des systèmes locaux d’action publique relatifs aux localités rurales. Il s’agit notamment, des comités villageois de suivi ou de gestion, des dispositifs de comités villageois de développement dans le département de l’Atlantique, et du dispositif des projets de

  12. Le pouvoir au féminin dans la Castille médiévale : une deuxième voie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Klinka

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Comment définir le lien entre femme et pouvoir dans les anciens royaumes de Castille et León ? Y a-t-il un exercice spécifique du pouvoir par les femmes ? Les chroniques n’en offrent qu’une vision très lacunaire et la Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris en est un exemple intéressant du fait même de l’a priori idéologique qui préside à sa composition. Je me suis donc intéressée au traitement particulier que cette chronique réserve au protagonisme féminin.¿Cómo definir el vínculo entre mujer y poder en los antiguos reinos de Castilla y León? ¿Existe un ejercicio del poder por las mujeres? Sólo ofrecen las crónicas una visión muy lagunosa y la Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris es un interesante ejemplo por el a priori ideológico que rige su composición. Me interesé pues por el particular tratamiento que esta crónica reserva al protagonismo femenino.

  13. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  14. Séries de problèmes dans une tradition d'enseignement des mathématiques en Hongrie au 20e siècle1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosztonyi Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous discutons l'intérêt d'étudier des « séries de problèmes » pour la caractérisation d'une tradition d'enseignement des mathématiques en Hongrie au 20e siècle. Dans la partie 1, nous résumons le contexte historique et les principes partagés dans cette tradition sur les mathématiques et leur enseignement. Dans la partie 2, nous étudions plus en détail un texte d'un membre de cette communauté, un extrait du Jeux avec l'infini de Rózsa Péter, qui nous servira de modèle pour les analyses ultérieures. Dans la partie 3, nous présentons différents documents liés à la réforme de l'enseignement des mathématiques dirigée par Tamás Varga dans les décennies 1960 et 1970, cette réforme étant considérée comme une étape significative dans l'histoire de cette « tradition hongroise ». Nous tenterons de montrer qu'une réflexion sur la mise en ordre des problèmes joue un rôle crucial dans la structuration de ces textes divers, écrits souvent dans une forme narrative et quasi-littéraire ; et que l'étude des « séries de problèmes » présentées dans ces textes peut apporter une contribution importante à la caractérisation de la tradition en question.

  15. L'Empowerment au coeur des bouleversements induits par les TIC dans la gestion des ressources humaines

    OpenAIRE

    Blavier, André

    2012-01-01

    Observer l’influence des TIC (Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication” sur les ressources humaines à la lumière du seul débat “pour ou contre les réseaux sociaux dans l’entreprise ou l’organisation ?” est une approche bien trop restrictive. Les défis relatifs à l’évolution des ressources humaines s’inscrivent dans une perspective plus large, celle d’un environnement numérique global. Comme l’a souligné le rapport “Digital Economy Rankings 2010” d’IBM en collaboration avec l’Econ...

  16. La communauté dans l'espace de reproduction des familles paysannes au Pérou

    OpenAIRE

    Bey, Marguerite

    1992-01-01

    L'objet de ce texte est l'étude du changement social dans la communauté paysanne. La recherche porte sur deux communautés des Andes centrales péruviennes, dans une vallée proche de la capitale. L'analyse des comportements des familles paysannes recouvre une période d'un trentaine d'années, durant laquelle les communautés subissent des transformations rapides du fait de l'importance accrue de deux phénomènes : l'éducation scolaire et la monétarisation de l'économie paysanne, qu'accompagne l'ou...

  17. Preequilibrium measurement in the Pb + Au reaction at 29 A.MeV; Mesure du preequilibre dans la reaction 29 A.MeV Pb + Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboufirassi, M.; Badala, A.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Paulot, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); LPC (Caen) - CRN (Strasbourg) - GANIL - IPN (Orsay) Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    The products (nuclear fragments and light particles) emitted in the reaction Pb + Au at 29 A.MeV were detected with the NAUTILUS multidetector. All the exit channels of 2,3,4,5,.. etc fragments are compatible with a deep inelastic process in the entrance channel. In this work the `evaporation residue` was investigated and a study on the preequilibrium particles emitted after the initial interaction phases was carried out. The method of measuring the preequilibrium particle multiplicity is based on the high velocities which these particles are able to acquire (Fermi jets) in comparison with the evaporated particles. We have selected by TKE (Total Kinetic Energy) cutting the light particles having a large relative velocity either in relation to quasi-projectile fragment or in relation to the quasi-target fragment. This method has the advantage of being independent of the chosen reference frame or of the chosen TKE cutting. Since in this experiment the neutrons have not been detected, we have normalized the counting to a value obtained for the same system with a neutron detected at TKE = 3.7 MeV/A with the N/Z correction in the entrance channel applied. The results show a good agreement with the Landau-Vlasov dynamical calculations 2 refs.

  18. Le rôle des universités africaines dans l'innovation au service du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un nouveau réseau de recherche s'intéressera aux façons dont les universités africaines peuvent contribuer à stimuler l'innovation sur le continent noir. Le projet de recherche permettra d'examiner dans quelle mesure les universités favorisent les innovations qui contribuent à l'insertion économique des populations ...

  19. Relation between "terra rossa" from the Apulia aquifer of Italy and the radon content of groundwater: Experimental results and their applicability to radon occurrence in the aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadolini, T.; Spizzico, M.

    The radon-222 (222Rn) activity in groundwater of the Apulian karstic aquifer in southern Italy is as great as 500 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) locally. Normal radium-226 (226Ra) activity in the limestone and calcareous dolomites of the aquifer is not enough to explain such a high level. Laboratory investigations identified high 226Ra activity in the "terra rossa," the residuum occupying fissures and cavities in the bedrock, and also the relation between (1) 226Ra-bearing bedrock and "terra rossa" and (2) 222Rn in water. The "terra rossa" is the primary source of the radon in the groundwater. The experimental results show the need to characterize the "terra rossa" of Apulia on the basis of 226Ra activity and also to study the distribution and variations in 222Rn activity over time in the aquifer. Résumé L'activité du radon-222 (222Rn) dans les eaux souterraines de l'aquifère karstique des Pouilles, dans le sud de l'Italie, atteint localement 500 Becquerel par litre (Bq/L). L'activité normale du radium-226 (226Ra) dans les calcaires et dans les calcaires dolomitiques de l'aquifère n'est pas assez élevée pour expliquer des valeurs aussi élevées. Des analyses de laboratoire ont mis en évidence une forte activité en 226Ra dans la terra rossa, remplissage de fissures et de cavités de la roche, ainsi qu'une relation entre (1) la roche et la terra rossa contenant du 226Ra et (2) le 222Rn dans l'eau. La terra rossa est la source primaire de radon dans l'eau souterraine. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu'il est nécessaire de caractériser la terra rossa des Pouilles par son activité en 226Ra et d'étudier la distribution et les variations de l'activité en 222Rn au cours du temps dans l'aquifère. Resumen La actividad del radon-222 (222Rn) en el agua subterránea del acuífero cárstico de Apulia, al sur de Italia, alcanza localmente los 500Bq/L. La actividad normal del radio-226 (226Ra) en las calcitas y dolomitas del acuífero no es suficiente para

  20. Le comportement symbolique dans la Préhistoire de la Roumanie: art mobilier au Paléolithique supérieur en Moldavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BELDIMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉ: Les approches récentes des collections anciennes aussi bien que les découvertes des derniers décennies ont permis des discussions détaillés (concernant le répertoire, la typologie, la technologie, les dates radiométriques, etc. sur les rares documents d’art mobilier (parure, objets décorés et dites “non utilitaires” appartenant au Paléolithique supérieur (Gravettien oriental, autour 23-13 kya BP et provenant de la Moldavie roumaine –région Est du pays, comprise entre les Carpates et la rivière Prut–. Les 29 artefacts signalés ont été découvertes en 6 sites de plein aire et dans un site en grotte. Les types identifiés sont: bâtons percés sur métatarse de cheval et sur bois de renne; pendeloques lithiques et en os; rondelle en bois de renne; dents percées; objets lithiques en quartzite et graphite; objets gravés et encochés lithiques et en os; harpon décoré; fragment de défense de mammouth ayant des traces de débitage et façonnage; coquilles fossiles appartenant à l’espèce Congeria?; coquilles percées appartenant à l’espèce Succinea oblonga? ou Lithoglyphus naticoides? La plupart des artéfacts ont une signification spéciale pour le phénomène de l’art et de la technologie préhistorique de la région envisagée: il s’agit des pendeloques de Mitoc, dép. de Botosani et de fragment d’os gravé d’une représentation de patte d’animal? de Piatra Neamt, dép. de Neamt. Une autre pièce exceptionnelle c’est le fragment de défense de mammouth de Lespezi, dép. de Bacau portant sur l’extrémité proximale des traces de débitage par entaillage et probablement par sciage à la ficelle; cela peut être le plus ancienne situation de cette sorte signalée dans cette partie de l’Europe. Tenant compte du fait que les objets en ivoire de mammouth sont apparitions extrêmement rares dans le Paléolithique supérieur de la Roumanie et les analogies on peut envisager la provenance de cet

  1. Au-delà de la relation « bourreau-victime » dans l’analyse d’une situation de harcèlement psychologique au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vézina

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Des dispositions législatives ont été adoptées dans plusieurs pays, afin de contrer le harcèlement psychologique au travail. Même s’il est souvent nécessaire, d’un point de vue juridique, que les mesures portent sur la protection individuelle des victimes, on ne peut penser endiguer ce fléau en ne s’appuyant que sur une approche centrée sur l’individu. Aussi, au-delà d’une approche « bourreau-victime » à courte vue, la prévention véritable du harcèlement psychologique au travail passe-t-elle par l’analyse et l’élimination des facteurs organisationnels et des éléments culturels qui constituent un terreau fertile ou propice à l’émergence de comportements violents entre membres d’une même organisation de travail. Ces facteurs sont notamment l’intensification du travail, la faiblesse de l’autorité hiérarchique et la précarisation du lien d’emploi, de même que la banalisation ou la négation du phénomène, la tolérance aux incivilités et l’iniquité ou l’injustice en milieu de travail. À l’instar de la technique de l’arbre des causes utilisée dans l’investigation d’un accident de travail, les intervenants confrontés à une situation de harcèlement psychologique au travail sont invités à adopter une approche qui va au-delà des évidences premières, pour s’attaquer aux causes plus indirectes du phénomène, soit les lacunes dans le système de gestion.Legislation has been adopted in several countries to counter psychological harassment in the workplace. Even if it is often necessary, from a legal standpoint, that the means involve the personal protection of victims, more than a person-centred approach must be considered for stopping this wrong. Also, beyond a « bully-victim » approach, in the short view, real prevention of workplace psychological harassment is achieved by analyzing and eliminating organizational factors and cultural aspects that constitute a fertile

  2. Les médiations sociales, culturelles et technologiques dans la production et l’appropriation des intergiciels de l’industrie du jeu vidéo au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Charrieras, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Le secteur industriel des intergiciels de jeux vidéo (game middleware) est très lié au développement des industries du jeu vidéo dans lequel le Canada est très actif et dont l’importance économique ne cesse de croître. Dans son étude du rôle des industries de l’intergiciel dans la filière de production d’un jeu vidéo l’auteur s'est penché sur la circulation des intergiciels de jeux vidéo pour explorer les multiples relations existantes entre les sociétés d’intergiciel, les entreprises de déve...

  3. Au fil du temps. Une infrastructure évolutive dans un espace vert préservé à Fribourg

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffieux, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    La prise de conscience des enjeux environnementaux et l'accélération continue des changements sociétaux questionnent les modalités actuelles de production du bâti. Avec le développement des technologies, notre espace est devenu de plus en plus virtuel, nous faisant perdre le lien avec notre environnement direct; nous vivons la majorité du temps à l'intérieur, que ce soit pour nous déplacer, habiter ou travailler. Pour répondre à ces enjeux, le projet Au fil du temps propose une infrastructure...

  4. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Shocks in magneto-reactive-gas dynamics with application to the piston problem; Sur les chocs dans un milieu magnetodynamique reactif avec application au probleme du piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubbaramayer, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    electrique et thermique). Enfin on discute de toutes les solutions possibles du probleme du piston dans un cas simple. Les methodes developpees ici peuvent etre etendues au choc ionisant. (auteur)

  6. Les savants genevois dans l'Europe intellectuelle du XVIIe au milieu du XIXe siècle

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Après une introduction sur l'essor de la science genevoise par Jean STAROBINSKI et un chapitre sur l'Europe savante (1700-1850) par Jacques ROGER, sont présentés les travaux et recherches dans les différentes disciplines: l'astronomie par Marcel GOLAY, les mathématiques par Pierre SPEZIALI, la physique par Pierre SPEZIALI, la chimie par Armand BUCHS, la géologie par Albert V. CAROZZI, la zoologie par Marino BUSCAGLIA, la botanique par Jacques NAEF; suivis des biographies des savants genevois par Jean-Michel PICTET, avec petits portraits; notes; index; photos et fac-similés de documents; bibliographies par chapitre. Ouvrage publié par l'Association pour le Musée d'histoire des sciences de Genève, présidé par Jacques TREMBLEY.

  7. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  8. The Norwegian information campaign on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Strand, T.

    1999-01-01

    The responsibility for providing an overview of 'all factors in the environment which are or may be having a direct or indirect influence on the health - -' rests with the municipal health authorities. In order to enable the municipal staff throughout Norway to accomplish local radon surveys, an information campaign on radon, including printed information material and training courses, was carried out in 1998-99, primarily directed towards municipal civil servants. The two-day training courses comprised of lectures and a compendium covering basic knowledge on ionizing radiation, sources of radon, measurement techniques, health risk, prophylactic and remedial measures, design and accomplishment of survey projects, and information strategy. The printed information material includes booklets providing general information on radon (health risks, measurements, and mitigation), methods for measuring radon in indoor air and construction sites, action levels, and design of municipal radon surveys. Two posters have been issued, one mainly intended for public offices and waiting rooms to motivate the public for radon measurements, the other one intended for municipal personnel and governmental offices, the latter also issued as a collection of fact sheets intended for schools etc. the booklets are displayed on the Internet (www.nrpa.no). The site also contains links to further information on mitigation techniques and economic support to remedial measures. (au)

  9. The radon transform. Theory and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, P.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is the mathematical Radon transform, which is well suited for curve detection in digital images, and for reconstruction of tomography images. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the Radon- and the Hough-transform and especially their discrete approximations with respect to curve parameter detection in digital images. The sampling relationships of the Radon transform is reviewed from a digital signal processing point of view. The discrete Radon transform is investigated for detection of curves, and aspects regarding the performance of the Radon transform assuming various types of noise is covered. Furthermore, a new fast scheme for estimating curve parameters is presented. Part II of the thesis describes the inverse Radon transform in 2D and 3D with focus on reconstruction of tomography images. Some of the direct reconstruction schemes are analyzed, including their discrete implementation. Furthermore, several iterative reconstruction schemes based on linear algebra are reviewed and applied for reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. A new and very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction methods is devised. In a more practical oriented chapter, the noise in PET images is modelled from a very large number of measurements. Several packagers for Radon- and Hough-transform based curve detection and direct/iterative 2D and 3D reconstruction have been developed and provided for free. (au) 140 refs

  10. Risk analysis related to dangerous materials transport and storage in urban areas; L'integration du risque lie au transport et au stockage des produits chimiques dans la planification urbaine: l'apport des outils d'analyse decisionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, J; Hubert, P; Pages, P

    1989-12-01

    determiner sur des bases objectives quel moyen retenir. Cette etape n'est pas pour autant suffisante, car l'integration des resultats dans les processus decisionnels reste a organiser. L'objet de ce rapport est de presenter differentes methodes d'aide a la decision utilisables a ce jour, en soulignant les criteres sur lesquels elles fondent leur comparaison et leurs limitations dans le contexte envisage ici. Quoique ce point necessite une analyse plus approfondie, quelques rappels generaux des principales particularites de la gestion des risques en milieu urbain (implication possible de multiples acteurs dans la prise de decision et/ou de differents criteres de choix; difficulte d'evaluation des impacts) sont effectues. Les principales methodes d'aide a la decision sont ensuite presentees. Ces methodes se fondent sur un critere unique (respect d'une contrainte reglementaire), sur quelques criteres monetarisables (cout-benefice) ou sur de multiples criteres de choix (fonctions d'utilite). Ces methodes assez generales doivent faire l'objet d'adaptations speifiques pour pouvoir etre appliquees au mieux a un domaine particulier. Pour ce qui concerne la gestion des risques accidentels, les adaptations suivantes sont presentees de maniere critique : - Notion de limite de risque maximal individuel (generalisation d'une contrainte reglementaire). - Adoption de differentes valeurs de la vie humaine en fonction de la nature des consequences de l'accident (generalisation de la methode cout-benefice). - Utilisation de facteurs d'aversion pour le risque (application de la theorie de l'utilite pour prendre en compte le poids important accorde aux evenements catastrophiques). Ces differents developpements visent a proposer des versions des outils d'analyse decisionnelle qui s'appliquent efficacement a la gestion du risque en milieu urbain. (author)

  11. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  12. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  13. Les sports de nature dans le Parc national de la Guadeloupe : des conflits potentiels au potentiel de coopération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lahaye

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La perspective d’un classement en « cœur de parc » des îlets Pigeon, haut lieu de la plongée sous-marine, relance les débats autour de la place des sports de nature dans le Parc national de la Guadeloupe. Faut-il craindre une interdiction de la plongée sous-marine en cœur de parc, comme ce fut le cas pour le canyoning, suite au conflit environnemental entourant cette pratique? La réglementation est-elle toujours de mise, alors que la loi sur les parcs de 2006 exhorte les parcs à s’engager dans des démarches partenariales, afin de bâtir un projet de territoire reposant sur les principes du développement durable et de solidarité écologique entre le cœur de parc et ses espaces environnants ? Parallèlement, si le Parc doit passer d’une gestion de crises, souvent hésitante et parfois arbitrale, à une gestion concertée, de quel potentiel de coopération dispose-t-il pour dépasser des situations de conflits potentiels comme celle des îlets Pigeon? Existe-t-il un effet d’apprentissage du conflit du canyoning capable de modeler ce potentiel de coopération ?The probability that the Pigeon Islands, a Mecca for diving, will be classified as a protected “heart of park”, reopens the debate about outdoor sports in the National Park of Guadeloupe. Should we be worried about the prohibition of diving in this “heart of park”, as has happened in the case of canyoning, following an environmental conflict around this practice? Are regulations always acceptable, when at the same time the law on the national parks of 2006 exhorts the parks to make a commitment to participatory initiatives, and to create projects based on the principles of sustainable development and ecological solidarity between the heart of park and its surrounding spaces? At the same time, if the Park has to develop from a crisis management style, with hesitating and arbitrary decisions, to a more cooperative management style, what potential is there to use

  14. Accouchement gémellaire en milieu africain: une analyse de 10 ans dans le district de Bamako au Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théra, Tiounkani; Mounkoro, Niani; Traore, Soumana Omar; Hamidou, Albachar; Traore, Mamadou; Doumbia, Saleck; Tall, Saoudatou; Kouma, Aminata

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs influençant le pronostic de l'accouchement du deuxième jumeau. Méthodes L'étude était rétrospective et a porté sur tous les cas d'accouchements gémellaires enregistrés à la maternité du Centre de Santé de Référence de la commune V du District de Bamako du 1erJanvier 2007 au 31 Décembre 2016 soit sur une période de dix ans. Résultats Nous avons enregistré 34.899 accouchements dont 1374 accouchements gémellaires soit une fréquence de 2,54%; près de 15% étaient des primipares; 39,16% étaient référées; 69,10% et 15,5% autres sans aucun suivi prénatal. Les facteurs influençant négativement pronostic du deuxième jumeau étaient: un délai ≥ 15minutes entre les jumeaux, le recours tardif à la césarienne, la non qualification de l'accoucheur, la grossesse monochoréale, le faible poids de naissance. Par contre la parité, la réalisation de manœuvres obstétricales n'avaient aucune influence sur le pronostic du deuxième jumeau. Conclusion Le pronostic du deuxième jumeau est fortement influencé par un délai de naissance de plus de 15 minutes entre les jumeaux, les autres facteurs agissant comme des cofacteurs. PMID:29662606

  15. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  16. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  17. Du type au stéréotype : analyse des modalités d’insertion des stéréotypes des physiologies dans Bouvard et Pécuchet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Stohler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette analyse a pour but d’exposer la manière dont Flaubert récupère les stéréotypes présents dans les physiologies, genre littéraire à la mode dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, en définissant leurs différentes modalités d’insertion dans Bouvard et Pécuchet. Après s’être interrogée sur le statut particulier des physiologies, l’étude montre que les différents types qu’elles mettent en scène, et plus particulièrement celui du « bourgeois », fournissent à Flaubert un matériel discursif stéréotypé qui lui sert de base de composition à l’ensemble de son texte : composition des personnages (traits physiques, caractériels, axiologiques, etc., composition structurelle du roman, etc. La démonstration attire ainsi l’attention sur ce qui paraît être l’une des lignes de force de l’écriture flaubertienne : l’amenuisement au sein de l’espace romanesque du langage de l’auteur au profit d’un langage stéréotypé, venu d’ailleurs.

  18. The determination of iodine in biological media using radioactivation analysis (1962); Dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques au moyen de l'analyse par radioactivation (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this study is to show that the application of radioactivation analysis to the determination of iodine in biological media makes it possible to measure iodine concentrations of the order of 0.0001 {mu}g. After a review of the chemical methods with a mention of the difficulties they present, the optimum conditions for the determination of iodine in biological liquids are given. Three methods are described: - the first consists of a chemical treatment which liberates the protein bound iodine in an inorganic form. After distillation this iodine is irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons. The induced radioactivity is compared to that of a standard sample irradiated in the same conditions by {gamma} spectrometry. - the second method which is of more general application consists in irradiating the sample and then extracting the iodine; its induced radio-activity is then measured by {beta}-counting. - the third method measures the iodine directly in the thyroid tissue by anti-compton spectrometry. The sensitivity, the reproducibility and the accuracy are discussed. Some applications are described: determination of iodine in its various organic forms in serum, determination of iodine in urines, in food-stuffs, etc., in the thyroid tissue, etc. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de montrer que l'analyse par radioactivation appliquee au dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques permet de mesurer des taux d'iode de l'ordie de 0,0001 {mu}g. Apres avoir rappele le principe des methodes chimiques et montre les difficultes de leur mise en oeuvre, il est etabli les conditions optima pour realiser le dosage de l'iode dans les liquides biologiques. Trois methodes sont decrites; - la premiere consiste a pratiquer un traitement chimique liberant l'iode proteique sous forme minerale. Apres distillation cet iode est irradie dans un flux de neutrons thermiques. La radioactivite induite est mesuree comparativement a celle d'un etalon traite dans les memes

  19. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  20. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  1. Les codes du paraître dans l'espace scolaire. Les manuels de civilité en Espagne au XIXe siècle et au début du XXe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Guereña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt du manuel scolaire pour l'histoire des idéologies et des mentalités n'est plus à démontrer, d'autant qu'il se trouve soumis en Espagne à un double contrôle idéologique, tant du pouvoir civil comme des instances religieuses. Vecteurs de systèmes de valeurs, les manuels scolaires servent d'instruments dans la consolidation des formes et des codes moraux et sociaux : défense de la propriété privée, conservation de l'ordre public, protection de l'ordre moral. Dans les manuels de civilité (urbanidad, la jeunesse scolarisée pouvait apprendre les normes essentielles des usages sociaux, les codes, les valeurs, les comportements et les conduites qui définissaient le modèle d'homme et de femme « civilisés » que les classes dominantes prétendaient diffuser pour asseoir leur pouvoir. La civilité vise donc une entreprise de rationalisation, de régulation des conduites, une mise en ordre qui affecte toutes les sphères de la vie, tant privée (espace domestique que publique (école, Église, rue, magasin… et, dans l’ensemble, toutes les activités (travail et loisirs. Au cœur de ce dispositif se retrouvent les notions d'usage, de bienséance (decoro, variable selon les civilisations et les peuples, et de respect : respect de soi-même en premier lieu (hygiène corporelle et tenue vestimentaire, mais toujours vis-à-vis des autres (odeurs, formes, couleurs…, respect des autres (tant êtres humains qu'animaux, et même les plantes. Ces notions sont toutes deux fondées sur l'apparence et le paraître. La norme sociale, le comportement se trouve en effet réglé par une codification sociale des usages, des rôles, et, comme l'indique un manuel, si « les animaux font ce qu'ils veulent », « les personnes font ce que commande la décence ». Nous examinons donc les différents codes du paraître à l'œuvre dans ces manuels espagnols de civilité du XIXe siècle.El interés del libro de texto para la historia de

  2. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  3. Les mesures de santé et sécurité au travail auprès des travailleurs étrangers temporaires dans les entreprises saisonnières

    OpenAIRE

    Gravel, Sylvie; Villanueva, Francisco; Bernstein, Stéphanie; Hanley, Jill; Crespo, Daniel; Ostiguy, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Une analyse des pratiques préventives en santé et sécurité au travail (SST) a été faite dans le cadre d’une étude portant sur les enjeux de gestion ainsi que les conditions de travail et de vie des travailleurs étrangers temporaires (TÉT) employés dans les secteurs de l’horticulture, de la transformation alimentaire et autres secteurs non agricoles. Cette analyse qualitative s’est basée sur deux sources de données. Des entrevues individuelles ont été menées auprès d’employeurs (n = 17), de re...

  4. Mesure de la fraction d'evenements a quatre quarks dans les desintegrations multihadroniques du boson Z au LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Eric

    Cette thèse propose de tester la Chromodynamique Quantique (QCD) en effectuant une mesure précise d'une des trois constantes fondamentales du groupe de symétrie SU(3) utilisé pour décrire la physique des interactions fortes. Cette constante fondamentale, appelée TF, est reliée à certains états finaux spécifiques des désintégrations du Z0. Ces états apparaissent sous forme de perturbations du deuxième ordre en as et sont illustrés par des diagrammes de Feynman. À cet ordre, la chromodynamique prévoit deux types de diagrammes de Feynman distincts; le premier contient, un quark, un antiquark et deux gluons, et le second, deux quarks et deux antiquarks. La constante TF est directement proportionnelle à la fraction d'événements à deux quarks et deux antiquarks qui est l'objet de notre mesure. Notre mesure est fondée sur l'étude des événements à quatre partons dans l'état final. Ces quatre partons, en s'hadronisant, produisent quatre jets de particules qui peuvent être détectés expérimentalement et identifiés à l'aide d'algorithmes de reconstruction des jets. Des observables angulaires nous permettent de faire une discrimination parmi les états finaux de la désintégration du Z0, et ainsi déterminer la valeur de la fraction d'événements à deux quarks et deux antiquarks fq. Cette fraction peut s'exprimer par le rapport de la fraction observée expérimentalement fexq sur la fraction théorique fthq , R4q=fex qfthq. Afin d'améliorer la mesure de cette fraction et de diminuer le bruit causé par une contamination des événements d'ordres supérieurs, nous avons développe une méthode d'extrapolation. Cette méthode s'appuie sur la caractérisation de l'espace de phase des événements, exprimée par les paramètres yij. Les mesures de R4q que nous obtenons sont: R4q=2,27+0,29 -0,56 à l'aide d'une méthode conventionnelle avec la condition de sélection y34 > 0,020 > y45, et R4q=1,22+0,56 -0,71 à l'aide de notre méthode d

  5. Les conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo: une étude transversale à propos de 159 nouveau-nés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokou, Vonor; Nidain, Maneh; Kassoula, Nononsaa Batomguela; Kwassi, Fiaty- Amenouvor; Meba, Banla; Patrice, Balo Komi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le but de l’étude était décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo. Methodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale dans les 4 Unités Sanitaires Périphériques du canton de Glidji du 19 Mars au 13 Mai 2009 soit 8 semaines. Tous les nouveau-nés ont été inclus et la conjonctivite néonatale était définie par la présence chez un nouveau-né d'au moins deux des signes suivants: hyperhémie conjonctivale, œdème palpébral, chémosis, sécrétions purulentes, larmoiement. Les paramètres étudiés étaient l’âge, le sexe, les facteurs de risque, les antécédents, la présence ou non de conjonctivite, les germes en causes et l’évolution sous traitement. Resultats Sur la période, 159 nouveau-nés ont été examinés. L’âge moyen était de 10,9 jours avec des extrêmes de 0 à 28 jours. Il y avait 80 garçons pour 79 filles soit un sex-ratio de 1,01. Sur les 159 nouveau-nés, 7 cas de conjonctivite ont été diagnostiqués soit une prévalence de 4,4%. Les facteurs de risque identifiés étaient l'accouchement par voie basse et la présence d'IST chez la mère pendant la grossesse. Sur les 7 cas de conjonctivite, l'examen cytobactériologique a permis d'isoler le staphylococcus aureus dans 2 cas. L’évolution des cas de conjonctivite sous traitement était favorable avec régression des signes dès le 3è jour. Conclusion Les conjonctivites néonatales avaient une prévalence de 4,4% dans le canton de Glidji au sud du Togo et le staphylocoque doré était le germe en cause. Leur prévention passe par un bon suivi lors de la consultation prénatale et l'instillation de collyre antibiotique à la naissance PMID:27642383

  6. Exposition orale aux nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) : du franchissement de l’épithélium buccal et intestinal au devenir et aux effets dans l’organisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Face à l’utilisation exponentielle des nanomatériaux dans des produits de consommation courante, dont l’alimentation, les conséquences pour l’homme d’une exposition quotidienne aux faibles doses de nanoparticules posent des questions de santé publique. Parmi les différentes voies d’exposition, la voie orale reste la moins documentée, alors que des nanomatériaux sont couramment utilisés comme additifs alimentaires, ou incorporés `a des emballages au contact des aliments, de l’eau, pour b´en´ef...

  7. Une esthétique de « la mort au foyer » dans le système de réaménagement filial du cinéma de Pedro Almodovar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Le Pallec Marand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available « Un père n’est pas toujours la solution » Qu’est ce que j’ai fait pour mériter ça ? (1984« Tu dois apprendre à gérer autrement tes problèmes avec les hommes. » Talons aiguilles (19911. Introduction de la perspective féministe dans la figure criminelle au cinéma et la criminologieLa figure criminelle au cinéma participe de la diffusion culturelle de théories scientifiques en cours selon la pérennité de la démonstration de l’ouvrage de Marc Renneville sur la représentation culturelle du coup...

  8. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  9. Les logiques d’engagement dans la guerre d’indépendance au Venezuela. Une autre face de la guerre civile (1812-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Hébrard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est d’appréhender, essentiellement à partir des archives judiciaires, les formes et les logiques d’engagement des populations civiles dans la guerre qui secoue le Venezuela à partir de 1812. Il s’agira également de tenter de rendre compte des systèmes de représentation des acteurs, au niveau collectif et individuel, ainsi que des dynamiques discursives et en actes, qui ont alimenté le conflit et contribué à la montée aux extrêmes qui le caractérise, notamment à travers la construction de la figure d’un ennemi à même de conjurer le caractère civil de la guerre. Pour ce faire, trois dimensions seront privilégiées : les logiques d’engagement à proprement parlé, le fonctionnement de la justice en temps de guerre et son usage par les acteurs.The aim of this article is to comprehend the forms and logic of civilian commitment in the war that shook Venezuela after 1812, through the examination of judicial archives. It also attempts to account for the actors’ systems of representation, at the individual and collective level, as well as discursive dynamics and acts, which fed the conflict and helped push it to extremes, notably by constructing an image of the enemy capable of warding off the civil character of the war. To do this, three aspects are given priority: the logic of commitment, the functioning of justice in time of war and its use by the actors.En este artículo se propone aprehender, esencialmente a partir de los archivos judiciales, las formas y lógicas de compromisos de las poblaciones civiles en la guerra que sacude Venezuela a partir de 1812. Se tratara igualmente de dar cuenta de los sistemas de representación de los actores, a nivel colectivo e individual, así como de las dinámicas discursivas y factuales, que alimentaron el conflicto y contribuyeron al aumento de los extremos que le caracteriza, en particular con la construcción de la figura del enemigo, capaz de conjurar

  10. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  11. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  13. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  14. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  15. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  16. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  17. Observation of Au + AuAu + Au + ρ0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ0 with STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.

    2002-01-01

    First observation of the reactions Au + AuAu + Au + ρ 0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ 0 with the STAR detector are reported. The ρ are produced at small perpendicular momentum, as expected if they couple coherently to both nuclei. Models of vector meson production and the correlation with nuclear breakup are discussed, as well as a fundamental test of quantum mechanics that is possible with the system. (author)

  18. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  19. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  20. LES VARIANTES LEXICALES POUR LE MOT ESPADRILLES AU PARANÁ ET DANS LA RÉGION NORD-EST DU BRÉSIL: UNE ETUDE ETHNOLINGUISTIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranúbia Pereira Barbosa Doiron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : Cette étude concerne les variantes lexicales pour le mot espadrilles dans l’Etat du Paraná et dans la région Nord-Est du Brésil, sous un regard ethnolinguistique. Le corpus est composé par les donnés obtenues à partir de la question numéro 276 du Questionnaire Semantique-Lexical de l’Atlas Linguistique du Paraná (ALPR, dont l’auteur est le professeur Vanderci de Andrade Aguilera (1994, de l’Université de l’Etat de Londrina, autant que les variantes lexicales pour le mot espadrilles trouvées dans deux ouvrages littéraires d’auteurs originaires du Nord-Est du Brésil – Fogo Morto, de José Lins do Rego (2009 et Vidas Secas, de Graciliano Ramos (1969. Dans ces livres, les espadrilles jouent un rôle fondamental, tout en reflétant son importance dans le vestiaire de cette région, du moins jusqu’à moitié du XXème siècle. On rechercha des éventuelles ressemblances ou différences existentes entre les variantes lexicales de la chaussure mentionnée par les informateurs “paranaenses” et le modèle cité dans les ouvrages des écrivains Rego et Ramos. Dans les deuxs sources – la linguistique et la littéraire – on privilégia l’analyse semantique des unités lexicales et le contexte dans lequel elles ont été enregistrées. L’étude démontra que l’unité lexicale espadrilles et ses variantes phonétiques similaires dans les deux corpora, aussi que les variantes lexicales populaires présentes dans l’Atlas Linguistique du Paraná (ALPR. En dépit des simitudes l’esthétique et la fonction des espadrilles ne sont pas les mêmes dans les localitées concernées.

  1. LES VARIANTES LEXICALES POUR LE MOT ESPADRILLES AU PARANÁ ET DANS LA RÉGION NORD-EST DU BRÉSIL: UNE ETUDE ETHNOLINGUISTIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderci de Andrade AGUILERA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude concerne les variantes lexicales pour le mot espadrilles dans l’Etat du Paraná et dans la région Nord-Est du Brésil, sous un regard ethnolinguistique. Le corpus est composé par les donnés obtenues à partir de la question numéro 276 du Questionnaire Semantique-Lexical de l’Atlas Linguistique du Paraná (ALPR, dont l’auteur est le professeur Vanderci de Andrade Aguilera (1994, de l’Université de l’Etat de Londrina, autant que les variantes lexicales pour le mot espadrilles trouvées dans deux ouvrages littéraires d’auteurs originaires du Nord-Est du Brésil – Fogo Morto, de José Lins do Rego (2009 et Vidas Secas, de Graciliano Ramos (1969. Dans ces livres, les espadrilles jouent un rôle fondamental, tout en reflétant son importance dans le vestiaire de cette région, du moins jusqu’à moitié du XXème siècle. On rechercha des éventuelles ressemblances ou différences existentes entre les variantes lexicales de la chaussure mentionnée par les informateurs “paranaenses” et le modèle cité dans les ouvrages des écrivains Rego et Ramos. Dans les deuxs sources – la linguistique et la littéraire – on privilégia l’analyse semantique des unités lexicales et le contexte dans lequel elles ont été enregistrées. L’étude démontra que l’unité lexicale espadrilles et ses variantes phonétiques similaires dans les deux corpora, aussi que les variantes lexicales populaires présentes dans l’Atlas Linguistique du Paraná (ALPR. En dépit des simitudes l’esthétique et la fonction des espadrilles ne sont pas les mêmes dans les localitées concernées.

  2. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, M.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  3. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  4. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  5. Determination of radon in soil and water in parts of Accra, and generation of preliminary radon map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The research was focused on determining the radon levels in soil and water in parts of Accra, generate a preliminary radon map for Ghana and estimate a pilot reference level for the country, using the data obtained from this research and collated data from other researchers. The radon gas measurement was done with the passive method, using the SSNTDs which are sensitive to alpha particles emitted by radon. Cellulose nitrate LR – 115 type II alpha particle detectors were used. The detectors were chemically etched in a 2.5 M NaOH solution at a temperature of 60 °C for 90 minutes, after two weeks and two months of exposure to soil and water respectively. The images of the etched detectors were acquired by means of a scanner and then tracks counted with ImageJ software. Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW) method of ArcGIS 10.2 was used to spatially distribute the radon concentration on a map. The average soil radon concentration in the study area ranges from 0.191 kBqm"-"3 to 3.416 kBqm"-"3 with a mean of 1.193 kBqm"-"3. The radon concentration in water from the study area ranges from 0.00346 BqL"-"1 to 0.00538 BqL"-"1 with an average of 0.00456 BqL"-"1. A strong negative correlation has been established between radon in soil and water in the study area. The preliminary national average indoor, water and soil radon concentrations are 137 Bqm"-"3, 361.93 Bqm"-"3 and 3716.74 Bqm"-"3 respectively. The average levels of water and indoor radon exceeded WHO’s reference level of 100 Bqm"-"3. Accordingly, the pilot national indoor radon reference level for Ghana is set as 200 Bqm"-"3. (au)

  6. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  7. Radon generation and transport : a journey through matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, Ioana

    2001-01-01

    Het doel van dit proefschrift is de fundamentele kennis over produktie en transport van radon in beton te vergroten. Deze kennis kan dan ten grondslag liggen aan nieuw te ontwikkelen methoden om de radonafgifte van beton te reduceren door veranderingen in bijvoorbeeld de produktietechniek van beton

  8. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  9. Caractérisation de composites supraconducteurs aléatoires - phases au bismuth/argent : contribution à l'étude des jonctions faibles dans ces matériaux

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes , Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Les oxydes supraconducteurs à température critique élevée, à base de bismuth et comportant 2 ou 3 plans cuivre, sont synthétisés suivant diverses méthodes. Nous réalisons ensuite l'élaboration par frittage de matériaux composites aléatoires, constitués d'une dispersion de grains supraconducteurs de phase au bismuth 2212 dans une matrice d'argent. Nous étudions la résistivité électrique et l' aimantation en effet d'écran des matériaux en fonction de la température, du champ magnétique et de la...

  10. Le bestiaire au dix-neuvième siècle. Animalité, pauvreté et criminalité dans Les mystères de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Lezama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente le contexte épistémologique de la question animale au dix-neuvième siècle et interroge la façon dont le feuilleton d’Eugène Sue, Les Mystères de Paris, déploie la figure animale dans la mise en scène des marginaux. Bien qu’une telle peinture risque de nuire à l’animal par le biais d’un positivisme qui le réifie, le feuilleton trouve un moyen d’énoncer un nouvel argument contre la souffrance animale tout en soulignant la nécessité de réfléchir aux grands problèmes sociaux et à leur résolution par le biais du traitement des animaux.

  11. New measurements in plutonium L X ray emission spectrum using an electron probe micro-analyser; Nouvelles mesures dans le spectre d'emission L du plutonium au moyen d'un micro analyseur a sonde electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J L; Despres, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Further studies by means of an electron-probe micro-analyser, allowed report CEA-R--1798 authors to set up a larger plutonium X ray spectrum table. Measurements of plutonium L{sub II} and L{sub III} levels excitation potentials have also been achieved. Some remarks about apparatus performance data (such as spectrograph sensibility, resolving power and accuracy) will be found in the appendix. (authors) [French] Poursuivant les etudes exposees dans le rapport CEA-R--1798, les auteurs ont pu dresser un tableau plus etendu du spectre L du plutonium, au moyen du micro-analyseur a sonde electronique. Ils ont egalement effectue des mesures de potentiel d'excitation des niveaux L{sub II} et L{sub III} du plutonium. On trouvera en annexe quelques notes sur les constantes d'appareillage (sensibilite, pouvoir de resolution et precision des spectrographes). (auteurs)

  12. Determination of oxygen in uranium compounds using sulfur monochloride; Dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par la methode au monochlorure de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Besson, J; Blum, P L; Tran-Van, Danh [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors have described in an other paper (Anal. Chim. Acta, in press) a method for oxygen determination in uranium compounds, in which the sample is attacked by sulfur monochloride. The present paper is concerned with the experimental aspects of the method: apparatus procedure. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont decrit dans une autre publication (Anal. Chim. Acta) a paraitre, une methode de dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par attaque par le monochlorure de soufre, La presente note a pour but d'en preciser les techniques experimentale: appareillage, mode operatoire. (auteurs)

  13. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  14. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Comprendre l'influence des facteurs contextuels sur la participation communautaire à la santé : une étude de cas dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, au Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issa; Ilboudo, David O S; Soubeiga, André Kamba; Samuelsen, Helle

    2017-09-01

    Le Burkina Faso met en œuvre depuis plusieurs années la stratégie de la participation communautaire. Des comités de gestion (CoGes) ont été mis en place dans les centres de santé de la première ligne et doivent participer aux prises de décisions. L'objectif principal de cette stratégie est de favoriser l'utilisation des services de santé et une adhésion massive des communautés aux activités de promotion de la santé. Seulement, on constate que les résultats escomptés par les autorités sanitaires tardent à se réaliser. Le présent article convoque les facteurs liés au contexte socioculturel du district sanitaire, pour analyser le phénomène de la participation communautaire. L'étude s'est déroulée dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, situé dans la région administrative du Centre-est, à environ 190 km de la capitale. Cette étude exclusivement qualitative, a utilisé deux méthodes de collecte : les entretiens individuels et les focus groups. Les participants à l'étude sont les chefs de ménage ( n = 48), les membres des CoGes ( n = 10), les agents de santé ( n = 8) et les agents de santé communautaire ( n = 24). La méthode de l'analyse de contenu a été utilisée pour l'analyse des données. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que plusieurs facteurs socioculturels influencent la dynamique de la participation communautaire dans le district. Ce sont les conditions économiques, la perception négative des services de santé, les inégalités sociales de sexe et d'âge, le faible ancrage social des organisations communautaires, les rivalités inter-villages et les conflits coutumiers. L'étude relève également que les communautés ne perçoivent pas leur implication dans le processus décisionnel des services de santé comme une priorité. Leurs principales attentes s'orientent vers la disponibilité de soins de qualité et à coût réduit.

  16. Stabilisation en pression et en température du champ magnétique dans le piège à ions de précision d’ISOLTRAP au CERN

    CERN Document Server

    MARIE-JEANNE, M; BAN, G

    2005-01-01

    L’expérience ISOLTRAP, à ISOLDE au CERN, utilise la mesure de la fréquence cyclotron dans un piège de Penning pour en déduire avec une haute précision la masse des ions radioactifs produits par l’installation ISOLDE. Pour cette mesure de masse, une bonne homogénéité du champ magnétique au cours du temps est requise dans le piège. Or l’étude de l’erreur systématique a montré l’existence d’une dérive du champ magnétique en fonction du temps, à laquelle se superposent des fluctuations dépendant de la température. La courbe de dérive linéaire en fonction du temps ayant été évaluée, on souhaite mettre en place un système de régulation permettant d’atténuer les fluctuations du champ magnétique liées aux variations de la température. Ce dispositif constituera une amélioration technique pouvant conduire à la réduction de l’erreur systématique sur la mesure de masse. Ce rapport détaille l’installation d’un système de régulation de la pression de l’hélium ser...

  17. Method of uranium prospecting in a mining division: development and results; La methode de prospection de l'uranium dans une division miniere: sa mise au point - ses resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrat, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - Service des Recherches a la Division Grury CEA (France)

    1959-07-01

    'expose des diverses techniques qui se relaient pour aboutir aux travaux miniers et a l'individualisation d'un tonnage d'uranium exploitable, est presente l'aspect synthetique de l'operation realisee depuis douze annees. La methode de prospection a fait l'objet de modifications profondes depuis le debut des travaux. Au cours des annees, elle a evolue en fonction de la connaissance progressivement acquise du mode de gisement des indices et des gisements uraniferes. En outre, elle s'est diversifiee en adaptant au terrain la merveilleuse technique nouvelle que nous appelons la radiometrie ou etude des radioactivites superficielles. Elle a egalement utilise un certain nombre de techniques geophysiques ou geochimiques, realisant ainsi sur le terrain une gamme de travaux qui permettent une reconnaissance poussee du sous-sol avant le debut des travaux miniers. Mais a aucun moment elle n'a songe a abandonner la conception classique et fondamentale du leve geologique de terrain au marteau et a la boussole. Dans ce domaine, elle a tente de tirer parti des enseignements fournis par un leve geomorphologique et tectonique precis. La plupart de ces travaux ont ete effectues sur les terrains granitiques du Morvan et les gisements qui sont consideres dans cette etude sont tous typiquement hydrothermaux. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Annales des Mines', Mars 1959.

  18. Faible taux de succes du sevrage tabagique a court et moyen termes au decours d�un infarctus aigu du myocarde dans un service de cardiologie de Dakar au Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Mbaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available e le tabac pendant l�hospitalisation. Apres un suivi de 3 mois, 45% des patients ont repris le tabac, 65% a 6 mois et 85% a 12 mois. CONCLUSION: Le tabagisme est assez frequent chez les patients senegalais presentant un infarctus du myocarde. Le taux de sevrage tabagique a court et moyen termes est faible. Le sevrage tabagique devrait alors constituer un objectif privilegie dans la prevention des maladies cardio-vasculaires.

  19. Du Style pour dire non, ou l’artillerie d’une poétique de combat dans Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal d’Aimé Césaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotaire Saah Nengou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Malgré les divers thèmes étudiés par des générations d’écrivains d’Afrique et de la diaspora noire francophone, la plupart de leurs œuvres ne reflète souvent que très timidement une forme esthétique hardie; serait-ce par peur de faire la différence? Par contre le poète Aimé Césaire ose. Dans son poème Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal, Césaire fait du signe une arme stylistique et insurrectionnelle pour combattre la norme culturelle tyrannique imposée à sa conscience, combattre les oppresseurs d’hommes et les larbins de la révolte. Soit le “style pour dire non!” La présente étude voudrait montrer que l’expressivité chez Césaire dans cet inusable, long et délirant texte poétique, c’est de l’artillerie lourde qui se caractérise par l’usage quantitatif, qualitatif et volumique d’éléments linguistiques, sortes d’obus donnant vitalité aux idées et violence aux signifiants.

  20. Enseigner la Francophonie dans les cours de Français Langue Seconde au niveau universitaire : expériences et défis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Sacré

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En cette époque de mondialisation, la mise en valeur des cultures minoritaires est, dans les milieux universitaires, de plus en plus importante. Cependant, ce développement d’une conscience culturelle est bien moins évidents dans le cadre de cours de langue, dont objectif principal n’est pas l’apprentissage d’une culture, mais celui d’une langue-cible. Ainsi, les langues et leurs cultures associées ont beau être indissociables par nature, il est cependant les enseigner séparément. Enseigner la langue en ne parlant de culture que superficiellement n’est cependant pas sans conséquences et il n’est pas rare de remarquer, dans manuels de langue par exemple, une représentation superficielle, voire stéréotypée du monde. Comment peut-on conjuguer l’apprentissage d’une langue à celui de ses richesses culturelles ? Basé sur des expériences d’enseignement et sur de récents manuels d’apprentissage, cet article se proposera d’analyser les difficultés et les défis de l’intégration d’éléments culturels dans des cours de type Français Langue Seconde.

  1. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity; Etude au moyen de la resistivite electrique des defauts ponctuels dans le fer pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier-Cassayre, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cette etude, apres avoir passe en revue la production, l'observation et les modes de guerison des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux, nous exposons l'etat actuel des recherches. La seconde partie est consacree aux techniques que nous avons employees pour produire des defauts ponctuels a basse temperature: irradiations, trempe et ecrouissage puis a l'etude de leur migration et de leur guerison. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le fer pur et le fer contenant certaines impuretes sont presentes dans le troisieme chapitre. Nous proposons ensuite un modele qui explique les differents stades de guerison observes et leurs nombreuses proprietes: nous comparons les energies d'interaction entre defauts ponctuels aux valeurs que l'on pourrait deduire d'un modele elastique. (auteur)

  2. L’efficacité du conseil d’administration dans les sociétés anonymes au Cameroun: Une lecture par l’hétérogénéité des administrateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kriyoss Mfouapon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est d’analyser l’effet de l’homogénéité ou de l’hétérogénéité du profil des administrateurs sur l’efficacité de leur conseil d’administration (CA. Les données analysées sont collectées auprès de 386 administrateurs répartis sur un échantillon de 64 CA des sociétés anonymes (SA installées au Cameroun. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que l’homogénéité socioprofessionnelle, de l’indépendance et clanique du CA sont d’une influence notable sur leur efficacité. Ces résultats montrent, en fait que, l’hétérogénéité du CA est source d’efficacité supérieure dans les choix stratégiques, et d’inefficacité dans les opérations de contrôle et de surveillance de l’équipe dirigeante. Ces résultats s’inscrivent dans la même perspective que les travaux d’Hambrick & Mason (1984 sur la Upper Echelons Research, la théorie de la régulation clanique d’Ouchi (1980 et constituent en même temps une confirmation des résultats de Jensen (1993.

  3. Une nouvelle orientation dans l’enseignement supérieur au vietnam: de la mémoire à la résolution de problèmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRƯƠNG Quang Dũng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’enseignement supérieur traditionnel est essentiellement basé sur la transmission du savoir et occasionnellement sur celle du savoir-faire. Il se réclame donc des disciplines universitaires (mathématiques, physique, chimie, géologie.... dispensées dans les universités et grandes écoles. Or, la réussite professionnelle et sociale dans le monde moderne exige d’autres acquis plus probants que des connaissances pures. Plusieurs recherches récentes ont ainsi montré que la résolution de bien des problèmes requiert des qualités pragmatiques d’efficacité indispensables pour l’accomplissement d’un travail créatif. Résoudre un problème revient alors à apprendre à maitriser une démarche méthodique composée de plusieurs phases, depuis l’identification du problème jusqu’à sa solution finale en passant par l’analyse judicieuse des causes. Il faut également maîtriser l’utilisation d’outils conceptuels et Méthodologiques tels que, entre autres, la « loi de Pareto », le questionnement systématique et le brainstorming . Au Vietnam on peut espérer la mise en application de ces nouvelles orientations dans un enseignement supérieur qui doit absolument se fixer comme objectif d’améliorer la qualité du travail social pour répondre aux nouvelles exigences de développement du pays.

  4. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  5. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  6. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  7. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs

  8. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  9. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  10. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  11. Mise en pratique du schéma 2BSvs dans le groupe industriel Sofiprotéol : étude de cas sur toute la filière (de l’agriculteur au pétrolier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizouarn Kristell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pour réduire sensiblement les émissions de CO liées aux transports routiers, l’Union européenne mise sur le développement des biocarburants, en respectant des conditions de durabilité. Afin de répondre à cette obligation et d’être en mesure de démontrer la conformité du biodiesel à ces critères, depuis l’agriculteur jusqu’au distributeur pétrolier, la filière des oléagineux a engagé la rédaction d’un schéma de vérification volontaire : 2BSvs, pour Biomasse Biocarburant Schéma volontaire sur la durabilité. Reconnu par la Commission Européenne le 19 juillet 2011, le schéma 2BSvs couvre l’ensemble de la chaîne de production des biocarburants, du producteur de biomasse à l’entrée dans un entrepôt sous douanes. À travers une étude de cas sur toute la filière, de l’agriculteur au pétrolier, cet article présente les implications pour les acteurs de la filière oléagineuse, les changements intervenus depuis avril 2013, et les défis futurs à relever.

  12. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, B.E.; Boman, C.A.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  13. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  14. La question de la langue dans les milieux des savants grecs au xixe siecle : projets linguistiques et réformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Diatsentos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thèse en Histoire et Civilisation soutenue le 15 mai 2009 sous la direction de Georges Dertilis Membres du jury : Monsieur Sylvain Auroux, Directeur de recherche au CNRS (Laboratoire d’histoire des théories linguistiques, Rapporteur,Monsieur Georges Drettas, Directeur de recherche au CNRS (Laboratoire de langues et civilisations à tradition orale, Examinateur, Madame Marie - Elisabeth Mitsou, Professeur à l'Université de Munich (Institut für Byzantinistik, Byzantinische Kunstgeschichte und ...

  15. Du personnel au politique : construction d’une identité militante dans le journal d’Alice Stone Blackwell (1872-1874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Sorin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Le militantisme n’est pas seulement affaire de scène publique ; les coulisses, qui sont en interaction permanente avec cette scène, forment un espace crucial où les enjeux se tissent et les acteurs se fabriquent. Alice Stone Blackwell, la fille de la célèbre féministe américaine Lucy Stone, a laissé un certain nombre de journaux mais c’est dans celui qu’elle écrivit adolescente (1872-1874 que l’on voit clairement s’ébaucher et s’incarner la voix militante de l’auteur. L’étude d’un texte « privé » (dont le statut est en fait beaucoup plus complexe ne présente pas seulement l’intérêt d’un regard intime et particulier sur le mouvement féministe américain de la fin du dix-neuvième siècle. Elle permet aussi de comprendre comment l’écriture autorise le sujet à tester et à s’approprier un ensemble de discours sur la nature féminine qui rompent avec l’idéal de domesticité et le culte de la fragilité. Le journal permet à Alice Blackwell de construire son identité de militante et de l’articuler avec d’autres facettes de son existence. Loin d’être simplement le reflet conventionnel d’une pratique bourgeoise essentiellement réservée au sexe féminin, l’écriture du journal chez Blackwell participe d’un acte militant, dont le trait le plus saillant est sans doute de mettre en scène un corps vigoureux et triomphant, apte à investir la sphère publique.El militantismo no sólo es un asunto de la escena pública ; los arcanos, en continua interacción con esa escena, forman un espacio donde se trama lo que está en juego y donde se fabrican los actores. Alice Stone Blackwell, hija de la famosa feminista americana Lucy Stone, ha dejado varios diarios, pero es en él que escribió de joven (1872-1874 donde claramente se esboza y se encarna la voz militante de la autora. El estudiar un texto « privado » no sólo presenta el interés de una mirada intima sobre el movimiento

  16. Zola, Lourdes and the New Religious Crowd in Ideological Debates in Portugal (1894-1932 Zola, Lourdes et la foule religieuse dans les débats idéologiques au Portugal (1894-1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cintra Torres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Émile Zola’s novel on Lourdes was felt in Portugal even before its publication in France in 1894. The naturalist writer’s documentary fiction plucked a central chord in the political and religious debate of the time, particularly the dichotomy between science and religion, the renewal of faith and the legitimacy of the crowd in public spaces. This paper deals with only one aspect of that debate, active in Portugal between 1894 and 1932 – the impact of Zola´s innovative thesis about Lourdes’ new religious crowd and ‘the crowd’s healing power’. The development of the debates shows how Catholic sectors increasingly incorporated the ‘crowd’ into renewed Catholicism, especially after the Fátima events of 1917, while the liberal bourgeoisie continued to reject the masses.L’impact du roman Lourdes d’Émile Zola au Portugal s’est fait avant même sa publication en France en 1894. Cette fiction documentaire de l’écrivain naturaliste a touché une corde sensible dans les débats politiques et religieux de l’époque, notamment en atour de questions telles que la dichotomie entre science et religion, le renouveau de la foi catholique et la légitimité de la foule dans l’espace public. Cet article se penche sur un aspect particulier des débats qui furent actifs au Portugal entre 1894 et 1932 : l’impact de la thèse originale de Zola sur les foules religieuses de Lourdes et le pouvoir guérisseur de la foule. Le développement des débats montre comment les catholiques ont progressivement incorporé la « foule » dans leur vision d’un catholicisme renouvelé, alors que la bourgeoisie libérale continua à rejeter les masses, particulièrement après les apparitions de Fátima en 1917.

  17. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  18. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  19. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  20. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  1. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  2. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  3. Nuclear fragmentation in central collisions: Ni + Au from 32 to 90 A*MeV; Fragmentation dans les collisions centrales du systeme Ni + Au de 32 a 90 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaize, N

    2000-11-03

    Heavy ion collisions are one of tools for studying nuclear system far away from its equilibrium state. This work concerns the most violent collisions in the Ni + Au system for incident energies ranging from 32 up to 90 AMeV. These events were detected with the multidetector INDRA and selected by the Principal Component Analysis (multidimensional analysis). This method classifies the events according their detection features and their degree of dissipation. We observed two deexcitation mechanisms: a fusion/fission - evaporation process and a multifragmentation process. Those two coexist from 32 to 52 AMeV whereas only one subsists at 90 AMeV. For those two mechanisms, an component was observed which seems to be linked to the initial phase of the reaction. The energy fluctuations of this component leads to variations in the energy deposit which determines the deexcitation of the system. The experimental multifragmentation data of the Ni + Au system (52 and 90 AMeV) were compared to the predictions of a statistical model and to the experimental data of the system Xe + Sn at 50 AMeV (also detected with INDRA). These comparisons show the lack of collective radial energy for fragments (Z{>=}10) in the Ni + Au system, and show that the degree of multifragmentation depends of the thermal excitation energy. Mean kinetic energies of particles and lights fragments (Z{>=}10) are larger in the Ni + Au system than the Xe + Sn system. This observation shows that these particles are more sensitive to the entrance channel for an asymmetric system than for a symmetric system (for the same number of nucleons). (author)

  4. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  5. Contribution Economique et Sociale de la pêche artisanale au Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Dione, D.; Sy, A.B.; Ndiaye, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Programme pour des Moyens d'Existence Durables dans la Pêche en Afrique de l'Ouest. Projet Pilote 1 "Moyens d'Existence améliorés dans le secteur post-capture de la pêche artisanale" au Cameroun, en Gambie, au Sénégal et au Tchad.

  6. Nicole Dufournaud, Rôles et pouvoirs des femmes au XVIe siècle dans la France de l'Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dufournaud

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les années 1970, Joan Kelly posait la question : « Les femmes ont-elles connu une Renaissance ? ». L'historienne américaine y répondait par la négative. Revenir sur cette question, c'est chercher à comprendre l'évolution du statut des femmes. Grâce à une étude localisée sur un espace géographique relativement homogène, nous montrons en quoi les femmes ont compté dans la dynamique sociale et économique de la Renaissance et en quoi elles y ont gagné et perdu.La thèse se découpe en six chap...

  7. Réponse équilibrée aux besoins en eau dans le bassin du Saïss au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2011 ... L'équipe du projet qu'il dirige actuellement, axé sur la demande en eau dans le bassin du Saïss, tente de concilier les points de vue et les besoins très variés des intervenants. « Nos recherches se concentrent certes sur les agriculteurs, mais également sur les autres intervenants préoccupés par les ...

  8. Les usages du sucre dans le manuel de pharmacie de Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār médecin juif du Caire au XIIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerfelli, Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a pharmaceutical guide for the usage of apothecaries and merchants of drugs and drinks, which took into account the evolution of pharmacy and the development of pharmaceutical products, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭar wrote a new manual in which he reminded us not only of the writings of his predecessors, but also the point of view of his contemporaries, notably his proper experiences he carried out in his shop in Cairo to make pharmaceutical products and the means to preserve them. This pharmaceutical manual, the richest in medicine formulas, also stands out on account of the extensive use of sugar in the making of recipes. Given the fact that this product was available in large quantities in Egypt and Syria during the second half of the 13th century, it gradually substituted honey to become the principal ingredient in the making of drugs and drinks. Thus, sugar broke through the food world to become the privilege of the royal class, who turned it into one of the essential elements for their festivities.[fr] Face à l’absence d’un guide pharmaceutique à l’usage des apothicaires et des marchands de drogues et de boissons, qui tient compte de l’évolution de la pharmacie et du développement de la matière médicale, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār propose un nouveau manuel dans lequel il rappelle non seulement les écrits de ses prédécesseurs, mais il livre également les points de vue de ses contemporains, et surtout ses propres expériences, qu’il mène dans sa boutique du Caire, pour la confection des médicaments et les moyens de les conserver. Ce manuel pharmaceutique, le plus riche en formules médicamenteuses, se distingue également par l’usage massif du sucre dans l’élaboration des recettes. Ce produit, disponible en grandes quantités en Égypte et en Syrie pendant la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, se substitue progressivement au miel et devient l’ingrédient principal dans l’élaboration des médicaments et des

  9. La course au logement social

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Ce billet a été publié dans le cadre de l'opération Têtes Chercheuses, qui permet à des étudiants ou chercheurs de grandes écoles, d'universités ou de centres de recherche partenaires de promouvoir des projets innovants en les rendant accessibles, et ainsi participer au débat public.

  10. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  11. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  12. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  13. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  14. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems ... is presently working on emission of ... Radon isotope 222 has a half-life of 3.8 days, long enough to ..... 222Rn concentration of one WL for 170 working hours in one month.

  15. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  16. Tests on the measurement of iodine-131 in milk using anionic ion-exchangers; Essais relatifs au dosage de l'iode 131 dans le lait au moyen d'echangeur d'ion anionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Daburon, M L; Gros, R; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The milk produced by a cow contaminated by a single ingestion has been passed over a Dowex 1 resin to fix the iodine it contained, The percentage amount fixed, originally around 100 per cent, falls to 50 per cent after 15 days. (authors) [French] Le lait d'une vache contaminee par ingestion unique a ete passe sur resine Dowex 1 pour fixer l'iode qu'il contenait. Le pourcentage de fixation, qui a l'origine est voisin de 100 pour cent, tombe a 50 pour cent au bout de 15 jours. (auteurs)

  17. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  18. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  19. Lessons from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M.

    1993-01-01

    At EPA there is a public outreach program that the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has developed for radon. To meet the difficult challenge radon presented, OAR's Radon Division developed working relationships with national nonprofit groups who share a mission. These groups have well-established communication networks with their memberships for advancing their goals. Such diverse groups as the American Lung Association, the Advertising Council, the National Association of Counties (NACo), the Consumer Federation of America, the National Association of Homebuilders, and the National Safety Council have joined with EPA to reduce radon health risks. Through this alliance, EPA has been able to take advantage of communication channels that it could never replicate on tis own. Every group working with EPA disseminates the radon message through its own established channels to reach its constituency. These partners wield authority in their fields and are ideal for addressing the concerns of their audiences

  20. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  1. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  3. Mission locale, vision globale : utopie et vie sociale dans les missions jésuites en Amazonie au XVIIe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Décio de Alencar

    2015-01-01

    Penser les missions jésuites au XVIIe siècle, c’est penser le monde des prophéties du « Cinquième Empire » d’Antônio Vieira. Cela signifie aussi penser l’expérience missionnaire vécue par cet « homme-monde ». En tant que tel, Vieira projeta vers l’avenir des réalités politiques entièrement neuves imaginées par lui et qui n’avaient jamais existé avant. En arrivant au Maragnon, en 1653, Antônio Vieira, supérieur de la Mission des pères de la Compagnie de Jésus, commença son expérience avec l’es...

  4. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  5. Search for the Higgs Boson and for Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings in the WW Channel with Dielectron Events with the D0 Experiment at the Tevatron; Recherche du boson de Higgs et de couplages de jauge quartiques anormaux dans le canal WW en électrons dans l'expérience D0 au Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, Emilien [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2013-01-01

    Le paysage de la physique des particules a subi des changements majeurs entre le début de cette thèse, en septembre 2010, et sa n en juin 2013. On peut notamment qualier l'année 2012 de date-clé dans l'histoire de la physique des particules. En 2012, une nouvelle particule a été découverte au LHC [1, 2], dont la majeure partie de la communauté s'accorde aujourd'hui à dire qu'il s'agit très probablement du boson de Higgs. Cet événement est intervenu peu après une sorte de passage de relais entre le Tevatron, arrêté le 30 septembre 2011, et le LHC, dont les toutes premières collisions sont intervenues le 23 novembre 2009.

  6. Modeling the potential impacts of different radon policies for the U.S. housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.D.; Ritchie, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies in the United States, radon may be the leading cause (along with passive smoking) of lung cancer deaths among nonsmokers. Radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer death in smokers behind smoking-related lung cancer. EPA estimates that 7,000 to 30,000 lung cancer deaths each year are due to radon exposure. (It is implied that radon-related lung cancer deaths can be prevented by reducing radon levels below EPA's guideline levels). Current EPA radon policy is based on a strategy of education, the transfer of testing and remediation technologies to the public and private sectors, and recently proposed radon-resistant construction standards for new homes. This paper models the effectiveness of current proposed, and alternative policies for reducing radon risks in U.S. residential construction. The results of our analysis suggest that EPS's projections of 2,200 'lives saved annually' as a result of its current action level of 4 pCi/l will not be achieved with its current policy in the near future. Overall, the response of radon-related mortality to most policy options is delayed and flat due in part to the large number of houses with low radon levels and the long latency period between radon exposure and the development of cancer. The modeling results suggest that more aggressive smoking reduction programs may yield greater benefits in overall lung cancer mortality (but not reduced radon exposure) than most radon-related policies. (au)

  7. Contribution to the study of low fragments correlations during Au + Au collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV; Contribution a l`etude des correlations entre fragments legers dans les collisions Au+Au a 150 et 400 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbel, I.

    1994-06-01

    The study of fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momenta can give informations on the space-time extend of the emitting source, and on the nuclear density, which is one of the variables used in the equation of state. This analysis shows the experimental results obtained with the FOPI detector at GSI-Darmstadt, for Au + Au central collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV. These results are the first studies at such high energies and for heavy systems. Two fragments correlation functions are compared with theoretical calculations of D.H. Boal, including the size of the source as a parameter. We must take into account effects of experimental biases (namely the relative momentum resolution) on the theoretical correlation function, in order to make a comparison with experimental results. The extracted experimental radii correspond to the final phase of the expansion, and the obtained densities are smaller that normal density of nuclear matter. In the final state of the interaction, intermediate mass fragments and their excited states are observed. We note a shift of these excited states at 400 A.MeV, which can be explained by the detector effects. We observe a weak sensibility of the source size versus the centrality of the collision. That can be explained either by a mixing of sources, or by the observation of a source at the end of expansion whose the radius is quite independent of the initial centrality. Energetic particles correspond to smaller size of the source, which can be explained as a higher compression, or as a different stage of the collision. We give some prospectives for the future experiments at GSI-Darmstadt. (author). 117 refs.

  8. Study by neutron diffusion of magnetic fluctuations in iron in the curie temperature region; Etude des fluctuations d'aimantation dans le fer au voisinage de la temperature de curie par diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson-Galula, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    Heinsenberg model and a simple band model; our values in good agreement with those calculated in the Heisenberg model and exclude the band model used. Finally, in chapter IV we recall the chief results obtained. (author) [French] La diffusion critique des neutrons dans le fer est due aux fluctuations d'aimantation qui existent dans les substances ferromagnetiques au voisinage de la temperature de Curie. Les fluctuations peuvent se decrire en termes de correlations; on definit une fonction de correlation: {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t), {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t) , valeur moyenne du produit scalaire d'un spin de reference et d'un spin situe a la distance (R) du premier et considere a l'instant t. Dans le chapitre I nous rappelons les generalites sur les sections efficaces de diffusion des neutrons; nous donnons un bref resume de la theorie de VAN HOVE qui a montre que la section efficace de diffusion magnetique des neutrons est la transformee de FOURIER de la fonction de correlation. Dans le chapitre II nous etudions la dependance spatiale de la fonction de correlation, supposee independante du temps. On peut alors la caracteriser par deux parametres K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} qui permettent de calculer respectivement la portee et l'intensite des correlations. Apres avoir expose le principe de la mesure de ces parametres, nous decrirons l'appareillage experimental. Les valeurs experimentales obtenues sont en bon accord avec celles calculees, l'accord est meilleur si on suppose que ce sont les deuxiemes et non les premiers voisins d'un atome de fer qui sont magnetiquement actifs, ainsi que l'a propose NEEL. Dans le chapitre III nous etudions l'evolution dans le temps de la fonction de correlation; cette evolution est caracterisee par un parametre {lambda} dependant de la temperature, qui intervient dans l'equation de diffusion, a laquelle obeissent les fluctuations d'aimantation {delta}M{sub vector}/{delta}t = {lambda} {nabla

  9. Pratiques et identités professionnelles dans le conseil en management en France : entre ethos du service au client et pression du « up or out »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Boni-Le Goff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Les consultants en management exercent leurs activités dans des conditions marquées par un fort nomadisme et par un système de gestion de carrière de « up or out » omniprésent. Le contenu et les conditions de travail donnent une place particulière au public et partant, produisent des activités de coulisses spécifiques. Ils façonnent la construction d’identités professionnelles marquées par l’individualisme et un investissement intense.Practices and professional identities of management consultants in France: between the customer service ethos and pressure of “up or out”Management consultants exercise their activities under conditions stamped by a prevalent tendency to nomadism and by an omnipresent "up or out" approach to career management. The working contents and conditions set forth a prominent part to the public and consequently generate specific backstage activities. They bring about the construction of professional identities marked by downright individualism and unrestricted professional self-involvement.Maneras de actuar e identidades profesionales de los consejeros en management en Francia. Entre el "ethos" deontológico debido al cliente y la presión del "up or out"Los consejeros en management ejercen sus funciones dentro de un ámbito caracterizado por un fuerte nomadismo y por un sistema omnipresente de gestión de la carrera de tipo "up or out". El contenido y las condiciones de trabajo dan una gran importancia al cliente lo que desemboca indirectamente en "movimientos en los bastidores" específicos que contribuyen a moldear una identidad profesional caracterizada por un individualismo y una implicación intensas.

  10. La filière d’oignon d’été dans le Saïs au Maroc : la place et le rôle des intermédiaires de la commercialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lejars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Les agriculteurs dépendent souvent, pour la commercialisation de leur produit, d'un réseau complexe d'intermédiaires privés. Dans les pays en développement, ces intermédiaires de la vente sont souvent accusés de réaliser des profits excessifs et d’être responsables des énormes écarts entre le prix de vente au champ et le prix payé par le consommateur. En s’appuyant sur l’étude de la filière oignon d’été dans le Saïs au Maroc, cet article analyse le rôle de ces réseaux d'intermédiaires, et la répartition des coûts et de la marge bénéficiaire le long de la chaine de production et de commercialisation. On montre ainsi que cette filière crée un grand nombre d'emplois en aval de la production, que ce soit pour la collecte, le stockage, le transport ou la vente. La part de la marge bénéficiaire revenant à l’ensemble des intermédiaires est supérieure à celle revenant aux producteurs, ce qui entraine effectivement une importante différence de prix entre le prix de vente et le prix du marché. Même si les profits et les rôles des intermédiaires sont très variables, certains des acteurs intermédiaires, notamment les détaillants et les revendeurs en gros, récupèrent des marges bien supérieures à celles des agriculteurs. L’organisation des producteurs autour de zones de stockage et d’activités de commercialisation permettrait de limiter le nombre d’intermédiaires, d’accroitre le profit des agriculteurs et de modifier les rapports de négociations souvent asymétriques entre agriculteurs et commerçants.

  11. Du figuré au réel : le corps dans la Xestè 3 de Théra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Fournier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Située sur l’île cycladique de Théra, la Xestè 3 est un bâtiment imposant de deux étages, daté du Bronze Récent, qui se distingue par la présence de très nombreuses peintures murales. Un décor qui, de par son thème iconographique particulier, fait aujourd’hui encore l’objet de discussions bien que les chercheurs s’accordent sur la représentation de rites de passage ou d’initiation. Prépondérante dans le bâtiment de la Xestè 3, ces peintures ont en grande partie participé à déterminer la fonction du bâtiment qui pourrait être dédié à la réalisation de ces rituels. Cette analyse interroge sur la relation entre l’espace figuré et l’espace réel, et notamment sur leur interdépendance qui semble avoir un dénominateur commun : le corps. Il est possible de s’interroger sur la place du corps ainsi exposé et sur sa participation dans la construction de cet espace.

  12. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  13. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  14. Use of a Monte-Carlo method for studying the statistical distribution of electric fields around an ion in a one-component plasma; Etude, par une methode de Monte-Carlo de la repartition statistique des champs electriques au niveau d'un ion, dans un plasma a une composante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossignol-Guzzi, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 94 - Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation has been made of the equilibrium configurations taken by a plasma of equally charged punctual ions, immersed in a uniform neutralizing background of electrons. The statistical repartition of the electric field acting on one ion, needed to obtain Stark effect, was specially obtained. Comparison for dense plasmas, was made with the former works of Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (author) [French] On simule sur ordinateur, suivant une methode de Monte-Carlo, les configurations prises a l'equilibre thermodynamique par un plasma d'ions ponctuels et de meme charge, places dans un milieu d'electrons uniformement distribues. On etudie, en particulier, la repartition statistique des champs electriques au niveau d'un ion, utilisee dans les calculs d'effets Stark. On compare, dans le cadre des plasmas denses, les resultats obtenus aux travaux precedents de Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (auteur)

  15. La Collection Fè Mboum du Musée de Ngan-Ha dans L’Adamaoua au Cameroun. Materiau Pour L’histoire des Mboum et Problematique de sa Conservation et Valorisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bienvenu Nizesete

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Les Fè Mboum ou « choses des Mboum », sont les objets-signes du pouvoir du Bélàkà, chef traditionnel des Mboum de Ngan-Ha, petite localité, située dans les environs de Ngaoundéré dans la région de l’Adamaoua au Cameroun. La collection est riche de deux cents  œuvres environ de facture hétérogène et à l’état de conservation problématique. Perdus de vue en 1931, ces objets sont remis au jour en 1994. Ils sont au centre des traditions d’origine de peuple mboum qui remontent au moins au Xè siècle de notre ère jusqu’à son islamisation au début du XXè siècle. Ce patrimoine culturel matériel oublié, abandonné ou caché, raconte en filigrane l’histoire d’un peuple décidé à redécouvrir son passé et à l’assumer entièrement, dévoile la volonté des hommes soucieux de protéger et de valoriser leur patrimoine et trace la concrétisation d’un projet scientifique interuniversitaire d’ordre muséographique. Cet article qui résulte des enquêtes de terrain et de l’exploitation de documents de première main, fait le point sur l’origine et la redécouverte des Fè Mboum actuellement conservés au musée local de Ngan-Ha, dégage leurs apports à la connaissance d’un fragment de l’histoire des Mboum, décrypte le symbolisme de quelques pièces de la collection, dresse la liste des menaces qui pèsent sur leur facture matérielle et formule des recommandations pour leur préservation et leur mise en valeur, au regard des intérêts scientifique, économique et culturel qu’ils revêtent.

     

    Abstract: The Fe Mboum or “things of the Mboum” are the material signs-of-power of the Belaka, the traditional chief of the Mboum people of Ngan-Ha, a small locality situated near to Ngaoundéré in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon. The collection comprises approximately two hundreds of art works, made from heterogeneous materials. All are in a

  16. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  17. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  18. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  19. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  20. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... Selon Evans Kituyi, spécialiste de programme principal au Centre de ... principal au Gadam Sorghum Production and Marketing Project. Si les graines occupent une place de premier plan dans l'alimentation des oiseaux, ...

  1. Study of the diffusion of iron, of silver and of carbon in beryllium using radioactive tracers; Etude de la diffusion du fer, de l'argent et du carbone dans le beryllium au moyen des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, M Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    .98 exp - [45700 / RT]. L'anisotropie diminue lorsque la temperature croit. L'argent diffuse plus vite suivant l'axe C que dans le plan de base. Ce resultat ne peut etre explique par le modele propose pour la diffusion d'atomes etrangers en solution dans le zinc. Un plus grand nombre d'experiences est necessaire pour tenter de construire un modele. On a egalement tente de determiner les coefficients de diffusion du carbone dans le beryllium par traitement dans une atmosphere d'acetylene marque au carbone 14. Des coefficients de diffusion ent ete obtenus mais ceux-ci ne semblent pas devoir etre pris en consideration car une reaction chimique se produit a la surface des echantillons. (auteur)

  2. La sensibilité potentielle du sol à l’érosion hydrique dans l’ouest de la Bekaa au Liban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein El Hage Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie la sensibilité potentielle du sol à l'érosion hydrique, dans la Bekaa Ouest, à partir d'une approche qualitative qui permet de croiser, à l'aide d'un SIG, les données telles que: l'érodibilité et la battance du sol, le gradient de la pente et l'influence du couvert du sol à l'érosion. Le résultat de la cartographie identifie les secteurs menacés par l'érosion hydrique afin de les protéger. Les trois quarts du secteur étudié ont une sensibilité forte ou très forte. Il s'agit ici de montrer une méthode qui peut être appliquée à d'autres terrains.

  3. Performance d’Hemocue Hb 201+ dans le diagnostic de l’anémie de l’enfant dans les structures sanitaires du niveau périphérique au Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoefa Vovor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexte: L’anémie est un problème de santé publique dans le monde entier, et notamment dans les pays en développement. Elle a des répercussions majeures sur la santé et sur ledéveloppement économique et social d’un pays. La prise en charge des patients anémiés étant nécessaire, il faut un diagnostic biologique précis, et donc un dosage du taux d’hémoglobine par des méthodes fiables. Objectif: Évaluer les performances diagnostiques du test Hemocue Hb201+®. Méthodes: Étude comparative de la mesure du taux d’hémoglobine à partir du photomètre Hemocue Hb 201+® et d’analyseurs d’hématologie chez 213 enfants de 6 à 59 mois souffrant d’un paludisme simple; la détermination du taux d’hémoglobine par les analyseurs est retenue comme méthode de référence pour évaluer Hemocue Hb201+®. Résultats: 72.8% des valeurs obtenues par Hemocue Hb201+® étaient à ±1 g/dl de celles de la méthode de référence. Le coefficient de corrélation de Pearson était de 0.80. La prévalence de l’anémie était de 79.3% pour la méthode de référence et de 77.9% pour Hemocue Hb201+®. La sensibilité et la spécificité de l’analyseur Hemocue Hb201+® étaient respectivement de 95.1% et de 65.3%. Conclusion: Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que le test Hemocue Hb201+® présentait une bonne sensibilité, une spécificité moyenne et une exactitude moyenne dans le diagnostic del’anémie et dans le dosage de l’hémoglobine. Son utilisation peut être recommandée dans les structures périphériques afin de faciliter le diagnostic biologique de l’anémie et sa prise encharge dans les populations vivant dans les zones difficiles d’accès. Performance of HemoCue Hb201+ in the diagnosis of anaemia in children in health facilitiesat the peripheral level in Togo Background: Anaemia is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries. Anaemia has major repercussions on health status, as well as

  4. Tolérer ce que l’on ne peut accepter. Blasphème et athéisme dans la pratique judiciaire de l'Inquisition romaine au xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Barbierato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’attache au rôle social et au débat religieux autour du problème du blasphème dans le contexte de la République de Venise au début de l’époque moderne. Il met en lumière quels étaient les présupposés doctrinaux pour sa condamnation de la part des ecclésiastiques, les revendications de juridiction de la part de l’État et surtout il cherche à enquêter sur les liens entre les actes blasphématoires et les positions irréligieuses ou athées à la lumière de la documentation inquisitoriale. Le blasphème apparaît de ce point de vue aussi bien comme une manifestation de rébellion doctrinale que comme un acte social toléré et commun.This contribution deals with the social role of blasphemy and the religious debate on it in the early modern Republic of Venice. It sheds light on what was the theological background for ecclesiastical condemnation and which were the State’s claims for jurisdiction. Above all, on the basis of Inquisition documents, it investigates the connection between acts of blasphemy and irreligious or atheist tenets. From this point of view, blasphemy appears both as a manifestation of doctrinal rebellion and as a common and tolerated social practice.Il paper affronta il ruolo sociale e il dibattito religioso intorno al problema della bestemmia nel contesto della Repubblica di Venezia della prima Età moderna. Mette in luce quali fossero i presupposti dottrinari per la condanna da parte ecclesiastica, le rivendicazioni di giurisdizione da parte dello Stato e soprattutto cerca di indagare i legami fra atti blasfemi e posizioni irreligiose o atee alla luce della documentazione inquisitoriale. La bestemmia appare da questo punto di vista tanto come manifestazione di ribellione dottrinale quanto come atto sociale tollerato e comune.

  5. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  6. Entre itinéraires et trajets : représentations des déplacements dans les guides de voyage au tournant du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Devanthéry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un itinéraire est plus qu’une route : c’est une route sélectionnée, choisie par une époque et jalonnée de savoirs, de devoirs et d’émotions. Le Grand Tour ayant connu des itinéraires fortement codés, comment se fait le passage au tourisme ? En douceur ou avec fracas ? Y a-t-il alors abandon de tout itinéraire, invention de nouveaux cheminements ou redéfinition ? Et si la transformation du Grand Tour en tourisme se jouait aussi dans les manières de mettre en scène l’espace des voyages ?An itinerary is more than a route: it is a selected route, chosen by a time and lined with knowledge and emotions. As the Grand Tour had known some strongly coded itineraries, how does the transition to tourism happen? Smoothly or with a crash? Is then a giving up of all itineraries, new ways invented, or redefinition? And what if the Grand Tour converting into tourism was also been acted in the way of displaying the travelling space?

  7. Intérêt des collectivités pour l'implantation d'arbres nourriciers dans les parcs urbains : le cas de Villa El Salvador, au Pérou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafontaine, M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intérêt des collectivités pour l'implantation d'arbres nourriciers dans les parcs urbains : le cas de Villa El Salvador, au Pérou. A study was conducted in Villa El Salvador, Peru, in order to evaluate the interest of local community members in establishing food trees within neighbourhood public green areas. Focus groups and semi-directed interviews conducted with the community actors allowed to identify their perceptions regarding the role these trees could play, the most appropriate management methods for their establishment and maintenance, as well as the best ways of allocating their products. SWOT ( Strength - Weaknesses – Opportunities- Threats and AHP (Analytical Hierarchisation Process analyses permitted to identify the most important favourable and restrictive factors affecting the long-term success of this production strategy. Results show that the possibility of harvesting edible products for family consumption, neighbourhood food aid programs or sale would motivate the inhabitants to contribute to the activities related to the establishment and maintenance of food trees. However, in order to be successful, the implementation of food trees within public green areas has to be in line with neighbourhood policies developed by the local population and to carefully anticipate possible sources of conflicts.

  8. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  9. The matter of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; O'Riordan, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    By comparison with the radiation doses from radon, the doses to individual members of the public and to the general community from nuclear activities are quite trivial. Doses from radon in some British homes exceed the statutory dose limit for nuclear workers;the collective dose from radon is two thousand times the value for nuclear discharges. And yet, too little attention - legal or otherwise - is paid to this radioactive pollutant. An attempt is made in this paper to compensate for the neglect. The origins, properties and harmful effects of radon are described. Measurements in homes and places of work are summarised. Voluntary and regulatory controls on exposure are elucidated. Questions of public administration, confidentiality of information and sale of property are discussed. Prospects for progress are assessed. (author)

  10. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  11. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  12. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  13. Perspectives d'introduction d'un marketing des services au sein des banques publiques Algériennes : Cas de la B.A.D.R.

    OpenAIRE

    Lachachi-taleb, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Le premier chapitre présente les fondements théoriques relatifs au marketing des services ainsi qu'au concept de servuction et enfin au marketing mix des services dans le deuxiéme chapitre.Le troisiéme chapitre est consacré au marketing bancaire et au plan marketing dans le chapitre suivant, une étude de cas au sein de la B.A.D.R.Banque.

  14. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  15. Development of a method for studying non-linear phenomena in plasma; Mise au point d'une methode d'etude des phenomenes non lineaires dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonfalone, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    gaz d'electrons est a la base des meilleures methodes de mesure des frequences de collisions electroniques dans l'ionosphere. Dans les plasmas de laboratoire l'apparition de ces phenomenes est liee a un champ critique de valeur elevee. Tout en n'utilisant qu'une source electromagnetique de puissance relativement faible, nous avons mis au point une methode hyperfrequence simple qui permet de mettre ces phenomenes en evidence, de les mesurer et d'en donner une interpretation elementaire. Une onde electromagnetique, fournie par un klystron de 1 W de puissance, interagit avec une decharge HF (25 MHz) dans le volume d'une cavite TE{sub 111}. Le tube contenant la decharge et l'axe de la cavite cylindrique sont colineaires a un champ magnetique pouvant atteindre une valeur telle que la frequence de l'onde soit egale a la frequence gyromagnetique des electrons. La courbe de resonance de la cavite, qui depend de la densite electronique et de la frequence des collisions, devient d'autant plus dissymetrique que la puissance absorbee est grande et que la frequence gyromagnetique des electrons est voisine de la frequence de l'onde incidente. L'etude de la resonance permet de calculer les coefficients de proportionnalite qui relient les variations de la densite et de la frequence de collisions a la puissance absorbee. Les experiences ont ete faites en faisant varier separement: la puissance UHF incidente, la densite electronique initiale, la pression du gaz neutre ambiant, ainsi que le champ magnetique axial. La variation de la densite electronique en fonction du champ magnetique pour une puissance UHF forte, montre une resonance de forme dissymetrique avec quelquefois un pic aigu, au voisinage de {omega}{sub H}. L'application eventuelle des proprietes mises en evidence a la realisation de dispositifs pratiques est envisagee. (auteur)

  16. Écarts régionaux dans le fardeau économique attribuable au surplus de poids, à la sédentarité et à l’usage du tabac en Colombie-Britannique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les taux de prévalence du surplus de poids, de l'usage du tabac et de la sédentarité varient sensiblement d'une région à l'autre en Colombie-Britannique (C.-B.. La présente étude vise à déterminer la portée d'une éventuelle réduction du fardeau économique en C.-B. si toutes les régions de la province atteignaient des taux de prévalence équivalents à ceux de la région dont les taux sont les plus bas pour ces trois facteurs de risque. Méthodes : Nous avons utilisé une approche élaborée précédemment fondée sur la fraction étiologique du risque pour estimer le fardeau économique associé aux divers facteurs de risque. Le risque relatif selon le sexe et les données de prévalence selon l'âge et le sexe ont été utilisés dans la modélisation. Résultats : Le fardeau économique annuel attribuable à ces trois facteurs de risque en C.-B. s'élevait à environ 5,6 milliards de dollars en 2013, la proportion la plus élevée de ce total étant attribuable au surplus de poids (2,6 milliards, suivie de celle de l'usage du tabac (2 milliards. Même si la C.-B. possède des taux de prévalence de ces facteurs de risque plus bas que toute autre province canadienne, il existe d'importants écarts en son sein. Si chaque région de la province devait atteindre les taux de prévalence les plus bas pour les trois facteurs de risque, un fardeau économique de 1,4 milliard (24 % du total de 5,6 milliards pourrait être supprimé annuellement. Conclusion : Il existe des disparités notables dans la prévalence de chacun des facteurs de risque au sein des régions sanitaires de la C.-B., qui se reflètent dans le fardeau économique attribuable à chaque région. Un éventail de facteurs sociaux, environnementaux et économiques expliquent probablement une partie de ces écarts géographiques, et ces facteurs sous-jacents devraient être pris en compte lors de la mise en place de programmes de prévention.

  17. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  18. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  19. Radon in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The enclosed material deals with the substantial efforts made until now to control the levels of radon in Sweden dwellings. It is meant as a source material for the several publications which have emerged from the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Stockholm during 1983 and 1984. The first document is a translation of chapter 16, the deliberations of the Swedish Radon Commission, appointed by the government in 1979. Comments on the report of the commission were solicited before 1 October, 1983. (author)

  20. La fouille de graphes dans les bases de données réactionnelles au service de la synthèse en chimie organique

    OpenAIRE

    Pennerath , Frédéric; Napoli , Amedeo

    2006-01-01

    National audience; La synthèse en chimie organique consiste à concevoir de nouvelles molécules à partir de réactifs et de réactions. Les experts de la synthèse s'appuient sur de très grandes bases de données de réactions qu'ils consultent à travers des procédures d'interrogation standard. Un processus de découverte de nouvelles réactions leur permettrait de mettre au point de nouveaux procédés de synthèse. Cet article présente une modélisation des réactions par des graphes et introduit une mé...

  1. Recherches sur l’apocalyptique syriaque et byzantine au viie siècle : la place de l’Empire romain dans une histoire du salut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ubierna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available L’occupation perse et la littérature apocalyptiqueLa perception des événements militaires du début du viie siècle – d’abord l’occupation perse et ensuite la guerre arabe – n’est pas écartée, chez les contemporains, de la vision d’un empire, l’empire byzantin, secoué par de fortes controverses religieuses.La préoccupation intellectuelle à propos de la situation de l’Empire fut extrêmement marquée au commencement du viie siècle. Une vie anonyme de l’empereur Maurice inclut un récit de sa mort d...

  2. La gastronomie dans les guides de voyage : de la richesse industrielle au patrimoine culturel, France XIXe-début XXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Csergo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Les guides de voyage constituent une source majeure pour une histoire de l’alimentation. Ils nous éclairent sur les temps et les lieux des productions et des consommations alimentaires, sur la construction des images des territoires gourmands et des stéréotypes culinaires. Au-delà, ils constituent, surtout à partir du XIXe siècle qui voit la naissance concomitante de la notion de « gastronomie » (pratique sociale qui s’organise autour de savoir et de savoir-faire, de rites, de gestes et de discours et de celle de « patrimoine » (monument historique, un des principaux médias par lequel appréhender le processus de culturalisation et de patrimonialisation de la gastronomie qui devient, pour le touriste, une forme de consommation culturelle, au même titre que celle des sites et monuments.Travel guides constitute a major source for an history of food. They shed light on times and places of the food productions and consumptions, on the building of the « gourmands » territories and of culinary stereotypes. Moreover, they constitute, especially since the 19h century, in which emerge the notions of “gastronomy” (a social practice organized around knowledge and know-how, rituals, gestures and discourses and “patrimony” (historic building, one of the main mass media relating the process of gastronomy becoming a cultural legacy becoming, for the tourist, a way of cultural consumption, just like sites and monuments.

  3. Fishers’ job satisfaction in the Caribbean La satisfaction au travail des pêcheurs dans les Caraïbes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Monnereau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available De nombreuses recherches ont été réalisées ces dernières années sur le contentement au travail. Les résultats ont montré que l’activité de pêche n’est pas simplement un moyen de gagner de l’argent mais qu’elle résulte bien plus d’un choix délibéré. L’article expose les résultats d’enquêtes menées auprès de pêcheurs de langouste en République dominicaine, au Nicaragua et en Jamaïque. Globalement la satisfaction que les pêcheurs ont de leur travail est bien plus importante pour les pêcheries artisanales que pour les pêcheries plus fortement dotées en capital.A variety of researchers have carried out job satisfaction studies in fisheries during the last decades. Results have shown the significant role of self-actualization in the determination of job satisfaction which backs the reasoning that fishing is more than just a livelihood. This paper is based in a job satisfaction study carried out in three lobster fisheries in the Caribbean. Lobster fishing (Panulirus argus is an important economic activity throughout the Caribbean Basin, both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. These countries differ significantly in structure of the fishery as well as governance arrangements. In this paper we wish to address the relation between these structural differences and fishers’ job satisfaction across the three countries. Results indicate fishers’ job satisfaction is significantly higher in small-scale fisheries.

  4. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  5. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2004-01-01

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm -3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm -3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  6. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  7. Circulation, échange et production de poteries dans les Andes Centrales au deuxième millénaire AV. J.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sont présentés tout d’abord les quatre types céramiques définis pour la séquence Pirwa de Piruru (1600/1500 - 800/600 av. J.C.. Puis, après quelques réflexions méthodologiques à propos de la détermination de groupes céramiques pertinents, particulièrement durant le Formatif Initial, Piruru Pirwa est replacé dans le contexte culturel de la cordillère centre-andine, des changements significatifs étant constatés entre les phases Pirwa II et III. Les analyses céramologiques montrent que trois types sont importés et que le quatrième résulte d’une production locale. Les variations dans l’organisation globale de l’habitat Pirwa II et Pirwa III permettent de proposer l’hypothèse que l’activité céramique, c’est-à-dire la production de vaisselles, pourrait, dans l’exemple de Piruru, dépendre de la sédentarité. Circulación, intercambio y producción de cerámica en los Andes Centrales durante el segundo milenio a. C. En primer lugar, se presentan los cuatro tipos cerámicos definidos para la secuencia Pirwa de Piruru (1600/1500 - 800/600 a.C.. Luego, después de unas reflexiones metodológicas acerca de la determinación de grupos cerámicos pertinentes, especialmente durante el período Formativo Inicial, se sitúa Piruru Pirwa en el contexto cultural de la sierra central, notando cambios significativos entre las fases Pirwa II y Pirwa III. Los análisis ceramológicos muestran que tres tipos son importados, y que el cuarto es resultado de una producción local. Tomando en cuenta las variaciones en la organización general del asentamiento Pirwa II y Pirwa III, se plantea la hipótesis que la actividad cerámica, es decir la producción alfarera, en Piruru, podría vincularse al sedentarismo. Circulation, exchange and production of wares in the Central Highlands of Peru during the secund millenium B.C. In this paper, four ceramic types are defined and described for the Piruru Pirwa sequence (1600/1500 - 800/600 a C, and

  8. Caractéristiques biologiques de la truite de mer (Salmo trutta L. au Nord de l'Espagne, dans deux rivières des Asturies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOLEDO Ma Del Mar

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Une première caractérisation des truites de mer des rivières du Nord de l'Espagne (Asturies est réalisée à partir de l'analyse de la structure de taille et d'âge, ainsi que celle de l'alimentation et des paramètres reproducteurs des poissons adultes. Les truites proviennent des captures réalisées à la ligne (de juin à août sur les rivières Cares et Narcea et par pêche électrique sur les zones de frayères du Narcea durant la saison de reproduction (novembre à janvier. Les truites de mer échantillonnées durant la saison de pêche ont une structure d'âge semblable sur les deux cours d'eau. Environ 85% des individus sont restés deux ans en eau douce avant de descendre en mer, et plus de 95% d'entre eux appartiennent aux classes d'âge de mer 0 + et 1 + . L'importance relative des poissons de 0 + de mer (finnock est légèrement plus élevée dans le Cares (68% que dans le Narcea (51 %. Le rapport des sexes est en faveur des femelles, quelle que soit la classe d'âge de mer. La structure d'âge marin des truites capturées en période de reproduction ne diffère pas de celle observée durant la saison de pêche, bien que montrant une haute proportion de 0 + de mer (32% de l'ensemble des poissons matures. Le taux de maturation chez les truites de 0 + de mer est particulièrement élevé ( 81% parmi les femelles et 100% chez les mâles et tous les individus des autres classes d'âge de mer sont matures. Le nombre d'oeufs (de 571 à 2086 oeufs par femelle et l'index gonadosomatique sont positivement corrélés à la taille et à l'âge de mer des femelles. La truite de mer se nourrit activement en eau douce durant la remontée estivale, puisque 81 % des estomacs examinés étaient pleins. Elle consomme principalement des Epheméroptères, des Diptères et des Trichoptères, mais son alimentation inclut également des proies d'origine terrestre, essentiellement des Arthropodes.

  9. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  10. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  11. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  12. Analyse antiraciste du rapport au territoire, à l’autre et à l’écriture dans Aimititau ! Parlons-nous !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Couture-Grondin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aimititau ! Parlons-nous ! (2008 propose un projet de correspondances littéraires entre écrivains/es autochtones et non autochtones créant ainsi « une nouvelle langue appartenant au territoire de l’amitié et de la création ». Cet article considère l’échange épistolaire en lien avec le territoire physique et le contexte social. L’auteure explore certaines des tensions entre les discours qui promeuvent un partage d’humanité, au-delà des différences, et les conditions matérielles des injustices qui se perpétuent. Elle propose l’analyse de deux correspondances, celles entre Denise Brassard et Rita Mestokosho, et entre Nahka Bertrand et Jean Désy, qui mettent de l’avant un lieu commun d’où établir le dialogue, soit le lien avec la nature et le métissage. Couture-Grondin suggère alors que les discours interculturels doivent tenir compte de la matérialité du racisme, qui continue d’affecter nos relations, et de la matérialité de l’écriture, qui permet de reconnaître la positionalité des discours et la particularité des traditions intellectuelles et de création autochtones. Aimititau ! Parlons-nous ! (2008 proposes a project of correspondences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal writers from Quebec that creates “a new language which belongs to the territory of friendship and creativity”. This paper considers the relationship between the epistolary genre, the physical territory, and the social context. The author explores some of the tensions between discourses that promote the idea of sharing humanity, beyond differences, and the material conditions of ongoing injustices. She analyzes two correspondences, between Denise Brassard and Rita Mestokosho, and between Nahka Bertrand and Jean Désy, which uses a common ground to establish their dialogue, either the relation to nature or the definition of a common identity. Couture-Grondin argues that intercultural discourses must take into account the

  13. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  14. Radon risk in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1996-01-01

    The author discusses the risk related to the inhalation of radon decay products. This products are the cause of almost the half of the doses absorbed by the people. The concentration of radon in buildings is much higher than in the open areas and its country average in Poland is 50 Bq/m 3 . It is difficult to predict the concentration of radon in the building without measurement. Author concludes that there are technical means to decrease radon concentration in buildings

  15. HUBUNGAN ANTARA JUDGMENT AUDIT DENGAN RESIKO DAN MATERIALITAS

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Madyo Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Laporan audit auditor harus mempertimbangkan masalah materialitas, risiko dan penilaian. Pertimbangan Materialitas termasuk kualitatif dan kuantitatif pertimbangan. Pertimbangan kuantitatif berhubungan dengan kesalahan yang menjadi penentu dalam laporan keuangan. Sementara faktor kualitatif berhubungan dengan penyebab kesalahan tersebut. Untuk menghindari atau meminimalkan risiko audit, menurut Standar Audit seksi 312 menekankan “Risiko audit dan Materialitas dalam Pelaksanaan audit”, maka au...

  16. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  17. Les emprises militaires dans l’urbanisme grenoblois du XXe siècle : des opportunités foncières au patrimoine paysager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Grandvoinnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Déclassée en tant que « place forte » en 1925, Grenoble voit son développement urbain conditionné en grande partie par la libération des emprises militaires. Considérées initialement comme de simples réserves foncières, ces structures militaires ont été progressivement investies d’une valeur patrimoniale qui marque fortement certaines opérations d’aménagement urbain et paysager. À travers l’exemple grenoblois, nous évaluerons l’impact des aménagements militaires du XVIIe au XIXe siècle sur l’urbanisme du XXe siècle et dresserons une cartographie urbaine de ce patrimoine militaire en constitution.Grenoble ceased to be qualified as 'place forte' [fortified town] in 1925, and the town's subsequent urban development was largely conditioned by the availability of former military properties. Considered at first as simple real estate opportunities, these military structures were gradually invested with historical and cultural values which feature strongly in certain operations of urban development and landscaping. Starting out from this example at Grenoble, we will try to assess the impact of military installations of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries on the town-planning of the twentieth century and will map this now recognised heritage in its urban context.

  18. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  19. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  20. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  1. A study by internal friction of defects produced in iron and nickel irradiated at very low temperatures; Etude au moyen du frottement interne des defauts crees par irradiation a tres basse temperature dans le fer et le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating-Hart, G de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work represents a contribution to the study of point defects in metals. After a brief review of the theory of internal friction we will discuss some technical innovations aimed at increasing the flexibility of the apparatus at our disposal. These innovations have allowed us to extend our range of measurements down to 20 deg. K. We will then discuss our experimental results. Firstly, we describe preliminary experiments on electron irradiated iron and the evidence for a laminar structure. Secondly, we present and account of the first measurements on nickel after neutron irradiation at 27 deg. K. We will compare the results with those obtained by other methods in this laboratory. Essentially we have observed transitory peaks at low temperature due to close Frenkel pairs and we have noticed the absence of a peak which would correspond to the magnetic after effect band of stage I{sub E}. An attempt is made to explain the disappearance of the observed peaks upon the application of an internal saturating magnetic field. (author) [French] Ce memoire constitue une contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux. Apres un bref apercu theorique sur le frottement interne, nous presenterons quelques realisations techniques destinees a accroitre les possibilites des instruments qui nous ont ete confies. Ces dernieres nous ont permis d'etendre la gamme des mesures jusqu'a 20 deg. K. Nous parlerons ensuite de nos resultats experimentaux. En premier lieu, ceux obtenus au cours de premieres experiences, sur le fer irradie aux electrons mettent en evidence des structures de laminage. En second lieu, nous exposerons les premieres mesures realisees sur du nickel irradie aux neutrons; nous comparerons ces resultats avec ceux obtenus par d'autres moyens experimentaux dans le laboratoire. Nous avons observe essentiellement des pics fugitifs a basse temperature dus aux paires proches de Frenckel et nous avons constate l'absence d'un pic correspondant a la bande de tramage

  2. Le procédé de blanchiment dans les ateliers monétaires français au XV-XVIème siècle: approche archéométrique et expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téreygeol, Florian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late nineties, excavations in La Rochelle (France have discovered the remains of a royal mint of the sixteenth century. This discovery enabled the collection of artefacts directly related to the manufacture of coins. The exceptional corpus gathered is the subject of a study of the chaîne opératoire of coining in the medieval time. Special attention is paid to an operation which takes place before the strike: the blanching of blanks. Well documented in ancient times, the samples from La Rochelle offer the opportunity to study this process during the medieval period and in a royal mint. In addition, thanks to reconstitution experiments, it is possible to define a reaction mechanism that helps to understand our historical observations.[fr] À la fin des années quatre-vingtdix, des fouilles menées à La Rochelle (France ont permis de mettre au jour les vestiges d’un atelier monétaire royal du XVIe siècle. Cette découverte a permis la collecte de matériel directement liée à la fabrication monétaire. Le corpus exceptionnel rassemblé est l’objet d’une étude qui vise à mettre en évidence la chaîne opératoire de fabrication de monnaie à l’époque considérée. Un intérêt particulier est porté à une technique d’argenture qui intervient avant la frappe des monnaies, le blanchiment des flans. Bien documenté pour les périodes antiques, le matériel de La Rochelle offre la possibilité de mettre en évidence ce procédé pour une période plus récente et dans un cadre officiel. De plus, à partir d’expériences de reconstitution, il a été possible de proposer un mécanisme réactionnel. Les hypothèses proposées permettent alors de dégager des implications historiques dans le procédé de fabrication.

  3. Determination of the radon Concentration in underground water in selected areas in and around Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Seth Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Radon (Rn-222) is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and different types of water: surface, borehole, well and spring. It is worth to carry out surveys for the radon in water for radiation protection as well as for geological considerations. The research presenters here was carried out in selected towns in and around Kumasi for the determination of radon concentration in groundwater. The major towns from which samples were taken are , Mowire, Kronum, Aburaso, Medoma, Kenyase, Buokrom, Bomfa, Ayeduase, Kotei, Tikrom. All the samples are used for domestic purposes such as cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. Waters from boreholes and wells in the selected towns were sampled and the radon concentration level measured. The Roll’s method was used for the radon concentration analysis on all the 100 samples. The results shows that, the minimum radon concentration in groundwater was 13015.934 Bq/m3 and it was found at Bomfa, and the highest was found to be 964628.480 Bq/m3, recorded at Mowire. It is believed that this variation of levels is mainly due to the difference in rock type, soil type and geology of the area as well as the depth of the water samples. This information can be used to estimate the possible health hazards from radon in the selected towns in the future from environmental point of view. The data would promote public awareness related to risk of radon exposure. (au)

  4. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  5. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  6. Commerce et navigation dans l'Amérique Espagnole Coloniale: le port de Paita et le Pacifique au XVIIIème siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available À partir de sources fiscales - les registres de l’Almojarifazgo - cet article tente de retracer l’évolution du commerce maritime du port de Paita sur la côte nord du Pérou au 18ème siècle. Si les navires qui relâchent à Paita étaient en provenance ou à destination de la plupart des ports du Pacifique Sud, d’Acapulco à Pisco, la quasi totalité du trafic exprimé en valeur s’effectuait avec les trois ports du Panamá, de Guayaquil et du Callao. L’importation d’esclaves et l’exportation de l’écorce de quinine sont au cours de cette période les poids lourds du commerce par voie de mer. En appréciant la diversité et les quantités de marchandises exportées par Paita, cette étude essaye aussi d’évaluer la production d’un espace régional - le Corregimiento de Piura - pour lequel il n’existe à cette époque aucune autre source quantitative. COMERCIO Y NAVEGACIÓN EN LA AMÉRICA LATINA COLONIAL: EL PUERTO DE PAITA, PIURA Y EL PACÍFICO EN EL SIGLO 18. Basándose en los manuales de Almojarifazgos, este trabajo intenta seguir la evolución del tráfico marítimo a partir del puerto de Paita (norte del Perú en el siglo 18. Aunque los navíos que hacían escala en Paita tenían como origen y destino muchos puertos del Pacífico español, desde Acapulco hasta Pisco, la casi totalidad de los movimientos en valor se realizaba en los puertos de Panamá, Guayaquil y Callao. Durante este período, el movimiento comercial consistirá principalmente en la importación de esclavos y la exportación de quinina (cascarilla. A través del examen de las listas de embarque y de un intento de medir el volumen de las mercancías exportadas por Paita, el artículo se propone además evaluar la producción de una región del Perú colonial, el corregimiento de Piura, en una época para la cual no se encontraron otras fuentes cuantitativas. TRADE AND SHIPPING IN SPANISH COLONIAL AMERICA: THE PORT OF PAITA AND THE PACIFIC IN THE EIGHTEENTH

  7. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  8. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  9. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  10. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  11. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  12. Study of certain random variations in the measurement of low level radioactivities by means of electric circuits (1963); Etude, au moyen de circuits electroniques, de certaines fluctuations aleatoires dans les mesures de radioactivite a bas niveau (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghimi, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-03-15

    The aim of this work is to find a control method which ensures that there is really a statistical distribution of pulses during the measurement of very low activities. The use of a method based on the distribution of time intervals is examined first, as well as the graphical representation to which it leads. The second method is a study of the distribution of the number of pulses in a given time interval. It makes it possible to use two tests for verifying Gauss's law: Henry's graphical test and the {chi}{sup 2} mathematical test. The electronic devices necessary for these tests have been built; they have made it possible to study the fluctuations in on installation for measuring the natural activity of carbon. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher des methodes de controle qui permettent de s'assurer qu'au cours de mesures de tres faibles activites, on a bien une distribution statistique des impulsions. L'utilisation d'une premiere methode basee sur la distribution des intervalles de temps est d'abord examinee, ainsi que la representation graphique a laquelle elle conduit. La deuxieme methode est une etude de la repartition du nombre d'impulsions pendant un temps determine. Elle permet l'utilisation de 2 tests de verification de la loi de Gauss: le test graphique de Henry et le test mathematique de {chi}{sup 2}. Les dispositifs electroniques necessaires pour l'utilisation de ces tests ont ete realises.; ils ont ensuite permis l'etude des fluctuations dans une installation de mesure d'activite naturelle du carbone. (auteur)

  13. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  14. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  15. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  16. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  17. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  18. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  19. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  20. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  1. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  2. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  3. Investigation of the diffusion {proportional_to} brasses using methods depending on the evaporation or condensation of zinc; Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {proportional_to} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique du CNRS (France)

    1959-07-01

    Diffusion in {alpha} brasses has been investigated using methods involving the evaporation and the condensation of zinc. Having shown that at sufficiently high temperatures intergranular diffusion has no effect, it was then proved that the rate of evaporation or of condensation can only be defined if the mechanical treatment of the test piece before diffusion, the direction of the diffusion and the nature of the impurities present are also defined. The coefficient of diffusion D is then given by the equation D ({pi}/4t){rho}{sup 2}{sub 0} where t is the duration of the diffusion; {rho}{sub 0} is the extrapolated value of {rho} = ({delta}m)/({delta}C) for a zero value of the variation of concentration ({delta}m in is the change in weight of the test piece per unit surface; {delta}C is the difference between the concentration at the surface and the initial concentration of the test piece). This method has been used to study the effect of the direction of the diffusion on the coefficient of diffusion. The coefficient for diffusion which decreases the concentration of zinc is 5 times greater than that for diffusion which increases the quantity of zinc in the metal; an interpretation of this phenomena based on the mechanism of diffusion vacancies in the structure has been proposed. By means of micrographic investigation and by weighing it has been shown that the presence of certain impurities, such as phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, silicon, and aluminium can result in a marked increase of the rate of diffusion: the effect of these impurities on the coefficient of diffusion has been related to their valency and atomic weight. (author) [French] La diffusion dans les laitons {alpha} a ete etudiee au moyen des methodes d'evaporation et de condensafion du zinc. Apres avoir montre qu'aux temperatures suffisamment elevees, la diffusion intergranulaire ne jouait aucun role, l'auteur a prouve que la vitesse d'evaporation ou de condensation n'est definie que dans la mesure ou

  4. Les bienfaits pour la santé et la prédominance du sucre dans les céréales pour déjeuner destinées aux enfants au Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cette étude vise à comparer le contenu nutritionnel et les bienfaits pour la santé des céréales pour déjeuner destinées aux enfants et celles non destinées aux enfants et à évaluer la prédominance du sucre ajouté dans ces produits. Méthodologie : Nous avons recueilli des données sur le contenu nutritionnel de 262 céréales pour déjeuner vendues dans les cinq principales chaînes d’alimentation à Ottawa (Ontario et à Gatineau (Québec. Pour chaque céréale, nous avons pris en note les cinq premiers ingrédients et la quantité de sucres ajoutés indiqués sur la liste des ingrédients. Les diverses marques de céréales ont été ensuite classées en deux catégories, soit « plus saines » ou « moins saines », à l’aide du modèle de profil nutritionnel du Royaume-Uni. Nous avons évalué chaque céréale en fonction de divers critères afin de déterminer si elle était destinée ou non aux enfants. Des comparaisons statistiques ont été établies entre les céréales destinées aux enfants et les autres. Résultats : Sur l'ensemble des céréales pour déjeuner, 19,8 % étaient destinées aux enfants et contenaient beaucoup moins de gras et de gras saturés. Ces céréales avaient une teneur en sodium et en sucre significativement plus élevée et une teneur en fibres et en protéines plus faible, et elles étaient trois fois plus susceptibles d’être classées comme « moins saines » par rapport aux céréales non destinées aux enfants. Aucune des céréales destinées aux enfants n’était sans sucre et, pour 75 % d’entre elles, le sucre occupait le deuxième rang dans la liste des ingrédients. Six entreprises de céréales pour déjeuner possédaient une gamme de produits destinés aux enfants composée entièrement de céréales « moins saines ». Conclusion : Il est nécessaire d’adopter un règlement qui limite le marketing alimentaire ciblant les enfants et les jeunes de moins de 17

  5. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  6. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  7. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  8. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  9. Contribution du warrantage à l'accès des petits producteurs au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution du warrantage à l'accès des petits producteurs au marché des intrants et des produits agricoles dans les communes rurales de Kléla, Fama et Zebala dans la région de Sikasso au Mali. D Sogodogo, O Dembele, S Konate, S Koumare ...

  10. Mesure de la section efficace de production des quarks beaux et charmés à partir de leur désintegration semileptonique en électrons avec l'experience ATLAS dans les collisions protons-protons a sqrt(s) = 7 TeV au LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, Stefania

    Le thème central de la thèse est la mesure de la section efficace de production des électrons venant de la désintégration des quarks lourds (b et c) avec l'expérience ATLAS dans les collisions proton-proton à sqrt(s)=7 TeV au LHC. La calibration du calorimètre électromagnétique et la reconstruction des électrons jouent un rôle cardinal dans l'analyse développée dans cette thèse. Ces thématiques sont traitées dans la première partie du manuscrit. L'étude des systématiques liées à la variation des constantes de calibration paramètrant la chaîne de lecture du calorimètre et qui affectent la reconstruction de l'énergie des cellules est presentée. La description des procédures de reconstruction des événements dans le détecteur ATLAS est ensuite traitée. Les cas de mauvaise reconstruction sont abordés et une étude de l'estimation du taux des faux leptons dans des événements multi-jets est présentée. La deuxième partie de la thèse est dédiée à la mesure de la section ef...

  11. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  12. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  13. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  14. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  15. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  16. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  17. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  18. De « Boule de Neige » au « Prince Perce-Neige ». Réception de « Blanche-Neige » en France dans les ouvrages destinés à la jeunesse

    OpenAIRE

    Connan-Pintado, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    D’abord intitulé « Boule-de-Neige » en 1824 dans les Vieux contes pour l’amusement des grands et des petits enfants — traduction du recueil anglais German Popular Stories —, « Blanche-Neige » reste le conte le plus connu des frères Grimm aujourd’hui, au point de paraître victime d’une imagerie dont le succès planétaire du dessin animé de Walt Disney en 1937 a largement figé les contours. En première place dans les recueils pour enfants depuis deux siècles, il fait aussi l’objet d’innombrables...

  19. La construction de l’urgence au travail et ses effets suivant les statuts hiérarchiques : le cas des mécaniciens et des agents de maîtrise dans le secteur aérien

    OpenAIRE

    Monneuse, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Travailler dans l’urgence est devenu un impératif catégorique pour nombre de salariés. Cet impératif se double d’une injonction paradoxale : il faut que le travail soit « vite fait, bien fait ». Comment la légitimation de l’urgence est-elle construite ? Dans quelle mesure les salariés intériorisent-ils cette logique managériale ? Quelles différences note-t-on suivant leur statut hiérarchique ? Cet article vise à rendre compte d’une enquête menée au sein d’un centre de maintenance d’une compag...

  20. Study of the diffusion in the {alpha} brasses, using the evaporation or condensation of zinc - influence of the diffusion sense and of impurities (first and second thesis); Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {alpha} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc influence du sens de diffusion et de la presence d'impurete (premiere et deuxieme these)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-12-15

    The author develops a zero concentration extrapolation method for the exact determination of the diffusion coefficient. He applies it to the comparison of the inward and outward diffusion coefficient in {alpha} brasses. In a second part he shows the large influence of traces of some elements such as P, As, Sb, on the diffusion velocity in {alpha} brasses. (author) [French] L'auteur montre comment, au moyen d'une extrapolation a variation de concentration nulle, ces methodes permettent d'atteindre rigoureusement la valeur du coefficient de diffusion. Il les utilise pour comparer la valeur du coefficient de diffusion avec enrichissement en zinc a la valeur du coefficient de diffusion avec appauvrissement en zinc. Dans une seconde partie, il met en evidence la grande influence de traces d'elements tels que le phosphore, l'arsenic, l'antimoine sur la vitesse de diffusion dans les laitons {alpha}. (auteur)

  1. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m 3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m 3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m 3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  2. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  3. Radon investigation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.

    1992-01-01

    After a short description of the history of radon measurements in mines, the results of bare track detector application in dwellings are commented on. Many related methods and problems are discussed. Most experiences are similar to the published ones, but details are specific for Central Europe (absence of air-conditioning, etc.). (author)

  4. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  5. La fonction de la salle dans les entreprises de promotion de médiation au cinéma : mise en perspective des enjeux du numérique au regard de l’éducation au cinéma

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Perrine

    2015-01-01

    Si la plupart des dispositifs d’éducation au cinéma en France – comme Ecole et cinéma - considèrent encore la salle de cinéma comme un passage obligatoire, les outils numériques actuels permettent de considérer une autre pratique de la découverte du cinéma.Cette nouvelle considération est décriée par beaucoup de militants de l’éducation au cinéma, qui défendent la salle comme le « lieu naturel du cinéma ». L’article traite la question de savoir si les nouveaux outils numériques engendrent des...

  6. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  7. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaruzaman Mohd Noor; Haziman Hassan; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  8. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  9. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  10. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  11. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  13. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  14. Taking Account of Gender Differences When Designing Interventions in Occupational Health? Lessons from a Study of the "Healthy Enterprise" Standard in Québec: Les différences de genre sont-elles prises en compte lors de la conception des interventions de prévention en santé au travail? Résultats d une étude sur la norme "Entreprises en Santé" dans les entreprises au Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; St-Hilaire, France; Lefebvre, Rébecca; Biron, Caroline; Vézina, Michel; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The literature shows substantial differences in occupational exposures between men and women, both between and within occupations, but remains very sparse on whether interventions are tailored to gender differences in the workplace. Our objective was to determine whether gender differences are taken into account when designing prevention interventions. This study is part of a project on the evaluation of interventions implemented in the framework of the "Healthy Enterprise" standard in Quebec organizations. Three sets of quantitative and qualitative data were collected in seven organizations and triangulated. Our results show that in the process of elaborating and implementing activities, the main objectives were to reach a maximum number of workers and meet the needs identified in a health and risk diagnosis. Activities were not tailored to the needs of specific subgroups of employees, such as gender or age. Not distinguishing men's and women's situations in this diagnosis may play a role in intervention design. Résumé La littérature montre des différences d'exposition au travail importantes entre les hommes et les femmes, y compris à catégories d'emploi identiques. Les études sur l'adaptation des interventions de prévention aux différences de genre dans les milieux de travail sont quasiment inexistantes dans la littérature. Notre objectif était de déterminer dans quelle mesure les différences de genre sont prises en compte lors de la conception des interventions de prévention. Cette étude fait partie d'un projet d'évaluation des interventions mises en œuvre dans le cadre de la norme «Entreprises en santéé au Québec. Trois séries de données quantitatives et qualitatives ont été collectées auprès de sept organisations et analysées par triangulation. Nos résultats montrent que lors du processus d'élaboration des activités, les principaux objectifs étaient d'atteindre un nombre maximal de travailleurs et de remplir les besoins identifi

  15. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  16. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property; Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtraengning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m{sup 3} corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m{sup 3}/h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m{sup 3} of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  17. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  18. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  19. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  20. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  1. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  2. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  3. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  4. HYPERTENSION AU COURS DE LA GROSSESSE: Aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypertension soit une prévalence de 8,2%. Cette pathologie survient dans notre .... consultations prénatales ou le post-partum. Sur le plan clinique, la ... des patientes étaient au terme de leur grossesse alors que 22.11%, avaient un âge ...

  5. Radioactive preparation of defects in solids; Creation de defauts dans les solides au moyen de radioisotopes; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnosti dlya obrazovaniya defektov v tverdykh telakh; Creacion de deiectos en los solidos mediante radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambe, J [Physics Department, Ford Motor Company, Scientific Laboratory, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1962-01-15

    One of the major areas of interest in solid state physics is the study of defects in nearly perfect crystals. The controlled formation of such defects is thus an important aspect of these studies. Chemical additions and radiation damage are among the techniques which have been widely used to make such defects. In the present work some possibilities have been examined of using radioactive decay to form defects in solids. The technique is simply to make as perfect a material as possible but with some of the host crystal atoms radioactive. When these atoms decay the daughter product essentially forms the defect. As a simple means of testing the feasibility of this technique, it was used to prepare tritium atoms trapped in a crystal of solid molecular tritium. The experiments indicate that the technique is feasible and should have particular application to the preparation of free radicals in organic materials which are fairly resistant to radiation damage. (author) [French] L'etude des defauts que presentent les cristaux presque parfaits revet un interet primordial pour la physique de l'etat solide. La formation controlee de defauts de ce genre constitue ainsi un aspect important des travaux dans cette branche de la physique. Parmi les techniques frequemment employees a cette fin, figurent l'addition de produits chimiques et l'induction de dommages par exposition a des rayonnements. Au cours de leurs travaux, les auteurs ont etudie la possibilite de recourir a la desintegration radioactive de plusieurs manieres pour creer des defauts dans les solides. Le procede consiste simplement a produire une matiere ayant une structure aussi parfaite que possible mais dont certains cristaux renferment des atomes radioactifs. Lorsque ces atomes se desintegrent, le defaut est constitue essentiellement par le produit de filiation. Pour explorer par un moyen simple la possibilite d'utiliser ce procede, l'auteur a prepare des atomes de tritium fixes dans un cristal de tritium

  6. Risk assessment of radon gas concentration for some selected offices of KNUST campus, Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediako, Yaw Addo

    2013-11-01

    Radon (Rn-222) has been identified as an factor that could result in a health hazard by studies all around the world. The health risks can be minimised by preventing measures where radon is highly concentrated as in some mines or homes or offices. A study in the buildup concentration of the inert gas, will give us a better understanding of its possible pathways through soil into the air surrounding and offices where radon releases can become hazardous. Measuring the radon concentrations on campus, can help to deduce the radon flux to identify the problem areas for rehabilitation. An active method incorporating Trace level radon gas detection and continious monitoring method was used in this study to determine the radon concentration of the selected offices. Concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 0.498 pCi/I were detected, with the head of optometry and Visual Science recording the highest concentration of 0.498 pCi/I, while the head of Agricultural Engineering Department office with the least concentration of 0.010 pCi/I. Although these concentrations are generally low as compared with the EPA guidelines of an action level of 4 pCi/I, but no amount of radiation is said to be safe. (au)

  7. Les feux de Pentecôte au royaume du Siècle. L’économie des charismes dans le pentecôtisme suédois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Mahieddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le pentecôtisme participe des mouvements de renouveau religieux qui ont amené, du fait de leur succès, à parler d’un « retour du refoulé » – selon les mots de Gilles Kepel –, une expression venue aujourd’hui remplacer le paradigme de la sécularisation, dominant en sociologie des religions depuis le début du XXe siècle. Cet article repose sur une étude ethnographique menée dans la ville de Jönköping, bastion du protestantisme born again dans un pays, la Suède, pourtant réputé le plus sécularisé du monde. L’auteur entend interroger les adaptations éventuelles que le pentecôtisme a pu mettre en place pour faire accepter sa présence au sein d’un environnement archi-sécularisé. Il apparaît ainsi que le « retour du religieux » ne s’appuie pas que sur une rhétorique du conflit ou de l’offensive avec l’idéologie de la sécularité mais tente une coexistence négociée avec son environnement d’accueil, aussi neutralisé d’influence religieuse soit-il.Pentecostalism is part of the revivalist movements that led, because of its success to speak of a « return of the repressed » – in the words of Gilles Kepel – an expression coming today to replace the paradigm of secularization, dominant in the sociology of religion since the beginning of the Twentieth century. This article is based on an ethnographic study conducted in the city of Jönköping, a bastion of born again Protestantism in one country, Sweden, reputedly the most secularized in the world. The author intends to examine the possible adaptations that Pentecostalism has set up to make his presence accepted in a very secular environment. It thus appears that the « return of religion » does not only rely on the rhetoric of conflict against the ideology of secularism but attempts to settle a negotiated coexistence with its hosting environment however free of religious influence that it might be.El pentecostalismo es parte de los

  8. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo, B.L.; Palfalvi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m 3 . (R.P.)

  9. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  10. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  12. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  13. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    -state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, (2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, (3) time-dependent radon exhalation from abuilding-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  14. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  15. Radon levels in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Average radon concentrations in the air and geothermal water of spa pools in Croatia were 40.3 Bq/m 3 and 4.5 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Substantial difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water is explained by the mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool and with radon decay. The estimated annual effective dose received by the personnel in the spa of Stubicke toplice, Croatia was 0.7 mSv. At the same location, the calculated transfer factor of radon for the air and thermal water in the pool was 4.9x10 -3 .(author)

  16. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. De l’effritement à l’androgyne : l’image du couple dans le roman québécois contemporain au féminin De l’effritement à l’androgyne : l’image du couple dans le roman québécois contemporain au féminin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Adriana Oprea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available À travers l’analyse d’un corpus de romans québécois contemporains, nous tentons ici de baliser les éléments d’un parcours qui va de l’effritement à l’androgyne. Cette évolution est symptomatique tant de la remise en question du couple qu’engendre le féminisme radical que du passage du féminisme de la deuxième vague au féminisme de la troisième vague. Les romans que nous avons retenus sont Le sexe des étoiles (1987, de Monique Proulx, Copies conformes (1989, de Monique LaRue et la trilogie Soifs de Marie-Claire Blais.À travers l’analyse d’un corpus de romans québécois contemporains, nous tentons ici de baliser les éléments d’un parcours qui va de l’effritement à l’androgyne. Cette évolution est symptomatique tant de la remise en question du couple qu’engendre le féminisme radical que du passage du féminisme de la deuxième vague au féminisme de la troisième vague. Les romans que nous avons retenus sont Le sexe des étoiles1 (1987, de Monique Proulx, Copies conformes2 (1989, de Monique LaRue et la trilogie Soifs3 de Marie-Claire Blais.

  18. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  20. Contribution to the characterization of 222-radon concentrations variability in water to the understanding of an aquifer behaviour in fractured medium: example of the Ploemeur site, Morbihan; Apport de la caracterisation de la variabilite des concentrations en radon-222 dans l'eau a la comprehension du fonctionnement d'un aquifere en milieu fracture de socle: exemple du site de Ploemeur, Morbihan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Druillennec, Th

    2007-06-15

    Heterogeneous fractured aquifers which developed in crystalline rocks, such as schist or granite, supply 20% of tap water production of Brittany. These fractured media present a large range of permeability. In these aquifers, fluid flow and transport of elements dissolved in water are strongly related on the geometry of the fractured network. Increasing the knowledge of the hydrogeological behaviour of the aquifer is fundamental for the management and the protection of the groundwater resources. Radon-222 is a radioactive noble gas produced from radium-226 further to the radioactive decay of uranium-238; it occurs naturally in ground waters and derives primarily from U-rich rocks and minerals that have been in contact with water. Radon-222 concentrations in waters are liable to provide significant and relevant information on both the geometry of a fracture network and the flow distribution. Furthermore, radon may also be used as a tracer in the aquifer of water exchanges between zones of variable permeability. Three main results were obtained in this study: 1. An accurate characterisation of the radon concentrations in water was carried out in the Ploemeur aquifer (Brittany, France). These results highlight the variability in the spatial and vertical distributions of {sup 222}Rn activity in groundwater together with a wide range of concentrations extending from 0 to 1 500 Bq.L{sup -1}. 2. The influence of fracture aperture on radon content in groundwater has been demonstrated with the modelling of radon concentration. Indeed, the satisfactory results obtained with a simple crack model highlight that the geometry of the fracture network controls the radon activity in groundwater. 3. Thus, the results of pumping tests performed in the boreholes improved our understanding of the system. After the pumping test, an increase of the radon content in groundwater occurred and evidenced a contribution of a radon-rich water to supply the flow rate that seems to come from the

  1. Pondération de la base juridique du droit au logement au Zimbabwe ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  2. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  3. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  4. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  5. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  6. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  7. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  8. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  9. L'enseingnemnet du français dans une école privé de tlemcen besoins et attentes des aprenants au niveau de l'expression orale

    OpenAIRE

    Zazoua-khames, Aimed

    2014-01-01

    Les école privé n'ont vu le jour en algerie qu au debut des années quatre-vingt dix à la suite des réforme politique et économique .a travers au ce travail nous avons essaye de démontre si cette école privé satisfait aux besoin e attentes das aprenants au niveau de l'expression orale.

  10. La notion de temporalité au cœur de l’analyse des discours représentés à l’oral : essai de typologie, procédés rhétoriques et portées argumentatives des DR dans le débat présidentiel français de 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillat Domitille

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’un débat, la représentation de propos peut être considérée comme une véritable « arme » rhétorique, tant le recours à ce procédé permet au locuteur de jouer de différentes retombées argumentatives. Aussi, à partir de la transcription de la rencontre entre Nicolas Sarkozy (NS et Ségolène Royal (SR lors du débat présidentiel de l’entre-deux tours de 2007, nous proposons-nous d’étudier les différentes formes de DR utilisées afin d’en dresser une typologie à visée argumentative. Pour ce faire, nous nous placerons dans une optique quelque peu divergente des classifications traditionnelles, puisque nous utiliserons la notion de « temporalité » — en tant que positionnement de l’énonciation de référence par rapport à l’intervention en cours — comme principal critère distinctif des occurrences et des effets dont celles-ci sont directement responsables. En plaçant de la sorte la temporalité au centre de l’étude des discours représentés (dorénavant DR, nous serons tout d’abord amenée à reconsidérer les critères traditionnellement pris en compte dans les classifications temporelles, avant de revenir sur l’importance de la nature des sources énonciatives de référence ; nous reviendrons en outre sur le critère de « virtualité » fréquemment utilisé comme un élément distinctif. Nous procéderons alors, dans le but d’expliquer au mieux la portée de chaque occurrence de DR, à un inventaire des diverses formes recensées, en conduisant pour chaque type de source énonciative une étude des différentes temporalités observables.

  11. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  12. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  13. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  14. The significance of radon in radioactive pollution of environment. Pt. 2. Radon effect on living organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A.; Kossakowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Authors review the history of radon monitoring. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and its correlation to radon concentration in mines and buildings are described. The influence of radon on animals living in the buildings built from waste materials is described. Authors review plans concerning creation of radon monitoring system in Poland. The necessity of monitoring influence of radon on animals is described

  15. Study of the production of J/{psi} in Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon pair in the PHENIX experiment; Etude de la production du J/{psi} dans les collisions or-or a 200 GeV par paire de nucleons dans l'experience PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tram, V.N

    2006-01-15

    One of the most promising signature of Quark Gluon Plasma formation is the heavy quarkonium suppression due to color screening effect. First experiments at the SPS (CERN) have measured an 'anomalous suppression' of the J/{psi} yields (cc-bar state) in central Pb+Pb collisions. However, measurements at different collision energies and with different ions are mandatory to conclude about the discovery of a new state of nuclear matter. This thesis describes the J/{psi} production measured in the dimuon decay channel by the PHENIX experiment (RHIC) studying Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV in the center of mass. The J/{psi} yield measured in the most central collisions is suppressed by a factor of 3 as compared to the yield expected assuming binary scaling. Within the error bars, the suppression does not affect the J/{psi}'s rapidity distribution. However, a broadening of the transverse momentum distribution is observed as compared to the distribution measured in p+p collisions. In order to understand this suppression, 'cold nuclear effects', namely nuclear absorption and shadowing, are to be taken into account. These effects can describe neither the suppression amplitude nor the suppression pattern, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved. Predictions from different models which reproduce the suppression observed by NA50, can hardly describe the PHENIX measurements and over-estimate the suppression at RHIC. Comparisons with predictions from models including recombination of charm quarks give a reasonable description of the suppression amplitude as a function of centrality. However, these predictions are not in good agreement with the observed rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. Finally, one possible scenario is that the temperature at RHIC is not high enough to reach direct J/{psi} melting and that the measured suppression is due to the sequential disappearance from higher mass resonances ({chi}{sub c} and {psi}'). In this

  16. Tensions, Réformes et Recherche du consensus: Vatican II dans l’itinéraire de l’Église catholique au XXe siècle - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Routhier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensions, Réformes et Recherche du consensus: Vatican II dans l’itinéraire de l’Église catholique au XXe siècle(Tensions, reforms and consensus : Vatican II in the itinerary of the Catholic Church in the twentieth centuryRésumé Contrairement à ce que l’on affirme parfois, les tensions que l’on retrouve dans l’Église catholique au moment de la réception du concile ne sont pas nées avec le concile, mais s’enracinent au cours du siècle qui précéda Vatican II. Elles portent principalement sur le rapport de l’Église catholique au monde moderne. À Vatican II, si les Pères conciliaires ont été d’accord pour généraliser et accélérer l’effort de mise à jour de l’Église entamée depuis quelques décennies, quelques-uns ont refusé le discernement opéré par l’Église catholique sur l’enseignement des papes, depuis Pie IX, sur le rapport de l’Église avec le monde moderne. Les évêques appartenant à la majorité ont estimé qu’il fallait re-recevoir ces enseignements portés dans des circonstances historiques différentes, et les apprécier à la lumière des situations nouvelles dans lesquelles évoluait désormais l’Église catholique. L’opposition actuelle au concile refuse ce discernement et voudrait, par-delà le concile, revenir aux positions tenues au XIXe siècle. Mots-clés: Vatican II; L’Église Catholique. XXe siècle. Tensions. Réformes. Consensus Abstract To the contrary of what is commonly said, the tensions in the Catholic Church at the time of reception of the Council did not originate within the council, but are rooted in the course of the century prior to Vatican II. These tensions relate mainly to the relationship of the Catholic Church with the modern world. If the Fathers of the Second Vatican agreed to upgrade the Church, after a few decades some priests refused to follow the teachings of the Popes about the relationship of the Church with the modern world. Most bishops

  17. Radon Mapping of the Osijek Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Smit, G.; Culo, D.; Planinic, J.

    1998-01-01

    After ten years investigation of radon seasonal variations at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens and schools, systematical indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings of Osijek. Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 nuclear track detector at 48 town locations that gave the arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq m -3 , standard deviation of 44.0 Bq m -3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq m -3 , for the radon concentration range from 23 to 186 Bq m -3 . The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq m -3 , was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with χ 2 - test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. Thus supposition was confirmed by radon measurement in the soil gas using radon emanators with the LR-115 film that showed the positive correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and indoors. Radon measurements in Osijeks primary schools pointed out a school that had the highest radon concentration (300 Bq m -3 ) considering all the former indoor radon measurements. The radon distribution in the school building was investigated afterwards radon mitigation procedures were undertaken. (author)

  18. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  19. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  20. Radon Moscow: internationalisation of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevejkin, P.P.; Grishin, O.E.; Rakov, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, SIA Radon Moscow has been an active participant in the international technical cooperation to resolve the current issues of radiation safety and radwaste management. The article presents the experience of such cooperation. Examples of Radon's participation in the international projects on the assessment of safety, the international education network DISPONET and implementation of TACIS projects are given [ru

  1. Radon in the human life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.).

  2. Radon in the human life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.)

  3. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  4. Radon and risk of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews present knowledge on the possible detriment to health of radon in homes. It is concluded that inducement of lung cancer has neither been proved nor disproved. Large-scale epidemiological studies are in progress. Until the results of these studies have been reported, frightening anti-radon propaganda should be discouraged

  5. Radon concentration in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.; Veldhuizen, A.

    1986-02-01

    In 1000 dwellings, which can be assumed to be an reasonable representation of the average Dutch dwellings, time averaged radon concentrations, radon daughter concentrations and gamma-exposure tempi are determined during a year with passive dosemeters. They are also determined outdoor at circa 200 measure points. (Auth.)

  6. L'égalité, un effort collectif au Sénégal | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 nov. 2011 ... Les lois et les traditions au Sénégal sont en désaccord quant aux ... C'est le cas dans l'ensemble du pays, alors que plus des trois quarts des femmes économiquement actives au Sénégal travaillent dans le secteur agricole.

  7. An investigation of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Radon mitigation contractors were contacted to obtain information on the progress of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania. Information was obtained on the beginning and ending radon concentrations, the cost of the job, the mitigation method used, and the location by zip code. Most radon mitigations achieved reductions below 90 percent, and most achieved 4 pCi/1. 65 percent achieved 2 pCi/1. There was little relationship between the cost of the job and either the percent reduction or the beginning radon. Percent reduction was strongly related to beginning radon, with lower percent reductions associated with low starting radon

  8. Environmental radon and cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A K.M.M.; Kirk, A E [South Bank Polytechnic, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    Data collected from the office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) statistics and those published by the Leukaemia Research Fund (LRF) have been analysed with a view to examining whether radon is a possible causative agent in the induction of leukaemias. Radon concentration values have been taken from a NRPB survey. Positive correlation has been observed between radon concentration and incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Employing the method of BEIR IV, the lifetime probability of leukaemia incidence, R[sub o], of a non-exposed person (zero radon concentration) has been calculated for AML, CML, ALL and CLL, which agree well with those values obtained from extrapolation of linear graphs of leukaemia deaths versus radon concentration. (author).

  9. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  10. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovlev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  11. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  12. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Colgan, P.A.; Cancio, D.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m -3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  13. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  14. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  15. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  16. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  17. The Development of Materials for Application to Control Rod Systems in Graphite moderated Reactors; Mise au Point de Materiaux pour les Dispositifs de Controle a Barres, Utilbes dans les Reacteurs Ralentis au Graphite; Razrabotka materialov , primenyaemykh v sistemakh upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej v reaktorakh s grafitovym zamedlitelem; Perfeccionamiento de Materiales Aplicables a las Barras de Control en los Reactores Moderados por Grafito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G. E.; Kempf, F. J. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1964-06-15

    Material problems associated with the control- and safety-rod systems for graphite moderated, tube-type reactors can be divided into two categories: control materials and operating-channel liner materials. The control materials, such as boron or gadolinium, can be integral with the rod sheath, as in the boron stainless steel used for safety rods. Another approach is the enclosure of a boron-containing sintered compact, such as B{sub 4}C-graphite or B{sub 4}C-aluminium, in a metallic sheath. Rods of the latter type are adaptable for control purposes because of the increased percentages of boron that can be included. Test and fabrication experience indicate that a wide range of satisfactory rod designs is possible with any of these materials. The rod operating channels in the reactor often require liners to protect the surrounding graphite moderator from rod-insertion impact loads and wear and to help maintain channel alignment. Abrasion- and impact resistant, high-strength, low cross-section materials that will operate uncooled are required for these liners. Pyrolytic graphite, pyrolytic graphite composites, aluminium oxide and silicon carbide have been tested for such applications. Physical and irradiation damage data indicate that some of these materials are suitable for lining rod-operating channels. (author) [French] Les problemes de materiaux lies aux dispositifs de controle a barres de reglage et de securite pour les reacteurs tubulaires ralentis au graphite sont doubles et concernent les materiaux absorbants d'une part et les materiaux de garnissage des canaux d'autre part. Les materiaux absorbants tels que le bore ou le gadolinium peuvent former un tout avec le materiau de gainage comme dans le cas ou les barres de securite sont en acier inoxydable au bore. Une autre technique consiste a enfermer un melange presse et fritte contenant du bore, tel que B4C-graphite ou B4C-aluminium, dans une gaine metallique. Les barres de ce dernier type peuvent etre adaptees

  18. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  20. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  1. Radon in public buildings; Radon in oeffentlichen Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K. [IAF - Radiooekologie GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Hermann, E. [B.P.S. Engineering GmbH, Zwickau (Germany); Loebner, W. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Leissring, B. [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  2. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  3. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  4. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  5. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  6. The effect and the amendment of thermoregulation to the stability of radon concentration in radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiongjie; Wang Renbo; Qu Jinhui; Tang Bin; Zhu Zhifu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    When the temperature in the airtight radon chamber was adjusted, it would induce the frequent changes of the air pressure in chamber, then the radon concentration in the radon chamber would continuously reduce, which could seriously destroy the stability of the radon concentration in radon chamber. In this paper, on the study of the effect reasons to the stability of radon concentration in airtight radon chamber due to the thermoregulation, a new amendment scheme was put forward, and the solutions of the relevant parameters were discussed. The amendment scheme had been successfully applied to HD-6 radon chamber, and achieved good results. (authors)

  7. Animals exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.; Morlier, J.P.; Chameaud, J.; Bredon, P.

    1992-01-01

    'There is sufficient evidence that 222 Rn is a carcinogen in animals': this statement was important for the classification of radon as carcinogenic to man, outside of uranium mine atmospheres, clearly identified by epidemiology as causing lung cancer. Since recent reviews of animal experiments have been given by NCRP and by IARC, this review will be mainly limited to the recent results which came from two laboratories in the last 20 years. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), USA, and COGEMA Laboratoire de Pathologie Professionnelle (LPP) France. (author)

  8. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  9. Exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Part 3 is given of the Code of Practice approved by the UK Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. Part 3 gives specific guidance on the application of the Regulations to certain work involving exposure to isotopes of radon and their decay products. Aspects covered in the Regulations include restriction of exposure, dose limits, controlled areas, radiation protection advisers and supervisors, dosimetry and area monitoring. (U.K.)

  10. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2000-08-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)

  11. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2000-08-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)

  12. Radon measurements in Ghana: health risk assesment at the Lake Bosomtwi basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andam, A.A.B.; Addison, E.C.K.; Nani, E.K.; Amankwah, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The need to assess the risk of exposure to radon and its daughters stems from the reality, that radon is a potential carcinogenic. We report Radon-222 risk assessment, from measurements on soil and sediments taken from six towns along the Lake Bosomtwi basin at two levels of 10cm and 20cm. The current and future prospects of Lake Bosomtwi, the largest natural lake in Ghana, make this assessment imperative, since radon forms half of natural background radiation. Spatial Analyser Decision Assistant (SADA) algorithms were used to model the measured radon concentrations under two land-use scenarios, namely residential and recreational. Setting the data under a targeted risk of 1E-6,we found that the external exposure was below that of the maximum concentrations to the measurements. This indicates that the radon levels around those towns as of the time of the measurements is low and below limits which can cause carcinogenic threats. The mean risk associated with the sampled locations was found to be 9E-11 at the recreational areas and 2E-8 at residential centres. To confirm the authenticity of the point risk analysis, geospatial modelling based on inverse distance interpolation schemes were performed. The results tally closely with that of the measured point risk analysis with and error margin of 2% and 1.3 % for both land use scenarios at 10 cm and 20 cm depth respectively. (au)

  13. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  14. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.; Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M.

    2006-01-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  17. Protection of workers from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.

    1992-01-01

    The TUC regards exposure to radon as one of a range of health hazards in industry which need to be controlled. In the case of radon the costs of control measures are very much lower than the costs of averting similar doses in the nuclear industry. All employers in the areas affected should be able to demonstrate that they have taken appropriate steps to determine the risks from radon and have introduced remedial measures where appropriate. The TUC considers it essential that trade union safety representatives should be fully involved and consulted about the problem. (Author)

  18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  19. Radon risk in the house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values [it

  20. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  1. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  2. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  3. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  4. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  5. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  6. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  7. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  8. Monitoring of radon concentration in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1991-01-01

    Radon problems in dwellings have recently received much attention. Radon concentration in dwellings, as well as in the general environment, varies with various factors such as meteorological conditions and soil components. Therefore, a long term monitoring of radon concentration is required to obtain an average concentration. This paper reviews a passive type radon monitor that is handy and allows a long term radon monitoring. It provides the structure and principle of the radon monitor, covering the type, filter function, sensitivity of diffusion collecting type (cup type), electrostatic collecting type, adsorption collecting type, and detector of radon monitor. Actual examples of the radon monitor are also given. Radon daughter nuclides will have become major foci of exposure countermeasures. In the future, the development of a passive type monitor for determining potential alpha energy concentration is required. (N.K.)

  9. Quality assurance for radon measurements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Foerster, E.; Schmidt, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection regarding work activities at workplaces with naturally occurring radiation has been regulated in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Regulations refer only to workplaces where the presence of natural radiation leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers. These workplaces were identified in the following working areas with enhanced exposures to radon-222: underground mines, including visitor mines and show caves; radon-spas and galleries; water supply and distribution industries. Presently, regulations are being initiated by the German government to limit the exposures to radon in homes. For radon measurements at workplaces passive radon devices for individual monitoring as well as active measuring systems for workplace monitoring can be used. However, passive radon devices are preferred for radon measurements in homes because of low costs and availability in large quantities. To assure the quality of radon measurements the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has established annual interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon devices. The comparisons are carried out in the BfS radon calibration laboratory accredited by the German Calibration Service. Passive radon devices which use solid state track detectors, electrets or activated charcoal can be submitted. Approved radon services which offer radon measurements to determine radon exposure in homes and at workplaces have to pass the comparisons successfully. (author)

  10. La construction relative dans Chrétien de Troyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Pieter

    1924-01-01

    1. On peut reléguer à la syntaxe figée la construction relative avec la pronom neutre que dans feire que sages, que je sache, (au) plus tost qu'il pot, je n'ai que feire; avec le pronom adjectif qui dans il n'i a celui (nul, un seul) qui, com cil qui; en outre qui vive dans riens (om) qui vive

  11. Étude de quelques Pucciniales liés aux plantes cultivées au Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Cette rouille n'a jamais été signalée auparavant sur Mentha viridis (hôte nouvel) dans le. Maroc. Au Maroc, Puccinia menthae Pers. (1801) a été rencontrée sur Mentha rotundifolia au lieu frais près d'Idni sur la route du Tizi n'Test (Haut Atlas), Satureja calamintha subsp. ascendes dans la pelouse au bord.

  12. Proceedings of radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Harris, F.

    1994-01-01

    This publication contain papers presented at a symposium on radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia, held in Canberra on 18 February 1994. The emphasis was on results of measurements in different exposure situations, however information on methodology and techniques was also included. The scope of the symposium expanded through participation by scientists from China, French Polynesia and New Zealand. A list of participants and their organizations is included at the end of the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Neutron Investigation of Magnon Spectrum in Haematite; Etude du Spectre de Magnons dans l'Hematite, au Moyen des Neutrons; Nejtronnoe issledovanie spektra magnona v gematite; Estudio, por Metodos Neutronicos, del Espectro de Magnones en la Hematita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrijevic, Z.; Rzany, H.; Todorovic, J.; Wanic, A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics Cracow (Poland)

    1965-04-15

    faites a Vinea, dans le reacteur RA, au moyen d'un spectrometre a cristal. Des neutrons monochromatiques ({lambda} = 1.314A) ont ete diffuses par un grand monocristal d'hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Les auteurs ont etudie la distribution angulaire des neutrons diffuses inelastiquement. Pour plusieurs angles de decalage {Delta}{theta} du cristal, ils ont mesure la largeur {Gamma} du faisceau de neutrons diffuses (appele cone de diffusion). Ils ont attribue ce cone a la surface de diffusion des magnons qui entoure le point du reseau reciproque (1,1,1). Pour plusieurs vitesses de magnons, ils ont mesure {Gamma}, en fonction de l'angle de decalage, et l*ont comparee aux points experimentaux. Ils ont constate que dans la direction [111], la vitesse avait une valeur egale a 25,5{+-}1,0 km/s. Ils ont decouvert une anisotropie structurelle de la relation de dispersion des magnons. Ils ont note que la vitesse etait plus elevee pour les directions de propagation paralleles a l'axe [111], ce qui concorde qualitativement avec les mesures anterieures (faites par Riste et d'autres) qui ont donne v = 38 km/s. Il n'a pas ete possible de mettre en evidence l'existence d'une discontinuite Eg dans la bande acoustique de l'energie des magnons. Selon les evaluations, Eg doit avoir une valeur inferieure a 1 meV. En utilisant le formalisme de Wallace, les auteurs ont calcule les relations de dispersion des magnons dans l'hematite. A cet effet, ils ont admis l'existence de deux integrales d'echange J{sub 1} et J{sub 2} qui ne disparaissent pas. J{sub 1} et J{sub 2} expriment le couplage a superechange d'energie entre les spins d'ions Fe voisins lies par l'intermediaire d'un ion oxygene. Les angles Fe-O-Fe des liaisons considerees sont respectivement de 132 et 126 Degree-Sign . Les resultats theoriques et les donnees experimentales actuelles concordent de facon satisfaisante lorsque SJ{sub 1} = SJ{sub 2} = 5,1 meV. Outre la branche acoustique des magnons, les calculs ont revele l

  14. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  15. Reasons for increasing radon concentrations in radon remediated houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, B.

    1997-01-01

    The study comprises 31 single-dwelling houses where remedial actions were carried out in the 1980s. In all of them the radon concentrations have increased more than 30% according to recent control measurements. Radon sources are building material as well as the soil. The remedial actions dealt with ventilation systems, leakage through the basement floor, air cushions, sub-slab suction or radon wells according to the original problems. Causes for the increase varied: In many houses with soil radon problems, the installation of a normal mechanical ventilation system is not a good remedial action. In some houses on a ground with high permeability and high radon content in the soil air, the radon concentration may increase by the lowering of the indoor air pressure. In other houses the increase was a measurement effect, where sites/rooms were confused. Living related causes were identified in a number of cases, where fan speeds were reduced for energy conservation/noise reduction purposes or different use of windows airing had occurred. Extension of the dwelling space without changing the ventilation system caused the increase in one house. 23 refs

  16. Thoron and associated risks in the handling of thorium compounds; Le thoron et les risques associes dans la manipulation des composes du thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J; Billard, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    1. Thorium compounds continually give off thoron and its daughters and their radioactivity can constitute a danger for operators who may inhale them. 2. By analogy with radon the maximum admissible content in air of thoron and its daughters has been set at 10{sup -7} {mu}c/cm{sup 3}. However the differences in behaviour between radon and its active deposit on the one hand, and thoron and its daughters on the other, appear great enough to justify more thorough investigation. In fact it seemed probable that, contrary to what takes place with radon, the thoron + thorium A content at a given point may differ appreciable from the thorium B + thorium C + thorium C' + thorium C'' content at the same point, because of the considerable differences in half-life which allow a greater or lesser distribution. 3. To determine the relative concentrations it was necessary to develop a method for estimating thoron in equilibrium with thorium A, the measurement of thorium B and its daughters being carried out in the conventional way by counting the activity collected on a filter. 4. Another object of this study was to estimate the danger presented by thoron in equilibrium with thorium A in the immediate vicinity of thorium sources, in a plant extracting thorium from urano-thorianite. (author) [French] 1. Le thoron et ses descendants se degagent constamment des composes du thorium et leur radioactivite peut presenter un danger pour les personnes qui sont amenees a les respirer. 2. Par analogie avec le radon, la teneur maximum admissible dans l'air de thoron et de ses descendants a ete fixee a 10{sup -7} {mu}c/cm{sup 3}. Mais, les differences de comportement du radon et de son depot actif d'une part, du thoron et de ses descendants d'autre part, ont paru suffisantes pour justifier une etude plus complete. Il semblait en effet probable, contrairement a ce qui se produit pour le radon, qu'en un meme point, la teneur en thoron + thorium A puisse differer notablement de la teneur en

  17. Thoron and associated risks in the handling of thorium compounds; Le thoron et les risques associes dans la manipulation des composes du thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J.; Billard, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    1. Thorium compounds continually give off thoron and its daughters and their radioactivity can constitute a danger for operators who may inhale them. 2. By analogy with radon the maximum admissible content in air of thoron and its daughters has been set at 10{sup -7} {mu}c/cm{sup 3}. However the differences in behaviour between radon and its active deposit on the one hand, and thoron and its daughters on the other, appear great enough to justify more thorough investigation. In fact it seemed probable that, contrary to what takes place with radon, the thoron + thorium A content at a given point may differ appreciable from the thorium B + thorium C + thorium C' + thorium C'' content at the same point, because of the considerable differences in half-life which allow a greater or lesser distribution. 3. To determine the relative concentrations it was necessary to develop a method for estimating thoron in equilibrium with thorium A, the measurement of thorium B and its daughters being carried out in the conventional way by counting the activity collected on a filter. 4. Another object of this study was to estimate the danger presented by thoron in equilibrium with thorium A in the immediate vicinity of thorium sources, in a plant extracting thorium from urano-thorianite. (author) [French] 1. Le thoron et ses descendants se degagent constamment des composes du thorium et leur radioactivite peut presenter un danger pour les personnes qui sont amenees a les respirer. 2. Par analogie avec le radon, la teneur maximum admissible dans l'air de thoron et de ses descendants a ete fixee a 10{sup -7} {mu}c/cm{sup 3}. Mais, les differences de comportement du radon et de son depot actif d'une part, du thoron et de ses descendants d'autre part, ont paru suffisantes pour justifier une etude plus complete. Il semblait en effet probable, contrairement a ce qui se produit pour le radon, qu'en un meme point, la teneur en thoron + thorium A puisse

  18. The determination by irradiation with a pulsed neutron generator and delayed neutron counting of the amount of fissile material present in a sample; Determination de la quantite de matiere fissile presente dans un echantillon par irradiation au moyen d'une source pulsee de neutrons et comptage des neutrons retardes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliard, L; Janot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the amount of fissile material present in a sample. The method used consisted in irradiating the sample by means of a pulsed neutron generator and delayed neutron counting. Results show the validity of this method provided some experimental precautions are taken. Checking on the residual proportion of fissile material in leached hulls seems possible. (authors) [French] Ce rapport rend compte d'une etude preliminaire effectuee en vue de determiner la quantite de matiere fissile presente dans un echantillon. La methode utilisee consiste a irradier l'echantillon considere au moyen d'une source puisee de neutrons et a compter les neutrons retardes produits. Les resultats obtenus permettent de conclure a la validite de la methode moyennant certaines precautions. Un controle de la teneur residuelle en matiere fissile des gaines apres traitement semble possible. (auteurs)

  19. Identification des freins et des leviers dans la coopération médecin généraliste-pharmacien d'officine, au sein d'un programme d'ETP sur l'ostéoporose (Projet SIOUX)

    OpenAIRE

    Mettavant , Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; L’ostéoporose post-ménopausique est un enjeu important de santé publique. A l’heure actuelle, nousdisposons de moyens thérapeutiques efficaces permettant d’envisager une meilleure prise en charge,mais l’adhésion du patient à son traitement conditionne le succès thérapeutique. Les patientes peuventintégrer un programme d’éducation thérapeutique et prolonger leur suivi dans le cadre du projetSIOUX (Suivi Intégré de l’Ostéoporose par les URPS-X) au CHR de Metz-Thi...

  20. Mizrahi Jean-David, Genèse de l’État mandataire. Service des renseignements et bandes armées en Syrie et au Liban dans les années 1920, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2003, 462 p. , 12 cartes, 15 tableaux et 11 photographies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Méouchy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est un ouvrage important à plus d’un titre que nous livre ici Jean-David Mizrahi dont le travail minutieux enrichit notre savoir sur la période mandataire aux plans documentaire, historique et méthodologique. En premier lieu, ce travail témoigne du chemin parcouru depuis bientôt vingt ans par l’historiographie française sur le Mandat français en Syrie et au Liban, dont on sait qu’elle fut longtemps indigente dans un champ dominé par nos collègues anglo-saxons. Le précieux apport documentai...

  1. Adaptation, mise à l'épreuve et évaluation d'interventions complexes en santé publique : leçons tirées du Nurse-Family Partnership dans le secteur de la santé publique au Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Jack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Le Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP est un programme de visites à domicile destiné aux nouvelles jeunes mères défavorisées sur le plan socioéconomique. Les données issues de trois essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR américains ont solidement démontré l'efficacité des interventions quant à l'amélioration de l'issue de la grossesse, de la santé et du développement des enfants ainsi que de l'autonomie économique des mères. Cependant, l'efficacité du NFP dans le contexte canadien des services de santé et des services sociaux, qui diffère de celui des États-Unis, reste à déterminer. Cet article vise à décrire le processus complexe suivi pour adapter la recherche sur le NFP et mettre ainsi en œuvre ce programme au Canada. Méthodologie : L'évaluation menée au Canada se divise en trois étapes : 1 adaptation de l'intervention, 2 mise à l'épreuve de l'intervention dans des études de faisabilité et d'acceptabilité à petite échelle et 3 réalisation d'un ECR et d'une évaluation du processus dans le cadre de l'étude intitulée British Columbia Healthy Connections Project (BCHCP. Cette évaluation à grande échelle permettra d'enrichir la base de données probantes du NFP par la tenue d'une étude supplémentaire sur les mécanismes biologiques susceptibles de témoigner de la relation entre l'intervention et les effets sur le comportement des enfants. Résultats : L'adaptation de la documentation du NFP pour les visites à domicile est un processus continu. Un projet pilote a montré la faisabilité du recrutement des femmes admissibles au NFP. Il a aussi révélé qu'il était préférable au Canada que le NFP soit mis en œuvre par les organismes de santé publique et que les infirmières et infirmiers en santé publique (ISP s'occupent des interventions. Enfin, il a montré que ce programme intensif de visites à domicile a bénéficié d'une réception positive de la part des clientes, des membres de

  2. Designing for Learning Engagement in Remote Communities: Narratives from North of Sixty / Concevoir pour favoriser la participation active à l’apprentissage dans les communautés éloignées : récits d’Au nord du soixantième parallèle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Doering

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple challenges to designing learning experiences for schools in remote communities, including technology and infrastructure limitations, high teacher and administrator turnover, and conflicting interests between local culture and school curricula. In this paper, we offer a brief history of educational initiatives in remote Arctic communities, focusing on: 1 the importance of traditional knowledge, 2 the role of Indigenous culture in school learning materials and activities, and 3 how and why technology might be used to enhance and preserve traditional knowledge, language, and culture. We share implementation examples of one design model, adventure learning, that has successfully engaged learners worldwide in remote and urban communities alike. We conclude by presenting design principles for engaging learners in remote communities through a focus on reflective presence, interaction, educator support, and simplicity of design. These principles are illustrated with a narrative centered on the design of a new online learning environment titled North of Sixty°. Concevoir des expériences d’apprentissage pour les écoles de communautés éloignées comporte de multiples défis, relatifs notamment aux limites liées à la technologie et aux infrastructures, au haut taux de roulement des enseignants et administrateurs et aux intérêts conflictuels entre la culture locale et le programme scolaire. Dans cet article, nous offrons un bref historique des initiatives éducatives dans les communautés arctiques éloignées, en mettant l’accent sur : 1 l’importance du savoir traditionnel, 2 le rôle de la culture autochtone dans le matériel et les activités d’apprentissage scolaire, et 3 les raisons et les façons d’utiliser la technologie pour renforcer et préserver les connaissances, la langue et la culture traditionnelles. Nous partageons des exemples de mise en œuvre d’un modèle de conception, l’apprentissage par l

  3. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  4. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  5. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  6. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author)

  7. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author).

  8. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  9. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  10. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  11. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m 3 corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m 3 . It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m 3 /h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m 3 of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  12. Study of the consequences of the rupture of a pressure tube in the tank of a gas-cooled, heavy-water moderated reactor; Etude des consequences de la rupture d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareux, F; Roche, R; Vrillon, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Bursting of a pressure tube in the tank of a heavy water moderated-gas cooled reactor is an accident which has been studied experimentally about EL-4. A first test (scale 1) having shown that the burst of a tube does not cause the rupture of adjacent tubes, tests on the tank resistance have been undertaken with a very reduced scale model (1 to 10). It has been found that the tank can endure many bursts of tube without any important deformation. Transient pressure in the tank is an oscillatory weakened wave, the maximum of which (pressure peak) has been the object of a particular experimental study. It appears that the most important parameters which affect the pressure peak are; the pressure of the gas included in the bursting pressure tube, the volume of this gas, the mass of air included in the tank and the nature of the gas. A general method to calculate the pressure peak value in reactor tanks has been elaborated by direct application of experimental data. (authors) [French] L'eclatement d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi par un gaz sous pression est un accident qui a ete etudie experimentalement a propos d'EL-4. Un premier essai a l'echelle 1 ayant montre que l'eclatement d'un tube ne provoque pas celui des tubes voisins, des essais relatifs a la tenue de la cuve ont ete effectues sur maquettes a echelle tres reduite (l/lO). Il a ete trouve que la cuve peut supporter plusieurs eclatements de tubes sans deformations notables. La pression transitoire dans la cuve a une allure oscillatoire amortie dont le maximum (pression de pic) a fait l'objet d'une etude experimentale detaillee. Il apparait que les parametres essentiels influant sur cette pression sont: la pression du gaz contenu dans le tube de force, le volume du gaz qui participe a l'eclatement, la flexibilite de la cuve, la masse d'air empoisonnee dans la cuve, la nature du gaz explosant. Une methode generale d'estimation des pics de pression dans

  13. Automation on computer of the partial area method in the analysis of resonances induced by 'S' neutrons 2. with an interference term and extension of the method to the treatment of multi resonances (1963); Automatisation sur ordinateur de la methode des aires partielles dans l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons ''S''. 2, avec terme d'interference et extension de la methode au traitement des multiresonances (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G; Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report deals with the numerical analysis on an I.B.M. 7090 computer of transmission resonances induced by 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments. The analysis method used is the partial area one. In this second part the interference term is taken into account. Modifications have been made in the programs and subroutines described in the first part, to determine the resonant transmissions from experimental raw data, and the relating partial areas. Also programs and subroutines are thoroughly described, which estimate the resonance parameters. The field of the partial area method has been extended to cover the case where several resonances have to be treated simultaneously, provided they do not interfere. (authors) [French] Le pretent rapport a pour objet l'analyse numerique sur ordinateur I.B.M. 7090 des resonances dues aux neutrons ''s'' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, la methode d'analyse utilisee etant la methode dea aires partielles. Dans cette deuxieme partie il a ete tenu compte du terme d'interference. On y trouvera une description des amenagements apportes aux programmes et sous-programmes decrits dans la premiere partie pour determiner les transmissions interfero-resonnantes a partir des donnees experimentales brutes et les aires partielles afferentes. Sont egalement decrits les programmes et sous-programmes necessaires au calcul des parametres caracteristiques des resonances. Le domaine d'application de la methode a ete etendu au traitement simultane de plusieurs resonances groupees n'interferant pas entre elles. (auteurs)

  14. Radon measurement studies in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevost'yanov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, one has to admit that despite the important role and certain achievements in providing the radiation control in Kazakhstan, radon measurements still present some problems related to clear definition of physical quantities applied, correct use of methods, and application of adequate measuring devices to meet requirements of regulatory documents currently in effect, such as NRB-99. The paper provides some data on radon measurements, describes the problem status in Kazakhstan and proposes ways to solve it. (author)

  15. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzbey, S.; Celebi, N.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m 3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m 3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m 3 , in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m 3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m 3 .

  16. Quelle place au travail des agriculteurs dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable ? How does the work of the farmers fits in the making of a sustainable agriculture? Que lugar tiene el trabajo de los agricultores en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Béguin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé le contexte de mutation que connaît actuellement le secteur agricole, nous nous interrogeons sur la place du travail dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable. Dans cette perspective, nous soulignons trois types d’enjeux. Le premier est relatif à l’objectivation des liens travail-santé. En effet, les conditions de travail se dégradent dans le secteur et celui-ci génère de l’exclusion. Et il est loin d’être attractif. Le second renvoie au lien entre conception et travail. L’agriculture actuelle n’est pas soutenable. Et les pratiques productives des agriculteurs sont en pleine mutation. Mais encore faut-il que ces techniques soient actionnables dans le travail. Nous désignons donc trois voies à la prise en compte du travail dans la conception. Le troisième enjeu est relatif au vivre ensemble. Le développement durable pose en effet très profondément la question d’un futur à faire advenir collectivement. Nous considérons alors cette dimension politique comme un « projet », en posant la question de la prise en compte des projets des agriculteurs dans la définition des visées du développement durable.This paper is focused on work in the making of a sustainable agriculture. We emphasize three types of issue. The first one is related to the objectification of occupational health. Agriculture is a tough sector, which produces exclusion and which is far from attractive. The second is related to design. Farming today is not sustainable, and technical systems need to be designed. But the changes need to be actionable at work. So we present three ways needed in order to think out the workers’ activity during the design process. The third issue is related to Policy: sustainable development is also a future to bring together. We suggest that this collective dimension could be grasped as a « project », which takes into consideration the projects of farmers in order to define the aims of

  17. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  18. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  19. La communication de recrutement dans le milieu hospitalier

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Le développement de la communication institutionnelle et du marketing au sein des institutions hospitalières est très influencé par les changements qui ont lieu dans le milieu sanitaire. La communication de recrutement est l’une des activités les plus stratégiques dans ce cadre, non seulement parce qu’elle répond à des objectifs organisationnels très précis, mais aussi parce qu’elle contribue au développement du champ de la communication institutionnelle dans les hôpitaux. Mais, pour y réussi...

  20. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.; Hadler, J.C.N.; Iunes, P.J.; Navia, L.M.S.; Neman, R.S.; Paulo, S.R.; Rodrigues, V.C.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, C.A.S.; Zuniga, A.

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied

  1. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  2. La pisciculture permet de lutter contre les carences alimentaires au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 avr. 2014 ... Dans la province de Prey Veng, au Cambodge, les agriculteurs jouent un rôle fondamental dans l'essai d'un nouveau système d'exploitation agricole conçu pour contrer ... Il vise tout particulièrement les personnes vulnérables, à savoir les enfants de moins de cinq ans et les femmes en âge de procréer.

  3. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  4. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  5. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  6. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  7. Radon gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madnick, P.A.; Sherwood, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with the environment connecting chamber. The air movement means for moving ambient air through the environment connecting chamber; electronic means for detecting radiation within the air which is passing through the environment connecting chamber. The electronic means also including radiation counting means. The electronic means producing an output based on the type and quantity of radiation in the environment connecting chamber; and display electronics for receiving the output and displaying accordingly a display representative of the amount and type of radiation located within the environment connecting chamber and hence within the ambient air

  8. Radon integral measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Radon Integral Measurement System (SMIR) is a device designed specially to detect, to count and to store the data of the acquisition of alpha particles emitted by Radon-222 coming from the underground. The system includes a detection chamber, a radiation detector, a digital system with bateries backup and an auxiliary photovoltaic cell. A personal computer fixes the mode in which the system works, transmitting the commands to the system by the serial port. The heart of the system is a microprocesor working with interrupts by hardware. Every external device to the microprocessor sends his own interrupt request and the microprocessor handles the interrupts with a defined priority. The system uses a real time clock, compatible with the microprocessor, to take care of the real timing and date of the acquisition. A non volatile RAM is used to store data of two bytes every 15 minutes along 41 days as a maximum. After the setting up to the system by the computer, it can operate in stand alone way for up 41 days in the working place without the lose of any data. If the memory is full the next data will be written in the first locations of the memory. The memory is divided in pages corresponding every one of this to a different day of the acquisition. The counting time for every acquisition can be programmed by the user from 15 minutes to 65535 minutes but it is recommended to use a small time not to reach the limit of 65535 counts in every acquisition period. We can take information of the system without affecting the acquisition process in the field by using a lap top computer, then the information can be stored in a file. There is a program in the computer that can show the information in a table of values or in a bar graph. (Author)

  9. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  10. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  11. La cardiomyopathie dilatee au centre hospitalier Universitaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Afin d'améliorer la prise en charge, d'éviter l'évolution rapide vers une insuffisance cardiaque réfractaire au traitement, nous avons entrepris cette étude en milieu hospitalier. Méthode : il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive dans le service de cardiologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tokoin de Lomé.

  12. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  13. Some basic facts about radioactive radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, J.S.; Tanner, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents some basic facts about 222 Rn. These facts include: half-life; diffusion patterns; how radon enters a house; health risks; and means of definition and estimation of radon hazard potential

  14. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  15. Measured radon inside housings the Republic Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Arnaud, M.; Lopez, F.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    They have been measured the radon concentration in houses in different city's in Argentina Republic. For they were used it as method mensuration detectors appearances nuclear detecting electrets and detectors based on the adsorption radon in activated carbon

  16. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Fenton, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  17. Application of underwater radon measurements in geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varhegyi, A.; Baranyi, I.; Gerzson, I. (Mecsek Ore Mining Enterprise, Pecs (Hungary)); Somogyi, G.; Hakl, J.; Hunyadi, I. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1988-01-01

    Based on the observed phenomenon of geogas migration in microbubble form from deeper regions, the authors have developed a new model for the vertical transport of radon released from deeper sources. The physical properties of the rock relating to the upflow of microbubbles below the groundwater level are considered and the radon transport parameter of rocks is introduced. The vertical distribution of radon concentration in the case of a multi-layered geological model is given and the penetration depth of underwater radon measurements is examined. Aspects of underwater radon detection by the nuclear track detector technique are analyzed. The radon transport model gives a new theoretical basis for several applications of radon measurements in geology. The advantages of underwater radon detection have already been proved in uranium exploration. Further geological applications are proposed in earthquake prediction, in volcanology, in the survey of active faults and thermal waters. (author).

  18. Renforcer les capacités de recherche sur les politiques au Myanmar ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En 2017, le CRDI et Affaires mondiales Canada ont lancé une nouvelle initiative, Le savoir au service de la démocratie au Myanmar (K4DM), afin de soutenir la démocratisation dans ce pays. Cette initiative vise à encourager un dialogue constructif dans le cadre de la transition démocratique et à promouvoir une ...

  19. Jounin Nicolas, Chantier interdit au public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nuytens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le travail de Nicolas Jounin s’appuie sur des enquêtes de terrain réalisées dans la première moitié des années 2000, en France, dans le monde du bâtiment, sur des chantiers et autour de ceux-ci. Il paraît pour la première fois en 2008 et se présente comme un récit d’observations participantes (tandis que l’auteur aura usé d’autres techniques de recherche au cours de sa thèse de doctorat. Cette option de publier essentiellement une version dynamique du terrain, qui se retrouve dans six des hu...

  20. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  1. Radon concentration in a house of Calvados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleyter, L.; Riffault, B.; Mazenc, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados (Normandy region). Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home. (authors)

  2. Programmation religieuse au Moyen-Orient : analyse du contenu de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis dix ans, la télévision contribue beaucoup au façonnement des attitudes au Moyen-Orient. Dans un contexte de gouvernements autoritaires, d'instabilité politique, de guerre et d'interventions militaires étrangères récurrentes, la télévision a permis la diffusion d'opinions et de points de vue qui, autrement, auraient ...

  3. Soutien institutionnel au Centre for Population and Environmental ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Centre for Population and Environmental Development (CPED), établi au Nigeria, est un organisme indépendant à but non lucratif qui a été constitué officiellement en 1998. Il se consacre à la recherche-action sur la réduction de la pauvreté et le développement durable au Nigeria en général et dans la région du delta ...

  4. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  5. Study of the diffusion in the {alpha} brasses, using the evaporation or condensation of zinc - influence of the diffusion sense and of impurities (first and second thesis); Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {alpha} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc influence du sens de diffusion et de la presence d'impurete (premiere et deuxieme these)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-12-15

    The author develops a zero concentration extrapolation method for the exact determination of the diffusion coefficient. He applies it to the comparison of the inward and outward diffusion coefficient in {alpha} brasses. In a second part he shows the large influence of traces of some elements such as P, As, Sb, on the diffusion velocity in {alpha} brasses. (author) [French] L'auteur montre comment, au moyen d'une extrapolation a variation de concentration nulle, ces methodes permettent d'atteindre rigoureusement la valeur du coefficient de diffusion. Il les utilise pour comparer la valeur du coefficient de diffusion avec enrichissement en zinc a la valeur du coefficient de diffusion avec appauvrissement en zinc. Dans une seconde partie, il met en evidence la grande influence de traces d'elements tels que le phosphore, l'arsenic, l'antimoine sur la vitesse de diffusion dans les laitons {alpha}. (auteur)

  6. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  7. Être créatif avec les technologies : enseigner le français de spécialité au niveau Master dans les cours de langues étrangères à l’Université de Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teresa Damascelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd’hui le monde du travail et la situation complexe de la société exigent des connaissances spécialisées et des compétences hétérogènes surtout orientées vers le numérique pour pouvoir répondre, au mieux, aux attentes professionnelles. Il devient alors nécessaire de penser à une éducation plus dynamique, où la didactique, y compris celle des langues, soit conçue dans des termes différents. Grâce à la créativité, il est possible d’adopter des stratégies innovatrices qui permettent, en même temps, de développer de nouvelles méthodes, de nouveaux outils, de nouveaux contenus et des environnements d’apprentissage efficaces. En effet, à travers ces stratégies, on peut impliquer les étudiants dans des activités qui leur permettent de développer eux-mêmes leur créativité comme moyen pour résoudre des problèmes ou pour développer des capacités analytiques. Mais alors comment peut-on être créatif dans l’enseignement du français de spécialité au niveau avancé ? Le but de cet article est de rendre compte d’une expérimentation qui a eu lieu au Centre des Langues de l’Université de Turin où un environnement numérique technologique à disposition des professeurs et des étudiants permet de programmer des parcours spécifiques et articulés pour enseigner et apprendre les langues étrangères. Par l’intégration d’applications numériques, les activités didactiques peuvent être menées d’une manière innovante par les étudiants à travers des travaux individuels de recherche grâce à Internet et à l’intégration de la linguistique de corpus avec la traduction assistée par ordinateur. Les étudiants ont collecté un corpus de textes extraits de sites institutionnels et à travers un logiciel de traitement des textes tels que SketchEngine (liste de mots, concordancier et un logiciel professionnel tel que Trados 2011 (mémoire de traduction et base de données terminologique ont

  8. Certain problems about radon. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huishan

    2005-01-01

    Discussion has been made on certain pointed out problems which presently influence the work and development of radon survey, and certain specific problems have been put forward which should be paid much attention and taken measures. Among the problems, some come from cognition, i.e. two kinds of balance and examination about radon, chief culprit of radon's daughter, multiply control and migration, the significance of radon in the water and soil, important standards for designing and evaluating the sites of construction projects, thoughts on the mechanism of the harm of radon and its daughters, diseases causing of both high and low radon, difficulty of emanation of indoor radon, normal low radon from natural marble; and others must be resolved specifically, i.e. establishment of national radon standards as quickly as possible, improvement of on-the-spot examination technique, national-wide radon survey with multiple disciplines and technology, the research on the mechanism of radon's harm and the establishment national radon study center. (authors)

  9. The risks from radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A report has been proposed by a Working group of the Institute of Radiation Protection on the risks from radon in homes. The report includes a historical perspective, properties and behavior of radon and its daughters, measurement of radon exposure in UK homes, remedial action, quantification of the risk and lifetime risks from other causes. (UK)

  10. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport

  11. Control of radon in Finnish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m 3 . Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m 3 . Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)

  12. The radon: evaluation and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Masse, R.; Aurengo, A.; Erich Wichmann, H.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Robe, M.Ch.; Baubron, J.C.; Bonijoly, D.; Collignan, B.; Berrier, H.; Jaouen, J.; Caamano, D.; Guiot, F.; Grall, B.; Frutos Vasquez, B.; Olaya Adan, M.; Garcia Cadierno, J.P.; Martin Matarranz, J.L.; Serrano Renedo, J.; Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez, J.A.; Mjones, L.; Pirard, P.; Godet, J.L.; Rougy, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  13. Le Téméraire des Allemands : la perception de Charles le Téméraire dans l’espace allemand au XVe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Dubray, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Nous chercherons dans ce travail à étudier la perception de Charles le Téméraire dans l’Empire à la fin du XV e siècle. Notre enquête se limitera aux régions de langue allemande. Pour ce faire, nous emploierons des sources diplomatiques, ainsi que des sources littéraires, tels que les poèmes et les lieder qui circulèrent du vivant du duc. Notre source principale consistera cependant en un corpus de chroniques réalisées entre la mort de Charles en 1477 et les premières années du XVI e siècle e...

  14. Communicating radon risk effectively: Radon testing in Maryland. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, V.K.; Rink, H.H.

    1988-10-01

    Two sets of materials and corresponding delivery strategies for communicating radon risk were evaluated, compared with a 'no-special-treatment' strategy in a comparison community. One community received radio public-service announcements and utility bill inserts. The second received these plus posters, local government sponsorship of a radon awareness week, and local slide presentations. The most-intensive efforts (multiple channels, multiple hits) were more effective than the less intensive effort, which had little impact compared with no special treatment. From a marketing perspective, the effort was very successful, increasing the share of homeowners who tested for radon from 5% to 15%. This may not be viewed as sufficiently effective from a public-health perspective, however

  15. Radon observation for earthquake prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Systematic observation of groundwater radon for the purpose of earthquake prediction began in Japan in late 1973. Continuous observations are conducted at fixed stations using deep wells and springs. During the observation period, significant precursory changes including the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai (M7.0) earthquake as well as numerous coseismic changes were observed. At the time of the 1995 Kobe (M7.2) earthquake, significant changes in chemical components, including radon dissolved in groundwater, were observed near the epicentral region. Precursory changes are presumably caused by permeability changes due to micro-fracturing in basement rock or migration of water from different sources during the preparation stage of earthquakes. Coseismic changes may be caused by seismic shaking and by changes in regional stress. Significant drops of radon concentration in groundwater have been observed after earthquakes at the KSM site. The occurrence of such drops appears to be time-dependent, and possibly reflects changes in the regional stress state of the observation area. The absence of radon drops seems to be correlated with periods of reduced regional seismic activity. Experience accumulated over the two past decades allows us to reach some conclusions: 1) changes in groundwater radon do occur prior to large earthquakes; 2) some sites are particularly sensitive to earthquake occurrence; and 3) the sensitivity changes over time. (author)

  16. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  17. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  18. Radon studies in selected workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radon progeny levels were measured in coal mines, a hard rock mine and two underground hydro power stations, to indicate if there is a health problem associated with exposure to radon and radon progeny in these workplaces. The average alpha concentrations ranged from 37 to 276 Bq m -3 , with the highest levels being found in a mine with no ventillation that was being decommissioned. Average dosages were calculated to be 0.1 - 0.7 mSv y -1 . Radon progeny levels in coal mines measured in the return air circuit are indicative of levels to which a worker at the face would be exposed. They were well below international guidelines for intervention in New Zealand mines, as were the slightly higher levels in two underground hydro power stations. These results confirm that radon levels in New Zealand are low. Even in the extreme situation represented by the Sullivan mine with no ventillation the levels do not warrant concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  19. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  20. Radon in Danish dwellings. Mapping of stall, county and municipality values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Damkjaer, A.; Ulbak, K.; Gravesen, P.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of radon in Danish dwellings has been carried out. The concentration of radon-222 has been measured in 3019 single-family houses and 101 multi-family houses (apartment complexes) with the so-called alpha-track technique (CR-39). On this basis, a map has been established. This map shows the percentage of single-family houses in each of the 275 municipalities with levels above 200 Bq/m 3 (i.e.) the action level recommended by the Danish building authorities for simple radon remedi-action). For Denmark as a whole, 4.6 % of the single-family houses are above 200 Bq/m 3 . That corresponds to 65 000 houses. In certain parts of the country (e.g. northern Jutland) less than 1 % are above 200 Bq/m 3 . In other places (e.g. certain parts of Funen and Bornholm) the value is above 10 %. In the survey, 15 houses had levels above 400 Bq/m 3 . The relationship between radon and various factors has been investigated with regression analysis. The three most important factors are type of basement, province, and soil type. The analysis confirms that the soil below the houses is the most important source of radon in Danish single-family houses. The study also provides a more detailed picture of the relation between geology and indoor radon. For example, it is shown that clayey till generates different indoor radon levels in the different parts of the country. The study does not indicate that a substantial part of newer Danish houses have an airtight house-soil interface. The report includes a summary in English. (au)

  1. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  2. Radon and its importance for animal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, T.M.; Tombarkiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance studies on radon concentration were carried out for various species of animal in animal housing in the Cracow region. It was found that the level of radon inside the livestock houses depended on the type of housing and animal species. In a cow shed the concentration of radon was higher by 25% than in the atmosphere, whereas in a piggery the radon level exceeded twice that in the ambient air. However, in a poultry house the radon concentration was over 20% lower then outside. (author). 9 refs

  3. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  4. Radon chamber for soil gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.

    1987-01-01

    Swedish Geological Co (SGAB) has designed and constructed a chamber for the calibration of detectors and instruments intended for the measurement of radon-222 in soil gas. In the chamber radon detectors may be exposed in a model environment which simulates ground conditions with respect to radon concentration, temperature and humidity. Also included in the research project is the development of methods for calibration procedures, together with test measurements. In general, these measurements indicate that the radon detectors tested are sufficiently accurate and reliable for radon measurements in Swedish soils if they are calibrated in an environment which simulates ground conditions. (orig./HP)

  5. Ethanol as radon storage: applications for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, I.; Philipsborn, H. von

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol as Radon Storage: Applications for Measurement Ethanol has a solubility for radon of 6 Bq/l per kBq/m 3 air, 24 times higher than water. On filtration of ethanol, radon decay products are completely adsorbed on glass fiber filters, as previously reported for water. Hence: 1. A new simple method for measuring radon in soil air, without expensive equipment. 2. The production of mailable radon calibration sources ('radonol') with 50-100 kBq/l in PET-bottles with 3.8 days half-life, using uraniferous rocks as primary source. (orig.) [de

  6. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yong-jun; Wang, Li-heng; Ding, De-xin; Zhao, Ya-li; Fan, Nan-bin

    2014-01-01

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  7. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  8. Contribution to the study of the {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H spin spin coupling constant N. M. R. in three co-ordinated phosphorus compounds. Influence of the bond orientation and of the nature of the substituent around the phosphorus atom; Contribution a l'etude des constantes de couplage {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H en R.M.N. dans les composes organo-phosphores tricoordines. Influence des facteurs geometriques et de la nature des substituants au niveau du phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the configuration at the phosphorus atom and the influence of the substituents attached to the phosphorus atom on the J{sub PH} spin spin coupling constant, we have performed the NMR spectrum analysis of some three coordinated organo-phosphorus compounds. The studied coupling constants are {sup 3}J{sub PH} through P-O-C-H and P-C-C-H fragments and {sup 2}J{sub PH} through P-C-H fragment. The results clearly show that on the NMR time scale, in all the studied compounds (1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes, 3-phospha-cyclopentene and 4-phosphorinanone) there is no inversion of the bonds around phosphorous. This conclusion held also for secondary phosphines. For a given geometry of the bonds joining the P and H atoms, and a given disposition of the bonds around the phosphorus atom, there is only a little influence of the nature of the substituents on the J{sub PH} spin coupling constants. The geometrical dependence of the {sup 3}J{sub PH} cannot be explained by a 'Karplus law'. There is an influence of the bond disposition around phosphorus. In the case of the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H}, one can plot a curve {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) (0{<=} {alpha} {<=} 180), {alpha} denote the dihedral angle of the two plane defined the first one by the P, C and H atoms, and the second one by the P-C bond together with the three-fold axis of the bond around phosphorus assuming a regular pyramidal arrangement. The function {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) has two maxima, one for {alpha} = 0 degrees and the other for {alpha} = 180 degrees, and also a minimum for {alpha} = 110 degrees. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste en l'analyse par resonance magnetique nucleaire des constantes de couplage phosphore-proton dans des derives organo-phosphores tricoordines dans un double but: examen de la stabilite des liaisons au niveau du phosphore et etude de l'influence de la disposition des liaisons et de la nature de substituants au

  9. Radon programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of the Radon programme in the Czech republic includes both precautionary measures and interventions. The programme informally started in early eighties has been now incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree, etc.). Aim of precautionary measures is to avert construction of building above natural radiation guidance levels (200 Bq/m 3 for indoor radon concentration and 0.5 Sv/h for gamma dose rate) by protection of new buildings against soil radon ingress, by regulation of natural radioactivity in building materials and supplied water. Aim of interventions is to identify buildings affected by enhanced natural radioactivity and help owners to put into effect reasonable remedial measures. Two sets of intervention levels for indoor natural exposure were established: guidance intervention levels 400 Bq/m 3 (indoor radon), 1.0 Sv/h (indoor gamma dose rate) and limit values 4000 Bq/m 3 and 10 Sv/h. The radon programme is based both on governmental and private activities. The governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidy for radon mitigation, mitigation test measurements and public information on radon issue. The private activities include radon measurement (radon index of building site, indoor measurements, radon diagnosis) and remedial measures. More than 100 commercial companies were authorised by Radiation Protection Authority (SUJB) to provide these measurements

  10. Radon monitoring technique with electret collecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zhiheng; Zuo Fuqi; Xiao Detao; Zhao Xkiuliang

    1991-12-01

    The integrating radon monitoring technique with electret collecting is a method which collects the 218 Po + positive ions by electrostatic field produced by electret. It has greatly improved the sensitivity of radon measurement. The response factor of this method reaches to 4.7 cm -2 Bq -1 m 3 h -1 , 1000 times larger than that of common passive sampling method. The monitoring device and its principle are introduced. The measuring results of radon concentration and radon flux rate and quality assurance system by using this method in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, Human Environmental Monitoring Central Station and some uranium mines are also presented. The analytical results show that the radon concentration in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is affected by wind direction. When wind directs toward sea, the radon concentration is high. If the wind is to the contrary, it is low. The radon concentration ratio of both is about 2

  11. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  12. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1983-09-01

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  14. A calibration facility for radon fluxmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Qiu Shoukang; Zhou Jianliang; Liu Chunkui; Pan Jialin; Yang Mingli

    1998-01-01

    Calibration facilities for radon fluxmeter with three kinds of different emanation medium have been developed. The stability of radon flux is 5%, 9% (RSD) respectively. The uniformity of radon flux is 4.5%, 8.5% (RSD) respectively. These specifications fulfill the calibration requirement for radon fluxmeter. The determination of radon flux of facility takes full account of eliminating the main error source-attenuation effect (including leakage and back diffusion etc.): not only prevent attenuation and make a relevant correction. Therefore the accuracy of determination is assured. The calibration, intercomparison of radon flux meter and the quantitatively evaluation on the measurement method of radon flux are made to be possible by the successful establishment of this facility. (author)

  15. The Department of Energy's radon testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy recently completed an initial survey of indoor radon in its buildings in response to Public Law 100--551, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988. Other federal agencies have also conducted radon surveys. This paper presents an overview of the results from radon testing of several thousand buildings ranging from 100 m 2 to over 10,000 M 2 in size. In addition, we have examined results from groups of buildings, classified according to ventilation and usage characteristics. So far, there is no apparent difference among building classes. The paper also discusses our proposal for phased radon surveys. We suggest that first-phase results can be used to identify facilities with radon problems. In the second phase, we suggest measurements be made at a much higher sampling density at facilities with radon problems. The results of the second phase are expected to identify all buildings in need of mitigation

  16. Interaction of radon progeny with atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawska, Lidia

    1994-01-01

    The radiological health hazard due to the airborne radon progeny depends on three factors (i) radon concentration in the air, (ii) radon progeny concentration, and (iii) active particle size distribution. Conclusions as to the health hazard cannot be drawn without full understanding of the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny and atmospheric aerosols. The aim of this work was to study the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny, natural environmental aerosols and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The experiments were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of radon concentration (1.85 and 3.70 Bq m -3 ), relative humidity (35, 50, 75 and 95%) and ETS generation. The size distribution of radioactivity carrying aerosols was measured using a wire screen diffusion battery system and size distribution of all airborne aerosols using a differential mobility particle sizer. The paper presents and discusses the results of activity size distribution and radon progeny concentration measurements for different environmental conditions. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided

  18. The control of radon levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The article speaks about radon entry ways to houses, the technologies of controlling the level of radon in indoors and four possible ways to solve the problem of high concentration of radon gas in housing and protection from being gathered to a certain extent that is harmful to health. These methods are: removal of the radon source, modifying the radon source, ventilation and air filtration. The article also addresses the impact of reducing the consumption of heating energy in homes and buildings using thermal insulators in floors, walls, ceilings and doors and making double glazed windows that confine the air. It has been proven that there is a steady relationship between energy conservation measures in housing and the increase of radon concentration by two to three times. In a lot of buildings, where conservation measures have been taken, materials to conserve heat are used, which themselves launch radon and this may lead to increased levels of the gas in the housing.

  19. Investigation of radon level in Chongqing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chunzhen; Liu Jialie; Du Hengyan; Wang Ling; Li Yiwei

    2009-01-01

    Contents of radon in air in the urban district, building fields,diggings and hotel in Chongqing were investigated. Result shows that the mean concentration of radon is 10.8 Bq/m 3 in air in the urban district, and the mean concentration of radon is 1193 Bq/m 3 in soils on building fields. Radon level is obviously different in each of diggings, with the highest being in fluorite mine and the second in plumbum and zinc mine. The statistical mean value of radon concentration of 10 typles of diggings investigated is 65.2 Bq/m 3 , while the mean concentration of radon in fluorite mine is 369 Bq/m 3 , which is 35 times higher than in the urban area. The mean concentration of radon is 32.9 Bq/m 3 in eight hotels. (authors)

  20. Une façon plus sécuritaire de combattre le paludisme au Mexique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2010 ... Le pays y est arrivé sans recourir au DDT. ... 'importante flambée de paludisme qui est survenue dans l'État d'Oaxaca en 1998 a donné naissance à une nouvelle ... Améliorer la santé au Guatemala – Maria Carlota Monroy.