WorldWideScience

Sample records for au milieu larvaire

  1. SELECTION VARIETALE ET MILIEU Sélection pour l’adaptation au milieu et prise en compte des interactions génotype/milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brancourt-Hulmel Maryse

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available L’adaptation au milieu est un objectif de sélection recherché pour un grand nombre d’espèces végétales et elle fait le plus souvent appel à l’analyse du rendement. L’améliorateur peut rechercher des génotypes présentant une « adaptation spécifique », c’est-à-dire une adaptation à des milieux spécifiques, ou au contraire une « adaptation générale » à des conditions de milieux variés *1+. L’adaptation spécifique pourra être obtenue pour des stress particuliers, observés en l’occurrence dans des milieux particuliers : citons, par exemple, l’adaptation du maïs à des froids printaniers dans les régions françaises septentrionales, l’adaptation du blé tendre d’hiver à une alimentation azotée sub-optimale, la tolérance de l’orge à la mosaïque modérée, etc. L’adaptation générale, parfois appelée adaptabilité, est conférée par une adaptation simultanée à un ensemble de contraintes du milieu, telles que le froid, la sécheresse, le manque d’eau, le manque ou l’excès d’azote, les maladies, etc. C’est en quelque sorte une somme d’adaptations spécifiques. Mais le nombre de contraintes du milieu est tel qu’il est difficile de les étudier toutes. Il faudrait, en effet, des dispositifs factoriels très lourds à mettre en place car nécessitant l’étude d’un grand nombre de facteurs à la fois, avec toutes les combinaisons entre facteurs. Les conditions naturelles sont, de surcroît, difficiles à reproduire en enceintes contrôlées. Ainsi, l’adaptation générale s’observe le plus souvent en conditions naturelles dans des réseaux d’expérimentation regroupant un ensemble de milieux sur plusieurs années, les « réseaux multilocaux et pluriannuels ». La notion d’adaptation est à replacer dans le contexte des interactions génotype/milieu car des variations d’adaptation se traduisent par des interactions génotype/milieu. Lorsque plusieurs génotypes sont

  2. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  3. Essai de substitution de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Herlin, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Cette fiche biotechnique présente deux expérimentations visant à réduire voire substituer l'usage de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris. La première testant la bactérie Roseobacter gallaeciensis comme probiotique, associée ou non à des changements d'eau différents, n'a pas donné de résultats positifs malgré des résultats intéressants de croissance et de survie, obtenus sur des larves de mollusques au Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés de L'IFREMER de Brest...

  4. Pierre Chommeliz, faux-monnayeur du désastre, au milieu du XVe siècle

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    Pierre Prétou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Au milieu du XVe siècle, une lettre de rémission pardonne Pierre Chommeliz pour ses crimes de faux-monnayeur. La rhétorique royale, en s’appesantissant sur les malheurs subis par l’homme, ouvre une lecture désastreuse expliquant les contrefaçons de notre homme. Simultanément, l’archive livre un fonctionnement symptomatique des réseaux criminels de la fin du Moyen Âge, mais esquisse également les logiques de la répression royale. L’écriture du malheur de la vie du suppliant vient consolider la majesté monétaire du Valois démontrant ici que ce cas, s’il était propice à la répression féroce, l’était également à la grâce bienveillante. Parce qu’il était réputé détruire les hommes, au moins discursivement, le crime de faux-monnayage entrait dans les crimes supérieurs retenant toute l’attention du pouvoir royal.In the middle of the fifteenth century, a letter of pardon forgives Peter Chommeliz for his counterfeiting. Based on the misfortunes inflicted to the man, the letter opens a disastrous reading explaining the crime. Simultaneously, the archive delivers information about criminal networks in late middle ages. Thus, it also outlines the logic of royal repression: by interpreting the crime, the French chancery enhances the majesty of Valois in monetary cases.

  5. Effets négatifs de pH extrêmes sur le développement embryonnaire et larvaire du brochet Esox lucius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE LOUARN H.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les facteurs abiotiques conditionnant la survie au cours de la vie embryonnaire et larvaire des poissons, le pH semble jouer un rôle primordial. La motivation de ce travail provient d'observations sur les importantes variations de ses valeurs au printemps, l'existence de pH très acides en étangs forestiers et des mortalités importantes de brochetons au cours de la même période. L'expérimentation s'est déroulée en aquariums avec une gamme de valeurs allant de 4,5 à 10,5 unités pH. Des tests en bains, continus ou momentanés (1 heure, sont effectués. Deux stades sont étudiés : les oeufs fécondés suivis jusqu'après l'éclosion ; les alevins incubés à pH neutre suivis jusqu'à la résorption de la vésicule vitelline. Les paramètres suivants sont étudiés : survie, déroulement de l'embryogenèse, anomalies éventuelles, performances de nage. Le rythme cardiaque de l'embryon a été mesuré. Les résultats sont les suivants : - Les valeurs létales sont respectivement de 6 et 10 (alevins et 4,5 et 10,5 (embryons. - L'action sur les oeufs est moins forte, même si une mortalité importante (46,7 % et de faibles performances de nage pour un pH inférieur à 6 semblent hypothéquer la réussite du recrutement. La valeur de 10,5 provoque un développement déficient des quelques individus survivants. - Sur les alevins, même en bains d'une heure, la survie est faible : 42,6 % à pH 5, 29,3 % à pH 10. Le rythme cardiaque ne variait pas de façon notable entre les seuils de tolérance. Ces résultats permettent de récapituler pour une espèce largement distribuée les conditions de recrutement liées à l'acidité du milieu. Il faut noter que les hausses brutales du pH au printemps dans des plans d'eau sur substrat cristallin rendent aléatoires la réussite des empoissonnements en brochetons des premiers stades.

  6. Relégation au village. Sur la crise de reproduction du groupe ouvrier en milieu rural

    OpenAIRE

    Renahy, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Ce texte rend compte des principales conclusions tirées d’une enquête auprès d’un groupe ouvrier habitant un petit village de l’Est de la France, en focalisant l’attention sur les conséquences de la crise industrielle sur la jeunesse locale. Est tout d’abord mesuré le poids du contexte rural dans la structuration de la population ouvrière tout au long du XX° siècle (domination patronale paternaliste, intégration du petit artisanat à l’industrie, mais aussi construction de l’Etat social), et, ...

  7. Insécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain et rural au Sénégal : les mêmes causes créent-elles les mêmes effets ?

    OpenAIRE

    François Joseph Cabral

    2008-01-01

    L’objet de cet article est de vérifier si les facteurs d’insécurité alimentaire qui exercent une influence clé en milieu urbain ont un impact tout aussi significatif en milieu rural au Sénégal. A cette fin, un modèle logit binomial appliqué aux données de l’enquête ménage du Sénégal (Esam I) est utilisé afin d’identifier les déterminants qui influencent le plus la probabilité d’insécurité alimentaire dans ces zones. Les résultats de l’analyse montrent que tous les déterminants clés de l’inséc...

  8. Salinité et confort physiologique - Application pratique en élevage larvaire

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Mailliez, Jean-rene; Peignon, Jean-marie; Broutoi, Francis; Marteau, Anne-laure; Wabete, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    La crevette bleue calédonienne Litopenaeus stylirostris est au deuxième rang des produits exportés en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’industrie crevetticole calédonienne est basée sur 19 fermes de production mais également 4 écloseries, 2 provendiers et 2 usines de conditionnement. La production maximale a été atteinte en 2005 avec 2400 tonnes. La fourniture de juvéniles par les écloseries est le point crucial de la chaîne de production car cette espèce n’est pas présente dans le milieu naturel. Les ré...

  9. Brisebarre Anne-Marie et Kuczynski Liliane (dir., La Tabaski au Sénégal. Une fête musulmane en milieu urbain, Karthala, col. Hommes et sociétés, 2009, 468 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Moussaoui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La Tabaski est le nom donné par les musulmans de l’Afrique subsaharienne à l’aïd al-adḥâ, la fête du sacrifice. Cette fête commémore le sacrifice d’Abraham dans l’ensemble du monde musulman. Familière, cette fête n’a pas bénéficié de toute l’attention qu’elle mérite de la part des anthropologues. A. M. Brisebarre qui étudie le sacrifice, en général, depuis le milieu des années 1980 déjà, a fait du sacrifice Ibrahimien un de ses sujets de prédilection. Les enquêtes qu’elle a pu mener au Maroc,...

  10. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L.) (Palaemonidae) aux Antilles françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, F.; Fièvet, E.; BOUCHER P.

    1999-01-01

    De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de po...

  11. L'élevage larvaire de crevettes en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L'Oxytétracycline et l'association Triméthoprime - Sulfadiazine en tant qu'alternatives à l'emploi de l'Erythromycine en écloserie

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Cyrille

    2003-01-01

    L'aquaculture de la crevette Pénéide occupe une position majeure au sein des productions animales. La Nouvelle-Calédonie y participe activement grâce au développement de l'élevage de la crevette bleue du Pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris. En l’état actuel de nos connaissances, l’élevage larvaire de crevettes ne peut être mené sans l’utilisation d’antibiotique Les expériences menées au Laboratoire Aquacole Calédonien (LAC IFREMER Saint-Vincent) ont conduit à la mise au point de deux plans d’a...

  12. Harcèlement traditionnel et violence au moyen des outils électroniques de communication entre adolescents en milieu scolaire en Israël

    OpenAIRE

    Benbenishty, Rami; Nir, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Cet article présente les résultats d’une recherche menée auprès de 1103 élèves de 6 établissements d’enseignement secondaire (collèges et lycées). Son objectif est de vérifier l’ampleur de la violence au moyen des outils numériques de communication (téléphones portables et Internet) et l’existence d’un lien éventuel entre harcèlement « traditionnel » et violence en ligne. Il vérifie aussi l’impact de ce type de victimation sur l’estime de soi et la satisfaction de la vie chez les jeunes conce...

  13. La communauté d'apprentissage professionnelle comme soutien au développement professionnel des enseignants en milieu scolaire inclusif

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Martine; Labelle, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Cette communication s'appuie sur une recherche dont l'objectif consiste à comprendre en quoi le travail en communauté d'apprentissage professionnelle (CAP) constitue un outil de développement professionnel chez les enseignants en contexte d'inclusion. Ainsi, après avoir mis en évidence les nouveaux impératifs éducationnels et défini l'inclusion, on y présente la CAP comme moyen de développement professionnel ainsi que les résultats de la recherche menée en 2008-2009 au sein de huit écoles fra...

  14. REPORTAGE Editorial Photo spread: Brexit : et au milieu coule l’Angleterre in Libération (France) Photographs © Garry Clarkson with journalist Guillaume Gendron, Envoyé spécial à Leeds et à Follifoot — 17 May 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Garry; Gendron, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Libération (the one founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973) visit to North Yorkshire and Leeds concerning the Brexit European Referendum debate. Photographs © Garry Clarkson: Leeds Councillors, Dan Cohen and Neil Buckly, Slaughterhouse worker, Steve Hanson and environment around Follifoot village Yorkshire to show quintessential 'middle England' http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2016/05/17/brexit-et-au-milieu-coule-l-angleterre_1453266

  15. Evolution des caractéristiques physico-chimiques de deux zones de frayères à sédimentation contrastée et premiers résultats de survie embryo-larvaire de truite commune (Salmo trutta

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    MASSA F.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available L'impact chimique et physique de la sédimentation sur la survie d'oeufs de Salmonidés a été étudié dans la partie amont de deux ruisseaux d'un même bassin à production salmonicole contrastée : le Moulinet qui présente une faible population de truites et la Roche qui est un ruisseau très productif. Les matières en suspension et les sédiments déposés ont été collectés à un pas de temps de 8 ou 15 jours en 1996 et 1997 et les survies embryo-larvaires ont été estimées en parallèle, dans des incubateurs artificiels. Les taux de survie ont été déterminés à l'émergence en 1996 et de la fécondation à l'éclosion, puis de l'éclosion à l'émergence en 1997. Les paramètres chimiques de l'eau interstitielle (oxygène, pH, nitrates, nitrites et ammoniac ont été mesurés au pas de temps de la semaine pendant la période d'incubation 1997 sur des dispositifs enfouis dans le substrat du ruisseau et au moment de l'éclosion dans les incubateurs contenant les oeufs. Les premiers résultats montrent que les taux de survie embryo-larvaires sont nuls en 1996 et faibles en 1997 (0 à 11 %, moyenne : 3,3 % dans le ruisseau du Moulinet alors que parallèlement, la survie est de 20 % sur un incubateur en 1996 et varie de 0 à 23 % en 1997 (moyenne : 7,7 % dans le ruisseau de la Roche. De l'éclosion à l'émergence, les survies sont supérieures à 80 % dans les deux ruisseaux. La sédimentation est contrastée sur les deux sites, plus forte en masse dans le ruisseau de la Roche pendant la période d'incubation mais de granulométrie beaucoup plus grossière que dans le ruisseau du Moulinet (sableuse dominante contre argilolimoneuse. Les teneurs en oxygène dissous mesurées dans le substrat de la Roche restent élevées pendant toute la période d'incubation (teneur minimum de 5 mg/l et sont significativement supérieures à celles mesurées dans le ruisseau du Moulinet pendant la deuxième partie de l'incubation 1997. D'autre part

  16. Étude par détection de photons des processus électroniques au sein d'une jonction tunnel dans un milieu moléculaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronet, K.

    2005-03-01

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a STM (scanning tunneling microscope) permits to get insights into the electronic processes taking place in a single nanoscopic tunnel junction. We studied a Au(111)/Au junction under vacuum (UHV) and immersed in a molecular medium. The study under UHV reveals the influence of spatial variations of surface local density of states (LDOS) on the luminescence. The emission at the solid-liquid interface is characterized and the role played by the dielectric function is shown. Time correlations between the emitted single photons are then studied. Depending on the liquid immersing the junction, a photon bunching can occur. We link this bunching with structural changes of the junction induced by the presence of a diffusing molecule. If the HOMO LUMO gap of the molecule is small enough, resonant tunnelling paths exist and tunnelling-electron bunching occurs. Finally, the influence of a self-assembled monolayer on the substrate is investigated. Boundings between triphenylene derivatives and Au(111) are too weak, but with chemisorbed alcanethiols, molecular resolution is reached both on the STM image and on the photon map. We show that the contrast on photon map comes from the modulation of the LDOS spatial extension into the barrier due to the S Au bond. The elaboration of organic multilayers is considered as a route for observing the electroluminescence of a single molecule, isolated from the substrate by thiols and to study correlations of electronic origin. We have already optically characterised such a layer using C{60}. La luminescence induite par STM (microscopie à effet tunnel) est une source d'informations d'une grande richesse sur les processus électroniques au sein d'un objet nanoscopique individuel. Nous nous sommes intéressés à une jonction Au/Au(111) sous vide puis dans un milieu moléculaire. L'étude sous vide a permis de montrer l'influence des variations spatiales des densités d'états de la surface. L

  17. Ecologie des poissons tropicaux d'un cours d'eau temporaire (Baoulé, haut bassin du Sénégal au Mali) : adaptation au milieu et plasticité du régime alimentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Paugy, Didier

    1994-01-01

    La présente étude porte sur la structure trophique des communautés de poissons subsistant dans quelques mares résiduelles du Baoulé (haut bassin du Sénégal) au Mali. Il est d'abord montré que les espèces limnivores et phytophages possèdent un intestin significativement plus long que les espèces des autres catégories trophiques, notamment les carnivores et les omnivores. Ce sont ces dernières espèces qui, d'un strict point de vue alimentaire, devraient s'adapter le mieux puisque peu spécialisé...

  18. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L. (Palaemonidae aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMAN F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de post-larves était possible en 45 jours, avec un taux de survie finale de 14,3 % et un taux de métamorphose de 10,6 %. Ces résultats sont nettement inférieurs à ceux obtenus en routine avec l'espèce indonésienne Macrobrachium rosenbergii, mais attestent des possibilités d'élevage de M. carcinus aux Antilles françaises et ailleurs.

  19. Mise au point d'un procédé de carboxylation par électrosynthèse en milieu co2 sous pression et application en chimie fine

    OpenAIRE

    Chanfreau, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Nous proposons ici d'utiliser le co2 sous pression comme solvant et réactif pour réaliser la carboxylation électrochimique du chlorure de benzyle. Un co-solvant, le dimethylformamide (DMF), est nécessaire pour permettre la solubilisation du sel assurant la conductivité du milieu. Le comportement thermodynamique du mélange co2-DMF constituant lco2ilieu électrolytique a été modélisé en utilisant le modèle de Huron-Vidal. Le milieu a été caractérisé en utilisant une microélectrode pour détermin...

  20. Validation d'un modele de duree de developpement larvaire de la pyrale du mais, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn., Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, en France

    OpenAIRE

    GOT, Brigitte; Lacan, G.F.; Smits, Nathalie; Stephan, E.

    1991-01-01

    Cet article présente la validation d’un modèle de durée de développement larvaire de la pyrale du maïs sur plusieurs variétés de maïs et dans 4 sites géographiques en France : Avignon, Bordeaux, Colmar et Versailles. Ce modèle est composé d’un modèle de degrés-jours et de lois normales. Il a été estimé et testé sur LG11 en région parisienne. Les validations montrent que le modèle représente correctement le développement à moins d’une semaine près. Il est donc satisfaisant pour des objecti...

  1. Etude thermique d’un capteur Solaire à double passe avec milieu poreux

    OpenAIRE

    ANNAB, Choayb

    2014-01-01

    Une simulation numérique a été élaborée avec le logiciel FLUENT afin de comparer le comportement thermique de trois capteurs solaires à double passe. Deux entre eux contiennent un milieu poreux sous forme de sphère dans le second passage au dessous de l’absorbeur, un en gravier et l'autre en MCP. La comparaison consiste à savoir l’effet de milieu poreux sur la température de l’air à la sortie du capteur

  2. Siblings' Use of Milieu Teaching at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1996-01-01

    Three older siblings were taught to use two milieu teaching procedures, modeling and mand modeling, with young children who exhibited language delays. Older siblings applied the techniques while playing, and subjects learned to use the targeted utterances both as responses and spontaneously. Additionally, interactions became more positive.…

  3. Milieu Teaching. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Milieu teaching" is a practice that involves manipulating or arranging stimuli in a preschool child's natural environment to create a setting that encourages them to engage in a targeted behavior. For example, a teacher might place a desirable toy in a setting to encourage a student to request that toy (where requesting a toy is the desired…

  4. Using the Milieu: Treatment-Environment Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekais, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Describes trial use of milieu and activity-based therapy in two adult day centers to increase client involvement in physical and social environments of treatment settings. Reports results from empirical observations and recommends further investigation of this treatment modality in settings for the elderly. (Author/NRB)

  5. L'élevage larvaire des poissons marins : chaînes alimentaires et aliments composés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIRIN M.

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available L'approvisionnement quotidien en nourriture est, en règle générale, le principal facteur limitant de productions à grande échelle de jeunes poissons marins.La pêche de plancton dans la nature a été, et reste, le moyen d'expérimentation le plus immédiat, et le plus satisfaisant sur le plan qualitatif. Mais la récolte des quantités nécessaires, au moment voulu, devient très délicate dès que l'on dépasse l'échelle de l'aquarium. Le développement, ces dernières décennies, de techniques de production en masse d'animaux-proies a permis le lancement d'élevages à grande échelle. Parmi ces proies, le Branchiopode Artemia salina et le Rotifère Brachionus plicatilis dominent incontestablement ; tandis que l'élevage des Copépodes, part la plus intéressante du plancton naturel, reste encore mal maîtrisé. Cependant , l'élevage et l'emploi de proies vivantes, quelles qu'elles soient, imposent la réalisation d'installations coûteuses et l'emploi d'un abondant personnel qualifié. Il en est résulté récemment un important effort de recherche en direction de nourritures inertes, broyats , poudres et aliments composés, généralement abandonnés après les échecs enregistrés pendant les premières années du siècle. Quelques résultats encourageants ont été obtenus, mais ils restent limités et soulèvent de délicats problèmes d'hygiène des bacs d'élevage. L'emploi de proies vivantes , au moins pendant le premier mois des élevages , reste donc encore une obligation. Dans ce contexte, l'essentiel de l'effort actuel tend , d'une part à réduire leur durée d'emploi au minimum possible et, d'autre part, à rendre leur production plus rationnelle , en recherchant des méthodes qui évitent, pour leur alimentation , de faire appel à des algues planctoniques vivantes.

  6. Kies je middel met de milieu-effectenkaarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, F.H.C.; Kuik, van F.

    2006-01-01

    Met de nieuwe milieu-effectenkaarten zie je in één oogopslag of een middel wel of niet belastend is voor water, lucht of nuttige beestjes. De kleuren op de kaart geven aan hoe groot de milieu-effecten zijn. Inmiddels zijn voor ruim 30 verschillende gewassen milieu-effectenkaarten beschikbaar.

  7. Enzyme activity in the crowded milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Vöpel; Makhatadze, George I.

    2012-01-01

    The cytosol of a cell is a concentrated milieu of a variety of different molecules, including small molecules (salts and metabolites) and macromolecules such as nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and large macromolecular complexes. Macromolecular crowding in the cytosolic environment is proposed to influence various properties of proteins, including substrate binding affinity and enzymatic activity. Here we chose to use the synthetic crowding agent Ficoll, which is commonly used to mimi...

  8. Les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Explosions d'étoiles, comètes, durée du jour, taches solaires, dans tous ces domaines, des observations chinoises datant de plusieurs siècles sont encore utilisées aujourd'hui. Pendant plus de 4000 ans, les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu, organisés dans les grands observatoires impériaux, ont noté jour après jour, mois après mois, avec la plus grande précision tous les phénomènes célestes. Et ce sont des milliers de textes couvrant des périodes depuis au moins le Ve siècle avant l'ère moderne jusqu'à fin de la dernière dynastie des Qing en 1911, qui ont été conservés et dont une grande partie n'a pu encore être véritablement étudiée. Un véritable trésor, malheureusement très mal connu en Europe et, de façon incompréhensible, largement ignoré par l'histoire moderne des sciences.

  9. Milieu- en bouwvergunningsproblematiek N.Z.M. GRIT

    OpenAIRE

    LAVREYSEN, Marc

    2008-01-01

    milieu - en stedenbouwkundige problematiek van de laatste 10 jaar van NZM GRIT. Milieuvergunningsaanvragen (incl. weigeringen, beroepprocedure) Stedenbouwkundige vergunningen (incl. weigeringen, raad van state, planologisch attest)

  10. Un kyste hydatique osseux: une localisation rare au niveau de l’os iliaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamoucha, Yassine; Alaoui, Othmane; Doumbia, Aliou; Oukhoya, Mohammed; Abdellaoui, Hicham; Tazi, Mohammed; Chater, Lamyae; Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Afifi, Abderahman

    2016-01-01

    L'hydatidose est une affection parasitaire liée au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire d'un cestode, à savoir un tænia de très petite taille dénommé Echinococcus Granulosus. Cette anthropozoonose présente une diversité de formes anatomoradiologiques lié aux nombreux aspects topographiques et évolutifs des kystes. L'hydatidose osseuse est rare, elle ne représente que 0,9 à 2,5% de l'ensemble des localisations. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un enfant de 9 ans, qui a été admis chez nous pour une boiterie fébrile avec une masse au niveau de la fosse iliaque droite, révélant un kyste hydatique au dépend de l'os iliaque. Le bilan lésionnel avait objectivé un kyste hydatique de l'os iliaque avec extension aux parties molles adjacentes. Le traitement chirurgical conclu a un kyste surinfecté d'ou la réalisation d'une exérèse chirurgicale du kyste avec drainage. L'ostéopathie hydatique est infiltrante, diffuse, lente et progressive, ce qui rend le diagnostic tardif et qui compromet la qualité du traitement. PMID:27800081

  11. Larval density and the Charnov–Bull model of adaptive environmental sex determination in a copepod

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, Maarten J.; Robinson, H. Eve; Stebbins, Gabe; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Anholt, Bradley R

    2011-01-01

    Charnov et Bull avancent que la variation de la taille adulte induite par le milieu en combinaison avec les différences sexuelles de fitness peut sélectionner l'évolution de la détermination sexuelle adaptative due au milieu (ESD). Dans notre étude, nous déterminons si la densité larvaire affecte la détermination sexuelle chez le copépode Tigriopus californicus (Baker, 1912) comme le prédisent Charnov et Bull. Les individus élevés à densités faibles se développent plus rapidement et sont sign...

  12. Conception d'outils d'aide intégrés et évolutifs au processus d'acquisition, de traitement et de diffusion de connaissances et décisions médicales en milieu hospitalier : Santé 2000a : poster

    OpenAIRE

    Boyom, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ce papier développe un Système Expert d'Aide à la décision médicale dans les services de santé. De nombreux systèmes certes, existent en aide au diagnostic médical dans les pays en voie de développement couvrant plusieurs domaines de la santé. Il s'agit de CONSULT-EAO Aegerter, TROPICAID Auvert, Boyom Sop, SASEP Briggs, Byass, MEDICAL TUTOR Eamsiri, Flikeid, ESTROPID Forster, MEDIT-MEDIC Goldberger, PECM Kastner, King, ROPES Noon, Porenta, SYMPMED Uplekar, Xie, etc. La plupart de ces auteurs,...

  13. Enzyme activity in the crowded milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vöpel

    Full Text Available The cytosol of a cell is a concentrated milieu of a variety of different molecules, including small molecules (salts and metabolites and macromolecules such as nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and large macromolecular complexes. Macromolecular crowding in the cytosolic environment is proposed to influence various properties of proteins, including substrate binding affinity and enzymatic activity. Here we chose to use the synthetic crowding agent Ficoll, which is commonly used to mimic cytosolic crowding conditions to study the crowding effect on the catalytic properties of glycolytic enzymes, namely phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acylphosphatase. We determined the kinetic parameters of these enzymes in the absence and in the presence of the crowding agent. We found that the Michaelis constant, K(m, and the catalytic turnover number, k(cat, of these enzymes are not perturbed by the presence of the crowding agent Ficoll. Our results support earlier findings which suggested that the Michaelis constant of certain enzymes evolved in consonance with the substrate concentration in the cell to allow effective enzyme function in bidirectional pathways. This conclusion is further supported by the analysis of nine other enzymes for which the K(m values in the presence and absence of crowding agents have been measured.

  14. Expression en termes d'énergie pour la perméabilité absolue effective. Application au calcul numérique d'écoulements diphasiques en milieu poreux Expression in Energy Terms for Absolute Effective Permeability. Application to the Numerical Computing of Two-Phase Flows in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njifenjou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le cadre de ce travail est le calcul des paramètres pétrophysiques effectifs d'un milieu poreux hétérogène pour le simulateur de réservoirs pétroliers. Après le choix d'un modèle d'écoulement dans un milieu poreux hétérogène comportant une microstructure périodique nous rappelons brièvement les grandes étapes de la méthode des échelles multiples pour l'homogénéisation de ce modèle. Cela nous conduit à la formule classique d'homogénéisation de la perméabilité absolue. Par la suite nous présentons une démarche originale permettant de passer de cette formule classique à une formule plus simple (d'un point de vue numérique s'exprimant en termes d'énergie dissipée par les forces de viscosité locales et caractérisant le milieu hétérogène périodique considéré. Nous démontrons ensuite, sous certaines hypothèses, l'égalité entre les énergies dissipées par les forces de viscosité associées respectivement à l'écoulement local et à l'écoulement macroscopique. Nous terminons par la présentation de quelques résultats numériques concernant des modèles d'écoulement diphasique incompressible. This project falls within the general framework of computing the effective petrophysical parameters characterizing a heterogeneous medium when it is considered from a macroscopic viewpoint as opposed to a description on the local scale. The concept of scale inevitably appears as soon as the concept of heterogeneity is broached. Depending on the applications planned, it is easy to define different observation scales of natural porous media. The local scale is a small in which the porous medium may be considered to be continuous, and in which the hydrodynamic equations are written for the fluid phase. At this scale, the elements making up the medium are sufficiently small porous volumes (compared to the dimensions of medium to be considered as points (in the mathematical sense, but large enough to encompass pores with

  15. Potentialités du milieu physique par couplage d'un modèle de plante (maïs et d'un SIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique KING

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Les potentialités du milieu physique pour la culture du maïs sont étudiées en combinant des informations pédologiques et climatiques au travers d’un modèle plante. L’ensemble est piloté par un SIG qui permet de réaliser des comparaisons objectives entre les régions d’Europe.

  16. Social allostasis: anticipatory regulation of the internal milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eSchulkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capabilityis reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostaticregulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, thephysiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids,such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one exampleof such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of allostasis is in part to take accountof anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptationthat supports social contact and internal milieu.

  17. La formation des enseignants intervenant en milieu carcéral en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Barini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'enseignement en milieu carcéral est un droit auquel tout détenu a accès. Parmi les enseignements proposés aux détenus, la formation en français langue étrangère (FLE. Dans cet environnement de travail particulier, l'enseignant doit faire face à certaines difficultés et contraintes. Pour intervenir dans cet environnement particulier, des formations sont proposées aux enseignants : formations initiales pour les enseignants titulaires de l’Education nationale, formation de terrain pour les enseignants bénévoles. Toutefois, bien que la discipline enseignée soit le FLE, les enseignants titulaires d’un Master FLE ne peuvent intervenir dans des structures carcérales. Il est alors nécessaire de s’interroger sur les formations reçues par ces différents profils d’enseignants dont les compétences doivent être relatives au contexte d’enseignement, au public détenu non-francophone, ainsi qu’à la discipline enseignée.

  18. Le rapport Sicard: une étape au milieu du gué

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemin, Dominique; Mallet, Donatien

    2013-01-01

    Le rapport Sicard de décembre 2012, outre la reprise d'une insuffisance prise en charge de la fin de vie et du développement des soins palliatifs, ouvre à une "solution à la fran,çaise" de gestion de la fin de vie. Suicide assisté et sédation terminale se trouvent questionnés par les auteurs.

  19. Au milieu du monde : le centre et ses réseaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Une rentrée universitaire est toujours un temps fort pour le rassemblement des géographes. Chaque réseau se choisit un centre, temporaire ou récurrent, un lieu de rencontre qui tout ensemble matérialise et symbolise la nécessité du contact humain et de l'être là, pour la communication scientifique : Saint-Valéry-en-Caux, 12e Colloque Européen de Géographie Théorique et Quantitative, Montpellier, Ecole Thématique du CNRS sur les modèles et la simulation, Montpellier encore, journées Cassini (G...

  20. Bioenergetics and Diffusion in the Crowded Milieu of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key cofactor in energy metabolism pathways and a myriad of oxidation-reduction reactions in living cells. The crowded milieu of these cells with organelles and macromolecules influences many biological processes such as biomolecular diffusion, protein-protein and protein-substrate interactions, and protein folding. In this contribution, I will highlight our recent findings on the role of macromolecular crowding on biochemical reaction between NADH and selected dehydrogenases in both living cells and in controlled macromolecules-rich environment. In addition, multiscale diffusion (rotational and translational) of a small fluorophore will be used to understand the role of non-specific binding, heterogeneity in microenvironmental viscosity in crowded solutions. Our experimental approach is a combination of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The broader impacts of these results will be discussed within the context of energy metabolism and biophysics in the crowded milieu of living cells.

  1. Innovative milieu, micro firms and local development in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Lladós Masllorens, Josep; Fernández Ardèvol, Mireia; Vilaseca i Requena, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed An entrepreneurial environment is conformed by factors that play a favourable role in the development of entrepreneurship. Economic literature on innovative milieus identifies those elements that are decisive in improving the competitive performance of companies. We analysed whether Barcelona Activa's specific environment promotes the development of an innovative milieu, which favours entrepreneurial attitudes. The results show how the combination of incubation experience, de...

  2. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    in a randomized study of systemic versus psychodynamic group therapy, that the short-term outcome for patients who received systemic group psychotherapy was significantly better than the outcome for patients who received psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The current study assessed the group milieu in both groups....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...... subscales: Cohesion (psystemic group turned out to be evaluated as the most structured therapy and also...

  3. Caractérisation par MET de fissures de corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages à base de nickel : influence de la teneur en chrome et de la chimie du milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Delabrouille, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    La corrosion sous contrainte (CSC) est un mode de dégradation qui affecte de nombreux alliages au sein des réacteurs à eau sous pression, notamment les alliages base nickel tubes des générateurs de vapeur (GV). La fissuration qu'elle engendre intervient tant du côté primaire que secondaire, en particulier dans des zones où la composition du milieu est mal définie. La sensibilité à la CSC des alliages base nickel dépend de leur teneur en chrome, ce qui a conduit au remplacement de l'alliage 60...

  4. Etude de la répartition spatiale des précipitations en milieu sahélien à l'aide du réseau dense de pluviographes de l'expérience EPSAT-Niger : application à la détermination de la précision des moyennes surfaciques au pas de temps de l'événement pluvieux

    OpenAIRE

    Thauvin, Valérie

    1992-01-01

    La connaissance de la répartition spatiale et temporelle des précipitations dans les régions sahéliennes est une demande exprimée par les états concernés. Dans cette optique, la répartition spatiale des précipitations à l'échelle de la saison des pluies, puis de l'événément pluvieux a été étudiée. Les données utilisées proviennent d'un réseau dense de pluviographes implanté au Niger. La méthode d'interpolation choisie est le krigeage. A l'échelle de la saison des pluies, l'analyse a montré un...

  5. Psychodynamic Milieu-Therapy and Changes in Personality--What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heede, Tine; Runge, Hanne; Storebo, Ole Jakob; Rowley, Eva; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This article refers to the results of a prospective effect evaluation study of three psychodynamic milieu-therapeutic institutions for children, which included cognitive and projective testing. After introducing milieu-therapy and explaining its roots in psychoanalytic and developmental thinking, the specific results of the research evaluation are…

  6. Using Milieu Training to Promote Photograph Exchange for a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Davis, Patricia; Hambrecht, Georgia; Phillips, Ellen Wooten

    2012-01-01

    A milieu teaching sequence was used to train photograph exchange as a method of requesting to a 7-year-old boy with autism. A multiple baseline design across four items (ball, puzzle, books, bubbles) was used to identify a functional relation between requesting and the milieu teaching sequence. Although performance during intervention was…

  7. Milieukwaliteitseisen: een model ter beoordeling van de kwaliteit van het milieu ten aanzien van radioactiviteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfini MG; Leenhouts HP

    1989-01-01

    In het modeal wordt als eis voor de kwaliteit van het milieu gesteld dat de radionuclide-concentratie in de verschillende milieucompartimenten beperkt moet blijven om het effectieve dosisequivalent voor de "reference man" die zich in dat milieu bevindt, onder een bepaald referentienive

  8. Thrombosis in the uremic milieu--emerging role of "thrombolome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashar, Moshe; Francis, Jean; Chitalia, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by retention of a number of toxins, which unleash cellular damage. CKD environment with these toxins and a host of metabolic abnormalities (collectively termed as uremic milieu) is highly thrombogenic. CKD represents a strong and independent risk factor for both spontaneous venous and arterial (postvascular injury) thrombosis. Emerging evidence points to a previously unrecognized role of some of the prothrombotic uremic toxins. Here, we provide an overview of thrombosis in CKD and an update on indolic uremic toxins, which robustly increase tissue factor, a potent procoagulant, in several vascular cell types enhancing thrombosis. This panel of uremic toxins, which we term "thrombolome" (thrombosis and metabolome), represents a novel risk factor for thrombosis and can be further explored as biomarker for postvascular interventional thrombosis in patients with CKD.

  9. The science of healthy aging: genes, milieu, and chance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-10-01

    Healthy aging and longevity depend on successful and dynamic interactions among biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Biological aging occurs mainly during the period of survival beyond the evolutionarily required essential lifespan (ELS). Natural selection processes for survival and successful reproduction have selected for a range of genetically determined ELS-assuring maintenance and repair systems (MRSs). The progressive failure of MRSs, and the consequent accumulation of molecular heterogeneity and damage, underlie the biological basis of aging, age-related diseases, and eventual death. However, the genetic processes of MRSs operate in a complex hierarchy of factors which range from intracellular molecular factors to physiological, psychological, environmental, and other stochastic factors, including chance. This view also facilitates setting up a framework for understanding, researching, and developing effective and realistic strategies for aging intervention, prevention, and therapies. Manipulating genes and the milieu in which genes and gene products operate opens up novel possibilities of aging intervention and prevention. Gene therapy, stem cells, and modulation through functional foods, nutriceuticals, cosmeceuticals and lifestyle alterations, including mild stress-induced hormesis, are examples of such strategies at various levels of development and practice.

  10. Valorisation des produits agricoles tropicaux par fermentation en milieu solide : rapport de synthèse = Valorizacion de los productos agricolas tropicales por fermentacion en medio solidos : informe sintetico

    OpenAIRE

    Raimbault, Maurice; Viniegra Gonzalez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Les études ont porté sur la valorisation par fermentation en milieu solide de trois types de substrats agricoles tropicaux (manioc, bagasse, pulpe de café), chacune ayant un objectif spécifique : - L'enrichissement en protéines du manioc (#Manihot esculenta$) permet l'élévation de la teneur en protéines microbiennes de 2 à 16 % grâce au développement contrôlé d'une souche d'#Aspergillus niger$ sélectionnée pour ses capacités de croissance. - La fermentation en milieu solide appliquée à la bag...

  11. Summary of research results 2012. Foundation 'Natuur en Milieu'. Factsheet; Samenvatting onderzoeksresultaten 2012. Stichting Natuur en Milieu. Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegter, F.; Van der Lelij, B.

    2012-06-08

    A summary is given of a survey among 1.246 Dutch people between 16 and 70 years old on their attitude towards the environment. The following subjects were investigated: attitude towards nature and environment, ways to solve problems, tasks of environmental organizations, sustainable solutions, green reputation of politicians, well-known Dutch people and businesses [Dutch] Een samenvatting is gegeven van een enquete onder 1.246 Nederlanders tussen 16 en 70 jaar inzake hun houding tegenover natuur en milieu. De volgende onderwerpen komen aan de orde: Houding tegenover het thema natuur en milieu; Oplossingsrichtingen; Taken van milieuorganisaties; Oplossingen op het gebied van duurzaamheid; Groen imago politici, bekende Nederlanders en bedrijven.

  12. [Epidemiology of obesity in the work milieu, Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A A Bita; Lemogoum, D; Manga, J Owona; Il Dissongo, J; Tobbit, R; Moyo, D F Ngounou; Sume, G Etapelong; Kollo, B

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide public health problem, and its burden has been poorly explored in Cameroon, especially in work place. We therefore carried out in April 2010, an analytic cross-sectional study aiming to determine the prevalence of obesity, associated risk factors and health risk in six randomly selected enterprises based in Douala. Among the 552 participants, 383 (69.4%) were males. Most of the workers (55.4%) were aged less than 35 years old. There was 191 (34.60%) office staff as against 361 (65.40%) labourers. In each participant, blood pressures, and fasting blood glucose were recorded, as well as obesity indexes comprising body mass index and waist circumference. They were calculated and data analyzed using SPSS 16 and Win Pepi 11.8. The prevalence of obesity in workers was 23.4%, and was more pronounced in women than in men (36.1% vs 17.8%; P or = 45 years old exhibited highest obesity rate than other age group (P = 0.03). Importantly, the prevalence of hypertension was two fold greater in obese workers than non obese (P 88 cm and 41 (31.8%) men with a waist circumference > 102 cm were at very high health risk. Obesity was significantly associated with excessive alcohol consumption (P = 0.013) and high salt diet (P = 0.022). This study reveals a high burden of obesity in the work place in Douala and outlines the urgent needs of implementation of prevention programme in that milieu. PMID:22891584

  13. Le curriculum d'informatique au cycle secondaire Marocain

    OpenAIRE

    Haddi, Abderrahim

    2009-01-01

    Après quatre années d'enseignement de l'informatique au secondaire qualifiant et deux ans d'enseignement au secondaire collégial, on commence déjà à entendre des propos malheureusement négatifs concernant le curriculum de la discipline informatique. Bien que son intégration en tant que tel puisse être considérée comme un grand saut vers le futur, mais sa naissance dans un milieu éducatif caractérisé par un déficit des infrastructures et des ressources humaines nécessaires empêche une implan...

  14. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  15. Dévalaison et survie d'alevins de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. en milieu semi-naturel contrôlé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans un chenal artificiel expérimental, des œufs de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. ont été pondus naturellement ou ont été enfouis au stade embryonné. A la fin de la résorption de la vésicule, une fraction importante des alevins survivants dévale de la zone de frayère. La dévalaison semble stimulée par des baisses de niveau ou des hausses de température et ralentie en période de pleine lune. D'autres facteurs pouvant être responsables de cette dévalaison sont discutés. La survie jusqu'à la collecte de tous les alevins est estimée à 74 p. 100 pour les sujets issus de la reproduction naturelle et est égale à 80 p. 100 pour ceux issus d'œufs introduits dans le gravier au stade embryonné. Des comparaisons entre ces résultats et ceux obtenus dans d'autres chenaux de fraie ou en milieu naturel montrent la validité de cette méthode pour la production d'alevins de saumon atlantique destinés au repeuplement.

  16. L'hybridation dans les populations naturelles de salmonidés dans le Sud-Ouest de l'Europe et en milieu expérimental

    OpenAIRE

    Beall, E.; Moran, P.; PENDAS A.; IZQUIERDO J.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Glise, S.; VIGNES, J.C.; BARRIERE L.

    1997-01-01

    L'hybridation interspécifique entre le saumon atlantique et la truite commune dans la nature a été mise en évidence dans différents pays d'Europe et au Canada. Une étude a été entreprise pour examiner son incidence dans des populations de salmonidés de certaines rivières des Asturies (nord de l'Espagne) et du sud-ouest de la France. Elle a été complétée par des expériences en milieu contrôlé pour déterminer les causes et les conditions de la disparition des barrières comportementales permetta...

  17. Effets de la taille finie du milieu non-linéaire sur le bruit quantique spatial généré par un oscillateur paramétrique optique confocal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L.; Gatti, A.; Maitre, A.; Treps, N.; Gigan, S.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Nous nous intéressons au comportement spatial des fluctuations quantiques à la sortie d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique dégénéré en modes transverses, sous le seuil. En vue de futures expériences, nous étudions les effets de la diffraction dans le milieu paramétrique sur le bruit quantique spatial. Nous montrons que l'on voit apparaître une aire de cohérence de taille finie pour les effets quantiques transverses.

  18. Cr stable isotope fractionation and reaction kinetics in aqueous milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, S.; Schoenberg, R.; Staubwasser, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass-dependent stable Cr isotope variations show great potential to monitor the natural attenuation of anthropogenic chromate pollution as well as to investigate changes in environmental conditions in the present and the past. However, accurate interpretation of mass-dependent Cr isotope variations requires profound knowledge of the Cr isotope fractionation behaviour during redox transitions and the isotope exchange kinetics of the reactions involved. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset of stable Cr isotope fractionation and reaction kinetics during Cr(III) oxidation, Cr(VI) reduction and isotopic exchange between soluble Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in aqueous milieu. All experiments were carried out with both oxidation states (i.e. Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) in solution, using H2O2 as oxidising as well as reducing agent. The pH conditions were varied to investigate the influence of the different Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species on the Cr isotope fractionation and on the reaction mechanisms during the enforced redox transitions. All Cr stable isotope measurements were performed by high-resolution MC-ICP-MS [1]. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) with H2O2 under strongly acidic conditions shows an equilibrium isotope fractionation of Δ(53,52Cr)Cr(III)-Cr(VI) of -3.54 ± 0.35 ‰. This value is within uncertainty equal to that of -3.4 ± 0.1 ‰ reported by Ellis et al. [2], who used natural sediment and magnetite as reducing agents at pH 6 to 7. At pH = 7 our reduction experiments show a unidirectional, kinetic isotope fractionation Δ(53,52Cr)Cr(III)-Cr(VI) of approximately -5 ‰ for reduction rates of up to 80 %, but a strong deviation from this Rayleigh-type process for higher reduction rates. However, at a pH value of 7 H2O2 supports the temporary formation and decomposition of Cr(V)-peroxo complexes that might explain this fractionation behaviour and deviation from a single Rayleigh type trend. The oxidation experiments of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) were carried out in alkaline media

  19. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  20. Environnement familial et disparités de santé dentaire des enfants en milieu urbain au Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, B; Fournet, F; Cadot, E;

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common multifactorial disease in children and has substantial negative impact on daily life. In sub-Saharan Africa, few data are available on the relationship between dental caries and the social and family environment of children. The objectives of the presen...

  1. La qualité du milieu marin littoral normand du Tréport au Mont - Saint - Michel

    OpenAIRE

    Grouhel-pellouin, Anne; Etourneau, Claude; Lamort, Laure

    1996-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Normandy's coastal quality. Datas for this evaluation come from chemical, microbial and phytoplanktonic monitoring networks carried out by IFREMER in the marine environment, microbial survey of marine swimming and shellfish collecting areas carried out by DDASS (Health Office), analysis of local sewage treatment systems conduced by SATESE, and surveys of river's water quality carried out by DDE (Equipment Office). Among each area, pollution sources are id...

  2. Feeling "overloaded" and "shortcomings": milieu therapists' experiences of vulnerability in caring for severely mentally ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liv Bachmann, Ragnhild A Michaelsen, Solfrid Vatne Faculty of Health Science, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Background: Milieu therapists’ relationships with patients with severe mental illnesses are viewed as challenging. Elucidating vulnerability from their perspective in daily face-to-face encounters with patients might contribute to extending our knowledge about milieu therapists’ vulnerability and the dynamics of the interaction between patients in mental health services and expertise in building caring and therapeutic relationships. The aim of this project was to study educated milieu therapists’ experiences of their own vulnerability in their interactions with patients in mental health services.Materials and methods: The data collection method was focus-group interviews. Thirteen part-time master’s in mental health students (eight nurses, three social workers, two social educators participated. All participants had experience with community or specialized mental health services (2–8 years.Results: The milieu therapists mainly related their experiences of vulnerability to negative feelings elicited by challenging work conditions, disclosed as two main themes: 1 “overloaded”, by the possibility of being physically and mentally hurt and the burdens of long-lasting close relationships; milieu therapists were extremely vulnerable because of their difficulty in protecting themselves; and 2 “shortcomings”, connected to feelings of despair associated with not acting in concordance with their professional standards and insecurity about their skills to handle challenging situations, which was a threat to their professional integrity. There seemed to be coherence between vulnerability and professional inauthenticity. A misunderstanding that professionalism refers to altruism seems to increase milieu therapist vulnerability.Conclusion: Vulnerability in health care is of interest to multiple disciplines, and is of

  3. Le Secteur de Psychiatrie en Milieu Pénitentiaire : Solutions de continuité ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Paulet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Une petite mise en mots et en sigles pour commencer si vous le voulez bien. Par secteur de psychiatrie en milieu pénitentiaire (SPMP, j’entends non seulement les 26 services médico-psychologiques régionaux (SMPR à vocation régionale, mais aussi tous les dispositifs de soins psychiatriques (DSP qui sont implantés dans les prisons, services constitués parfois, ou plus souvent unités fonctionnelles de secteurs de psychiatrie.Après vingt ans ou presque de pratique de la psychiatrie en milieu p...

  4. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont

  5. Diane Pasquier-Chambolle, La femme aristocrate à Byzance du XIIe au milieu du XVe siècle au miroir du monachisme

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Pasquier-Chambolle

    2008-01-01

    Longtemps les byzantinistes n’ont pas jugé intéressant d’étudier le sort des femmes dans l’Empire. Si ce phénomène résulte en partie de l’état des sources disponibles en la matière, certains ont voulu motiver un tel choix en avançant que la femme n’aurait qu’un rôle de peu d’importance dans un monde où tous les pouvoirs et les principales fonctions reviennent naturellement aux hommes. Le caractère patriarcal -plus postulé que démontré- de la société byzantine a ainsi longtemps servi à justifi...

  6. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... ethnographic component of the dissertation consists of four articles, all emphasizing the au pairs’ agency by viewing their migration as a dynamic personal and social experience. Arguing that Filipina au pairs tend to be understood primarily from the perspective of their precarious situation as domestic...... of their Danish host families. Based on their migratory status as au pairs, these young migrants must therefore negotiate the different moral and contractual rights and obligations that characterize the local and transnational family ties in which they are engaged. This study of Filipina au pair migration through...

  7. Dragons and Dinosaurs: Directing Inquiry in Biology Using the Notions of "Milieu" and "Validation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiam, Marianne; Solberg, Jan; Evans, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how inquiry teaching can be directed towards specific content learning goals while allowing for student exploration and validation of hypotheses. Drawing from the Theory of Didactical Situations, the concepts of "milieu" and "validation" are illustrated through two sample biology lessons designed to engage and challenge…

  8. The spiritual Tolkien milieu : a study of fiction‐based religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidsen, Markus Altena

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the organisation and development of the spiritual Tolkien milieu, a largely online-situated network of individuals and groups that draw on J.R.R. Tolkien’s literary mythology for spiritual inspiration. It is the first academic treatment of Tolkien spiritu

  9. Impact of Milieu Teaching on Communication Skills of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Sandfort, Robyn J.; Whinnery, Stacie B.

    2013-01-01

    This 5-month study examined the impact of a behaviorally based naturalistic teaching strategy, milieu teaching, on the communication skills of preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. Communication targets were…

  10. Services et développement urbains au Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Péné-Annette, Anne

    2013-01-01

    L’accès aux services urbains de base, et plus précisément à ceux de l’eau et de l’assainissement, constitue un angle d’approche intéressant pour rendre compte des conditions de vie urbaine au Venezuela et des réalités des réformes participatives. Nous partons d’une analyse des points de la loi sur l’eau et l’assainissement LOPSAPS concernant la gestion du service de l’eau en milieu urbain et la prise en compte de mesures en faveur d’une justice sociale. Puis nous nous penchons sur les implica...

  11. Etude dynamique et thermique d’un capteur solaire à air à double passe avec milieu poreux

    OpenAIRE

    SANDALI, Messaoud

    2014-01-01

    Une simulation numérique de transfert thermique d’un capteur solaire à air à double passe sans et avec milieu poreux a été faite. Le milieu poreux, avec différentes porosités, a été placédans la conduite inférieure du capteur solaire pour augmenter le transfert de chaleurdans cette conduite par l’augmentation de la surface d’échange thermique entre le fluide caloporteur et le matériau poreux. Une comparaison entre deux capteurs solaires à air à double passe l’un avec milieu poreux...

  12. Vers l'abandon de la mesure de l'oxydabilité au permanganate en eaux de piscines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosin, Christophe; Gassilloud, Benoît; Mehut, Romain; Munoz, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    International audience Le contrôle sanitaire des eaux de piscines prévoit que « la teneur en substance oxydable au permanganate de potassium à chaud en milieu alcalin exprimée en oxygène ne doit pas dépasser de plus de 4 mg.L-1 la teneur de l'eau de remplissage des bassins ». En l'absence de méthodes normalisées, la pratique actuelle des laboratoires se décompose entre mesure de l'oxydabilité (en milieu alcalin ou acide) et du carbone organique total (COT). Ces pratiques différentes abouti...

  13. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  14. L'engelure causée par le butane commercial au cours d’un accident industriel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi-Dje Bi Dje, V.; Abhe, C.M.; Sie-Essoh, J.B.; Kouamé, K.; Vilasco, B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les engelures sont encore exceptionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne, mais l’essor des industries pétrochimiques en rapport avec la promotion d’une large utilisation du gaz domestique (butane commercial) expose au risque de survenue de ce type de brûlures abusivement dites gelures. Nous rapportons un cas de brûlures au froid par gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL) en milieu professionnel dont le diagnostic de gravité et la prise en charge tardifs ont défavorisé l’évolution locale. Le respect des mesures de sécurité au sein des usines reste néanmoins le principal moyen de prévention de ce type de brûlures méconnues. PMID:26170791

  15. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  16. Feeling “overloaded” and “shortcomings”: milieu therapists’ experiences of vulnerability in caring for severely mentally ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Liv; Michaelsen, Ragnhild A; Vatne, Solfrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Milieu therapists’ relationships with patients with severe mental illnesses are viewed as challenging. Elucidating vulnerability from their perspective in daily face-to-face encounters with patients might contribute to extending our knowledge about milieu therapists’ vulnerability and the dynamics of the interaction between patients in mental health services and expertise in building caring and therapeutic relationships. The aim of this project was to study educated milieu therapists’ experiences of their own vulnerability in their interactions with patients in mental health services. Materials and methods The data collection method was focus-group interviews. Thirteen part-time master’s in mental health students (eight nurses, three social workers, two social educators) participated. All participants had experience with community or specialized mental health services (2–8 years). Results The milieu therapists mainly related their experiences of vulnerability to negative feelings elicited by challenging work conditions, disclosed as two main themes: 1) “overloaded”, by the possibility of being physically and mentally hurt and the burdens of long-lasting close relationships; milieu therapists were extremely vulnerable because of their difficulty in protecting themselves; and 2) “shortcomings”, connected to feelings of despair associated with not acting in concordance with their professional standards and insecurity about their skills to handle challenging situations, which was a threat to their professional integrity. There seemed to be coherence between vulnerability and professional inauthenticity. A misunderstanding that professionalism refers to altruism seems to increase milieu therapist vulnerability. Conclusion Vulnerability in health care is of interest to multiple disciplines, and is of relevance for knowledge development in higher education. Extended knowledge and understanding about milieu therapists’ vulnerability might

  17. La place des sciences dans la cité : les vues du milieu scientifique égyptien dans la seconde partie du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Crozet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article tente de rendre compte du regard porté sur les sciences modernes par un certain nombre de responsables scientifiques égyptiens à une période où les savoirs d'origine européenne tiennent depuis déjà plusieurs décennies un rôle important au sein de l'organisation de l'État, mais avant que l'occupation britannique ne vienne interrompre brutalement le processus en cours, à savoir la prise en charge de leur destin scientifique par les Égyptiens eux-mêmes. Les textes émanant du mouvement de diffusion et de vulgarisation scientifique, et en particulier les écrits de l'astronome Ismâ'îi Mustafâ, permettent ici de mettre en évidence, de la part du milieu scientifique de l'époque, non pas des réponses à ce qui serait perçu comme fondamentalement allogène, mais une volonté marquée d'inscrire le développement des sciences dans une certaine continuité historique, celles-ci s'y révélant comme des valeurs de toujours de la civilisation islamique.

  18. Nouveaux concepts de transmission vidéo en milieu marin pour améliorer le débit et la qualité des liaisons inter bateaux.

    OpenAIRE

    HUBERT, William

    2013-01-01

    Les moyens de communications actuels des bâtiments de surface ne permettent pas d'entretenir des liaisons point-à-point avec des débits supérieurs à 10 Mbits/s et sur de longues portées (>10 MN). Or, un tel besoin est rencontré dans le cadre d'un projet de transmission vidéo en temps réel depuis une embarcation légère vers son navire support. De plus, ce nouveau besoin doit être analysé en considérant les contraintes inhérentes au milieu marin, à l'intégration des systèmes aux plateformes et ...

  19. Caractérisation des nuages précipitants en fonction de leur structure spatiale et de leur évolution temporelle en milieu sahélien à partir d'images METEOSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Yves

    1992-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de tester les possibilités d'estimer les pluies à l'échelle temporelle de l'averse, à différentes échelles spatiales, en milieu sahélien avec le satellite METEOSAT. Les indices utilisés sont : la température minimale atteinte par le nuage, le nombre d'occurences des nuages à sommet froid, la température moyenne, et la variabilité de la nébulosité sur un pixel au cours d'un événement pluvieux. A l'échelle de quelques pixels, les relations entre les trois premiers ...

  20. The implementation and evaluation of cognitive milieu therapy for dual diagnosis inpatients: A pragmatic clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jørn; Oestrich, Irene; Austin, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    milieu therapy (CMT) among a group of dual diagnosis inpatients. CMT is an integrated treatment for both mental illness and substance abuse based on cognitive behavioral principles and carried out within a supportive inpatient environment. A convenience sample of dual diagnosis inpatients (N = 136......Dual diagnosis is chronic psychiatric condition involving serious mental illness and substance abuse. Experts recommend the integration of treatment for concurrent substance abuse and serious psychiatric problems. The following pragmatic trial examined the implementation and outcomes of cognitive...... reported significant reductions in levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms (p

  1. Liens discrets. Processus historiques dans le milieu agricole d'un village sarde, 1950-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Tribess, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Dans cette thèse je me suis proposée de reconstituer les processus historiques dans le milieu agricole d'un village sarde entre 1950 et 1990. Le village se situe dans les collines entre la montagne, la Barbagia, et la plaine du Campidano. Ces deux régions se caractérisent par des organisations rurales bien distinctes : la Barbagia est traditionnellement pastorale, avec des transhumances hivernales et un système d'accès aux terres communales ; le Campidano est traditionnellement agricol...

  2. Une formation mixte (synchrone et asynchrone offerte en ligne pour le développement des compétences des enseignants dans leur milieu de travail : étude de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Villardier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Apprendre tout au long de la vie amène de plus en plus les adultes, confrontés au fait de devoir concilier emploi, travail et études, à rechercher des solutions de formation à la carte selon des horaires fragmentés, près de leur lieu de travail ou de leur milieu de vie. Les technologies Web s’avèrent des outils par excellence pour soutenir ces formations puisqu’elles offrent flexibilité, accessibilité, communication et interaction tout en permettant une variété d’approches éducatives. Cet article présente le contexte et les résultats d’une étude de cas auprès de formateurs en milieu de travail ainsi que le programme de formation personnalisé de formateurs en ligne, Form@tion. [English] The need for lifelong learning and the challenge of balancing job, work and studies combine to make more and more adults seek tailor-made solutions for their training, with flexible schedules and near their workplace or home. Web technologies have shown to be excellent tools to support this kind of training, since they offer flexibility, accessibility, communication and interaction while permitting a variety of educational approaches. This paper presents the context and results of a case study involving trainers in a work environment and the personalized training program Form@tion for online trainers.

  3. Etre touareg au Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Edmond BERNUS

    1992-01-01

    Après une présentation générale de leur espace, de leur culture commune, des stéréotypes dont ils font l'objet, les Touaregs maliens sont décrits dans leurs diversités régionales. Les révoltes passées, celle de Firhoun, le héros de 1916, puis celle de l'Adrar des Iforas en 1963-64 contre le gouvernement de Modibo Keita, précédent la révolte qui s'étend depuis 1990 au Niger et au Mali avec des guerriers sachant manier armes et voitures. Attaques et répression sauvage se succèdent dans une spir...

  4. Introduction au droit commercial

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Nicolas; Delvaux, Thierry; Benoit-Moury, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l'économie. Les liens avec des disciplines autres que le droit, notamment l'économie et l'histoire, seront privilégiés, afin d'adapter la matière aux besoins et centres d'intérêts d'étudiants en sciences humaines. Après une introduction générale, le cours s'articule autour de la trilogie fondamentale ...

  5. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  6. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. PMID:26907277

  7. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. PMID:26907277

  8. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-02-19

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.

  9. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr1-cAuc with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn1-cAuc with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ3d due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ3d and EF in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  10. Systèmes de culture, adventices envahissantes et fertilité du milieu : le cas de Chromolaena odorata

    OpenAIRE

    Foresta, Hubert de

    1995-01-01

    L'expansion de #Chromolaena odorata$, archétype des adventices envahissantes, globalement favorisée par la transformation du milieu forestier en Afrique et en Asie tropicales, est fortement dépendante des modes d'utilisation du milieu. Très importante dans les systèmes d'agriculture itinérante et d'élevage semi-extensifs, elle est réduite dans les systèmes d'agriculture permanente, hors dysfonctionnement de ces systèmes. Les impacts de l'invasion sur la fertilité du milieu sont eux-m^emes trè...

  11. Analyse des déterminants de la demande en poisson des ménages au Burkina Faso: cas du milieu rural (Vallée du Kou et du milieu urbain (Bobo Dioulasso et Ouagadougou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo, SH.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Determinants of Households'Fish Demand in Burkina Faso: the Case of a Rural Area (Vallée du Kou and Urban Areas (Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou. A study was conducted in 2004 in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the determinants of households' fish demand in both rural (Vallée du Kou and urban (Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou areas. To achieve this objective, 535 households were surveyed, the data collected were analyzed and a double-log regression function was constructed. The results of this study showed that households' fish consumption varied considerably according to the area (rural or urban. Households' fish demand was influenced by the availability of the product in the market. In addition to that, when the fish supply frequency increased, the duration of the conservation of the product was reduced or was annulled. The study revealed that the determinants of fish demand in rural area in Vallée du Kou included the size of the household, the prize of the fish in the market, the level of education and the revenue of the head of the household. In urban areas, these determinants include mainly the revenue of the head of the household, fish supply frequency, and conservation methods of the product.

  12. "Discordia concordans" : les Ruthènes de la grande-principauté de Lituanie au temps de l'Union de Brest (milieu du XVIe siècle - milieu du XVIIe siècle)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarenko, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This study on the Ruthenian community of the 16th and 17th centuries analyses the religious life of Eastern Christians of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, at the moment of the division of the Kievan metropolinate between Roman and Constantinopolitan obediences. With the example of western Lithuania (Vilnius and Trakai voivodships), which corresponded to a border area between the ecclesiastical structures of Greek and Latin rites, it proposes to explain the issues and consequences of local ...

  13. Analyse quantitative des effluents de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert et fermé Quantitative Analysis of Pyrolysis Effluents in an Open and Closed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première partie de l'article, nous décrivons une technique de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert qui permet de caractériser les matières organiques complexes comme le kérogène, le charbon, les asphaltènes de roche et d'huiles, les substances humiques et fulviques etc. Les effluents de pyrolyse sont récupérés et fractionnés quantitativement puis analysés par des techniques spécifiques comme la chromatographie en phase gazeuse et le couplage chromatographie/spectrométrie de masse. Dans la deuxième partie, est présentée une technique de pyrolyse en milieu fermé pour simuler au laboratoire l'évolution thermique des kérogènes, asphaltènes ou huiles. Nous nous sommes surtout attachés à dresser des bilans massiques et des bilans de l'hydrogène sur l'ensemble des produits de pyrolyse. Pour cela, nous avons distingué cinq classes de poids moléculaire croissant : C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ et coke. La récupération quantitative et la séparation de chacune des cinq fractions permet une analyse moléculaire détaillée de chacune d'elles. The first part of this article describes an open pyrolysis system in order to characterize complex organic matter such as kerogen, coal, rock and oil asphaltenes and humic substances, etc. Pyrolysis effluents are recovered, fractionated quantitatively by liquid chromatography, and then they are analyzed by specific techniques such as gas chromatography and chromatography/mass-spectrometry coupling. The second part describes a pyrolysis technique in a closed system, used for the laboratory simulation of the thermal evolution of kerogens, asphaltenes or oils. A special effort has been made to give the mass and hydrogen balances for all pyrolysis products. For this, five classes have been distinguised with increasing molecular weight: C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ and coke. The quantitative recovery and the separation of each of the five fractions is used to make a detailed molecular analysis of each of

  14. Vivre, vivre au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    Tardits, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Comment faire face au caractère récurrent des catastrophes naturelles et liées à l’homme ? À la prévention, on se doit d’adjoindre une vision écologique plus large et renouvelée. Un débat sur le modèle énergétique du nucléaire et sur nos modèles de développement urbains et sociétaux s’impose.

  15. Des femmes au tribunal

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Les archives judiciaires constituent une source essentielle pour les études des sociabilités africaines en situation coloniale. Cet article prend appui sur l’analyse des procès tenus, entre 1923 et 1939, au tribunal du premier degré d’Abidjan, il vise à décrire les argumentations contradictoires par lesquelles femmes et hommes expliquent leurs différends dans l’espace du prétoire. Les registres issus des « juridictions indigènes » permettent également d’apprécier sur quels repères se fondent ...

  16. Des ignames au riz

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanoff, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    L'igname a toujours été une nourriture importante pour les populations littorales et nomades du monde insulindien. Cependant, avec l'installation du héros civilisateur Gaman le Malais chez le peuple de la reine Sibian, le riz va devenir la composante essentielle des repas moken. En intégrant Gaman en son sein, la société moken va devoir répondre au double défi posé par la menace de la riziculture et de l'islam. En donnant femme à Gaman, en adoptant le nomadisme pour échapper à l'islam ...

  17. Introduction au titre I

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pline a eu dans sa carrière d’homme public à défendre les intérêts de l’Etat et des particuliers, à épurer des comptes, à juger et arbitrer. Ainsi le voulait l’ordonnancement du cursus honorum du Bas-Empire, héritier sur tous ces points de la tradition des charges publiques de la République. Les premières tâches du petiturus furent essentiellement judiciaires - on songe au vigintivirat - et elles se poursuivirent par des fonctions de moyenne importance (préture consulat) puis de haute adminis...

  18. 医苑丛谈——谈境界%Medicine talking-Discussion on milieu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永炎; 王燕平; 于智敏

    2012-01-01

    中医学人,既要具备医学、心理学知识,还应当通晓事理学以及其他相关学科的知识,以提升自己的境界.读书临证过程中,既要精研医理,还要览观杂学,如此方能在高原上打造高峰.%The students of TCM should not only master the medicine and psychology knowledge, but also know the science about reality and other corresponding knowledge in order to improve their milieu, tn the process of reading and in clinic practice, the students should not only study the medical knowledge exactly but also study the knowledge about other incidentals. So they can achieve the peak on the plateau.

  19. The implementation and evaluation of cognitive milieu therapy for dual diagnosis inpatients: A pragmatic clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jørn; Oestrich, I.; Austin, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    ) was assessed pre- and post-intervention from an inpatient setting where CMT was the mode of treatment. Psychopathology was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and substance abuse measured with the DrugCheck scale, breath/urine samples, and the Severity of Dependence Scale. Functioning......Dual diagnosis is chronic psychiatric condition involving serious mental illness and substance abuse. Experts recommend the integration of treatment for concurrent substance abuse and serious psychiatric problems. The following pragmatic trial examined the implementation and outcomes of cognitive...... milieu therapy (CMT) among a group of dual diagnosis inpatients. CMT is an integrated treatment for both mental illness and substance abuse based on cognitive behavioral principles and carried out within a supportive inpatient environment. A convenience sample of dual diagnosis inpatients (N = 136...

  20. Increasing the reactivity of an artificial dithiol-disulfide pair through modification of the electrostatic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2005-01-01

    The thiol-disulfide exchange reaction plays a central role in the formation of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins and is involved in many aspects of cellular metabolism. Because the thiolate form of the cysteine residue is the key reactive species, its electrostatic milieu is thought...... to play a key role in determining the rates of thiol disulfide exchange reactions. While modest reactivity effects have previously been seen in peptide model studies, here, we show that introduction of positive charges can have dramatic effects on disulfide bond formation on a structurally restricted....... Introduction of positively charged amino acids in the proximity of the two cysteines resulted in an up to 13-fold increase in reactivity toward glutathione disulfide. Determination of the individual pK(a) values of the cysteines showed that the observed increase in reactivity was caused by a decrease in the p...

  1. Neutrophils alter the inflammatory milieu by signal-dependent translation of constitutive messenger RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Stephan W.; Yost, Christian C.; Denis, Melvin M.; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2004-05-01

    The mechanisms by which neutrophils, key effector cells of the innate immune system, express new gene products in inflammation are largely uncharacterized. We found that they rapidly translate constitutive mRNAs when activated, a previously unrecognized response. One of the proteins synthesized without a requirement for transcription is the soluble IL-6 receptor , which translocates to endothelial cells and induces a temporal switch to mononuclear leukocyte recruitment. Its synthesis is regulated by a specialized translational control pathway that is inhibited by rapamycin, a bacterial macrolide with therapeutic efficacy in transplantation, inflammatory syndromes, and neoplasia. Signal-dependent translation in activated neutrophils may be a critical mechanism for alteration of the inflammatory milieu and a therapeutic target.

  2. A pipeline for determining protein-protein interactions and proximities in the cellular milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, Roman I; Chait, Brian T

    2014-11-01

    It remains extraordinarily challenging to elucidate endogenous protein-protein interactions and proximities within the cellular milieu. The dynamic nature and the large range of affinities of these interactions augment the difficulty of this undertaking. Among the most useful tools for extracting such information are those based on affinity capture of target bait proteins in combination with mass spectrometric readout of the co-isolated species. Although highly enabling, the utility of affinity-based methods is generally limited by difficulties in distinguishing specific from nonspecific interactors, preserving and isolating all unique interactions including those that are weak, transient, or rapidly exchanging, and differentiating proximal interactions from those that are more distal. Here, we have devised and optimized a set of methods to address these challenges. The resulting pipeline involves flash-freezing cells in liquid nitrogen to preserve the cellular environment at the moment of freezing; cryomilling to fracture the frozen cells into intact micron chunks to allow for rapid access of a chemical reagent and to stabilize the intact endogenous subcellular assemblies and interactors upon thawing; and utilizing the high reactivity of glutaraldehyde to achieve sufficiently rapid stabilization at low temperatures to preserve native cellular interactions. In the course of this work, we determined that relatively low molar ratios of glutaraldehyde to reactive amines within the cellular milieu were sufficient to preserve even labile and transient interactions. This mild treatment enables efficient and rapid affinity capture of the protein assemblies of interest under nondenaturing conditions, followed by bottom-up MS to identify and quantify the protein constituents. For convenience, we have termed this approach Stabilized Affinity Capture Mass Spectrometry. Here, we demonstrate that Stabilized Affinity Capture Mass Spectrometry allows us to stabilize and elucidate

  3. Apoptosis and hormonal milieu in ductal system of normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie XIA; Chun-Xiao XU; Xiao-Da TANG; Wan-Zhong WANG; De-Li DU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study theapoptotic rate (AR) and the androgen and estrogen milieu in the proximal and distal ductal sys tems of prostate, in order to help exploring the effects of these factors on prostatic growth and the pathogenesis of be nign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: The proximal and distal ends of the ductal system were incised from 20 normal prostate as well as the hypertrophic prostate tissue from 20 patients with BPH. The AR was determined by the DNA end-labeling method and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estrodiol (E2), by radioimmunoassay. Results:There was no significant difference in DHT and E2 density between the proximal and distal ends of the ductal systems in normal prostate. E2 appeared to be higher in BPH than in normal prostatic tissues, but the difference was statistically in significant. In normal prostatic tissue, the AR was significantly higher in the distal than in the proximal ends of the ductal system ( P < 0.05), while the AR of the proximal ends was significantly higher ( P < 0.01) than that in the BPH tissue. No significant correlation was noted between the DHT and E2 density and the AR both in the normal prostate and BPH tissues. Conclusion: The paper is the first time describing a difference in AR in different regions of the ductal system of normal prostate, while the hormonal milieu is similar, indicating a functional inhomogeneity of these regions. A low AR in the proximal duct, where BPH originates, and an even lower AR in the BPH tissue, sug gesting the participation of apoptosis in the BPH pathogenesis.

  4. Photoelectrochemical studies of DNA-tagged biomolecules on Au and Au/Ni/Au multilayer nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of nanowires (NWs for labeling, sensing, and sorting is the basis of detecting biomolecules attached on NWs by optical and magnetic properties. In spite of many advantages, the use of biomolecules-attached NWs sensing by photoelectrochemical (PEC study is almost non-existent. In this article, the PEC study of dye-attached single-stranded DNA on Au NWs and Au-Ni-Au multilayer NWs prepared by pulse electrodeposition are investigated. Owing to quantum-quenching effect, the multilayer Au NWs exhibit low optical absorbance when compared with Au NWs. The tagged Au NWs show good fluorescence (emission at 570 nm, indicating significant improvement in the reflectivity. Optimum results obtained for tagged Au NWs attached on functionalized carbon electrodes and its PEC behavior is also presented. A twofold enhancement in photocurrent is observed with an average dark current of 10 μA for Au NWs coated on functionalized sensing electrode. The importance of these PEC and optical studies provides an inexpensive and facile processing platform for Au NWs that may be suitable for biolabeling applications.

  5. Non-targeted metabolomic evaluation of the uterine milieu during the transitional period of embryo elongation in the pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in the signaling of critical molecular factors within the uterine milieu lead to deficiencies in embryo elongation. The objective of this study was to identify metabolites within the uterine environment that are present as porcine embryos transition between spherical, ovoid, and tubular ...

  6. Impact de la forêt sur l’évolution des ressources en eau en moyenne montagne alpine depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle (massif de Chartreuse, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dumas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la révolution industrielle, une grande partie des terres des espaces de moyenne montagne a été abandonnée au profit d’une extension de la couverture forestière. Or, la forêt intercepte et retient un pourcentage plus ou moins élevé des pluies sur son feuillage, diminuant du même coup la quantité d’eau réellement reçue par le sol. Le transfert de l’eau atmosphérique en une eau utilisable comme ressource a donc été progressivement modifié au cours de ces dernières décennies par la transformation progressive du paysage. Dans cette étude, conduite à l’échelle du massif de Chartreuse, la pluviométrie annuelle, le rôle de la forêt dans l’interception des pluies et l’extension de la forêt, sont appréciés tour à tour. L’impact de l’extension de la forêt depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle sur les quantités d’eau perdues pour l’écoulement et les réserves souterraines peut ainsi être évalué. Cette étude montre que, depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle, l’extension de la couverture forestière en Chartreuse aurait accru de presque 100 mm les pertes en eau par les processus d’interception. Et, sur cette même période, cette quantité d’eau perdue n’a pas été compensée par une hausse des précipitations. Au total, le bilan hydrologique a donc été notablement modifié, avec une quantité d’eau disponible pour l’écoulement, ou les réserves souterraines, plus réduite que celle définie traditionnellement à partir des uniques relevés météorologiques.

  7. Potentiel des images satellitaires multibandes a haute resolution spatiale pour la cartographie des componsants de l'eau en milieu cotier marin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Andre

    L'objectif principal que que nous poursuivons est de developper un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif eau-atmosphere adapte aux observations faites par le capteur Thematic Mapper (TM) de Landsat. Les informations que nous cherchons ont trait au milieu cotier marin et concernent les elements qui sont en suspension dans l'eau. Les images multibandes du capteur TM dans la partie visible du spectre, sont surtout visees par nos travaux. A la base de la simulation, nous utilisons un programme de simulation atmospherique, le code 6S, auquel nous greffons un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif dans la masse d'eau. Ce dernier estime le signal en fonction de 4 composants: l'eau, les pigments chlorophylliens (chlorophylle et phaeopigments), les matieres minerales et les substances organiques dissoutes. La concentration des differents composants sert de parametre d'entree pour definir le comportement optique de la masse d'eau. Le modele permet egalement de simuler une masse d'eau stratifiee si l'on connai t les concentrations des composants dans les differentes couches. Il inclut aussi la contribution du fond, selon sa nature et sa composition, ainsi que celle du miroitement du soleil et du ciel a la surface de l'eau. Les informations d'un echantillonnage de la masse d' eau synchronise avec le passage du satellite, a la baie des Chaleurs, d'une cartographie du couvert d'algues et d'un modele bathymetrique ont ete utilisees pour fixer les parametres de simulation par le modele. La comparaison montrent que le modele se comporte relativement bien surtout dans la bande TM2. Une erreur systematique de 2 valeurs numeriques en moyenne subsiste dans les trois bandes spectrales. Les resultats nous montrent que la visibilite du fond aux faibles profondeurs est un element tres important a considerer. Par ailleurs, l'analyse de sensibilite montre que les images TM sont plus sensibles aux concentrations en matieres minerales qu'aux pigments chlorophylliens et aux substances

  8. Le marketing au concret

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglio, Gérald

    2010-01-01

    Le terme “marketing” suscite généralement la méfiance, car il est spontanément associé à l’idée de manipulation. Au-delà, que font, concrètement, les “gens du marketing” ? Afin d’apporter des pistes de réponse à cette question, nous nous penchons dans cet article sur les enjeux relatifs à un matériau censé alimenter les réflexions et décisions des marketeurs : les études qualitatives de marketing research réalisées dans le cadre de réunions de consommateurs. Cette approche nous conduit à expl...

  9. Introduction au titre II

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    159. L’objet de notre propos est de démontrer que l’Administration dispose, à la suite du juge, d’un véritable pouvoir normatif. L’admettre suppose d’en identifier les différentes manifestations qui s’expriment essentiellement par voie de circulaires administratives, de réponses ministérielles et d’avis administratifs et qui ne sauraient être assimilées au pouvoir réglementaire que l’Administration détient par ailleurs. L’ordre logique de la démonstration sera donc semblable à celui adopté po...

  10. La recomposition des savoirs au Maghreb à l’époque de la coopération

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Jean-Robert

    2012-01-01

    Le temps de la coopération n’a pas été seulement une expérience individuelle et collective stimulante pour beaucoup de ceux – Français et Maghrébins – qui l’ont vécue entre le milieu des années 1950 et la fin des années 1970. Il a été aussi une occasion importante, au Nord comme au Sud, de bousculer les certitudes intellectuelles et de reformuler les visions scientifiques du monde. Dans le champ des sciences sociales, ce fut une époque de déconstruction et reconstruction des savoirs coloniaux...

  11. Notarum figura : l’écriture musicale et le monde des signes au IXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrik Aubert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quand l’auteur (ou les auteurs du traité De musica disciplina employèrent l’expression notarum figura pour parler de l’écriture musicale au milieu du IXe siècle, il a placé la notation dans le domaine d’une pluralité de marques écrites qui étaient aussi nommées notae : les signes prosodiques, les signes de ponctuation, parmi plusieurs autres. En faisant appel au mot figura dans la même expression – et aussi à forma –, le champ a été élargi davantage et l’écriture musicale a ainsi été potenti...

  12. Bensaâd Ali (dir., L’eau et ses enjeux au Sahara, Iremam, Karthala, 2011, 242 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marçot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Je dirai en premier ma déception. Comme le suggère Ali Bensaâd à l’entrée du livre qu’il a dirigé, l’enjeu de l’eau au Sahara n’est ni plus ni moins que la conservation de la vie dans ce milieu qui lui est particulièrement hostile - la vie sous tous ses aspects. Or cet enjeu « vital » a été négligé au profit d’une approche micro-géographique. C’est pourtant par cette entrée que le travail collectif aurait pu légitimement intéresser un vaste public. Comment l’eau existe-t-elle à l’état naturel...

  13. Facteurs de risque de faible poids de naissance en milieu semi-rural de Kamina, République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Mwenze

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le faible poids de naissance constitue un problème majeur de santé publique, aussi bien dans les pays développés que dans les pays en développement, de par son ampleur et sa forte association avec la morbidité et la mortalité infantiles. Méthodes Il s’agit d’une étude cas-témoins rétrospective menée sur les différents facteurs de risque de faible poids de naissance(FPN) en milieu semi-rural de Kamina chez les accouchées et leurs nouveau-nés respectifs enregistrés de la période allant de janvier 2009 à décembre 2010. Résultats Cette étude a répertorié 69 cas des nouveau-nés de FPN sur 483 accouchements enregistrés (14,3%). Les facteurs associés au FPN déterminés dans ce travail sont l’âge maternel inférieur à 18 ans (OR=7,62, IC=3.46-16.8) et supérieur à 35 ans (OR=2,04;IC=0.91-4.46), la primiparité(OR=2,48;IC=1.18-5.21) et le non suivi des consultations prénatales (OR=5,50;IC=2.00-15.03), la prématurité avec grossesse âgée de moins de 37 semaines d’aménorrhée, la grossesse multiple (OR=30,94) et le sexe féminin du nouveau-né. Conclusion Cette étude a démontré que l’âge maternel inférieur à 18 ans et supérieur à 35 ans, le non suivi des consultations prénatales, la primiparité et la prématurité, la grossesse multiple et le sexe féminin du nouveau-né sont les facteurs associés au faible poids de naissance. PMID:25237417

  14. L'hybridation dans les populations naturelles de salmonidés dans le Sud-Ouest de l'Europe et en milieu expérimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEALL E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available L'hybridation interspécifique entre le saumon atlantique et la truite commune dans la nature a été mise en évidence dans différents pays d'Europe et au Canada. Une étude a été entreprise pour examiner son incidence dans des populations de salmonidés de certaines rivières des Asturies (nord de l'Espagne et du sud-ouest de la France. Elle a été complétée par des expériences en milieu contrôlé pour déterminer les causes et les conditions de la disparition des barrières comportementales permettant le maintien de l'isolement reproducteur. Les hypothèses de travail étaient que l'hybridation pouvait être favorisée par le comportement de «sneaker» des tacons mâles précoces et par les repeuplements en juvéniles des deux espèces. Les résultats obtenus confirment que l'hybridation entre la truite et le saumon est un phénomène répandu, qui peut affecter localement des fractions significatives des populations (9,4 % sur la rivière Narcea dans les Asturies. Dans l'aire originelle de distribution des deux espèces, le croisement s'effectue dans le sens femelle saumon x mâle truite. Dans les conditions normales de sympatrie, les barrières d'isolement reproducteur pré-appariement paraissent solides en raison du comportement agressif du mâle conspécifique dominant qui parvient à écarter efficacement les mâles compétiteurs hétérospécifiques. En l'absence de mâle conspécifique, l'hybridation peut avoir lieu. Cependant, les femelles modifient leur comportement, ralentissent leur activité de frai et le succès reproducteur, particulièrement chez la truite, diminue. Par ailleurs, les hypothèses de travail ne sont pas vérifiées. Pour éviter l'hybridation, il est recommandé au gestionnaire de veiller à la qualité et à la quantité des zones de reproduction, de maintenir l'équilibre des populations de géniteurs et de limiter les repeuplements en sujets non autochtones.

  15. The response of human macrophages to β-glucans depends on the inflammatory milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Municio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: β-glucans are fungal cell wall components that bind to the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1. Polymorphisms of dectin-1 gene are associated with susceptibility to invasive fungal infection and medically refractory ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this study has been addressing the response of human macrophages to β-glucans under different conditions mimicking the composition of the inflammatory milieu in view of the wide plasticity and large range of phenotypical changes showed by these cells, and the relevant role of dectin-1 in several pathophysiological conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum-differentiated macrophages stimulated with β-glucans showed a low production of TNFα and IL-1β, a high production of IL-6 and IL-23, and a delayed induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2 biosynthesis that resembled the responses elicited by crystals and those produced when phagosomal degradation of the phagocytic cargo increases ligand access to intracellular pattern recognition receptors. Priming with a low concentration of LPS produced a rapid induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and a synergistic release of PGE2. When the differentiation of the macrophages was carried out in the presence of M-CSF, an increased expression of dectin-1 B isoform was observed. In addition, this treatment made the cells capable to release arachidonic acid in response to β-glucan. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the macrophage response to fungal β-glucans is strongly influenced by cytokines and microbial-derived factors that are usual components of the inflammatory milieu. These responses can be sorted into three main patterns i an elementary response dependent on phagosomal processing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and/or receptor-independent, direct membrane binding linked to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing transmembrane adaptor DNAX-activating protein 12, ii a response primed by TLR4-dependent signals, and iii

  16. The Response of Human Macrophages to β-Glucans Depends on the Inflammatory Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Olimpio; Hugo, Etzel; Rodríguez, Mario; Domingo, Esther; Alonso, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background β-glucans are fungal cell wall components that bind to the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1. Polymorphisms of dectin-1 gene are associated with susceptibility to invasive fungal infection and medically refractory ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this study has been addressing the response of human macrophages to β-glucans under different conditions mimicking the composition of the inflammatory milieu in view of the wide plasticity and large range of phenotypical changes showed by these cells, and the relevant role of dectin-1 in several pathophysiological conditions. Principal Findings Serum-differentiated macrophages stimulated with β-glucans showed a low production of TNFα and IL-1β, a high production of IL-6 and IL-23, and a delayed induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2 biosynthesis that resembled the responses elicited by crystals and those produced when phagosomal degradation of the phagocytic cargo increases ligand access to intracellular pattern recognition receptors. Priming with a low concentration of LPS produced a rapid induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and a synergistic release of PGE2. When the differentiation of the macrophages was carried out in the presence of M-CSF, an increased expression of dectin-1 B isoform was observed. In addition, this treatment made the cells capable to release arachidonic acid in response to β-glucan. Conclusions These results indicate that the macrophage response to fungal β-glucans is strongly influenced by cytokines and microbial-derived factors that are usual components of the inflammatory milieu. These responses can be sorted into three main patterns i) an elementary response dependent on phagosomal processing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and/or receptor-independent, direct membrane binding linked to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing transmembrane adaptor DNAX-activating protein 12, ii) a response primed by TLR4-dependent signals, and iii) a response dependent

  17. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  18. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Zr system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 金展鹏; 刘华山

    2003-01-01

    Au-Zr binary system was reassessed by using the calculation phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique based on experimental thermodynamic data and newly reported phase diagrams. The excess Gibbs energies of the three terminal solutions and the liquid phases were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial. All the intermetallic phases were treated as stoichiometric compounds with the exception of ZrAu which is modeled by a two-sublattice model, (Au,Zr) : (Au, Zr). The results show that there exist seven intermetallics: Zr3Au, Zr2Au, Zr5Au4,Zr7Au10, ZrAu2 , ZrAu3, and ZrAu4 in the system. The eutectoid reaction: β(Zr) →α(Zr)+Zr3Au takes place at 1 048 K and the maximal solubility of Au in α-Zr is 4.7 % (mole fraction). The maximal solubility of Zr in Au is 6.0%(mole fraction) at 1 347 K. The homogeneity range of ZrAu phase is about 44.5%-52.9%(mole fraction) of Au. The present assessment fits experimental data very well.

  20. Analyse thermique et électrochimique de supercondensateurs carbone-MnO2 en milieu aqueux

    OpenAIRE

    Dandeville, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour but de caractériser le fonctionnement de supercondensateurs asymétriques à base de carbone activé et de dioxyde de manganèse (C-MnO2) dans un électrolyte aqueux de sulfate de potassium. Un dispositif calorimétrique a été conçu spécialement pour réaliser des mesures thermiques (échauffement et puissance dissipée au cours du temps) et électriques (courant et tension au cours du temps, durées des charges et de décharges, capacité électrique) sur des supercondensateurs C-MnO2 d...

  1. L'élevage des petits ruminants en milieu villageois au Cameroun. Première partie : les productivités

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois, J.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants husbandry in traditional flocks in Cameroon First part : Productivities. After a one year survey among West African Dwarf sheep and goats in four villages and seven flocks of the North-West province of Cameroon, the constraints to increased productivity were studied. Because of agricultural activities leaving little time and few fields to guarantee good feeding and breeding management, mortalities were high, especially in kids and lambs, which limited the production. Reproductive performances, animal viability and body weights were combined to obtain three overal productivity indices for two flocks of goats. The first one was characterized by long intervals between parturitions (14months and lower productivity indices (14, 7kg of one year old kid per dam per year than the second flock where goats were bred with a Toggenburg buck (47, 1 kg of one year old kid per dam per year. However, adult mortalities and thefts were so high in this second flock (62 per cent that productivity fell to 17, 9 kg of one year old kid per dam per year.

  2. Pratiques genrées et violences entre pairs : Les enjeux socio-éducatifs de la mixité au quotidien en milieu scolaire

    OpenAIRE

    Mercader, Patricia; Lechenet, Annie; Durif-Varembont, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Marie-Carmen; Lignon, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Patricia MERCADER, professeure de psychologie sociale (CRPPC, EA 356), coordinatrice. Annie LECHENET, maître de conférences en philosophie (Triangle, UMR 5206). Jean-Pierre DURIF-VAREMBONT, MCf HDR en psychologie, psychanalyste Marie-Carmen GARCIA, Pr, sociologie Fanny LIGNON, MCf, études cinématographiques. Viviane ALBENGA, docteure en sociologie Audrey ARNOULT, docteure en Sciences de l'information et de la communication Natacha CARBONNE, docteure en sociologie Mehdi DERFOUFI, docteur e...

  3. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L

    2001-07-01

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  4. Chercheur, engagé et professionnel du développement en milieu rural au Togo : équilibre entre affects, technique et distanciation

    OpenAIRE

    N'Djambara, Mahamondou

    2011-01-01

    Pour celui qui s'est initié à l'Ethnologie, la première règle qu'il intègre est celle qui lui rappelle à tout moment qu'il doit rechercher la rigueur scientifique par sa capacité de distanciation. Les difficultés liées à cet effort d'objectivation dépendent de la position du chercheur et de son degré d'appartenance à la communauté qu'il observe. Un retour réflexif sur le terrain d'enquête est nécessaire pour appréhender cet obstacle.

  5. « Au milieu d’un million de sépulcres », l’écriture comme salut chez Jean de Léry

    OpenAIRE

    Trotot, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    article de 18 pages, p. 65-83 International audience The two works written by Jean de Léry, the Histoire mémorable de Sancerre and the Histoire d’un voyage en la terre de Brésil, are presented as eye-witness accounts. However, they are true literary works in which writing acts to transform being. The two works thus appear as « works of salvation, » according to the phrase used by Georges Gusdorf to describe autobiography. They reproduce the experience of survival that they depict and gi...

  6. L'élevage des petits ruminants en milieu villageois au Cameroun. Deuxième partie : santé animale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois, J.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants husbandry in traditional flocks in Cameroon. Second part : animal health. After a one year survey among West African Dwarf sheep and goats in four villages and five flocks in the North-West province of Cameroon, the sanitary state of these traditional flocks was studied. The main diseases encountered were respiratory problems, present all the year and, especially severe during the rainy season, cutaneous and gastro-intestinal parasitic diseases. Keratoconjunctivitis and foot lesions were also frequently noticed. Among cutaneous parasites, mange (psoroptic and sarcoptic and ticks (Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus were the most prevalent. Nematodes and coccidia were the main intestinal parasites. Faecal cultures results indicated that Strongyloides, Trichostrongylus, Chabertia and Cooperia were the prevalent parasites. The mean total faecal egg counts were higher in goats than in sheep. An anthelmintic treatment (Eustidil, Wellcome given to ail animals at the beginning of the rainy season was ineffective in protecting these animals from field infestations.

  7. Politiques linguistiques et interprétation en milieu social au Canada : des droits linguistiques aux droits d’accès aux services publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jiménez-Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the importance of the interpreter as a vector of distinction between linguistic rights and rights of access to public services in the Canadian context. For the former, the specific case of the language used during legal proceedings and the recognition of the national official languages are analyzed. For the latter, the fact that access to any kind of essential public services must be accomplished by means of an interpreter is underlined. In order to illustrate this distinction, both the Canadian jurisprudence on language used during the trials and the mode of functioning of interpreter lists in Quebec are examined.

  8. L'hemorragie grave du peripartum en milieu de reanimation dans un centre universitaire tunisien de niveau 3: épidémiologie et facteurs de risque de mortalité maternelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Laidi Ben; Marzouk, Sofiene Ben; Kehila, Mehdi; Jabri, Hamed; Thamleoui, Saber; Maghrebi, Hayen

    2015-01-01

    L'hémorragie grave du péripartum demeure une des causes principales de mortalité maternelle. L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire le profil épidémiologique des patientes qui ont été prises en charge en milieu de réanimation suite à une hémorragie grave du péripartum et de rechercher d’éventuels facteurs de risque de mortalité. Notre étude est rétrospective descriptive et analytique. Nous avons inclus tous les cas d'hémorragie du péripartum ayant séjourné en unité de réanimation obstétricale du centre de maternité et de néonatologie de Tunis (CMNT) au cours de la période allant de janvier 2010 à Décembre 2013. Nous avons recueilli les paramètres démographiques, obstétricaux, ceux relatifs à la prise en charge chirurgicale et réanimatoire, les scores de gravité SAPS obstétrical et APACHEII, ainsi que la morbi-mortalité. Au total nous avons colligé 322 cas sur quatre ans. La répartition annuelle des patientes ainsi que les caractéristiques démographiques et obstétricales étaient comparables dans leur globalité sur les quatre années. Les pratiques thérapeutiques étaient également comparables. Le taux global de mortalité par hémorragie dans notre unité était à 4,7%, avec un taux annuel de mortalité stable. L'analyse des facteurs de risque de mortalité par hémorragie en milieu de réanimation a montré une association statistiquement significative entre la survenue du décès et les facteurs suivants: recours aux catécholamines, survenue de sepsis, œdème pulmonaire aigu, coagulation intravasculaire disséminée, insuffisance rénale aigue avec recours à l'hémodialyse, SDRA ou TRALI, atteinte neurologique grave, défaillance multiviscérale et arrêt cardiaque récupéré. PMID:26587127

  9. Qualité de l’offre et usage du transport public en milieu urbain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Genre-Grandpierre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail est de mieux cerner les déterminants de la mobilité quotidienne en bus en milieu urbain. Il s’agit en particulier d’étudier dans quelle mesure la qualité de l’offre de transport en bus en détermine l’intensité de l’usage. Une première étape a consisté à élaborer un indicateur décrivant localement la qualité de l’accessibilité fournie par le bus. Dans un second temps, des données originales portant sur les déplacements quotidiens à Besançon ont été collectées grâce à une enquête téléphonique, puis implémentées dans un Système d’Information Géographique. Dans un troisième temps, la mise en relation de l’offre et de l’usage du bus a permis de montrer que la qualité de l’offre bus n’en explique l’usage qu’à un niveau très agrégé, mais qu’elle explique en revanche bien la satisfaction quant à cet usage. Plutôt qu’à travers une estimation globale de la qualité de l’offre bus, il est apparu que ce n’est que dans la comparaison de l’offre bus et de l’offre automobile sur un ensemble d’origines-destinations bien précis que l’on parvenait à comprendre les ressorts du choix modal.

  10. Immunological milieu in the peritoneal cavity at laparotomy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yoneda; Shinichiro Ito; Seiya Susumu; Mitsutoshi Matsuo; Ken Taniguchi; Yoshitsugu Tajima; Susumu Eguchi

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the immunological repertoire in the peritoneal cavity of gastric cancer patients.METHODS:The peritoneal cavity is a compartment in which immunological host-tumor interactions can occur.However,the role of lymphocytes in the peritoneal cavity of gastric cancer patients is unclear.We observed 64 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer and 11 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones and acted as controls.Lymphocytes isolated from both peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage were analyzed for surface markers of lymphocytes and their cytokine production by flow cytometry.CD4+CD25high T cells isolated from the patient's peripheral blood were co-cultivated for 4 d with the intra-peritoneal lymphocytes,and a cytokine assay was performed.RESULTS:At gastrectomy,CCR7-CD45RA CD8+ effector memory T cells were observed in the peritoneal cavity.The frequency of CD4+ CD25 high T cells in both the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity was elevated in patients at advanced stage [control vs stage Ⅳ in the peripheral blood:6.89 (3.39-10.4) vs 15.34 (11.37-1931),P < 0.05,control vs stage Ⅳ in the peritoneal cavity:8.65 (5.28-12.0) vs 19.56 (14.81-24.32),P < 0.05].On the other hand,the suppression was restored with CD4+ CD25highT cells from their own peripheral blood.This study is the first to analyze lymphocyte and cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity in patients with gastric cancer.Immune regulation at advanced stage is reversible at the point of gastrectomy.CONCLUSION:The immunological milieu in the peritoneal cavity of patients with advanced gastric cancer elicited a Th2 response even at gastrectomy,but this response was reversible.

  11. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes of Trichinella spiralis larvae after exposure to host intestine milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jun Ren

    Full Text Available Although it has been known for many years that T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML can not invade intestinal epithelial cells unless they are exposed to the intestinal milieu and activated into intestinal infective larvae (IIL, which genes in IIL are involved in the process of invasion is still unknown. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH was performed to identify differentially expressed genes between IIL and ML. SSH library was constructed using cDNA generated from IIL as the 'tester'. About 110 positive clones were randomly selected from the library and sequenced, of which 33 T. spiralis genes were identified. Thirty encoded proteins were annotated according to Gene Ontology Annotation in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization. Out of 30 annotated proteins, 16 proteins (53.3% had binding activity and 12 proteins (40.0% had catalytic activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that the expression of nine genes (Ts7, Ndr family protein; Ts8, serine/threonine-protein kinase polo; Ts11, proteasome subunit beta type-7; Ts17, nudix hydrolase; Ts19, ovochymase-1; Ts22, fibronectin type III domain protein; Ts23, muscle cell intermediate filament protein OV71; Ts26, neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT and Ts33, FACT complex subunit SPT16 from 33 T. spiralis genes in IIL were up-regulated compared with that of ML. The present study provide a group of the potential invasion-related candidate genes and will be helpful for further studies of mechanisms by which T. spiralis infective larvae recognize and invade the intestinal epithelial cells.

  13. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  14. Rocky milieu: Challenges of effective integration of clinical risk management into hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Farokhzadian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare risks and clinical risks have been recognized as a major challenge in healthcare. Clinical risks can never be eliminated and can have serious adverse effects on patient safety. Thus, a clinical risk management (CRM system has been introduced in the healthcare system to improve quality services. The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences related to the challenges of implementing CRM in the organizational context. This qualitative study was based on the conventional content analysis of the Lundman and Graneheim approach, and it consisted of 22 interview sessions with 20 nurses. The purposive sampling method was used to choose the participants from three hospitals affiliated with the Kerman University of Medical Sciences. We used semi-structured interviews and review of relevant documents to collect data. The analysis of the data led to the emergence of “rocky milieu” as the main theme, and it consisted of three categories that, along with their subcategories, explain the challenges of implementing CRM. The three categories and their subcategories were (1 organizational culture and leadership challenges (decision and performance of leadership and cultural resistance to change, (2 limitation of resources (financial, human, and physical and equipment resources, and (3 variations and complexities in working conditions (the emotional, psychological, and social atmosphere and the heaviness of workload. Attempts have been made to establish CRM through clinical governance and accreditation, but organizational challenges have created a rocky milieu for implementing CRM. However, from an organizational context concerning the suitability of healthcare in Iran, there are obvious needs to move toward quality improvement and safe practices through the effective implementation of CRM.

  15. Flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt Tonjes, Marguerite; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    The study of flow can provide information on the initial state dynamics and the degree of equilibration attained in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution presents results for both elliptic and directed flow as determined from data recorded by the PHOBOS experiment in Au+Au runs at RHIC at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. The PHOBOS detector provides a unique coverage in pseudorapidity for measuring flow at RHIC. The systematic dependence of flow on pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, centrality and energy is discussed.

  16. Multiscale Modeling of Au-Island Ripening on Au(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kleiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiscale modeling hierarchy for the particular case of Au-island ripening on Au(100. Starting at the microscopic scale, density functional theory was used to investigate a limited number of self-diffusion processes on perfect and imperfect Au(100 surfaces. The obtained structural and energetic information served as basis for optimizing a reactive forcefield (here ReaxFF, which afterwards was used to address the mesoscopic scale. Reactive force field simulations were performed to investigate more diffusion possibilities at a lower computational cost but with similar accuracy. Finally, we reached the macroscale by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC simulations. The reaction rates for the reaction process database used in the kMC simulations were generated using the reactive force field. Using this strategy, we simulated nucleation, aggregation, and fluctuation processes for monoatomic high islands on Au(100 and modeled their equilibrium shape structures. Finally, by calculating the step line tension at different temperatures, we were able to make a direct comparison with available experimental data.

  17. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidants by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu, and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here, we present a laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed a methodology for resolving the actual H2O2 concentrations released by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity steadily increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 1-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then to slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of H2O2, possibly since the flow reduces the thickness of the diffusive boundary layer of the coral, and thus increases H2O2 mass flux. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidants did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was not released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae, and may possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  18. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here we present laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed methodology for resolving the actual rates of H2O2 release by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity linearly increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 2-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of both H2O2 and antioxidant activity, possibly due to ventilation of the coral by the flow. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidant did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was only minimally released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae and possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  19. Relative Distribution of Au48+ ~ Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Yan; ZHU Zheng-He; JIANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  20. AU Political Solution in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 3,2011 The African Union(AU),through its High-Level ad hoc Committee on the Situation in Libya and the Commission, is driven by the conviction that, ultimately,only a political solution will make it possible to promote,in a sustainable way,the legitimate aspira-

  1. Chapitre III. De l’école au marché du travail : la fin de l’emploi public

    OpenAIRE

    Gobe, Éric

    2015-01-01

    L’échec du modèle développementaliste concerne l’ensemble du Maghreb, même s’il a frappé de plein fouet un pays comme l’Algérie. Les États maghrébins ont été contraints tout au long des années 1980 et 1990 de négocier des plans d’ajustement structurel avec les institutions financières internationales (1983 pour le Maroc, 1986 pour la Tunisie, 1991 pour l’Égypte et 1995 pour l’Algérie). Puis, au milieu des années 1990, la Tunisie, le Maroc et l’Algérie (2001) ont signé des accords de libre-éch...

  2. Thomas Bouchet, Un jeudi à l’Assemblée. Politiques du discours et droit au travail dans la France de 1848

    OpenAIRE

    Chambarlhac, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Le jeudi à l’Assemblée choisi par Thomas Bouchet pour situer sa présentation des « formes » et des « logiques du discours politique au milieu du xixe siècle » (p. 11), et par là leur restituer leur intensité, est l’une des séances que les membres de l’Assemblée nationale constituante de la Seconde République ont consacrées à débattre des articles du projet de préambule rédigé par la commission de constitution consacrés à la question cruciale du droit au travail, offerts à leur lecture à la fi...

  3. Synthese de nanoparticules plasmoniques par laser femtoseconde en milieu liquide pour des applications biomedicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Sebastien

    The femtosecond laser synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Cu, AuAg, AuCu) is described. The approach relies on the fs laser ablation of a target immersed in a liquid, followed by the laser-induced fragmentation and growth of nanoparticles in solution. This two-step methodology significantly enhances the production rate, the reproducibility and the size control of nanoparticles in comparison to the direct laser ablation based technique. For gold, the laser-induced growth of nanometric seeds initially formed by laser ablation in the presence of a stabilizing agent allows the synthesis of functionalized nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 3-76 nm and coefficients of variation (COV) varying between 15-30%. In comparison to the direct laser ablation, the size control is much simpler, as it uniquely depends on the gold to stabilizing agent molecular concentration ratio. The approach has been described for dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but can be extended to all stabilizing agents and open new avenues in the formation of various novel bioconjugates. The fs laser ablation and fragmentation also allow the synthesis of stable and low dispersed Au nanoparticles in pure water. These nanoparticles are unique for sensing applications with high sensitivity based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), since they greatly reduce the noise associated with surface contaminants and byproducts found in solution. The formation of various nanospheres with predetermined size, shape and composition (AuxAg(1-x), AuxCu(1-x) ) is also reported by the use of a fs irradiation of a mixture of two pure metallic ix colloidal solutions in a very simple chemical environment, e.g. water and a stabilizing agent. From a chemical point of view, oxidation of silver nanoparticles is significantly reduced by the incorporation of a small amount of gold and is completely inhibited for a gold atomic fraction larger than 0.4-0.5. The bifunctional nature related to the partial

  4. Structures et dynamiques forestières en milieu tempéré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Julien-Laferrière

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Le travail a été réalisé à l’atelier PASTEL, structure commune à l’EHESS, au CNRS et à l’ENS de Fontenay, établie dans les locaux de l’UMR 180 CNRS, laboratoire de biogéographie de l’ENS de Fontenay Problématique Le thème de recherche porte sur les structures forestières et leur dynamique. Les objectifs thématiques poursuivis sont les suivants : caractérisation des structures forestières par télédétection et estimation de leur productivité en terme de biomasse, analyse des dynamiques intra et...

  5. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yue, Q; Yurevich, V I; Zawisza, M; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2007-01-01

    The system created in non-central relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Due to spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could become globally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. We present the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarization measurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV performed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed global polarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance is consistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. The obtained upper limit, |P_{Lambda,anti-Lambda}| <= 0.02, is compared to the theoretical values discussed recently in the literature.

  6. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Crochet, Philippe; Gobbi, A; Donà, R; Coffin, J P; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Roy, C; De Schauenburg, B; Tizniti, L; Wagner, P; Alard, J P; Amouroux, V; Andronic, A; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Best, D; Biegansky, J; Butà, A; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fan, Z G; Fodor, Z; Fraysse, L; Freifelder, R P; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Hong, B H; Jeong, S C; Kecskeméti, J; Kirejczyk, M; Koncz, P; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Lebedev, A; Leifels, Y; Man'ko, V I; Moisa, D; Mösner, J; Neubert, W; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Pinkenburg, C H; Pras, P; Ramillien, V; Reisdorf, W; Ritman, J L; Sadchikov, A G; Schüll, D; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Sodan, U; Teh, K M; Trzaska, M; Vasilev, M A; Wang, G S; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Zhilin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100AMeV to 800AMeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z>2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  7. Charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Xu(蔡勖); ZHOU; Daimei(周代梅); SA; Benhao(萨本豪)

    2003-01-01

    A hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, together with the corresponding Monte Carlo eventgenerator, has been employed in this paper to investigate further the charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at√Snn= 130 GeV. The default JPCIAE calculations are in good agreement with PHENIX and STAR data. Wefound that the thermal predictions for the π gas, the resonance π gas and quark matter deviate, respectively,from the corresponding dynamical simulations from the JPCIAE model. The discrepancies were also foundbetween the π charge fluctuations and the charge fluctuations of all species of hadrons. However the chargefluctuations for "π from ρ and ω decay" and for all the hadrons from resonance decay are close to each other,indicating the correlation between positively and negatively charged hadrons is not sensitive to the species ofhadrons. This work shows further that it is questionable to use the charge fluctuations as a signature of QGP.

  8. Nuclear Modification of Jet Fragmentation in Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Zachary; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of energy in the quark gluon plasma is facilitated by measurements of modifications to the observed jet fragmentation. A favorable channel of study relies on direct photons created in the initial parton interactions of heavy ion collisions. Such a photon traverses the created medium unscathed and grants us a proxy for the transverse momentum of an away side jet. PHENIX Au+Au data recorded at √{sNN} = 200 GeV during RHIC run 14 benefit from the background rejection capability of the silicon vertex detector, enabling the extraction of a higher purity hadron signal. This advantage, combined with a larger integrated luminosity, allows previous PHENIX measurements of fragmentation functions to be extended to greater jet energies. In this talk, the status of the analysis of direct photon hadron correlations with the new data set will be discussed.

  9. Les invasions biologiques en milieu insulaire : le cas de Miconia calvescens, à Tahiti : rapport de stage effectué au centre ORSTOM de Tahiti au titre de Volontaire à l'Aide Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gaubert, Hélène

    1991-01-01

    Etude de la dissémination de #Miconia$ #calvescens$ plante introduite à Tahiti en 1937, qui s'est répandue dans la forêt primaire d'altitude, et occupe les 2/3 de l'île. Trois aspects sont étudiés : biologie de la reproduction de #Maconia$ à travers la phénologie de sa floraison et de sa fructification, identification des oiseaux qui dissèminent ses graines, et étude de la banque de graines dans le sol. Dans la conclusion, des perspectives de lutte contre l'invasion de cette peste végétale so...

  10. Solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique Solubilizing Coal in an Organic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahaye Ph.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique constitue une des voies préconisées pour la valorisation des houilles sous forme de combustibles liquides. Dans le cas d'extractions simples, conduites à des températures inférieures à 150-200' C, on obtient des rendements pondéraux en extrait qui varient, pour un même solvant, dans une large mesure selon les conditions opératoires du traitement et la nature du charbon utilisé. C'est ainsi que le rendement en extrait augmente, d'une part, avec le temps d'extraction, pour atteindre après 48 h une valeur maximale dans les conditions opératoires retenues, et, d'autre part, avec la température d'extraction. De plus, ce même rendement diminue plus ou moins régulièrement depuis les charbons gras jusqu'aux anthracites avec le degré de carbonisation des houilles. Par ailleurs, la nature physico-chimique des solvants d'extraction influe fortement sur les rendements pondéraux en extrait obtenus, dans des conditions opératoires identiques, à partir d'un même charbon. En règle générale, à température d'extraction comparable, le rendement en extrait s'avère d'autant plus important que la basicité du solvant est plus marquée. A cet égard, les composés azotés basiques apparaissent comme des solvants de grande efficacité. En outre, les mélanges binaires de composés basiques manifestent le plus souvent un pouvoir solvant supérieur à celui de leurs constituants engagés à l'état pur. Les principales conclusions dégagées de l'étude des charbons sont susceptibles d'être généralisées à l'extraction de la matière organique contenue dans les roches sédimentaires. Cool solubilisation in an organic environment is one of the recommended ways of upgrading cool in the form of liquid fuels. For simple extractions performed at temperatures lower thon 150-200° C, the weighted extract yields obtained with the same solvent vary to a large extent, depending on the operating

  11. Decay spectroscopy of $^{178}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B

    In this thesis, the neutron-deficient nucleus $^{178}$Au is investigated through decay spectroscopy. Si and HPGe detectors were used to analyse the decay radiation of $^{178}$Au and its daughter nuclei. Previous studies have been unable to distinguish decay radiation from different isomeric states of this nucleus. This thesis represents the first time such isomeric discrimination has been achieved, and presents tentative spin assignments of both the ground state and an isomer. The neutron-deficient gold isotopes are an area of interest for the study of shape coexistence. This is the phenomenon exhibited by nuclei able to exist at a number of close lying energy minima, each reflecting a distinct type of deformation. It is hoped that studies such as this can help identify the evolution of nuclear deformation in this region of the nuclear chart.

  12. Introduction au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Ce document est une introduction au filtre optimal de Kalman appliquée aux systèmes linéaires. On suppose connues la théorie des asservissements linéaires et du filtrage fréquentiel (continu et discret) ainsi que les notions d'états pour représenter les systèmes dynamiques linéaires.

  13. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  14. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  15. Is “Warmth” a Mode of Social Behaviour? Considerations on a Cultural History of the Left-Alternative Milieu from the Late Sixties to the Mid Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Reichardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive counter-cultural milieu from the late 1960s until the early 1980s. Life style and habitus within this undogmatic and widely peaceful radical leftist milieu were practised according to a conduct of warmth. This alternative conduct of warmth corresponded with developments in the increasing individualized consumer society of the Federal Republic of Germany. The counter-cultural social behaviour was neither a departure into the land of freedom nor into a reign of normlessness. It was a form of self-guidance and governmentality with its own contradictions and coercions.

  16. Être mère en prison au Pérou : droit ou double peine ?

    OpenAIRE

    Boutron, Camille; Constant, Chloé

    2014-01-01

    Cet article analyse la maternité en milieu carcéral comme un ensemble de valeurs et de pratiques définies à partir des différents types de rapports sociaux observables en prison. Dans une perspective comparative entre détenues politiques et détenues de droit commun, il examine les spécificités de l’enfermement féminin au Pérou et se demande dans quelle mesure la manière dont la maternité est prise en charge en prison est l’expression de droits mais agit également comme un outil de contrôle so...

  17. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for cen...

  18. Présentation et mise en valeur des sites archéologiques religieux en milieu urbain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bully

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La table ronde de Luxeuil des 25 et 26 avril 2008 a réuni une quarantaine de personnes dans les locaux de l’abbaye Saint-Colomban, où près de dix-neuf intervenants ont pris la parole durant les quatre demi-journées consacrées à la question de « La présentation et de la mise en valeur des sites religieux en milieu urbain ». Une visite du centre ancien de Luxeuil, accompagnée d’un exposé sur les principaux résultats archéologiques obtenus lors d’une série de sondages en 2005 et 2006, a clôturé ...

  19. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  20. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  1. Comparaison de differentes methodes de dosage des nitrates dans les extraits de sols. Influence du milieu d'extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Adamowicz, Stephane; Otto, C.; Mars, S.; BALLINO, Nicole

    1982-01-01

    Une comparaison de quatre méthodes de dosage des nitrates a été faite dans des extraits de quarante sols : la détermination directe à l’aide d’une électrode sélective, la méthode DEVARDA et deux méthodes automatiques basées sur la réduction des nitrates en nitrites, l’une par un mélange sulfate de cuivre-sulfate d’hydrazine, l’autre par une colonne de cadmium cuivré, et la colorimétrie des nitrites obtenus. L’influence du milieu d’extraction (KCl 2 N, Ca2Cl2 0,01 N et CuSO4 0,002 N) sur l...

  2. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  3. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  4. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  5. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  6. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  7. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  8. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  9. A Study of Parton Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC using Transport Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, Y.; Vance, S. E.; Csizmadia, P.

    2001-01-01

    Parton energy loss in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies is studied by numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the partons including $2 \\leftrightarrow 2$ and $2 \\to 2 + final state radiation$ collision processes. Final particle spectra are obtained using two hadronization models; the Lund string fragmentation and independent fragmentation models. Recent, preliminary $\\pi^0$ transverse momentum distributions from central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are reproduced using gluon-g...

  10. Bright, NIR-emitting Au23 from Au25: characterization and applications including biolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Pal, Samir Kumar; Kumar, R C Arun; Paul, Soumya; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai Vyomakesannair; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2009-10-01

    A novel interfacial route has been developed for the synthesis of a bright-red-emitting new subnanocluster, Au(23), by the core etching of a widely explored and more stable cluster, Au(25)SG(18) (in which SG is glutathione thiolate). A slight modification of this procedure results in the formation of two other known subnanoclusters, Au(22) and Au(33). Whereas Au(22) and Au(23) are water soluble and brightly fluorescent with quantum yields of 2.5 and 1.3 %, respectively, Au(33) is organic soluble and less fluorescent, with a quantum yield of 0.1 %. Au(23) exhibits quenching of fluorescence selectively in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and it can therefore be used as a metal-ion sensor. Aqueous- to organic-phase transfer of Au(23) has been carried out with fluorescence enhancement. Solvent dependency on the fluorescence of Au(23) before and after phase transfer has been studied extensively and the quantum yield of the cluster varies with the solvent used. The temperature response of Au(23) emission has been demonstrated. The inherent fluorescence of Au(23) was used for imaging human hepatoma cells by employing the avidin-biotin interaction. PMID:19711391

  11. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Schenke, Bjoern; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for central collisions, while fluctuation driven odd moments vary little between systems. Event-by-event distributions of eccentricities in mid-central collisions are wider in Cu+Au relative to Au+Au and U+U systems. An anti-correlation between multiplicity and eccentricity is observed in ultra central U+U collisions which is weaker in the IP-Glasma model than the two-component MC-Glauber model. In ultra central Au+Au collisions the two models predict opposite signs for the slope of this correlation. Measurements of elliptic flo...

  12. Les déterminants du statut “perdu de vue” chez les patients pris en charge pour cancer au Maroc: situation avant le Plan Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdi, Adil; Berraho, Mohamed; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan; Nejjari, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer au Maroc représente un problème majeur de santé publique, sa prise en charge doit être globale, active et complète pour tous les patients. L'objectif de ce travail était d'estimer la fréquence des perdus de vue « PDV » en oncologie au Maroc durant la première année de suivi et de déterminer les facteurs associés à ce problème. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur 2854 dossiers de malades hospitalisés dans les trois principaux centres d'oncologie au Maroc depuis janvier 2003 jusqu’à juin 2007 et concernant les cinq principales localisations de cancer au Maroc, nous avons cherché la date des dernières nouvelles des patients ayant un recul de 18 mois minimum afin de déterminer le statut de ces malades après un an de suivi. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 52±14 ans, une proportion féminine de 63%, les sujets actifs constituaient 28%, les mariés 71%, les analphabètes 51%, 70% des patients habitaient en milieu urbain et seulement 11% des malades disposaient d'une couverture sociale. La localisation cancéreuse la plus fréquente était le poumon (23,8%) suivie du colon-rectum (23,5%) puis le col (21,9%), le sein (20,4%) et les lymphomes (10,4%). Le taux des «PDV» à un an de suivi était de 48%, ce statut était significativement lié au sexe, à l’âge, au NSE et au statut matrimonial. Sur le plan médical, le statut «PDV» était lié à la localisation du cancer, au stade de diagnostic et au type de traitement reçu. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en évidence la grande ampleur du problème des PDV en cancérologie au Maroc ainsi que ces déterminants. Ces résultats incitent tous les acteurs dans le domaine de la cancérologie à collaborer ensemble pour prendre les mesures qui s'imposent pour y pallier PMID:25400850

  13. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  14. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector; Etude des collisions relativistes Au+Au avec le detecteur Fopi-Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupieux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  16. Characteristic atom occupation patterns of Au3Cu, AuCu3, AuCuⅠ and AuCuⅡ based on experimental data of disordered alloys%以无序合金的实验数据为基础的Au3Cu,AuCu3,AuCuⅠ和AuCuⅡ的特征原子占据图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佑卿; 李艳芬; 刘心笔; 李晓波; 彭红建; 聂耀庄

    2011-01-01

    根据无序Au1-xCux合金的实验生成热和晶格常数得到只考虑近邻原子组态的特征原子的势能、体积和电子结构,计算L12-Au3Cu,L12-AuCu3和L10-AuCu化合物的特征原子占据(CAO)图、电子结构、能量和体积性质.Johasson-Linde(J-L)模型的CAO图表明,AuCuⅠ-AuCuⅡ转变是一个放热且体积缩小的反应,但正好与实验现象相反.根据Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L)模型的CAO图,AuCuⅡ晶胞由两个周期反相(PAD)的AuCuⅠ区域和两个PAD边界区域组成;从G-F-L模型的CAO图得出的公式可用来计算PAD AuCuⅠ区域和PAD边界区域的能量性质、体积性质和有序度及AuCuⅡ相的平均性质,计算结果与实验现象相吻合.%The potential energies, volumes and electronic structures of characteristic atoms coordinated by neighboring configurations were obtained from the experimental heats of formation and lattice parameters of disordered Au1-xCux alloys. From characteristic atom occupation (CAO) patterns of L12-Au3Cu, L12-AuCu3 and L10-AuCu compounds, their electronic structures, volumetric and energetic properties were calculated. The CAO pattern of Johasson-Linde(J-L) model shows that the transition AuCuⅠ→ AuCuⅡ is an exothermic and volume contraction reaction, which is opposite from experimental phenomena. According to CAO pattern of Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L) model, the AuCuⅡ cell consists of two periodic antidirection (PAD) AuCuⅠ regions and two PAD boundary regions. The equations derived from CAO pattern of G-F-L model can be used to calculate energetic properties, volumetric properties and ordering degrees of the PAD AuCul region and PAD boundary region, as well as corresponding average properties of the AuCuⅡ phase. The results are consistent with experimental phenomena.

  17. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation of converge......This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  18. Le curriculum scolaire au Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Cristián

    2012-01-01

    L’article examine l’usage historique du terme « curriculum » au Chili. Il aborde la configuration actuelle de la prescription curriculaire nationale : des « objectifs et contenus minimums », des « programmes d’études », et des « cartes de progrès des apprentissages ». On y décrit les institutions et les processus qui rendent compte de la genèse des définitions curriculaires en vigueur en 2010. Elles sont le résultat de deux étapes de réformes caractérisées par des processus consultatifs et pa...

  19. Portraits de femmes au Biafra

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude considère l’impact de la guerre civile nigériane sur la vie quotidienne et les relations interpersonnelles des Biafrais telle qu’elle est présentée dans Femmes en guerre et autres nouvelles d’Achebe et Blow the Fire de Leslie Ofoegbu. Ces deux écrivains, dont l’un, déjà traduit dans plusieurs langues, a été le premier à projeter le pays igbo sur la scène internationale, et dont l’autre est une Écossaise mariée à un Nigérian et qui vécut au Biafra pendant les années de guerre, offr...

  20. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  1. Enhanced activity for supported Au clusters: Methanol oxidation on Au/TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Samuel A.; Cagg, Brett A.; Levine, Mara S.; He, Wei; Manandhar, Kedar; Chen, Donna A.

    2012-08-01

    Gold clusters supported on TiO2(110) exhibit unusual activity for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Temperature programmed desorption studies of methanol on Au clusters show that both Au and titania sites are necessary for methanol reaction. Isotopic labeling experiments with CD3OH demonstrate that reaction occurs via Osbnd H bond scission to form a methoxy intermediate. When the TiO2 surface is oxidized with 18O2 before or after Au deposition, methanol reaction produces H218O below 300 K, indicating that oxygen from titania promotes Osbnd H bond scission and is incorporated into desorbing products. XPS experiments provide additional evidence that during methanol reaction on the Au/TiO2 surface, methanol adsorption occurs on TiO2, given that the titania support becomes slightly oxidized after exposure to methanol in the presence of Au clusters. While the role of TiO2 is to dissociate the Osbnd H bond and form the reactive methoxy intermediate, the role of the Au sites is to remove hydrogen from the surface as H2, thus preventing the recombination of methoxy and hydrogen to methanol. The decrease in formaldehyde yield with increasing Au coverage above 0.25 ML suggests that reaction occurs at Au-titania interfacial sites; scanning tunneling microscopy images of various Au coverages confirm that the number of interfacial sites at the perimeter of the Au clusters decreases as the Au coverage is increased between 0.25 and 5 ML.

  2. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  3. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  4. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria of Sn-Cu-Au Ternary and Ag-Sn-Cu-Au Quaternary Systems and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-Cu/Au Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Jao, Chien-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lee, Chiapyng

    2007-02-01

    The phase equilibria of the Sn-Cu-Au ternary, Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary systems and interfacial reactions between Sn-Cu alloys and Au were experimentally investigated at specific temperatures in this study. The experimental results indicated that there existed three ternary intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and a complete solid solubility between AuSn and Cu6Sn5 phases in the Sn-Cu-Au ternary system at 200°C. No quaternary IMC was found in the isoplethal section of the Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary system. Three IMCs, AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4, were found in all couples. The same three IMCs and (Au,Cu)Sn/(Cu,Au)6Sn5 phases were found in all Sn-Cu/Au couples. The thickness of these reaction layers increased with increasing temperature and time. The mechanism of IMC growth can be described by using the parabolic law. In addition, when the reaction time was extended and the Cu content of the alloy was increased, the AuSn4 phase disappeared gradually. The (Au, Cu)Sn and (Cu,Au)6Sn5 layers played roles as diffusion barriers against Sn in Sn-Cu/Au reaction couple systems.

  5. Bifidobacterium strains suppress in vitro the pro-inflammatory milieu triggered by the large intestinal microbiota of coeliac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabuig Miguel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coeliac disease (CD is an enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to cereal-gluten proteins. Although gluten peptides and microorganisms activate similar pro-inflammatory pathways, the role the intestinal microbiota may play in this disorder is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the faecal microbiota of coeliac patients could contribute to the pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of CD and the possible benefits of bifidobacteria. Methods The effect of faeces of 26 CD patients with active disease (mean age 5.5 years, range 2.1–12.0 years, 18 symptom-free coeliac disease (SFCD patients (mean age 5.5 years, range 1.0–12.3 years on a gluten-free diet for 1–2 years; and 20 healthy children (mean age 5.3 years, range 1.8–10.8 years on induction of cytokine production and surface antigen expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were determined. The possible regulatory roles of Bifidobacterium longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 co-incubated with faecal samples were also assessed in vitro. Results Faeces of both active CD and SFCD patients, representing an imbalanced microbiota, significantly increased TNF-α production and CD86 expression in PBMCs, while decreased IL-10 cytokine production and CD4 expression compared with control samples. Active CD-patient samples also induced significantly higher IFN-γ production compared with controls. However, Bifidobacterium strains suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern induced by the large intestinal content of CD patients and increased IL-10 production. Cytokine effects induced by faecal microbiota seemed to be mediated by the NFκB pathway. Conclusion The intestinal microbiota of CD patients could contribute to the Th1 pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of the disease, while B. longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 could reverse these deleterious effects. These findings hold future perspectives of interest in CD therapy.

  6. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles. PMID:27385583

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-La and Au-Er binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.Q., E-mail: hongqun.dong@aalto.fi [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland); Tao, X.M. [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, H.S. [Scientific Center of Phase Diagrams and Materials Design, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Laurila, T.; Paulastro-Kroeckel, M. [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > It's the first time that Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were thermodynamically assessed since 1985. > Besides, in the present work, the ab initio approach has been employed to calculate the formation enthalpies of the IMCs involved in Au-Er and Au-La binary systems, and then, by combining with all of the available experimental information, these two-system were thermodynamically optimized via CALPHAD method. Therefore, a more reliable thermodynamic description has been obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Phase relationships in Au-La and Au-Er binary systems have been thermodynamically assessed by using the CALPHAD technique. The existing thermodynamic descriptions of the systems were improved by incorporating the ab initio calculated enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, except for the Au{sub 51}La{sub 14} and Au{sub 10}Er{sub 7} phases. All the binary intermetallic compounds were treated as stoichiometric phases, while the solution phases, including liquid, fcc, bcc, and dhcp, were treated as substitutional solution phases and the excess Gibbs energies were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial function. As a result, two self-consist thermodynamic data sets for describing the Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were obtained.

  8. Les pièges de chasse antiques au Yémen Ancient hunting traps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueli Brunner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce court article veut donner une première idée des anciennes structures de chasse en Arabie du Sud ; cela représente un nouveau sujet de recherche. Les pièges de chasse au Yémen peuvent être comparés aux célèbres desert kites de l’Arabie du Nord. La structure du desert kite du Yémen est fixe : deux longues murailles conduisent à la tête, qui est une structure ouverte avec quelques chambres à gauche, la muraille-guide à droite et la ruelle au milieu. Trois exemples sont exposés en détail. Les desert kites servaient à chasser les gazelles. Ils furent probablement utilisés du Néolithique à la période Sabéenne.This short article provides a first glimpse at ancient hunting structures in Southern Arabia, which represents a new field of research. The hunting structures of Yemen are compared to the well-known desert kites of North Arabia. The form of the Yemeni desert kite does not change; it is fixed. Two long walls lead to the head which is an open structure with many chambers on the left side, a guiding wall on the right side and a gangway in between. Three examples are presented in detail. Desert kites served for hunting gazelles and were probably in use from the Neolithic till the Sabean period.

  9. Sjögren syndrome and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder co-exist in a common autoimmune milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo C. Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD is not completely understood. We report two patients with both conditions and review 47 other previously reported cases meeting currently accepted diagnostic criteria, from 17 articles extracted from PubMed. Out of 44 patients whose gender was informed, 42 were females. Mean age at onset of neurological manifestation was 36.2 years (10-74. Serum anti-AQP4-IgG was positive in 32 patients, borderline in 1, and negative in 4. Our Case 1 was seronegative for AQP4-IgG and had no non-organ-specific autoantibodies other than anti-SSB antibodies. Our Case 2 had serum anti-AQP4, anti-SSA/SSB, anti-thyreoglobulin and anti-acethylcholine-receptor antibodies, as well as clinical hypothyreoidism, but no evidence of myasthenia gravis. Our Cases and others, as previously reported in literature, with similar heterogeneous autoimmune response to aquaporin-4, suggest that SS and NMO co-exist in a common autoimmune milieu which is not dependent on aquaporin-4 autoimmunity.

  10. Innovation et recomposition territoriale au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Boujrouf, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les processus de recomposition territoriale au Maroc se caractérisent par une dynamique continue, reflet des grands changements qui ont affecté les différents secteurs du pays au cours du xxe siècle. Le renouvellement territorial au Maroc est un processus de recomposition permanent, depuis les trames traditionnelles (qu’elles soient tribale, confessionnelle liée aux confréries ou encore « seigneuriale » caïdale) jusqu’aux maillages territoriaux les plus récents en communes et rég...

  11. Être notable au Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Abouhani, Abdelghani; Amri-Salameh, Nelly; Blili, Leïla; Boubrik, Rahal; Boujarra, Hussein; Cattedra, Raffaele; CATUSSE, Myriam; Cheraï, Ahmed; Ettayeb, Mahmoud; Feneyrol, Olivier; Hénia, Abdelhamid; Jaïdi, Houcine; Kenbib, Mohammed; Khouaja, Ahmed; Lafi, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Le discours dominant dans les pays du Maghreb continue de stigmatiser les figures de notables dits traditionnels au nom de la modernité. L’usage scientifique de la notion de notable n’est pas pour autant disqualifié. Le présent ouvrage s’intéresse au système élitaire au Maghreb sur la longue durée, de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Il en étudie la dynamique en rapport avec les formes historiques du pouvoir et montre comment la notabilité a pris avec le temps des figures changeantes et des nominatio...

  12. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  13. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Patrimonialisation des territoires en milieu nordique et gouvernance : l’exemple du parc national Tursujuq

    OpenAIRE

    BIBAUD, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Cet article présente une analyse des consultations publiques qui ont eu lieu dans deux villages inuits et un village cri dans le cadre de la création du parc national Tursujuq, au Nunavik. L’importance accordée à l’esthétisme, à la qualité écologique de la nature, à l’historicité de l’occupation territoriale ainsi qu’à la transmission des savoirs constitue un lieu pour le développement d’actions répondant à des problématiques qui dépassent celles associées au développement touristique. En eff...

  15. Cutaneous, Purpuric Painful Nodules Upon Addition of Ibrutinib to RCVP Therapy in a CLL Patient: A Distinctive Reaction Pattern Reflecting Iatrogenic Th2 to Th1 Milieu Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Joseph Justin; Nuovo, Gerard J; Magro, Cynthia M

    2016-07-01

    A 70-year-old white man with stage C chronic lymphocytic leukemia who was being successfully treated with ibrutinib and rituximab developed bilateral, purpuric, painful cutaneous nodules. Biopsies of these nodules did not reveal the usual Th2 milieu of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but instead exhibited a Th1-rich lymphocytic infiltrate with resultant neutrophil and granulomatous inflammation. The eruption resolved with drug cessation emphasizing the potential importance of this drug in treating conditions associated with Th2 dysregulation. PMID:27043332

  16. Le spécificité du rôle infirmier dans la prise en charge de la dénutrition en milieu hospitalier

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Laure-Aline

    2008-01-01

    Cette recherche a pour but d'appréhender les représentations des infirmières travaillant en milieu hospitalier par rapport à leur rôle dans la prise en charge de la dénutrition. Le jury a relevé la qualité de la construction de la problématique ainsi que la cohérence méthodologique.

  17. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  18. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  19. Studying of the photoluminescence characteristics of Au(0)@Au(I)-thiolate core–shell nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence characteristics of Au(0)@Au(I)-thiolate Core–shell nanoclusters (Au-NCs), whose size is <2 nm, are investigated. We use the time-resolved single-photon counting technique and the transient absorption technique to distinguish the mechanism of the photoluminescence of Au-NCs. The dynamic spectral data show that the photoluminescence mechanism should be composed of the fluorescence and the phosphorescence. Meanwhile, Au-NCs have the aggregation induced photoluminescence enhancement property, which is attributed to the suppression of conversion from the singlet state to triplet state when they aggregated together. In addition, the photoluminescence characteristics of aggregated Au-NCs should be further improved through infiltrating them into photonic crystals

  20. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  1. Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs and U937 cells (macrophage cell line was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways.

  2. Electrical conduction through self-assembled monolayers in molecular junctions: Au/molecules/Au versus Au/molecule/PEDOT:PSS/Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated and characterized a large number of octanedithiol (denoted as DC8) molecular devices as vertical metal-molecule-metal structure with or without using an intermediate conducting polymer layer of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) stabilized with poly(4-styenesulfonic acid) (called as PEDOT:PSS). The electronic transport properties of DC8 molecular devices with and without PEDOT:PSS layer were statistically compared in terms of current density and device yield. The yields of the working molecular devices were found to be ∼ 1.75% (84 out of 4800 devices) for Au/DC8/Au junctions and ∼ 58% (74 out of 128 devices) for Au-DC8/PEDOT:PSS/Au junctions. The tunneling decay constants were obtained with the Simmons tunneling model and a multibarrier tunneling model for two kinds of molecular devices with and without PEDOT:PSS layer.

  3. Proton channeling in Au at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author)

  4. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz; Jose Esteves-Villanueva; Rania Soudy; Kamaljit Kaur; Sanela Martic-Milne

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto t...

  5. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  7. La place de la traduction et de l’interprétation au sein des services publics espagnols : historique, situation actuelle et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Garcés, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction En 1998, j’ai rédigé un article intitulé « ¿Traducción e interpretación en los servicios públicos ? ¿De qué me hablas ? ¿Una nueva especialización ? » dans le cadre des Troisièmes rencontres de la traduction qui se déroulèrent à l’Université d’Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) avec pour thème : nouvelles tendances et applications de la traduction. Cette communication faisait figure d’OVNI au milieu de travaux qui portaient sur les avancées technologiques et sur leur application concr...

  8. Reforestation et stockage du carbone au XXème siècle sur le versant sud du Mont-Lozère (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Claude; Didon-Lescot, Jean-François; Lhuillier, Sylvain; Usselmann, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    L'étude s'appuie sur les travaux réalisés sur le Bassin Versant de Recherche et Expérimental (BVRE) du Mont-Lozère. Les parcelles étudiées sont situées en terrain granitique, sous un climat de type méditerranéen montagnard, à des altitudes comprises entre 1100 et 1500 m. La dénudation des versants a atteint son maximum au milieu du XIXème siècle, époque où l'élevage ovin avec transhumance était particulièrement actif. La déprise rurale amorcée à la fin du XIXème siècle, a permis l'extension d...

  9. Evidence of final-state suppression of high-p{_ T} hadrons in Au + Au collisions using d + Au measurements at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons with pT 2 GeV/c). In contrast, the d + Au nuclear modification factor exhibits no suppression of the high-pT yields. These measurements suggest a large energy loss of the high-pT particles in the highly interacting medium created in the central Au + Au collisions. The lack of suppression in d + Au collisions suggests that it is unlikely that initial state effects can explain the suppression in the central Au + Au collisions. PACS: 25.75.-q

  10. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  11. Correlated and Anticorrelated Domain Movement of Human Serum Albumin: A Peek into the Complexity of the Crowded Milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat; Chowdhury, Pramit Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Protein dynamics in cells have been shown to be markedly different from that in dilute solutions because of the highly crowded cellular interior. The volume exclusion arising from the high concentration of macromolecules present can affect both equilibrium and kinetic processes involving protein conformational changes. While global changes in structure leading to modulations in the stability of the protein have been well-documented, local changes that can have a large bearing on the functional aspects of these biomolecules are rare to come across. Using the multidomain serum protein human serum albumin and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach, with fluorescent reporters in each of its three domains, we, in this article, have provided a detailed mapping of variations in the interdomain distances (as a function of pH) in the presence of five macromolecular crowding agents, differing based on their constituent monomers and average molecular weight(s). From the observation of correlated domain movements for dextran based crowding agents to anticorrelated motion induced by Ficoll 70, and both correlated and anticorrelated action for PEG8000 (PEG8), our results reveal the inherent complexity of a crowded milieu with the serum protein serving as an able sensor for decoding such variations. Differences in the manner in which the macromolecular crowders of similar average molecular weights influence the protein conformational ensemble also provide insights into the possible variations at the molecular level that these polymeric molecules possess. Evidence is presented in support of the fact that for the large molecular weight crowding agents and PEG8, soft interactions predominate over hard sphere potentials. Finally, the nature of domain movements encountered for the serum protein are of immense significance with respect to the function of human serum albumin (HSA) as a prolific binder and transporter of small molecules. PMID:27163260

  12. Suppression of ϒ production in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of ϒ meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the ϒ yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for ϒ(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of RdAu=0.79±0.24(stat.)±0.03(syst.)±0.10(p+p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of RAA=0.49±0.1(stat.)±0.02(syst.)±0.06(p+psyst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state ϒ mesons in Au+Au collisions. The additional suppression in Au+Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d+Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au+Au can be made

  13. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides.

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Esteves-Villanueva, Jose; Soudy, Rania; Kaur, Kamaljit; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-). The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. PMID:26262621

  15. Identified particles in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Wosiek, Barbara; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The yields of identified particles have been measured at RHIC for Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV using the PHOBOS spectrometer. The ratios of antiparticle to particle yields near mid-rapidity are presented. The first measurements of the invariant yields of charged pions, kaons and protons at very low transverse momenta are also shown.

  16. Strangelet search in Au+Au collisions at VsNN=200 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Benedosso, F.; Botje, M.A.J.; Grebenyuk, O.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Russcher, M.J.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van der Kolk, N.

    2007-01-01

    We have searched for strangelets in a triggered sample of 61 million central (top 4%) Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV near beam rapidities at the STAR solenoidal tracker detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We have sensitivity to metastable strangelets with lifetimes of order ⩾0.1 n

  17. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  18. EVENT STRUCTURE AT RHIC FROM P-P TO AU-AU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAINOR,T.A.; (FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION)

    2004-03-15

    Several correlation analysis techniques are applied to p-p and Au-Au collisions at RHIC. Strong large-momentum-scale correlations are observed which can be related to local charge and momentum conservation during hadronization and to minijet (minimum-bias parton fragment) correlations.

  19. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs

  20. DE L'ÉVOLUTION DE LA FATIGUE AUDITIVE ET DE LA SURDITÉ EN MILIEU INDUSTRIEL BRUYANT

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, J.; Dubreuil, C; Chaurand, A.; Quelin, P; Bergeret, A

    1990-01-01

    Deux enquêtes ont été réalisées dans une même entreprise en 1975 et 1987, dans le but d'apprécier l'évolutivité de la surdité professionnelle et les variations de la fatigue auditive. Il y a peu d'évolution de la surdité entre les deux examens. Plus la surdité était importante au début, plus faible est la fatigue et moins l'audition a baissé lors du deuxième examen.

  1. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  2. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon to meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions, and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The p_T dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  3. Open Heavy Flavor Production in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X

    2006-01-01

    PHENIX results for open charm production from semi-lepton decay in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions in a wide rapidity ranges at $\\sqrt{s}$= 200$ GeV are presented. Keywords: Relativistic Heavy-ion Collision, Open Charm production, Nuclear Medium Effect PACS: 25.75.-q, 25.75 Dw, 13.20.Gd

  4. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2013-08-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (π±, K±, p, p¯) produced in sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to pT=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to pT=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate pT region, between 2 and 5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon-to-meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The pT-dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  5. Relative Distribution of Au48+~Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUZhi-Yan; ZHUZheng-He; JIANGGang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction of Au nanoparticle-bound primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hebai; HU Min; YANG Zhongnan; WANG Chen; ZHU Longzhang

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for in vitro amplification of a DNA fragment. In this paper, a PCR procedure using Au nanoparticle (AuNP) -bound primers was systemically studied. The 5′-SH- (CH2)6-modified primers were covalently attached to the AuNP surface via Au-S bonds, and plasmid pBluescript SK was used as a template. The effects of the concentration of AuNP-bound primers, annealing temperature and PCR cycles were evaluated, respectively. The results indicate that PCR can proceed successfully under optimized condition, with either forward or reverse primers bound to the AuNP surface or with both the two primers bound to the AuNP surface. Development of PCR procedure based on AuNPs not only makes the isolation of PCR products very convenient, but also provides novel methods to prepare AuNP-bound ssDNA and nanostructured material.

  7. Engineering the strain in graphene layers with Au decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannu, Compesh, E-mail: compesh@gmail.com; Singh, Udai B.; Kumar, Sunil; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D.K., E-mail: dka4444@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets decorated with Au nanodots are synthesized by deposition of Au of three different thicknesses and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. Different thicknesses of Au film for the formation of Au nanodots on graphene are measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and morphology is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicates 3–6-fold increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio depending on the content of Au deposited on graphene. The increase in disorder in Au decorated graphene layers is explained on the basis of interaction of Au atoms with Π bonds of graphene. The splitting and blueshift in G band signifies compressive strain in Au deposited graphene. X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation source confirm compressive strain in graphene, which increases with increase of Au film thickness.

  8. Milieu en innovatie

    OpenAIRE

    Krozer, Yoram

    2002-01-01

    The following general question is posed in this study: is it possible to reduce pollution to levels that do not degrade environmental qualities at socially acceptable costs? More specifically, this study tackles the question: what is the contribution of environmental technology and how can policies foster the introduction and diffusion of environmental innovations? The findings suggest that currently available technologies can already reduce present pollution levels by 70% to 90%, which means...

  9. Consument, voeding en milieu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Kaal, B.F.G.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Midden, C.J.H.; Oude Ophuis, P.A.M.; Scholten, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    Deze programmeringsstudie richt zich op de rol die de consument speelt en kan spelen in het proces naar milieuvriendelijke produktie en consumptie. Uitgangspunt is dat de gezondheid daarbij niet in het geding mag komen. De studie richt zich dan ook op de gezonde, milieubewuste consument. Hiertoe is

  10. Milieu en innovatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2002-01-01

    The following general question is posed in this study: is it possible to reduce pollution to levels that do not degrade environmental qualities at socially acceptable costs? More specifically, this study tackles the question: what is the contribution of environmental technology and how can policies

  11. Le milieu des appareils

    OpenAIRE

    Alloa, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Diane; Barthélémy, Jean-Hugues; Bontems, Vincent; Déotte, Jean-Louis; Hörl, Erich; Krämer, Sybille; Ledent, David; Leplatre, Olivier; Méchoulan, Éric; Ochsner, Beate; Rancière, Jacques; Rockhill, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Nous assistons, après le tournant langagier de l’esthétique, à un véritable tournant technique, depuis les travaux initiateurs de Mauss, Benjamin, Panofsky, Kracauer, Simondon, Leroi-Gourhan, réinterprétés par exemple par Lyotard, ou Stiegler aujourd’hui. Cette révolution épistémologique n’aurait pas été possible sans reconsidérer la part essentiellement technique de ce qui apparaît, tant du côté de la production que de la réception. On appellera « appareils », et plus précisément « appareils...

  12. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  13. Plasmonic Au islands on polymer nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoben, Wout; Brongersma, Sywert H; Crego-Calama, Mercedes, E-mail: wout.knoben@imec-nl.nl [Holst Centre/IMEC, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-22

    The refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors can be improved by placing the plasmonic metal particles on pillars instead of on a planar substrate. In this paper, a simple and versatile colloidal lithography method for the fabrication of plasmonic Au islands on top of polymer nanopillars is described. The pillar height is controlled by varying the thickness of the initial polymer film. An increased pillar height results in a blue shift of the absorption spectrum of the Au islands. This is explained by a decreased effective refractive index around the islands. For pillars higher than approximately 40 nm no further blue shift is observed, in agreement with the decay length of the electromagnetic field around the islands. Pillar-supported Au islands were also fabricated on a flexible foil, demonstrating the potential of the method described here for the fabrication of flexible plasmonic substrates. Benefits and limitations of the method and of using polymers as the pillar material are discussed.

  14. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  15. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  16. Violence et ordre politique au Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fourchard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience De nombreuses analyses ont associé le retour d'un régime civil au Nigeria en 1999 au développement d'organisations armées privées et au regain de conflits dits religieux, inter-ethniques ou communautaires. L'application controversée de la charia dans douze Etats du nord et les actions de guérilla dans la région pétrolière du delta ont ainsi largement focalisé l'attention des médias. Le retour de la " démocratie " témoignerait-t-il d'un déclin de l'Etat ? Ces violence...

  17. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  18. Le mentorat en début de carrière : retombées sur la charge professorale et conditions de mise en œuvre d’un programme en milieu universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilou Bélisle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette synthèse d’écrits a été menée dans le but de faire état des retombées du mentorat en milieu éducatif, plus précisément, le mentorat destiné aux enseignants universitaires en début de carrière et des conditions de mise en œuvre d’un programme. Les principaux constats tirés de cette synthèse montrent que la question du mentorat informel par rapport au mentorat formel reste sans réponse définitive quant à la supériorité d’une forme sur l’autre. De plus, en dépit des divergences de points de vue dans la littérature, il ressort que le mentorat joue un rôle positif dans le développement professionnel des nouveaux enseignants pour l’ensemble des fonctions composant leur charge professorale, incluant la fonction enseignement. Enfin, les expériences menées dans différents établissements nous permettent d’examiner des modalités d’implantation et de fonctionnement ainsi que de proposer un modèle de mentorat en trois étapes.This review of the literature was carried out in order to assess the impact of mentoring in educational settings and in particular mentoring addressing faculty in early stages of their academic career and the necessary requirements for implementing programmes. The main issues raised by our study indicate that as far as informal mentoring and formal mentoring are concerned there is no definite answer regarding the efficiency of one over the other. Furthermore despite contrasted views in the literature, it seems that mentoring does have a positive impact on professional development of early stage academics for most of the components of their professorial function including teaching. Last of all experiences carried out in various institutions allowed us to examine implementation and practise in mentoring and to devise a framework comprising three steps.

  19. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  20. Plasmonic Fano resonance and dip of Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Huang-Chih; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This study theoretically investigates Fano resonances and dips of an Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka that is excited by a nearby electric dipole. An analytical solution of dyadic Green's functions is used to analyze the radiative and nonradiative power spectra of a radial dipole in the proximity of a nanomatryoshka. From these spectra, the plasmon modes and Fano resonances that accompany the Fano dips are identified. In addition, the scattering and absorption spectra of a nanomatryoshka that is illuminated by a plane wave are investigated to confirm these modes and Fano dips. Our results reveal that a Fano dip splits each of the dipole and quadrupole modes into bonding and anti-bonding modes. The Fano dip and resonance result from the destructive interference of the plasmon modes of the Au shell and the Au core. The Fano factors that are obtained from the nonradiative power spectra of the Au shell and the Au core of a nanomatryoshka are in accordance with those obtained from the absorption cross section spectra. Moreover, these Fano factors increase as the plasmonic coupling of the Au shell with the core increases for both dipole and quadrupole modes. PMID:24206789

  1. Ω production in p+p, Au+Au and U+U collisions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report STAR's high precision measurements on Ω production at mid-rapidity from √(s)=200 GeVp+p, central √(sNN)=200 GeVAu+Au, and central √(sNN)=193 GeVU+U collisions. With the significantly reduced uncertainty in p+p reference, we observe that the Ω enhancement factors at RHIC are in between SPS and LHC, while enhancement factors are systematically larger in central U+U collisions than in central Au+Au collisions. The ΩRAA is much larger than protons and pions for pT up to 4 GeV/c in central Au+Au collisions. The ratio of ΩRAA in central U+U to that in central Au+Au collisions is above unity for pT up to 6 GeV/c, which indicates coalescence/recombination to be the dominant production mechanism for Ω in these collisions for the measured pT range

  2. Exposition à des moisissures dans le milieu hospitalier et dans des usines de production de biogaz-Intérêt des protections individuelles et collectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pfohl-leszkowicz, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Les champignons filamenteux se développent de manière ubiquitaire sur de nombreux substrats organiques. Les spores se retrouvent dans les poussières et sont souvent inhalables. De plus en plus de données scientifiques pointent l’inhalation de moisissures comme cause d’allergie respiratoire ou cutanée aussi bien dans l’environnement (maisons insalubres) que dans le milieu du travail, notamment dans les industries de compostage de matière organique ou de fabrication de bioéthanol. La contaminat...

  3. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Koci X.; Quintard M.; Robin M.; Gadelle C.

    2006-01-01

    Dans un article antérieur [1], un dispositif expérimental permettant l'étude en milieu poreux des déplacements par fluides chauds, en conditions isothermes, a été présenté, ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Ce mode d'écoulement, qui ne fait pas intervenir A previous paper [1] described an experimental device designed for the study of multiphase displacements by hot fluids in porous media under isothermal conditions together with the results obtained. This type of flow, which does not take i...

  4. [Cosmos, coral and cultural milieu. The significance of the popular science connection in the late German Empire and the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses the role of popular science communication for the 'cultural milieu' or more generally the 'environment' of scientists and science in Germany between c. 1900 and 1933 in the sense of Paul Forman. On the rich basis of diverse journals aiming at a differentiated public the discourse on atomic physics is sketched. Since the thesis of a general hostility towards atomic physics in particular and science in general cannot be accredited the question arises how widespread and in which sense a crisis of science was discussed in the Weimar years. PMID:19391361

  5. [Cosmos, coral and cultural milieu. The significance of the popular science connection in the late German Empire and the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses the role of popular science communication for the 'cultural milieu' or more generally the 'environment' of scientists and science in Germany between c. 1900 and 1933 in the sense of Paul Forman. On the rich basis of diverse journals aiming at a differentiated public the discourse on atomic physics is sketched. Since the thesis of a general hostility towards atomic physics in particular and science in general cannot be accredited the question arises how widespread and in which sense a crisis of science was discussed in the Weimar years.

  6. Miracle et espace social au village nahua de La Esperanza, Mexique Miracle and Social Space in the Nahua Village of La Esperanza, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anath Ariel de Vidas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le récit d’un miracle dans la montagne proche du village nahua de La Esperanza, dans la Huastèque veracruzaine au Mexique, constitue la seule narration rapportée dans ce village au sujet de sa fondation. Cette narration, loin d’être ancrée dans des temps immémoriaux, se situe explicitement au milieu du xxe siècle et relate les offrandes à la montagne qui ont mis fin à plusieurs années de sécheresse. Or, l’analyse de cette seule histoire, mythique, permet finalement de mettre au jour celle, historique, du village. Elle révèle ainsi de manière simultanée l’éclatement et la délimitation des frontières sociales et politiques de ce groupe indien local.The story of a miracle on the mountain near the Nahua village of La Esperanza, in the Veracruzan Huasteca in Mexico, constitutes the only narrative offered in this village on the subject of its foundation. This narrative, far from being rooted in ancient times, is explicitly set in the middle of the 20th century and tells of offerings to the mountain, ending several years of drought. And yet, the analysis of this single mythical story ultimately helps shed light on the historical story of the village. It simultaneously reveals the fragmentation and delimitation of the social and political boundaries of the local Indian group.

  7. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Li, X H; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R_AA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  8. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  9. Revisiting the S-Au(111) interaction: Static or Dynamic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

    2004-08-17

    The chemical inertness typically observed for Au does not imply a general inability to form stable bonds with non-metals but is rather a consequence of high reaction barriers. The Au-S interaction is probably the most intensively studied interaction of Au surfaces with non-metals as, for example, it plays an important role in Au ore formation, and controls the structure and dynamics of thiol-based self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs). In recent years a quite complex picture of the interaction of sulfur with Au(111) surfaces emerged, and a variety of S-induced surface structures was reported under different conditions. The majority of these structures were interpreted in terms of a static Au surface, where the positions of the Au atoms remain essentially unperturbed. Here we demonstrate that the Au(111) surface exhibits a very dynamic character upon interaction with adsorbed sulfur: low sulfur coverages modify the surface stress of the Au surface leading to lateral expansion of the surface layer; large-scale surface restructuring and incorporation of Au atoms into a growing two-dimensional AuS phase were observed with increasing sulfur coverage. These results provide new insight into the Au-S surface chemistry, and reveal the dynamic character of the Au(111) surface.

  10. 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — According to official estimates, 222,570 people killed, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince...

  11. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.;

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  12. Didaktik des außerschulischen Lernens

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerborn, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Kernprobleme schulischer Bildung sind die zunehmenden Verluste an Realitäts- und Praxisbezug sowie die einseitige Betonung der fachwissenschaftlichen Kenntnisse. In jüngster Zeit werden insbesondere moderne didaktisch-methodische Konzepte näher diskutiert und praktiziert. So finden sich etwa die Stichwörter Handlungsorientierter Unterricht und Offener Unterricht in der fachdidaktischen Diskussion wieder. Eine wesentlich aktuellere Form stellt das außerschulische Lernen dar. Ein modernes pädagogisches Verständnis sieht den Unterricht heute nicht mehr als ausschließliche Tätigkeit des Lehrers an, sondern als Aktivität der Lernenden. Außerschulisches Lernen beschreibt die originale Begegnung im Unterricht außerhalb des Klassenzimmers. An außerschulischen Lernorten findet eine unmittelbare AuseinanderSetzung des Lernenden mit seiner räumlichen Umgebung statt. Charakteristisch sind hierbei vor allem die aktive(Mit-)Gestaltung sowie die eigenständige Wahrnehmung mehrperspektivischer Bildungsinhalte d...

  13. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  14. Dispersion and STM Characterization of Au-CdSe Nanohybrids on Au(111)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Gao; Yan-min Kuang; Yuan Liao; Zhen-chao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We report the dispersion and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterization of isolated Au-CdSe nanohybrids on atomically flat Au(111) through surface modifications.The top terminal groups of spacer molecules self-assembled on the surface are found critical for locking the nanohybrids into a well-separated state.The STM results indicate that both thiol and carboxylic terminals are effective in this aspect by making strong interaction with the Au portions of the nanohybrids.An argon ion sputtering technique is also proposed to clean up organic contaminants on the surface for improved STM imaging of individual Au-CdSe nanohybrids.These observations help to enrich technical approaches to dispersing individual nanostructures on the surface and provide opportunities to explore their local electroluminescent and energy transfer properties at the nanoscale.

  15. High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Au_2^- and Au_4^- by Photoelectron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au_2^- and Au_4^- obtained with a newly-built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Gold anions are produced by laser vaporization and the desired specie is mass selected and focused into the collinear velocity-map imaging (VMI) lens assembly. The design of the imaging lens has allowed us to obtain less than 0.9% energy resolution for high kinetic energy electrons ( > 1eV) while maintaining wavenumber resolution for low kinetic energy electrons. Although gold dimer and tetramer have been studied in the past, we present spectroscopic results under high resolution. For Au_2^-, we report high resolution spectra with an accurate determination of the electron affinity together with a complete vibrational assignment, for both the anion and neutral ground states, while for Au_4^-, we are able to resolve a low frequency mode and obtain accurately the adiabatic detachment energy.

  16. Forward-backward multiplicity correlation in Au+Au collisions at RHIC with transport model PACIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yu-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Hai-Liang; Sa, Ben-Hao

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the charged particle forward-backward multiplicity correlation strength in 0-10% most central Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV by a parton and hadron cascade model, PACIAE based on PYTHIA. The real (total), statistical, and NBD (Negative Binomial Distribution) correlation strengths are calculated, respectively, with the real events, mixed events, and NBD fitting the charged particle multiplicity distribution. The corresponding STAR data are well reproduced by the real one. If the discrepancy between real and statistical correlation strengths is identified as dynamical correlation strength, the dynamical correlation strength is then just counted few percent of the total correlation strength. In addition, we also calculated the 0-5 and 5% most central Au+Au collisions and turned out that the correlation strength increases monotonously with increasing size of the centrality bin.

  17. Simulation of energy scan of pion interferometry in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry for the central Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 27, 39, 62, 130 and 200 GeV/c with the help of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Emission source-size radius parameters Rlong, Rout, Rside and the chaotic parameter λ are extracted and compared with the experimental data. Transverse momentum and azimuthal angle dependencies of the HBT radii are also discussed for central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV/c. The results show that the HBT radii in central collisions do not change much above 7 GeV/c. For central collisions at 200 GeV/c, the radii decrease with the increasing of transverse momentum pT but are not sensitive to the azimuthal angle. These results provide a theoretical reference for the energy scan program of the RHIC-STAR experiment. (authors)

  18. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  19. Baryonic Effect on XcJ Suppression in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ru; XU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We predict that xcJ mesons at low transverse momentum in the central rapidity region are almost dissociated by nucleons and antinucleons in hadronic matter produced in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic high-ion collider (RHIC) energies √SNN = 130 and 200 GeV. In the calculations the nucleon and antinucleon distributions in hadronic matter are results of evolution from their freeze-out distributions which well fit the experimental transverse momentum spectra of proton and antiproton.

  20. Flow and bose-einstein correlations in Au-Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Manly, Steven; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyinski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    Argonne flow and Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured in Au-Au collisions at S=130 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. The systematic dependencies of the flow signal on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity, and centrality of the collision, as well as the beam energy are shown. In addition, results of a 3-dimensional analysis of two-pion correlations in the 200 GeV data are presented.

  1. Results from experiment E917 for Au + Au collisions at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of baryon stopping and its resulting energy deposition on the dynamics of Au + Au collisions at 6, 8 and 10.8 GeV/nucleon are explored with recent results from the AGS experiment E917. Current analyses of stopping, collective flow signals and HBT parameters are presented. Strangeness and anti-baryon production is examined using the yields of anti-lambdas and anti-protons

  2. Net baryon density in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S A; Srivastava, D K; Bass, Steffen A.; Müller, Berndt; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the net baryon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the framework of the Parton Cascade Model (PCM). Parton rescattering and fragmentation leads to a substantial increase in the net baryon density at mid-rapidity over the density produced by initial primary parton-parton scatterings. The PCM is able to describe the measured net baryon density at RHIC.

  3. Some thoughts on di-jet correlation in Au + Au collisions from PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, J

    2006-01-01

    PHENIX has measured the two particle azimuth correlation in Au + Au at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. Jet shape and yield at the away side are found to be strongly modified at intermediate and low $p_T$, and the modifications vary dramatically with $p_T$ and centrality. At high $p_T$, away side jet peak reappears but the yield is suppressed. We discuss the possible physics pictures leading to these complicated modifications.

  4. Anti-flow of K$^0_s$ Mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, P; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L; Srivastava, B; BStone, N T; Symons, T J M; Wienold, T; Whitfield, R W J; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sideward flow of neutral strange ($K^0_s$) mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au collisions. A prominent anti-flow signal is observed for an impact parameter range (b $\\lesssim 7$ fm) which spans central and mid-central events. Since the $K^0_s$ scattering cross section is relatively small in nuclear matter, this observation suggests that the in-medium kaon vector potential plays an important role in high density nuclear matter.

  5. Critical Behavior in Peripheral Au + Au Collisions at 35 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, M; Belkacem, M; Agostino, M D; Milazzo, P M; Vannini, G; Bowman, D R; Dinius, J D; Ferrero, A; Fiandri, M L; Gelbke, C K; Glasmacher, T; Gramegna, F; Handzy, D O; Horn, D; Hsi, W C; Huang, M; Iori, I; Kunde, G J; Lisa, M A; Lynch, W G; Margagliotti, G V; Montoya, C P; Moroni, A; Peaslee, G F; Rui, R; Schwarz, C; Tsang, M B; Williams, C; Latora, V; Bonasera, A

    1996-01-01

    The signals theoretically predicted for the occurrence of a critical behavior (conditional moments of charge distributions, Campi scatter plot, fluctuations of the size of the largest fragment, power law in the charge distribution, intermittency) have been found for peripheral events in the reaction Au+Au at 35 MeV/u. The same signals have been studied with a dynamical model which foresees phase transition, like the Classical Molecular Dynamics.

  6. Defected red blood cell membranes and direct correlation with the uraemic milieu: the connection with the decreased red blood cell lifespan observed in haemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with impaired production of erythropoietin and iron deficiency, the decreased lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) is a main factor contributing to the chronic anaemia observed in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Atomic force microscopy is employed in this work to thoroughly survey the membrane of intact RBCs (iRBCs) of HD patients in comparison to those of healthy donors, aiming to obtain direct information on the structural status of RBCs that can be related to their decreased lifespan. We observed that the iRBC membrane of the HD patients is overpopulated with extended circular defects, termed ‘orifices’, that have typical dimension ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 μm. The ‘orifice’ index—that is, the mean population of ‘orifices’ per top membrane surface—exhibits a pronounced relative increase of order 54 ± 12% for the HD patients as compared to healthy donors. Interestingly, for the HD patients, the ‘orifice’ index, which relates to the structural status of the RBC membrane, correlates strongly with urea concentration, which is a basic index of the uraemic milieu. Thus, these results indicate that the uraemic milieu downgrades the structural status of the RBC membrane, possibly triggering biochemical processes that result in their premature elimination from the circulation. This process could decrease the lifespan of RBCs, as observed in HD patients. (paper)

  7. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1Au+Au collisions, the R_AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is lin...

  8. Suppression of Upsilon Production in d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hill, K; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wimsatt, G; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of Upsilon meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Upsilon yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of R_dAu = 0.67 +/- 0.12 (stat.) +/- 0.04 (sys.) +/- 0.08 (pp sys.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R_AA=0.36 +/- 0.09 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (sys.) +/- 0.04 (pp sys.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matte...

  9. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.;

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  10. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  11. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Lee, J. W.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2<η<1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  12. Enhanced strange baryon production in Au+Au collisions compared to p+p at sqrts = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D; Hollis, R; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, N S; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reinnarth, J; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sugarbaker, E R; Sumbera, M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yurevich, V I; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2007-01-01

    We report on the observed differences in production rates of strange and multi-strange baryons in Au+Au collisions at sqrts = 200 GeV compared to p+p interactions at the same energy. The yields in Au+Au collisions, when scaled by the number of participants, are larger than those measured in the p+p data. The magnitudes of the differences grow with the strangeness of the baryon and with increasing centrality. The enhancements of the Au+Au yields are close to those measured in sqrts = 17.3 GeV collisions. Further, when the binary scaled p+p pT spectra are compared to those of Au+Au the heavy-ion yields exceed binary scaling in the pT range 1 < pT< 4 GeV/c.

  13. Can contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography replace transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of thrombogenic milieu and thrombi in the left atrial appendage. A prospective study with 124 patients; Kann die kontrastmittelverstaerkte Mehrzeilen-Computertomografie die transoesophageale Echokardiografie bei der Detektion von thrombogenem Milieu und Vorhofohrthromben ersetzen? Eine prospektive Studie mit 124 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Luetkens, J.A.; Schild, H.H.; Naehle, C.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Nath, B. [SHG-KLliniken Voelklingen (Germany). Dept. of Medicine I - Cardiology; Schwab, J.O. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medicine I - Cardiology

    2016-01-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT) for identifying patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus or circulatory stasis. 124 patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and/or cerebral ischemia (83 men, mean age 58.6 ± 12.4 years) and with a clinical indication for MD-CT of the heart and for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were included in the study. LAA thrombus or thrombogenic milieu was visually identified in TEE and MD-CT. In addition, MD-CT was analyzed quantitatively measuring the Hounsfield units (HU) of the left atrium (LA), the LAA and the ascending aorta (AA), and calculating the HU ratios LAA/AA (HU [LAA/AA]) und LAA/LA (HU [LAA/LA]). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. The prevalence of a thrombus or thrombogenic milieu as assessed by TEE was 21.8 %. The HU ratio was lower in patients with thrombus or thrombogenic milieu (HU [LAA/AA]: 0.590 ± 0.248 vs. 0.909 ± 0.141; p < 0.001 und HU [LAA/LA] 0.689 ± 0.366 vs. 1.082 ± 0.228; p < 0.001). For the diagnosis of thrombus or a thrombogenic milieu, visual analysis yielded a sensitivity of 81.5 %, a specificity of 96.9 %, a PPV of 87.5 % and a NPV of 95.2 %. By combining visual and quantitative analysis with one criterion being positive, the specificity decreased to 91.8 %, the sensitivity to 77.8 %, the PPV to 72.4 %, and the NPV to 94.9 %. Visual analysis of the LAA in the evaluation of thrombus or thrombogenic milieu yields a high NPV of 95.1 % and may especially be useful to rule out LAA thrombi in patients with contraindications for TEE. Additional calculation of HU ratios did not improve the diagnostic performance of MD-CT.

  14. Centrality dependence of direct photon production in (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2005-06-17

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au + Au collisions at (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au + Au collision centrality and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities. PMID:16090462

  15. Centrality Dependence of Direct Photon Production in √(SNN)=200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au+Au collision centrality and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities

  16. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111...

  17. Mehdi NABTI : La confrérie des Aïssawa du Maroc en milieu urbain : les pratiques rituelles et sociales du mysticisme contemporain

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cette thèse s’attache à l’étude d’une confrérie soufie, les Aïssawa, fondée à Meknès au Maroc au XVIe siècle par Muhammad Ben Aïssâ et toujours active aujourd’hui. L’approche de l’auteur est socio-anthropologique et ethnomusicologique avec une mise en perspective politique et historique. Son travail résulte d’une enquête de terrain de onze mois effectuée au Maroc ainsi que sur l’étude de la littérature spécialisée (en arabe et en français) sur cette organisation religieuse. Observant au plus...

  18. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum-bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  19. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.(Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, NY, U.S.A.); Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhanceme...

  20. Di-Hadron Correlations with Identified Leading Hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au Collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelwahab, N M; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    The STAR collaboration presents new two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of quark recombination. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the \\emph{ridge region}, is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  1. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.;

    1995-01-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...... coverages larger than 0.4 monolayer. Using the effective-medium theory, we show that the resulting structure as well as the physical mechanism responsible for the phase transition are closely related to the surface stress induced by the substituted Au....

  2. First results on d+Au collisions from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at √SNN = 200 GeV, in the range 0.25 < pT < 6.0 GeV/c. With increasing collision centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-pT hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions.

  3. Thermal desorption of Au from W(001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Blaszczyszyn, R; Godowski, P J

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au-Au and Au-W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment. (author)

  4. Thermal Desorption of Au from W(001) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyszyn, R.; Chrzanowski, J.; Godowski, P. J.

    2000-12-01

    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au--Au and Au--W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment.

  5. La réforme druze dans les montagnes syriennes au ixe/xve siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Halabi-Halawi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Au ixe/xve siècle, dans les montagnes syriennes, un nouveau druzisme se serait formé, celui de l’émir al-Sayyid (m. 884/1479, dont les fondements ont longtemps été considérés comme purement spirituels. Or la lecture des sources permet d’attribuer à une telle œuvre un contenu plus riche et des enjeux plus ambitieux : al-Sayyid avait un projet sociétal, religieux et juridique empreint d’une idéologie forte. Le milieu montagnard était néanmoins divisé autour de cette réforme et les partisans du maître s’opposaient aux chefs locaux proches du pouvoir central. Ce qui s’apparentait à une délivrance pour les pauvres s’est avéré être une menace pour les puissants ; là où certains contemporains voyaient une islamisation, d’autres observaient le rétablissement du druzisme originel. En définitive, la réforme sayyidienne comporte un projet politique qui s’adresse aux plus modestes parmi la société rurale, dans une Syrie ralentie économiquement à la veille du déclin du régime mamelouk.

  6. DU NORMATIVISME SYMBOLIQUE A L’APPARITION DE L’ECONOMIE D’ACCUMULATION AU NEOLITHIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SEMENESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le problème de la néolithisation, considérée, dès 1929 par Gordon Childe, comme la deuxième grande révolution, après celle de l’anthropogenèse, est loin d’être un chapitre clos des sciences de l’homme. Cette « révolution néolithique », considérée comme étant le début des premières manipulations par notre espèces de son milieu naturel, directement à l’origine de sa puissance d’à présent, au delà de ses spécificités propres, représente, dans l’imaginaire et le discours des spécialistes sur le devenir de l’homme, l’origine et le fondement de notre présent, voir de notre avenir, une sorte de « laisser passer » qui légitime et autorise nos actions, de telle sorte que : l’on admet que dans notre domination de la Terre, un tournant décisif a été pris au Néolithique et que de ce tournant nous sommes les héritiers et le produit direct, c’est là que nous devons faire remonter notre histoire. Mais, bien que notre histoire en tant qu’êtres humains biologiques peut remonter avec certitude à cette époque, il reste tout de même à savoir si notre histoire culturelle ou notre idéologie, sont la prolongation évolutive de l’idéologie néolithique. La question est de savoir si l’homme du Néolithique, à une échelle plus réduite, bien sûr, pensait comme l’homme moderne sa relation avec la « nature », comme domination, ou bien si c’est notre besoin idéologique de légitimité, qui le fait penser en industriel moderne ?

  7. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. La vulnérabilité territoriale : une nouvelle approche des risques en milieu urbain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Metzger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse de vulnérabilité territoriale vise à identifier, caractériser et hiérarchiser les espaces à partir desquels se crée et se diffuse la vulnérabilité au sein d’un territoire. Les politiques de prévention des risques doivent considérer en priorité ces espaces dans la mesure où ils peuvent perturber, compromettre, voire interrompre le fonctionnement et le développement du territoire.L’approche a été développée dans le cadre du programme de recherche « Système d’Information et Risques dans le district métropolitain de Quito », mené entre 1999 et 2004 par l’IRD et la Municipalité de Quito. L’article vise à expliciter cette approche, fondée sur l’identification des enjeux majeurs du territoire et l’analyse de leur vulnérabilité, ainsi que la démarche méthodologique permettant de déboucher sur la cartographie de la vulnérabilité territoriale à Quito.

  9. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Chaloupka, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezanka, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Chemistry, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  10. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  11. 2D chemistry on Au(111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauls, Eva; Blankenburg, Stephan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The design of functional two-dimensional molecular networks has become an area of intense research. The constraint to 2 in contrast to the availability of 3 dimensions has a large impact on many chemical reactions. Chemical reactions between surface adsorbed molecules may lead to products very different from those obtained in solutions or the gas phase. The imide formation between a diaminoterphenyl (DATP) and a PTCDA molecule is one very interesting example in this respect. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments, it has been observed that the Au surface changes both the reaction path and the reaction product compared to 3D. In order to understand these experimental observations, we have studied the chemical reactions both in solution and on the Au(111) surface by density-functional theory calculations in the generalized-gradient approximation.

  12. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  13. De l’individu postcommuniste au citoyen

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Krasteva

    2013-01-01

    L’article analyse le paradoxe de la conception communiste du citoyen engagé : au niveau idéologique, citoyenneté et engagement sont intrinsèquement liés, au niveau politique ils sont souvent radicalement dissociés. Le citoyen communiste est plus engagé que citoyen. La citoyenneté était dépourvue de plusieurs de ses attributs : de la jouissance de la loi qui établit « l’égalité arithmétique » et minorise les maîtres ; de la citoyenneté active – civile et politique – pour ne jouir que la protec...

  14. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  15. Amélioration des pratiques de l'élevage du bétail Ndama en milieu villageois : l'exemple de Madina-Diassa au Sud du Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berti, F.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Villager Ndama Cattle Husbandry Practices : the Example of Madina-Diassa in the South of Mali. In the south of Mali, the first 2 periods of the project titled "creation d'un berceau de la race bovine Ndama dans le cercle de Yanfolila" (ONDY led to a 1800 heads of Ndama cattle herd and to improve a genetic selection method. Due to the recurrent costs of the station, the greater part of the selected cattle was transferred to surrounding villages during the third project period. Such a transfer required an adjustment of both selection method and pastoral management. Results in the fields of cattle transfer, animal breeding, genetic selection, pastoral management and sanitary controls are presented. For the authors, the model proposed in the project offers an interesting alternative to cattle selection in a station, providing the acceptance by the entire surrounding population is obtained and providing factors acting on animal husbandry are mastered, especially feeding. Lastly, it has been confirmed that selective cattle breeding is feasible with farmer populations in wet areas in which it is traditionally unpresent. That is likely a way to be worked out, facing the relative saturation and degradation of sahelian areas.

  16. Solvatation du thorium par les fluorures en milieu sel fondu à haute température : application au procédé d'extraction réductrice pour le concept MSFR

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) is one of the six nuclear reactor concepts retained during the Forum GEN IV in 2001. The particularity of this concept is to use a liquid fuel consisting of a molten salt, LiF-ThF₄-UF₄ /UF ₃ (77-19-4 mol%) and to have an integrated spent fuel treatment process. This treatment consists of successive chemical separation steps based on redox and acid-base properties of the elements produced in the reactor by nuclear reactions: soluble and gaseous fission produ...

  17. Mesure des fluctuations de l'impédance d'un système électrochimique. Application au dégagement gazeux sur électrode en milieu liquide.

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of electrode potential, ΔV(t), and electrolyte resistance, ΔRe(t),fluctuations under current I control have currently been performed at CNRS-LISE since 1991 toinvestigate the elementary processes at the origin of the noise in two-phase systems, such as gasevolvingelectrodes, oil-in-water emulsions, etc. Generally speaking, the fluctuations of theelectrode faradaic potential, ΔE(t), can be determined, from the following equation:ΔE(t) = ΔV(t) - I ΔRe(t).Once the ohmic...

  18. La malnutrition et la santé de l'enfant en milieu rural au Rwanda. Gestion du suivi de la croissance à base communautaire/Malnutrition and child health in rural Rwanda. Management of community based growth monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu

    2010-01-01

    En l’an 2000, les Nations Unies ont adopté les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement avec comme premier objectif l’éradication de l’extrême pauvreté et de la faim. La relation synergique entre une bonne nutrition et le développement économique est aujourd’hui indiscutable. La malnutrition et la pauvreté sont deux problèmes interdépendants et qui partagent les mêmes causes. On estimait en 2008 que le retard de croissance staturale affectait 195 millions d’enfants de moins de cinq ans d...

  19. Les soins buccodentaires en milieu gériatrique au sein du Réseau Santé Valais: quelle réalité pour les infirmières ?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Sobral, Suzi Carina; Baudin, Marie-Noëlle; Coquoz, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    Ce Bachelor Thesis, réalisé par Marie-Noëlle Baudin et moi-même, s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’obtention de notre diplôme d’infirmière. Le thème choisi est celui des soins buccodentaires, soin essentiel pour la qualité de vie du client et en lien direct avec le rôle autonome de l’infirmière. Cette recherche qualitative de nature exploratoire vise à identifier comment les infirmières incluent les soins buccodentaires dans leur pratique professionnelle, pour les clients en perte d'autonomie pou...

  20. Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media; Modelisation a l'echelle macroscopique d'un ecoulement turbulent au sein d'un milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinson, F

    2006-03-15

    - This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - {epsilon} RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - <{epsilon}>f - <{epsilon}{sub w}>f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then successfully applied to the study of turbulent channel flows. (author)

  1. Experimental study of the vaporization of a droplets injection in a fluidized gas-solid media; Etude experimentale de la vaporisation d'un jet de goutelettes au contact d'un milieu gaz-solide fluidise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, K.

    2002-09-01

    The quality of feedstock injection in the Fluid Catalytic Process (FCC) is essential to ensure a good vaporization. The vaporization should be fast so that the cracking reaction in the gaseous phase can happen within the short residence time in the riser (a few seconds). Vaporization is helped by a uniform injection of droplets as small as possible as well as a good mixing with the catalyst particles that represent the main heat source. Several models were developed to predict the droplet vaporization in a gas-solid media. However, no experimental validation exists for these models, whose predictions vary (from 1 to several hundreds of milliseconds). The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place during droplet vaporization. This was done in two steps. First, operating limits had to be defined to ensure an optimal vaporization and to avoid local saturation and agglomerate formation. These limits were precisely determined under laboratory conditions to validate a model that showed that agglomeration does not occur under industrial conditions. Then, a kinematic study of vaporization under operating conditions without agglomerate formation was performed. An original measurement technique was developed to get samples at very short times (tens of milliseconds). Experiments showed that heat transfer was not limiting and that mass transfer was the limiting process during vaporization. The developed model was thus based on mass transfer through a boundary layer. The validation of this model in a dense fluidized bed justified its application to operating conditions were the bed voidance is higher. A detailed study of operating parameters will help determine how to improve vaporization. (author)

  2. Transition probability studies in 175Au

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Tuomas; Watkins, H.; Joss, David; Page, Robert; Carroll, R. J.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, Paul; Hackstein, M.; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Jakobsson, Ulrika; Jones, Peter; Julin, Rauno; Juutinen, Sakari; Ketelhut, Steffen; Kröll, Th

    2013-01-01

    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms...

  3. Jet structure of baryon excess in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two particle correlations between identified meson and baryon trigger particles with 2.5TT charged hadrons have been measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV. In noncentral Au+Au collisions, the probability of finding a hadron near in azimuthal angle to the trigger particles is almost identical for mesons and baryons and significantly higher than in p+p collisions. The associated yields for trigger baryons decrease in the most central collisions, consistent with some baryon production by thermal recombination in addition to hard scattering

  4. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  5. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  6. Suppression of high transverse momentum π0 spectra in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2008-02-01

    Au + Au, s1/2 = 200 GeV measurements at RHIC, obtained with the PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS and BRAHMS detectors, have all indicated a suppression of high p⊥ particle production, relative to an appropriately normalized NN level. For central collisions and vanishing pseudo-rapidity these experiments exhibit suppression in charged meson production, especially at medium-to-large transverse momenta. In the PHENIX experiment similar behaviour has been reported for π0 spectra. In a recent work [1] on the simpler D + Au interaction, to be considered perhaps as a tune-up for Au + Au, we reported on a pre-hadronic cascade mechanism which can explain the mixed observation of moderately reduced p⊥ suppression at higher pseudo-rapidity as well as the Cronin enhancement at mid-rapidity. Here, we present the extension of this work to the more massive ion-ion collisions. Our major thesis is that much of the suppression is generated in a late stage cascade of colourless pre-hadrons produced after an initial short-lived coloured phase. We present a pQCD argument to justify this approach and to estimate the time duration τp of this initial phase. Of essential importance is the brevity in time of the coloured phase existence relative to that of the strongly interacting pre-hadron phase, the latter essentially an interactive cascade. These distinctions in phase are of course not strict, but adequate for treating the suppression of moderate and high p⊥ mesons.

  7. Comment lutter contre la violence et le harcèlement à l'école et au collège ?:Enseignements d'une expérimentation à grande échelle

    OpenAIRE

    Algan, Yann; Huillery, Elise; Guyon, Nina

    2015-01-01

    La violence entre pairs à l’école est un phénomène préoccupant, en particulier compte tenu du potentiel impact de long terme sur le devenir des enfants. Nous évaluons ici les effets d’un dispositif de « Médiation Sociale en Milieu Scolaire » (MSMS) visant à réduire la violence entre pairs. Grâce à un protocole expérimental par assignation aléatoire, nous montrons que les effets du programme sont très importants lorsqu’il est mis en place par des médiateurs assez expérimentés : au collège, le ...

  8. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  9. L'industrie photovoltaïque en Suisse occidentale : l’émergence d’un milieu valorisateur multi-local

    OpenAIRE

    Livi, Christian; Jeannerat, Hugues; Crevoisier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Développée à partir des années 1980, différents modèles territoriaux d’innovation ont mis en perspective comment certains systèmes de production régionaux se développent à partir de dynamiques d’innovation et d’apprentissage propres à certains milieu locaux. Ces modèles reflètent une globalisation économique caractérisée par une mobilité accrue des biens et services mais limitée des facteurs de production à la base de l’innovation telle que la connaissance et le capital de développement. Cet ...

  10. MEE-project: One year of public relations on the environment and energy. MEE-projekt: Een jaar voorlichten over milieu en energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-26

    A final overview is presented of the MEE-project ('Milieu- En Energie projekt' or Environmental and Energy project). The MEE-project was aimed at stimulating energy saving and improving the public attitude concerning energy and the environment. The project is also considered as an employment project for the unemployed. The main target group of the project was the households in the Dutch municipality Heerhugowaard. Five persons in search of employment offered interested private households options to save energy and the environment within their own surroundings by means of information and documentation. 5610 information packets were delivered. The costs did not exceed 115,000 Dutch guilders. The overall conclusion is positive: the people of the municipality are active in trying to save energy and the environment. Four of the five project members have new and better perspectives for a job.

  11. Crises et régulation en pays soninké (Sénégal) depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Chastanet, Monique

    1991-01-01

    L'histoire de la région du Gooy (Sénégal) depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle a été marquée par des crises alimentaires récurrentes. En mettant en perspective l'évolution des types de crises, des systèmes de régulation et des tendances démographiques, on peut rendre compte du passage des "années de famine" de la période coloniale aux "années difficiles" de la période actuelle, pour reprendre des expressions soninké. Cette évolution s'est accompagnée de la disparition des grandes mortalités dues a...

  12. Une aberration statistique de phase pour la modélisation de la propagation ultrasonore en milieu faiblement inhomogène et aléatoire

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bo; Darmon, Michel; Potel, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est le calcul du champ ultrasonore rayonné par un transducteur immergé en milieu inhomogène. Cette étude s'inscrit dans le cadre du développement d'outils de simulation des techniques de surveillance des réacteurs nucléaires à sodium liquide. Premièrement, un modèle gaussien de turbulence thermique a été développé afin de générer des champs spatiaux de température et ensuite de célérité représentatifs de la situation rencontrée dans un réacteur à sodium liquide. Des m...

  13. Une histoire du milieu marin méditerranéen. Le cas du golfe de Marseille (XVIIIe - XIXe siècles)

    OpenAIRE

    FAGET, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Développés depuis une quarantaine d’années dans l’historiographie française, les travaux d’histoire environnementale se sont assez peu intéressés à ce milieu naturel spécifique qu’est le monde marin. Ce retard peut s’expliquer de différentes manières : complexité d’approche des écosystèmes marins, dispersion et hétérogénéité des sources, disparition de la mégafaune littorale dans la mémoire collective des sociétés contemporaines. Cet article, à l’aide d’exemples liés à l’évolution du golfe de...

  14. Amorçage de fissures de corrosion sous contrainte du Zircaloy-4 recristallisé en milieu méthanol iodé

    OpenAIRE

    Mozzani, Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    En situation d’interaction pastille-gaine (IPG), les gaines de crayons combustible en alliage de zirconium sont susceptibles de rompre lors de transitoires de puissance incidentels dans les réacteurs à eau pressurisée, par un mécanisme de corrosion sous contrainte induite par l’iode (CSC-I). Cette étude traite de l’amorçage intergranulaire des fissures de CSC-I dans le Zircaloy-4 recristallisé, en milieu méthanol iodé à température ambiante, en s’intéressant particulièrement aux paramètres mé...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dan; WU Gang; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    Aucore-Ptshell (Au@Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by reducing K2PtCl6 with hydrogen in the solution containing Au colloids and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The particles obtained were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM and XPS techniques. UV-Vis spectra show that the surface plasmon absorption feature of Au colloids is significantly reduced with increasing the amount of reduced Pt. TEM images that the metals are found always appear as spherical nanoparticles and their sizes grow apparently due to the reduction of PtCl62- ions, indicating that Pt is deposited from solution onto Au particle surface and forms a Pt-layer with uniform thickness. In the XPS spectra, the signals of Au metal decrease due to the reductive deposition of Pt on the surface of the Au colloids. UV-Vis and XPS data are consistent in showing that when the amount of Pt in the AuPt colloids is increased to reach an overall atomic ratio of Pt/Au=2, the Pt deposits form a shell covering completely the surface of Au particles, demonstrating the core-shell structure of the synthesized AuPt particles.

  16. Enrichment of the Superheavy Element Rg in Natural Au

    CERN Document Server

    Marinov, A; Kolb, D; Halicz, L; Segal, I; Tepliakov, N; Kashiv, Y; Brandt, R

    2010-01-01

    Based on the observation of the long-lived isotopes 261Rg and 265Rg (Z = 111, t(1/2) >= 10^(8) y) in natural Au, an experiment was performed to enrich Rg in 99.999% Au. 16 mg of Au were heated in vacuum for two weeks at a temperature of 1127 deg. C (63 deg. C above the melting point of Au). The content of 197Au and 261Rg in the residue was studied with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The residue of Au was 3x10^(-6) of its original quantity. The recovery of Rg was a few percent. The abundance of Rg compared to Au in the enriched solution was about 2x10^(-6), which is a three to four orders of magnitude enrichment. It is concluded that the evaporation rate of Rg from an Au matrix in vacuum at 63 deg. C above the Au melting point is lower than that of Au. This experiment reinforces our first observation of Rg in a terrestrial material. As before it is concluded that a long-lived isomeric state exists in 261Rg and that it probably belongs to a new class of iso...

  17. La diffusion du fran(c)ais en Chine du milieu du 19e siècle à nos jours (1)%La diffusion du fran(c)ais en Chine du milieu du19e siècle à nos jours (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴冬梅

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ce travail tente le pari d'esquisser I'évolution historique de la diffusion du francais en Chine du milieu du 19e siècle jusqu'à nos jours.La Chine désigne ici essentiellement le continent chinois.Hongkong, Taiwan et Macao ne sont pas pour autant totalement exclus.La question posée est toute simple : qui parle le francais en Chine ? Pour retrouver ces personnes, les établissements d'enseignement nous servent de fil rouge.

  18. Strangelet search in Au+Au collisions at VsNN=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Benedosso, F.; Botje, M.A.J.; Grebenyuk, O.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Russcher, M.J.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van der Kolk, N.

    2007-01-01

    We have searched for strangelets in a triggered sample of 61 million central (top 4%) Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV near beam rapidities at the STAR solenoidal tracker detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We have sensitivity to metastable strangelets with lifetimes of order ⩾0.1 ns, in contrast to limits over ten times longer in BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) studies and longer still at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Upper limits of a few 10-6 to 10-7 ...

  19. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  20. PARTON STRUCTURE THROUGH TWO PARTICLE CORRELATIONS IN AU-AU AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LONGACRE,R.S.

    1999-10-23

    A method for determining the presence of partonic scattering through two-particle correlations is developed and applied to models which have jets and mini-jets in them. We only consider the correlation of mid-rapidity particles because they will be easily measured in large numbers at RHIC. The level of two-particle correlations will be a direct measure of how dense a system is made in Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The STAR TPC will be ideal for making these measurements in the first year of running.

  1. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}$=130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, K H; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A R; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M E; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M A; Blyth, C O; Böhm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A B; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chathopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Díaz, H; De Young, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, Wojciech; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelyanov, V I; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, Kenneth J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Grau, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E M; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I V; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kühn, C E; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Leonhardt, W; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, Jean Robert; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R S; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; Matyushevsky, E A; McParland, C P; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D M; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N T; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J E; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Röhrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sánchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlüter, R; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimansky, S S; Shuman, D B; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Symons, T J M; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tonse, S R; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V N; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevskii, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV using the STAR TPC at RHIC. The elliptic flow signal, v_2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  2. Spectator matter fragmentation in Au+Au reactions: Phase space analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vermani, Yogesh K

    2011-01-01

    Clusterization in phase space has been analyzed for peripheral Au+Au reactions at 1000 AMeV using simulated annealing clusterization algorithm (SACA). We investigate how these fragments are correlated in phase space and compare our model calculations with minimum spanning tree (MST) method. Our theoretical study highlights the importance of binding energy criterion in recognizing the fragment structure. MST method however, fails to break-up the spectator matter effectively and thus under-estimates the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  3. Energy Dependence of Particle Multiplicities in Central Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 200 GeV. For the 6% most central collisions, we obtain dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1 = 650+/-35(syst). Compared to collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV, the highest energy studied previously, an increase by a factor of 1.14+/-0.05 at 90% confidence level, is found. The energy dependence of the pseudorapidity density is discussed in comparison with data from proton-induced collisions and theoretical predictions.

  4. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-01

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  5. Observation of anisotropic event shapes and transverse flow in ultrarelativistic Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event shapes for Au + Au collisions at 11.4 GeV/c per nucleon were studied over nearly the full solid angle with the E877 apparatus. The analysis was performed by Fourier expansion of azimuthal distributions of the transverse energy (ET) measured in different pseudorapidity intervals. For semicentral collisions a pronounced event anisotropy is identified with a clear forward-backward anticorrelation. In the forward pseudorapidity interval up to 9% of the ET is in a directed component. The signal decreases for peripheral and very central collisions

  6. Net charge fluctuations in Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2002-08-19

    Data from Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays. PMID:12190459

  7. Light Fragment Production and Power Law Behavior in Au + Au Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using charged-particle-exclusive measurements of Au+Au collisions in the LBL Bevalac's EOS time projection chamber, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity, and beam energy. Most features of these densities above a transverse momentum threshold are consistent with momentum-space coalescence, and, in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is generally well described by a momentum-space power law

  8. On direct photon production in Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of the direct photon production phenomenon are discussed, mainly in the Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions on the basis of a model for production of the same particle species in PP collisions. The results have, thereafter, been converted to those for a few AB/AA interactions through an appropriate mechanism. Comparison of the theoretical results obtained on the basis of model-based calculations with measured data on the relevant observables leads to a fair agreement between them. This reflects modestly the fair achievements attained by the models that are made use of in the present work. (author)

  9. On direct photon production in Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the direct photon production phenomenon are discussed, mainly in the Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions on the basis of a model for production of the same particle species in PP collisions. The results have, thereafter, been converted to those for a few AB/AA interactions through an appropriate mechanism. Comparison of the theoretical results obtained on the basis of model-based calculations with measured data on the relevant observables leads to a fair agreement between them. This reflects modestly the fair achievements attained by the models that are made use of in the present work. (author)

  10. Sideward Flow in Au + Au Collisions Between 2 AGeV and 8 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H; Alexander, J; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L S; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Yang, X; Zhang Wei Ning; Zhang, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using the large acceptance Time Projection Chamber of experiment E895 at Brookhaven, measurements of collective sideward flow in Au + Au collisions at beam energies of 2, 4, 6 and 8A GeV are presented in the form of in-plane transverse momentum and the first Fourier coefficient of azimuthal anisotropy v_1. These measurements indicate a smooth variation of sideward flow as a function of beam energy. The data are compared with four nuclear transport models which have an orientation towards this energy range. All four exhibit some qualitative trends similar to those found in the data, although none shows a consistent pattern of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  11. Charged Pion Production in 2 to 8 AGeV Central Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klay, J L; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M G; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K; Das, A C; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Law, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Wells, R; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2003-01-01

    Momentum spectra of charged pions over nearly full rapidity coverage from target to beam rapidity have been measured in the 0-5% most central Au+Au collisions in the beam energy range from 2 to 8 AGeV by the E895 Experiment. Using a thermal parameterization to fit the transverse mass spectra, rapidity density distributions are extracted. The observed spectra are compared with predictions from the RQMD v2.3 cascade model and also to a thermal model including longitudinal flow. The total 4$pi$ yields of the charged pions are used to infer an initial state entropy produced in the collisions.

  12. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Balance Functions from Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions beco...

  13. Beam Energy Scan a Case for the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Au-Au Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-01-05

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is predicted for Au-Au collisions at RHIC. However, many backgrounds can give signals that make the measurement hard to interpret. The STAR experiment has made measurements at different collisions energy ranging from √(sNN)=7.7 GeV to 62.4 GeV. In the analysis that is presented we show that the CME turns on with energy and is not present in central collisions where the induced magnetic is small.

  14. Azimuthal Anisotropy of Identified Hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Oldenburg, M

    2006-01-01

    The azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 has been measured with high statistics for identified hadrons in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions with the STAR experiment. At high transverse momentum (pT) a strong v2 for pi+ + pi- and p + pbar is observed. In the intermediate pT region, number-of-constituent-quark scaling was tested to high precision. A detailed comparison of v2 for the multi-strange hadrons phi, Xi + anti-Xi, and Omega + anti-Omega with other particle species substantiates the development of collectivity among partons in the early phase of the collisions at RHIC.

  15. Fluid Flow in Low Permeable, Porous Media Écoulements fluides dans un milieu poreux peu perméable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta N. C.

    2006-11-01

    kinetic theory of chemical reaction in which the time-temperature history is provided by the solution of an appropriate heat conduction equation. This model of geopressure has a practical application since it deals with the generation and maintenance of abnormally high fluid pressures over geologic time and impacts the hydrocarbon migration in clastic basins. La migration des hydrocarbures traite du déplacement du pétrole consécutif à l'expulsion des roches mères vers les réservoirs saturés en eau ou à travers des zones perméables créées par des fractures ou des failles. Bien que les principes sous-jacents contrôlant les mouvements de fluides dans les milieux poreux (réservoirs soient bien compris des ingénieurs de réservoir, on connaît moins de choses sur les caractéristiques des écoulements dans les milieux poreux peu perméables, comme les argiles et les schistes. En termes d'écoulement, les paramètres principaux sont la porosité, la perméabilité, et les gradients potentiels des fluides. Pour les argiles et les schistes, ces paramètres sont peu connus; et cependant ce sont eux qui contrôlent les périodes pendant lesquelles les écoulements fluides se sont produits dans les bassins sédimentaires (de 100 à 100 millions d'années. Dans cet article, on examine la dépendance paramétrique des constantes temporelles des écoulements fluides dans les sédiments peu perméables par rapport à leur porosité et leur perméabilité. Dans une première partie, on présente une technique d'étude de l'effet d'un écoulement dans les argiles qui produit la sous-compaction et l'augmentation de la pression de fluide par rapport à la pression hydrostatique normale. On se place dans des conditions d'avant-forage ; la technique utilise la méthode des analyses de vitesse par mise en collection de point milieu commun des données sismiques de surface, et est basée sur le concept développé par Hottmann et Johnson (1965 et Pennebaker (1968. Dans une seconde

  16. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  17. Thermal stability of Mo/Au bilayers for TES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo/Au bilayers are among the most suitable materials to be used as transition-edge sensors (TES) in cryogenic microcalorimeters and bolometers, developed, among other fields, for space missions. For this purpose the thermal stability of TES at temperatures below 150 °C is a critical issue. We report on the dependence of functional properties (superconducting critical temperature, residual resistance and α) as well as on microstructure, chemical composition and interface quality for optimized high quality Mo/Au bilayers on annealing temperature and time. Data show that the functional properties of the bilayers remain stable at T C at T ≥ 200 °C are mainly due to an increase in the average Au grain size and to Au migration along the Mo grain boundaries at the Au/Mo interface. A way to stabilize the functional properties of the Mo/Au bilayers against temperature enhancements is proposed. (paper)

  18. Anomalous magnetic moment at Ba in Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, A. K.; Kaur, J.; Bansal, N.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Kumar, V.; Dey, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique is employed to measure the local susceptibility at the recoil implanted Ba ions in Au following the nuclear reaction 120Sn(12C, 3nγ)129Ba. We have observed first time the local paramagnetic susceptibility of 5.26(18) at Ba ions comparable to 4f-ions in any non-ferromagnetic metal at room temperature which seems to be related to the electronic s-d and s-f transfer at positive lattice pressure.

  19. Le risque alimentaire face au consommateur

    OpenAIRE

    Didier Torny

    2005-01-01

    Dans le contexte contemporain de multiplication des crises sanitaires, de nombreux travaux en sciences économiques et sociales ont cherché à décrire et analyser le comportement des consommateurs face au risque alimentaire. Ces travaux partagent globalement deux prémisses : ils considèrent l'acte de consommation comme un comportement individuel et attribuent aux consommateurs des "perceptions du risque" qui orientent leurs choix. Une critique de ces deux axiomes amène à soulever la question de...

  20. Les produits de terroir au Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Luxereau, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Les productions agricoles localisées, bénéficiant de ce fait d’une notoriété particulière, existent depuis longtemps en Afrique. Au Niger, elles sont nombreuses et leur statut est diversifié, entre des produits « patrimoines » et d’autres qui constituent des opportunités économiques récentes. Longtemps ignorés des projets de développement, ils connaissent actuellement des évolutions disparates mais la plupart du temps endogènes, « informelles » et innovantes. Tous commercialisés, ils particip...

  1. Que faisons-nous au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Le CERN a pour vocation la science pure, l'étude des questions les plus fondamentales de la nature:Qu'est-ce que la matière ?D'ou vient-elle ? Comment s'agglomère-t-elle en formes complexes comme les étoiles, les planètes et les êtres humains ? Au CERN, les collisions de particules servent à sonder le coeur de la matière et les chercheurs du Laboratoire étudient ces millions de collisions de particules afin de trouver des réponses à ces questions.

  2. Phase behavior of Au and Pt surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grübel, G.; Gibbs, D.; Zehner, D.M.;

    1993-01-01

    We summarize the results of X-ray scattering studies of the Au(001) and Pt(001) surfaces between 300 K and their respective bulk melting temperatures (T(m)). Both surfaces exhibit three distinct structural phases. At high temperatures (0.88T(m) < T < T(m)) both surfaces are disordered. The Pt(001......) surface is rough. At a temperature of T/T(m) almost-equal-to 0.88 there are reversible phase transformations to incommensurate, corrugated-hexagonal phases. Below T/T(m) almost-equal-to 0.8 hexagonal domains rotate with respect to the substrate orientation. In Pt, the rotational transformation is...

  3. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  4. Transition probability studies in 175Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms of available systematics as a function of atomic number and aligned angular momentum.

  5. Compressive mechanical behavior of Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Yuhua, E-mail: yhwen@xmu.edu.c [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Wang Quan, E-mail: q_wang@umanitoba.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Liew, Kim Meow [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhu Zizhong [Department of Physics, and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-06-28

    The structural evolution, deformation mechanism, and failure behavior of Au [001] nanowires with various sizes and slenderness ratios under uniaxial compression have been investigated using molecular dynamics. The results show that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and strain all are dependent on the diameters and slenderness ratios of the nanowires. Buckling behavior is observed in a long nanowire, followed by slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes. Differences are identified in the failure behavior of a short nanowire and a medium nanowire, although the plastic deformation of both types of nanowire originates from the slips in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes.

  6. Compressive mechanical behavior of Au nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution, deformation mechanism, and failure behavior of Au [001] nanowires with various sizes and slenderness ratios under uniaxial compression have been investigated using molecular dynamics. The results show that the elastic modulus, yield stress, and strain all are dependent on the diameters and slenderness ratios of the nanowires. Buckling behavior is observed in a long nanowire, followed by slips in the {111} planes. Differences are identified in the failure behavior of a short nanowire and a medium nanowire, although the plastic deformation of both types of nanowire originates from the slips in the {111} planes.

  7. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:23976990

  8. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    Full Text Available In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles.

  9. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, Parisa; Braun, Slawomir; Fahlman, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...

  10. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of Au/PVP composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hong; Cheng Bo-Lin; Lu Guo-Wei; Wang Wei-Tian; Guan Dong-Yi; Chen Zheng-Hao; Yang Guo-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal Au and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) composite thin films are fabricated by spin-coating method. Linear optical absorption measurements of the Au/PVP composite films indicate an absorption peak around 530 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties are studied using standard Z-scan technique, and experimental results show large optical nonlinearities of the Au/PVP composite films. A large value of films.

  12. Charged-particle rapidity density in Au+Au collisions in a quark combination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng-Lan; Yao, Tao; Xie, Qu-Bing

    2007-03-01

    Rapidity/pseudorapidity densities for charged particles and their centrality, rapidity, and energy dependence in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are studied in a quark combination model. Using a Gaussian-type rapidity distribution for constituent quarks as a result of Landau hydrodynamic evolution, the data at sNN=130,200 GeV at various centralities in full pseudorapidity range are well described, and the charged-particle multiplicities are reproduced as functions of the number of participants. The energy dependence of the shape of the dNch/dη distribution is also described at various collision energies sNN=200,130,62.4 GeV in central collisions with same value of parameters except 19.6 GeV. The calculated rapidity distributions and yields for the charged pions and kaons in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration.

  13. Degree of chemical nonequilibrium in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; El-Bakry, M. Y.; Habashy, D. M.; Mohamed, M. T.; Abbas, Ehab

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the difference between hadron resonance gas (HRG) calculations for chemical freeze-out parameters at fully and partly chemical equilibria. To this end, the results are compared with the particle ratios measured in central Au-Au collisions at a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies, √ {s{ NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV as offered by the STAR experiment. We restrict the discussion to STAR, because of large statistics and overall homogeneity of STAR measurements (one detector) against previous experiments. We find that the matter produced at these energies is likely in fully chemical equilibria, which is consistent with recent lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) results. The possible improvements by partial chemical equilibria (γS ≠ 1) are very limited. We also discuss these results with the ones deduced from ϕ/π- and Ω-/π- ratios. These hadron ratios are sensitive to the degree of chemical equilibrium. Accordingly, the conclusion that the matter produced reaches fully chemical equilibria in central Au-Au at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) energies is confirmed.

  14. The self assembly of thymine at Au(110)/liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Contreras, J.R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Mexico (Mexico); Smith, C.I.; Bowfield, A.; Weightman, P. [Physics Department, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Tillner, F. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    We show that thymine self-assembles into an ordered structure when adsorbed at a Au(110)/liquid interface. Reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) shows that as found for cytosine and adenine the adsorbed thymine molecules are oriented essentially vertically on the Au(110) surface with the molecule aligned along one of the principal axes of the Au(110) surface. Simulations of the RA spectra to an empirical model indicates that as found for adsorbed cytosine and adenine, thymine is aligned along the [1 anti 10] direction on the Au(110) surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Tailoring the FeRh magnetostructural response with Au diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Loving, Melissa. L.; De Vries, Mark; Gimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Liu, Xuerong; Langridge, Sean; Heiman, Donald; Marrows, Christopher M.; Lewis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Factors which contribute to magnetostructural transition control have been demonstrated by study of the effects of Au incorporation on the magnetic and structural character of CsCl-structured equiatomic FeRh thin films. Sputtered films were capped with 2 nm of Au deposited at 873 K and at 323 K and subsequently characterized with magnetometry and synchrotron-based structural probes. Diffusion of Au into the FeRh film layer at 873 K is confirmed by a reduction in the Au capping layer thickness...

  16. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  17. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEC-CEMUC - Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. Eng. Mecanica, Polo II, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 Degree-Sign C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} Au/cm{sup 2}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} Au/cm{sup 2} with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} Au/cm{sup 2} the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3-5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 Degree-Sign C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 Degree-Sign C. Annealing above 700 Degree-Sign C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  18. Magnetic holes in the solar wind between 0.3 AU and 17 AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sperveslage

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes (MHs are depressions of the magnetic field magnitude. Turner et al. (1977 identified the first MHs in the solar wind and determined an occurrence rate of 1.5 MHs/d. Winterhalter et al. (1994 developed an automatic identification criterion to search for MHs in Ulysses data in the solar wind between 1 AU and 5.4 AU. We adopt their criterion to expand the search to the heliocentric distances down to 0.3 AU using data from Helios 1 and 2 and up to 17 AU using data from Voyager 2. We relate our observations to two theoretical approaches which describe the so-called linear MHs in which the magnetic vector varies in magnitude rather than direction. Therefore we focus on such linear MHs with a directional change less than 10º. With our observations of about 850 MHs we present the following results: Approximately 30% of all the identified MHs are linear. The maximum angle between the initial magnetic field vector and any vector inside the MH is 20º in average and shows a weak relation to the depth of the MHs. The angle between the initial magnetic field and the minimum variance direction of those structures is large and very probably close to 90º. The MHs are placed in a high β environment even though the average solar wind shows a smaller β. The widths decrease from about 50 proton inertial length in a region between 0.3 AU and 0.4 AU heliocentric distance to about 15 proton inertial length at distances larger than 10 AU. This quantity is correlated with the β of the MH environments with respect to the heliocentric distance. There is a clear preference for the occurrence of depressions instead of compressions. We discuss these results with regard to the main theories of MHs, the mirror instability and the alternative soliton approach. Although our observational results are more consistent with the soliton theory we favour a combination of both. MHs might be the remnants of initial mirror mode structures which can be described as

  19. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    atmospherique entre 1962 et 1964 et les incidences de cette retombee dans les eaux marines superficielles. Considerant les radioelements etudies comme des 'traceurs' dans le milieu marin, divers processus physiques, chimiques ou biologiques ont ete etudies par spectrometrie gamma a haute sensibilite. Le passage en phase soluble dans l'eau de mer d'une fraction importante (environ 50 pour cent) de l'activite liee aux poussieres radioactives, phenomene qui n'etait pas previsible pour les radioelements etudies, gouverne les processus d'accumulation dans la biomasse planctonique et la diffusion vers les eaux plus profondes. Par ailleurs, une methode de spectrometrie 'in situ' permettant de mesurer directement dans la mer de tres faibles concentrations en certains radionuclides emetteurs gamma est decrite. L'application de cette methode a permis de nombreuses observations dans les eaux de surface de la Mediterranee occidentale et du Golfe de Gascogne. On montre quo la profondeur de melange est etroitement liee a celle de la thermocline. Un processus d'accumulation au niveau de celle-ci est constate. Les coefficients de diffusion sont voisins du coefficient de diffusion thermique turbulente. L'existence de compartiments qui subsistent pendant plusieurs mois dans la masse des eaux de surface du Golfe de Gascogne est mise en evidence. Grace aux bilans effectues, une etude comparative montre que le taux de retombees radioactives sur les surfaces maritimes est toujours deux a trois fois superieur a celui sur les regions continentales voisines. Diverses explications de ce phenomene sont discutees. (auteur)

  20. Baryon Stopping in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62 and 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing

    2009-01-01

    BRAHMS has measured rapidity density distributions of protons and antiprotons in both p+p and Au+Au collisions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV. From these distributions the yields of so-called "net-protons", that is the difference between the proton and antiproton yields, can be determined. The rapidity dependence of the net-proton yields from peripheral Au+Au collisions is found to have a similar behaviour to that found for the p+p results, while a quite different rapidity dependence is found for central Au+Au collisions. The net-proton distributions can be used together with model calculations to find the net-baryon yields as a function of rapidity, thus yielding information on the average rapidity loss of beam particles, the baryon transport properties of the medium, and the amount of "stopping" in these collisions.

  1. Baryon Stopping in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms Collaboration; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; BRAHMS Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    BRAHMS has measured rapidity density distributions of protons and antiprotons in both p+p and Au+Au collisions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV. From these distributions the yields of so-called ‘net-protons’, that is the difference between the proton and antiproton yields, can be determined. The rapidity dependence of the net-proton yields from peripheral Au+Au collisions is found to have a similar behaviour to that found for the p+p results, while a quite different rapidity dependence is found for central Au+Au collisions. The net-proton distributions can be used together with model calculations to find the net-baryon yields as a function of rapidity, thus yielding information on the average rapidity loss of beam particles, the baryon transport properties of the medium, and the amount of ‘stopping’ in these collisions.

  2. Design of Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle for facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Satoshi, E-mail: seino@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shibata, Yujin; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takashi [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Mukai, Yohei; Nakagawa, Shinsaku [Osaka University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Immobilization of Au nanoparticles on super-paramagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) enables facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond. Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle is easily modified by thiol-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH), and they are successfully applied on MR tumor imaging. However, its large hydrodynamic size ({approx}150 nm) still causes the accumulation to liver in vivo. In this study, we controlled the hydrodynamic size of Au/SPIO by testing different raw SPIOs and stabilizing polymers. As the best candidate, Au/Molday-ION which was synthesized from Molday-ION and polyvinyl alcohol comprised the hydrodynamic size of 56 nm. Moreover, PEGylated Au/Molday-ION showed excellent dispersibility in blood serum, with the hydrodynamic size of 65 nm. This surface functionalization strategy is effective for the constructions of magnetic nanocarriers for in vivo applications.

  3. Enhanced production of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csrgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, o G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Yu V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H; Hachiya, AT; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Krl, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Lika, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, s B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Maek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mike, s P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, s M; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Sluneka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, cS P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarjn, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomaek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesj, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, o J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L

    2008-01-01

    The production of low mass e+e- pairs for m_{e+e-} < 300 MeV/c^2 and 1 < p_T <5 GeV/c is measured in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV. Enhanced e+e- pair yield above hadronic sources is observed in Au+Au collisions. Treating the excess as internal conversion of direct photons, the invariant yield of direct photons is deduced. In central Au+Au collisions, the excess over p+p is exponential in p_T}, with inverse slope T = 221 +/- 23 (stat) +/- 18 (syst) MeV. Hydrodynamical models with initial temperatures T_init ~ 300-600 MeV at times of 0.6 - 0.15 fm/c after the collision are in qualitative agreement with the data. Lattice QCD predicts a phase transition at ~ 170 MeV.

  4. The Modification of high-$p_{T}$ hadro-chemistry in Au+Au collisions relative to p+p

    CERN Document Server

    Timmins, Anthony R

    2009-01-01

    We present high transverse momentum, $p_{T}$, pion ($\\pi$), proton ($p$), kaon ($K$), and rho ($\\rho$) spectra measured with the STAR experiment from p+p and Au+Au collisions with \\sNN{200}. We find the $K/\\pi$ ratio to be enhanced in Au+Au \\sNN{200} collisions relative to p+p \\sNN{200} collisions at $p_{T} > 5$ GeV/c. The enhancement persists until $p_{T} \\sim 12$ GeV/c for central Au+Au 200 GeV collisions. We also show the nuclear modification factor, $R_{AA}$, measured at the same center of mass energy, and find $R_{AA}(K)$ and $R_{AA}(p)$ to be higher than $R_{AA}(\\pi)$ at $p_T > 5$ GeV/c. Implications for medium induced modifications of jet chemistry is discussed.

  5. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, HyonMin

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Component conversion from pure Au nanorods to multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods assisted by Pt nanoframe templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seong Kyu; Park, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications.We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03484e

  7. Microstructural evolution of Au/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films: The influence of Au concentration and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kubart, T.; Kumar, S.; Leifer, K. [Solid-State Electronics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, Uppsala SE-751 21 (Sweden); Rodrigues, M.S. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Duarte, N.; Martins, B.; Dias, J.P. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Vaz, F. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of a dielectric matrix, such as titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), with embedded gold (Au) nanoparticles were prepared and will be analysed and discussed in detail in the present work. The evolution of morphological and structural features was studied for a wide range of Au concentrations and for annealing treatments in air, for temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 °C. Major findings revealed that for low Au atomic concentrations (at.%), there are only traces of clustering, and just for relatively high annealing temperatures, T ≥ 500 °C. Furthermore, the number of Au nanoparticles is extremely low, even for the highest annealing temperature, T = 800 °C. It is noteworthy that the TiO{sub 2} matrix also crystallizes in the anatase phase for annealing temperatures above 300 °C. For intermediate Au contents (5 at.% ≤ C{sub Au} ≤ 15 at.%), the formation of gold nanoclusters was much more evident, beginning at lower annealing temperatures (T ≥ 200 °C) with sizes ranging from 2 to 25 nm as the temperature increased. A change in the matrix crystallization from anatase to rutile was also observed in this intermediate range of compositions. For the highest Au concentrations (> 20 at.%), the films tended to form relatively larger clusters, with sizes above 20 nm (for T ≥ 400 °C). It is demonstrated that the structural and morphological characteristics of the films are strongly affected by the annealing temperature, as well as by the particular amounts, size and distribution of the Au nanoparticles dispersed in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • Au:TiO{sub 2} films were produced by magnetron sputtering and post-deposition annealing. • The Au concentration in the films increases with the Au pellet area. • Annealing induced microstructural changes in the films. • The nanoparticle size evolution with temperature depends on the Au concentration.

  8. Facet selective etching of Au microcrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gangaiah Mettela and Giridhar U. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    High-symmetry crystals exhibit isotropic properties. Inducing anisotropy, e.g., by facet selective etching, is considered implausible in face-centered cubic (FCC) metals, particularly gold, which, in addition to being an FCC, is noble. We report for the first time the facet selective etching of Au microcrystals obtained in the form of cuboctahedra and pentagonal rods from the thermolysis of a gold- organic precursor. The selective etching of {111} and {100} facets was achieved using a capping method in which tetraoctylammonium cations selectively cap the {111} facets while Br- ions protect the {100} facets. The exposed facets are oxidized by O2/C1-, yielding a variety of interesting geometries. The facet selective etching of the Au microcrystallites is governed only by the nature of the facets; the geometry of the microcystallite does not appear to play a significant role. The etched surfaces appear rough, but a closer examination reveals well-defined corrugations that are indexable to high hkl values. Such surfaces exhibit enhanced Raman activity.

  9. Imaging Prominence Eruptions Out to 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Brian E; Linton, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3-D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed ...

  10. Apprentissage administratif : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/PMD/RCC L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne,Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège...

  11. Le fonds Gabriel Tarde au CHEVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Salmon

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le fonds d’archives « Gabriel Tarde » déposé au CHEVS nous permet de mieux saisir l’érudit autodidacte que fut Gabriel Tarde. De la genèse de sa pensée à ses réseaux de sociabilité, de l’homme de sciences à l’homme de lettres, ses archives témoignent à la fois des usages et des enjeux des ressources archivistiques en histoire, mais elles permettent surtout un renouvellement du regard sur Gabriel Tarde en l’inscrivant au cœur de son temps que fut la fin du XIXème siècle.At the CHEVS in Paris, Gabriel Tarde’s archives allow us to grasp the self-taught scholar who was Gabriel Tarde. From the genesis of his intellect thought to his circles of sociability, from the scientist to the man of letters, his archives testify to the uses and the stakes of the archivistic resources in history, but they allow especially a renewal of the glance on Gabriel Tarde by inscribing him in his historical time, the end of the XIXth century.

  12. 197Au Moessbauer study of the deactivation and reactivation of a carbon-supported AuCl4- hydrochlorination catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylene hydrochlorination catalysts consisting of activated carbon impregnated with a solution of HAuCl4.xH2O in aqua regia have been studied by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The relative amounts of AuCl4-, of Au(0), and of an Au(I) species formed under certain process conditions were determined quantitatively. Deactivation of the catalyst at low and high temperatures was shown to be due to different mechanisms, and the reactivation of the catalyst by Cl2 gas was studied. (orig.)

  13. Coating of a layer of Au on Al13 : The findings of icosahedral Al@Al12Au20- and Al12Au202- fullerenes using ab initio pseudopotential calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay

    2009-02-01

    We report results of ab initio pseudopotential calculations on the nanocoating of gold on an icosahedral Al13 cluster and the findings of icosahedrally symmetric endohedral Al@Al12Au20- and empty cage Al12Au202- compound fullerenes formed of metal atoms. Twelve Al atoms cap the pentagonal faces of a dodecahedral Au20 cage in which each Au atom has three Al atoms and three Au atoms as nearest neighbors. Mixing of Al13 and Au20 magic clusters leads to a large heat of formation of 0.55 eV/atom and high stability of the Al@Al12Au20 compound fullerene. The binding energies of Al12Au20 and Al@Al12Au20 are 3.017 and 3.007 eV/atom, respectively, which are much larger than 2.457 eV/atom for Au32 fullerene, leading to the possibility of their high abundance.

  14. Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in Au/semiconductor nanoheterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, Scott

    The charge carrier dynamics in several Au/semiconductor core/shell heterostructures were examined. Firstly, Au/CdS core/shell nanocomposites were synthesized in a four step procedure culminating in a cation exchange performed on the shell. Previous studies of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/CdS nanocomposites with epitaxial boundary regions reported the suppression of plasmon character in transient absorption spectra accompanied by broadband photoinduced absorption. The coupling of electron wavefunctions with lattice defects at the boundary of the two domains has been blamed for these phenomena. In the current study, transmission electron micrographs of Au/CdS synthesized using cation exchange showed no evidence of strain on the lattice of either component, while femtosecond transient absorption data show the retention of bleach regions attributed to CdS's 1S(e)-1S3/2(h) transition and Au's plasmon resonance. Accelerated rates of bleach recovery for both excitations ( tauexiton ≈ 300 ps, tauplasmon ≈ .7 ps) indicated that the interaction of Au and CdS domains leads to faster relaxation to their respective photoexcitations when compared to relaxation times in isolated Au and CdS nanoparticles. It was believed that the Au/CdS boundary was non-epitaxial in the presented core/shell nanocomposites. Secondly, these non-epitaxial Au/CdS core/shells were subsequently used to demonstrate near-field energy transfer from 5 nm diameter Au cores to CdS-encapsulated CdSe quantum dots. To this end, Au/CdS and CdSe/CdS nanocrystals were embedded in semiconductor-matrix-encapsulated-nanocrystal-arrays (SMENA) together. The encapsulation of both domains in the high band-gap semiconductor CdS was a means to suppress charge transfer between the two nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity in these films was enhanced 6-fold in some cases as a result of the presence of Au domains. It was also demonstrated that the fluorescence enhancement was independent of the potential

  15. Resonance production and exotic clusters in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance production in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV are presented. The resonances are used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width, and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are also discussed. The measurement of resonances provides an important tool for studying the dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by probing the time evolution of the source from chemical to kinetic freeze-out and the hadronic interactions at later stages

  16. Les projets des jeunes ruraux : des stratégies diversifiées pour accéder au foncier et obtenir l’appui de l’Etat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhour Bouzidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Les initiatives publiques au Maroc n’offrent que très peu d’appuis spécifiquement dédiés aux jeunes ruraux. Cependant, certains jeunes réussissent à bénéficier de financements publics, tels que l’Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain ou le pilier II du Plan Maroc Vert, pour réaliser leurs projets. L’objectif de cet article est de caractériser la diversité des stratégies mises en place par ces jeunes pour accéder à l’appui de l’État. Nous avons pris l’exemple de l’accès au foncier, qui constitue une des obstacles auxquels sont confrontés les jeunes ruraux. Nous avons identifié trois types de projets : i des projets sans accès au foncier ; ii des projets où les jeunes s’arrangent avec un propriétaire de terre pour accéder au foncier ; et iii des projets où les jeunes sécurisent un droit propre d’accès au foncier. Si l’accès sécurisé au foncier permet aux jeunes d’obtenir une marge de manoeuvre importante dans la conception de leurs projets, en revanche leur autonomie est réduite pour les projets avec un accès négocié à la terre. Ce faisant, les projets hors sol constituent une voie de contournement de la contrainte foncière, mais font face à un ensemble de problèmes spécifiques. Bien que l’appui de l’État ne soit accessible qu’à peu de jeunes, les projets analysés créent des opportunités d’emploi et permettent de renforcer l’attachement des jeunes au milieu rural. Enfin, cet article propose des pistes pour améliorer l’accès des jeunes aux ressources productives (terre, eau, capital et mettre en place un appui efficient et adapté à leurs ambitions et leurs projets.

  17. EFFECT OF LASER INPUT ENERGY ON AuSnx INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS FORMATION IN SOLDER JOINTS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESS OF Au SURFACE FINISH ON PADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Liu; C.Q.Wang; Y.H.Tian; M.Y.Li

    2008-01-01

    Formation of AuSnx intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in laser reflowed solder joints was investigated. The results showed that few IMCs formed at the solder/0.1 μm Au interface. Needlelike AuSn4 IMCs were observed at the solder/0.5 μm Au interface.In Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-O.75Cu solder joints, when the laser input energy was increased, AuSn4 IMCs changed from a layer to needlelike or dendritic distribution at the solder/0.9 μm Au interface. As for the solder joints with 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish on pads, AuSn4 , AuSn2, AuSn IMCs, and Au2 Sn phases formed at the interface. Moreover, the content of AuSnx IMCs, such as, AuSn4 and AuSn2, which contained high Sn concentration, would become larger as the laser input energy increased. In the Sn-37Pb solder joints with 0.9 μm or 4.0 μm thickness of the Au surface finish on pads, AuSn4 IMCs were in netlike distribution. The interspaces between them were filled with Pb-rich phases.

  18. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-31

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J., E-mail: jiang.wang@empa.ch [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, Duebendorf, Zuerich CH-8600 (Switzerland); Liu, Y.J. [Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Liu, L.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated. > The Si-Sb binary system was assessed from critical review of experimental information. > Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed. > The phase relations of this ternary system are useful to design Au-based solders. - Abstract: Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated as well as the Si-Sb binary system was assessed thermodynamically using the CALPHAD method based on the critical review of the available experimental information from the published literature. The solution phases including liquid, fcc{sub A}1(Au), diamond{sub A}4(Si) and rhombohedral{sub A}7(Sb), are modeled as substitutional solutions and their excess Gibbs energies are expressed by a Redlich-Kister polynomial. The solubility of Si in the intermetallic compound AuSb{sub 2} is not taken into account because of the lack of experimental information. Combined with previous assessment of the Au-Si binary system, thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce well the measured phase equilibria. The liquidus projection and several vertical sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  20. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya, E-mail: satoh@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell structure with shell thickness of 0.16±0.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.5±0.1)×10{sup −2} μ{sub B}/Au atom, respectively. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with clean surface were prepared by the gas evaporation method. • The spontaneous magnetization was observed in Au nanoparticles. • Temperature dependent spontaneous magnetization of smaller Au particles was not monotonic. • The magnetic behavior was interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell model. • The shell thickness and the magnetic moment per Au atom were estimated.

  1. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-01-01

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  2. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films; Croissance et structure des couches minces magnetiques Co/Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot, N

    1999-01-14

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  3. Formation of CuxAu1−x phases by cold homogenization of Au/Cu nanocrystalline thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Tynkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, by using depth profiling with a secondary neutral mass spectrometer and structure investigations by XRD and TEM, that at low temperatures, at which the bulk diffusion is frozen, a complete homogenization can take place in the Cu/Au thin film system, which leads to formation of intermetallic phases. Different compounds can be formed depending on the initial thickness ratio. The process starts with grain boundary interdiffusion, which is followed by a formation of reaction layers at the grain boundaries that leads to the motion of the newly formed interfaces perpendicular to the grain boundary plane. Finally, the homogenization finishes when all the pure components have been consumed. The process is asymmetric: It is faster in the Au layer. In Au(25nm/Cu(50nm samples the final state is the ordered AuCu3 phase. Decrease of the film thicknesses, as expected, results in the acceleration of the process. It is also illustrated that changing the thickness ratio either a mixture of Cu-rich AuCu and AuCu3 phases (in Au(25nm/Cu(25nm sample, or a mixture of disordered Cu- as well as Au-rich solid solutions (in Au(25nm/Cu(12nm sample can be produced. By using a simple model the interface velocity in both the Cu and Au layers were estimated from the linear increase of the average composition and its value is about two orders of magnitude larger in Au (ca. 10−11 m/s than in Cu (ca. 10−13 m/s.

  4. MMP1-1607 polymorphism increases the risk for periapical lesion development through the upregulation MMP-1 expression in association with pro-inflammatory milieu elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; CAVALLA, Franco; SILVEIRA, Elcia Maria Varize; ANDREO, Camile Bermejo; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; FONSECA, Angélica Cristina; LETRA, Ariadne; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the

  5. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Gupta; Hima K Nagamanasa; Rajesh Ganapathy; Giridhar U Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the synthetic temperature conditions. Even a very low Au content of 0.09 wt% is sufficient enough to bring in the transition from sponge state to gel state at room temperature. Higher synthetic temperature also forms sponge formation. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy measurements have provided insight into PDMS crosslinking and nanoparticle formation, respectively. The optimization of the gel properties can have direct influence on the processability of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels, with interesting implications in electronic, optical and microfluidic devices.

  6. La Physique au LHC - Partie I

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Le LHC devrait permettre l'observation du boson de Higgs et pouvoir lever le voile sur l'un des scénarios de nouvelle physique présentés dans la cours précédent. Ce cours détaillera les perspectives de physique au LHC (découvertes possibles et mesures de précision) ainsi que les méthodes et difficultés expérimentales. L'accent sera mis sur les problèmes liés à la brisure de la symétrie electrofaible. Les possibilités de développement futur à plus haute luminosité et/ou énergie seront également discutées.

  7. The AuScope Geodetic VLBI Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, J E J; Reid, P B; McCulloch, P M; Baynes, B E; Dickey, J M; Shabala, S S; Watson, C S; Titov, O; Ruddick, R; Twilley, R; Reynolds, C; Tingay, S J; Shield, P; Adada, R; Ellingsen, S P; Morgan, J S; Bignall, H E; 10.1007/s00190-013-0626-3

    2013-01-01

    The AuScope geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry array consists of three new 12 m radio telescopes and a correlation facility in Australia. The telescopes at Hobart (Tasmania), Katherine (Northern Territory) and Yarragadee (Western Australia) are co-located with other space geodetic techniques including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and gravity infrastructure, and in the case of Yarragadee, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) facilities. The correlation facility is based in Perth (Western Australia). This new facility will make significant contributions to improving the densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame in the Southern Hemisphere, and subsequently enhance the International Terrestrial Reference Frame through the ability to detect and mitigate systematic error. This, combined with the simultaneous densification of the GNSS network across Australia will enable the improved measurement of intrapl...

  8. De l’invisible au visible

    OpenAIRE

    Tellier, Thibault

    2009-01-01

    Si la place qu’occupent les jeunes d’origine immigrée dans le traitement médiatique des violences urbaines dans certaines cités HLM n’est plus à démontrer, on connaît en revanche beaucoup moins bien la prise en compte de la  pratique religieuse des populations d’origine immigrée durant les années 1970-1990. Cette communication a donc pour but de montrer, à partir de l’exemple des grands ensembles, comment s’est effectuée au cours des Trente Glorieuses la prise en compte spécifique de cette pr...

  9. La géographie au sommet

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Pumain

    2002-01-01

    Le Ministre de l’Environnement d’Afrique du sud annonçant le sommet de Johannesburg, saluait l’occasion ainsi donnée à l’humanité de revenir au continent de ses origines pour ouvrir une ère nouvelle de solidarité (CityPress du 11 aôut). Quelques jours avant, les géographes de l’Union Géographique Internationale réunis pour leur « conférence régionale » à Durban sur le thème de « la renaissance de la géographie à l’aube du troisième millénaire » avaient invité Nelson Mandela. A cette occasion,...

  10. Jusqu’au ciel !

    OpenAIRE

    de Coster, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Le récit biblique de la Tour de Babel (Gn. XI : 1-9) dit que le sommet de celle-ci devait atteindre les cieux. Ce texte a inspiré de nombreux artistes, au premier rang desquels Pieter Bruegel l'Ancien. Cet article s'intéresse à la manière dont parmi eux quelques prédécesseurs de Bruegel, puis lui-même, ont représenté le ciel, lequel joue dans cette histoire un rôle fondamental : non seulement le ciel est le but que se sont assigné les constructeurs de la tour, mais c'est du ciel que vient la ...

  11. Musique ! : du phonographe au MP3

    OpenAIRE

    Tournès, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    nouvelle édition revue et augmentée de "Du phonographe au MP3. Une histoire de la musique enregistrée, XIXe-XXIe siècle" [2008] Depuis l'invention du phonographe par Thomas Edison en 1877, jusqu'à la révolution Internet, la musique enregistrée a connu une histoire longue et riche en rebondissements que l'on trouvera retracée de manière claire, synthétique et vivante dans ce livre. A l'heure où l'industrie de la musique est engagée depuis le début des années 2000 dans une mutation historiqu...

  12. Contribution au SAR spatial distribué

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal, Rozenn

    2006-01-01

    L'obtention d’images à partir de l'émission, de la réception et du traitement d'impulsions radar (SAR) est soumise à différentes contraintes qui limitent les performances telles que la résolution en distance, la résolution en azimut ou la largeur de la Zone imagée (fauchée). Ces limites sont en partie liées à la dimension finie de l’antenne, en particulier dans le cas du SAR spatial. Pour cette raison, on a cherché à étudier la possibilité de mettre au point des systèmes SAR spatiaux distribué...

  13. Anisotropy analysis of energy in Au/Si twist interface%Au/Si扭转界面能各向异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛红; 张建民

    2007-01-01

    采用改进型嵌入原子法(modified embedded atom method,MEAM),计算了(001)Au/(111)Si、(011)Au/(111)Si、(111)Au/(111)Si、(001)Au/(001)Si、(011)Au/(001)Si、(111)Au/(001)Si六个扭转界面的界面能.结果表明,不论是对于(111)Si还是(001)Si基底,相同基底的界面均按照(111)Au/Si、(001)Au/Si、(011)Au/Si顺序依次增加;从界面能的最小化考虑,Au在(111)Si或(001)Si基底上的外延生长,Au(111)面为择优晶面,择优扭转角分别为θ=2.68°和θ=2.42°.

  14. Strangeness Production in Au+Au Reactions at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsene, Ionut-Cristian

    The measurement of strangeness is a valuable tool for understanding the reaction mechanism of nuclear collisions since all the strange particles need to be created during the reaction. Also, strangeness enhancement is one of the predicted signals of the QGP. In the present work we will discuss the behaviour of the strangeness production (i.e. K/π ratio) with rapidity and baryo-chemical potential in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 A GeV. In this particular reaction, BRAHMS is able to identify particles over 3.5 rapidity units and thereby cover a wide range of bar {p}/p ratios, including the fragmentation region. We will show spectra and ratios of identified particles as a function of pT and rapidity.

  15. Degree of Chemical Non-equilibrium in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Habashy, D M; Mohamed, M T; Abbas, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the difference between hadron resonance gas (HRG) calculations for chemical freeze-out parameters at fully and partly chemical equilibria. To this end, the results are compared with the particle ratios measured in central Au-Au collisions at a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies, \\hbox{$\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7-200 $GeV} as offered by the STAR experiment. We restrict the discussion to STAR, because of large statistics and overall homogeneity of STAR measurements (one detector) against previous experiments. We find that the matter produced at these energies is likely in fully chemical equilibrium, which is consistent with recent lattice QCD results. The possible improvements by partial chemical equilibrium ($\\gamma_S\

  16. Dynamical approach to spectator fragmentation in Au+Au reactions at 35 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Vermani, Yogesh K

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of fragment emission in peripheral $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au collisions 35 MeV/A are studied using the two clusterization approaches within framework of \\emph{quantum molecular dynamics} model. Our model calculations using \\emph{minimum spanning tree} (MST) algorithm and advanced clusterization method namely \\emph{simulated annealing clusterization algorithm} (SACA) showed that fragment structure can be realized at an earlier time when spectators contribute significantly toward the fragment production even at such a low incident energy. Comparison of model predictions with experimental data reveals that SACA method can nicely reproduce the fragment charge yields and mean charge of the heaviest fragment. This reflects suitability of SACA method over conventional clusterization techniques to investigate spectator matter fragmentation in low energy domain.

  17. Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow (v1), elliptic flow (v2), and the fourth harmonic (v4) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a Blast Wave model. For v2, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence is discussed. For v4, scaling with v22 and quark coalescence predictions for higher harmonic flow is discussed. The different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data. For v2, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence are discussed. For v22 and quark coalescence are discussed

  18. Nuclear Shadowing Effect on the K Factor in Au-Au Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯召宇; 郑乔; 张本爱

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the nuclear shadowing effect on the K factor in the Drell-Yan process by introducing a shadowing factor into the corresponding quantum chromodynamical αs order corrections. K factors for Au-Au collisions are calculated at the centre-of-mass system energies √s = 60, 130 and 200 GeV while the nuclear shadowing factor is taken into account. The numerical results indicate that the nuclear shadowing factor obviously raises the K value in the small x region, and for the same nucleon the K value becomes smaller as the energy increases. The nuclear shadowing effect could be one reason for creating the non-constancy of the K factor.

  19. Musique populaire et musique savante au XIXe siècle. Du "peuple" au "public"

    OpenAIRE

    Leterrier, Sophie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    La production culturelle englobe des formes musicales dont les statuts sont très variés. La chanson du colporteur et la partition symphonique n'appartiennent pas au même "genre" ni par leurs conditions de production, i par leurs formes matérielles, leur circulation, leur public, leur postérité. À ce sujet, l'étude des évolutions en cours au XIXe siècle est intéressante de plusieurs points de vue. D'abord, parce que c'est alors que les institutions destinées à former des "spécialistes" de la m...

  20. Questions croisées au sujet du documentaire Droit au but

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, Christian; Costantini, Philippe; Accolas, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Sophie Accolas – Comment, à votre avis, le cinéma contemporain aborde‑t‑il le sport au regard de la globalisation ? Christian Bromberger – Il y a deux façons d’envisager la question. Soit l’on englobe dans la production cinématographique les matchs filmés et diffusés à la télévision, soit on ne retient que les films documentaires et de fiction. Dans la première hypothèse, on voit bien quel rôle joue l’image sportive dans le monde contemporain et, comme vous dites, « au regard de la globalisa...

  1. DEPENDENCE OF DOMAIN STRUCTURES ON Au THICKNESS IN Co/Au MULTILAYER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic force images and surface topography images of sputtered Co/Au multilayer films in remnant state were measured by magnetic force microscopy. From the surface magnetic structures shown in the magnetic force images it can be seen that the domain pattern and size vary with the increase of the thickness t of the non-ferromagnetic Au layer remarkably. With the measurements of the effective perpendicular anisotropy Ku and the domain period d, it was found that there are similar trends of d and Ku as functions of t. The variations of the domain pattern and size were qualitatively interpreted in terms of magnetic domain theory, the theoretical relations of d and the domain wall energy ow vs t were calculated. As t = 8.5 AL(1AL=0.235nm), the largest ow is 11mJ/m2.

  2. Beam Energy Dependence of Dielectron Production in Au+Au Collisions from STAR at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Huck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present the energy-dependent study of dielectron production in 0-80% minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ energies of 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV in STAR. Invariant mass ($M_{ee}$) and transverse momentum ($p_T$) differential measurements of dielectron yields are compared to cocktail simulations of known hadronic sources and semi-leptonic charmed decays. The enhancement (excess yield) prominent in the Low-Mass Region (LMR) over the cocktail at all energies, is further compared to calculations of $\\rho$ in-medium modifications. Within statistical and systematic uncertainties, we find that the model consistently describes this enhancement from SPS up to top RHIC energies in its $M_{ee}$- as well as $p_T$-dependence. Dielectron measurements drive the statistics for the future BES Phase-II program, which promises to improve our understanding of the LMR enhancement's trend with total baryon densities.

  3. Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; De Moura, M M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Foley, K J; Fomenko, K; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, Thomas; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Urkinbaev, A R; Van Buren, G; Van, M; Leeuwen; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, V P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow ($v_1$), elliptic flow ($v_2$), and the fourth harmonic ($v_4$) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrtsNN = 200$ GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a Blast Wave model. For $v_2$, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence is discussed. For $v_4$, scaling with $v_2^2$ and quark coalescence predictions for higher harmonic flow is discussed. The different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data.

  4. Directed flow in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ =62 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, D; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Blyth, S L; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, H A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; De Phillips, M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fornazier, K S F; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Gupta, N; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krämer, M; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Le Vine, M J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; López-Noriega, M; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Sen-Gupta, A; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Sørensen, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Kolk, N; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilev, A N; Vasilevski, I M; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhong, C; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X; Wang, Gang

    2006-01-01

    We present the directed flow ($v_1$) measured in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 62 GeV in the mid-pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<1.3$ and in the forward pseudorapidity region $2.5 < |\\eta| < 4.0$. The results are obtained using the three-particle cumulant method, the event plane method with mixed harmonics, and for the first time at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the standard method with the event plane reconstructed from spectator neutrons. Results from all three methods are in good agreement. Over the pseudorapidity range studied, charged particle directed flow is in the direction opposite to that of fragmentation neutrons.

  5. Autopistas: AU-1 25 de Mayo y AU-6 Perito Moreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Highways AU-1 and AU-6, approximately 17 km. long, were constructed for the purpose of solving the serious traffic problems in Buenos Aires, a city of nine million inhabitants and an evergrowing number of cars. A computer program was created for the design based on the geometric shape of the highway and the position of the supports. Using this, all elements composing the structure were calculated and the framework was sized. This programme made it possible to complete a stretch of 150 metres per week. The very rapid construction was carried out through self-supporting arches made of metallic beams held in place by brackets. The brackets were fitted in specially designed grooves in the major supports of the highway.

    Las autopistas AU-1 y AU-6, con una longitud aproximada de 17 km, se realizaron con objeto de resolver el grave problema de infraestructura vial del Municipio de Buenos Aires, ciudad de nueve millones de habitantes y con un parque de vehículos en rápido crecimiento. Para el proyecto se creó un programa de ordenador con el que, partiendo de la definición geométrica de la autopista y de la posición de las pilas, se calculan todos los elementos que componen la estructura y se dimensionan las armaduras. Este programa permitió proyectar un tramo (150 m por semana. La construcción, a un ritmo muy rápido, se llevó a cabo mediante cimbras autoportantes compuestas por vigas metálicas apoyadas sobre ménsulas, las cuales a su vez apoyan en unos nichos dejados en las pilas.

  6. Differential flow of protons in Au+Au collisions at AGS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K. E-mail: pradip@iopb.res.in; Cassing, W

    2002-12-30

    We study the proton sideward and elliptic differential flow for Au+Au collisions at AGS energies (2-8 A GeV) in a microscopic relativistic transport model that includes all baryon resonances up to a mass of 2 GeV as well as string degrees of freedom for the higher hadronic excitations. In order to explore the sensitivity of the various differential flows to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) we use three different parameterizations of the scalar and vector mean-fields, i.e., NL2 (soft), NL23 (medium) and NL3 (hard), with their momentum dependence fitted to the experimental Schroedinger equivalent potential (at normal nuclear matter density {rho}{sub 0}) up to kinetic energies of 1 GeV. We calculate the excitation function of sideward and elliptic flow within these parameter sets for Au+Au collisions and compare with the recent data from the E895 Collaboration as a function of rapidity, impact parameter and transverse momentum, respectively. We find that the best description of the differential data is provided by a rather 'stiff' EoS at 2 A GeV (NL3) while at higher bombarding energies (4-8 A GeV) a 'medium' EoS leads to the lowest {chi}{sup 2} with respect to the data. However, the differences in the transverse and elliptic flows (from the different parameter sets) become of minor significance at 4-8 A GeV. We attribute this insensitivity to a similar reduction of the vector potential in all models and to the dominance of string degrees of freedom at these bombarding energies.

  7. 超声楔键合Au/Al和Al/Au界面IMC演化%Intermetallic Compound Evolution of Ultrasonic Au/Al and Al/Au Wedge Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计红军; 李明雨; 王春青

    2007-01-01

    基于固体相变理论,研究Au丝、Al丝超声楔-楔键合接头的温度长期可靠性.200℃下,存储时间<48 h时,Au/Al接头界面并未发生明显变化;随着接头存储时间增加,界面金属间化合物(IMC)开始由焊盘向引线方向生长(垂直生长);240 h时,Al焊盘完全被消耗,接头连接界面部位生成Au5Al2,周边为Au2Al;继续增加存储时间,IMC向接头水平方向生长(水平生长),Au5Al2向更稳定的Au2Al转变,IMC与引线之间形成严重的Kirkendall孔洞.Al/Au系统相对稳定得多,界面IMC生长缓慢,然而,界面化合物AuAl2导致接头裂纹,而引线内部出现严重的空洞.对比并分析了两种楔焊系统界面演变特点和产生机制.

  8. Inclusive cross section and correlations of fully reconstructed jets in 200 GEV Au+Au and p+p collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ploskon, Mateusz; Collaboration, for the STAR

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of full jet reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of heavy ion collisions, utilizing 200 GeV p+p and central Au+Au data measured by STAR. Inclusive differential jet production cross sections and ratios are reported, as well as high-pT hadron-jet coincidences.

  9. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab;

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)-thiyl, with Au(I)-thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates that it is...

  10. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\\, {\\rm GeV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate eegr bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  11. Effect of Au nano-particle aggregation on the deactivation of the AuCl3/AC catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Dai; Qinqin Wang; Feng Yu; Mingyuan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the valence state and distribution of the AuCl3/AC catalyst during the acetylene hydrochlorination deactivation process is described and discussed. Temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis indicate that the active Au3+ reduction to metallic Au0 is one reason for the deactivation of AuCl3/AC catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the particle size of Au nano-particles increases with increasing reaction...

  12. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms.

  13. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms. PMID:26552923

  14. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Gilliams, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses muscle pain concepts in the context of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and summarizes microdialysis studies that have surveyed the biochemical basis of this musculoskeletal pain condition. Though MPS is a common type of non-articular pain, its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood due to its enormous complexity. MPS is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which are defined as hyperirritable nodules located within a taut band of skeletal muscle. MTrPs may be active (spontaneously painful and symptomatic) or latent (non-spontaneously painful). Painful MTrPs activate muscle nociceptors that, upon sustained noxious stimulation, initiate motor and sensory changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This process is called sensitization. In order to investigate the peripheral factors that influence the sensitization process, a microdialysis technique was developed to quantitatively measure the biochemical milieu of skeletal muscle. Biochemical differences were found between active and latent MTrPs, as well as in comparison with healthy muscle tissue. In this paper we relate the findings of elevated levels of sensitizing substances within painful muscle to the current theoretical framework of muscle pain and MTrP development.

  15. Electronic and geometric structures of Au30 clusters: a network of 2e-superatom Au cores protected by tridentate protecting motifs with u3-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhimei; Cheng, Longjiu

    2015-12-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the experimentally synthesized Au30S(SR)18 and two related Au30(SR)18 and Au30S2(SR)18 clusters. The patterns of thiolate ligands on the gold cores for the three thiolate-protected Au30 nanoclusters are on the basis of the ``divide and protect'' concept. A novel extended protecting motif with u3-S, S(Au2(SR)2)2AuSR, is discovered, which is termed the tridentate protecting motif. The Au cores of Au30S(SR)18, Au30(SR)18 and Au30S2(SR)18 clusters are Au17, Au20 and Au14, respectively. The superatom-network (SAN) model and the superatom complex (SAC) model are used to explain the chemical bonding patterns, which are verified by chemical bonding analysis based on the adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP) method and aromatic analysis on the basis of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) method. The Au17 core of the Au30S(SR)18 cluster can be viewed as a SAN of one Au6 superatom and four Au4 superatoms. The shape of the Au6 core is identical to that revealed in the recently synthesized Au18(SR)14 cluster. The Au20 core of the Au30(SR)18 cluster can be viewed as a SAN of two Au6 superatoms and four Au4 superatoms. The Au14 core of Au30S2(SR)18 can be regarded as a SAN of two pairs of two vertex-sharing Au4 superatoms. Meanwhile, the Au14 core is an 8e-superatom with 1S21P6 configuration. Our work may aid understanding and give new insights into the chemical synthesis of thiolate-protected Au clusters.Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the experimentally synthesized Au30S(SR)18 and two related Au30(SR)18 and Au30S2(SR)18 clusters. The patterns of thiolate ligands on the gold cores for the three thiolate-protected Au30 nanoclusters are on the basis of the ``divide and protect'' concept. A novel extended protecting motif with u3-S, S(Au2(SR)2)2AuSR, is discovered, which is termed the tridentate protecting motif. The Au cores of Au30S(SR)18, Au30(SR)18 and Au30S

  16. 从头计算方法比较研究B2Au4,Al2Au4和BAlAu4的几何和电子结构%A Comparative Ab initio Study of the Geometric and Electronic Structures of B2Au4, Al2Au4 and BAlAu4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文志; 卢章辉; 李思殿

    2014-01-01

    Au/H similarity is a hot topic in chemistry. Here, we report the theoretical prediction of new members of the Au/H analogy family:covalent B2Au4, ionic Al2Au4, and BAlAu4. A comparative study of the geometric and electronic structures of electron-deficient B2Au4, Al2Au4, and BAlAu4 was performed based on density and wave functional theories. Detailed orbital analyses, adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses were performed. Ab initio theoretical evidence strongly suggests that the ground state of slightly distorted C2 B2Au4 is a covalent complex containing two B―Au―B three centers-two electrons (3c-2e) bonds. Unexpectedly, C3v Al+(AlAu4)-and C3v Al+(BAu4)-are predicted to have a salt-like composition with three X―Au―Al 3c-2e bonds (X=Al in Al2Au4, X=B in BAlAu4). Al2Au4 and BAlAu4 represent the first examples of bridging gold bonds in ionic-deficient systems. The adiabatic and vertical detachment energies of the anions were calculated to facilitate their future experimental characterization. Bridging gold addressed in this work provides an interesting bonding mode for covalent and ionic-deficient systems, and may aid in designing new materials and catalysts with highly dispersed Au atoms.%Au/H相似性的研究是现代化学中的一个热门话题.我们从理论上报道Au/H相似的新成员:共价化合物B2Au4,离子化合物Al2Au4和BAlAu4.采用密度泛函和波函数理论方法对比研究了缺电子体系B2Au4、Al2Au4和BAlAu4的几何和电子结构.详细讨论了它们基态结构的轨道、适应性自然密度划分(AdNDP)和电子局域函数(ELF)分析.计算结果表明稍微扭曲变形的C2 B2Au4是基态结构,在这个共价化合物中含有两个B―Au―B三中心二电子(3c-2e)键.然而C3v Al+(AlAu4)-和C3v Al+(BAu4)-被研究证明是含有三个X―Au―Al三中心二电子键的类盐化合物(在Al2Au4中X=Al, BAlAu4中X=B). Al2Au4和BAlAu4是至今为止首例

  17. Impacts du coton-Bt sur les bilans financiers des sociétés cotonnières et des paysans au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2008, le Burkina Faso a adopté le coton-Bt en milieu paysan, à partir de variétés africaines transformées. L’étude menée est la première étude ex post, couvrant la période de 2008–2013, relative aux impacts financiers respectifs des sociétés cotonnières et des paysans, chaque catégorie étant prise globalement. L’étude est originale en tenant compte de la transformation génétique imparfaite des variétés utilisées. L’étude évalue les impacts financiers d’une situation réelle d’utilisation du coton-Bt par rapport à une situation de référence sans recours au coton-Bt. L’évaluation est faite aussi par rapport au scénario anticipé lors de la décision d’adoption et dont l’hypothèse d’un gain de rendement au champ de 30 % n’a pas été confirmée. L’évaluation est réalisée par la méthode de budget partiel avec des calculs de sensibilité à trois critères, industriel, commercial et du prix mondial. Pour les paysans, l’impact financier est positif, mais le ratio de rentabilité du surcoût des semences est à peine acceptable. Pour les sociétés cotonnières, l’impact financier est modeste et est devenu négatif à mesure que le prix mondial du coton est descendu de son record historique, en raison du manque à gagner en quantité de fibre produite, de la réduction en longueur du coton fibre et de l’application d’un malus à la vente à l’exportation. L’image d’un pays fournissant habituellement un coton de qualité est négativement affectée. L’adoption du coton-Bt au Burkina Faso constitue un cas rare d’évolution technologique induisant une divergence d’impacts entre les deux catégories d’acteurs avec une incidence négative potentielle sur le financement de la recherche pour poursuivre le progrès technique.

  18. Traffic and environment. Not only with catalytic converter. Environmental problems of traffic and starting points for policy; Verkeer en milieu. Niet bij katalysator alleen. Milieuproblemen van verkeer en aangrijpingspunten voor beleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Annema, J.A. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2003-03-01

    The sector traffic causes many environmental problems and therefore plays an important part in traffic and transport policy in the Netherlands and also in other countries. An overview is given the impact of traffic on the environment. [Dutch] De sector verkeer veroorzaakt veel milieuproblemen en heeft bovendien in veel daarvan een relatief hoog aandeel. Daarom heeft verkeer een belangrijke positie in het milieubeleid en verdient het milieu een hoofdrol in het verkeers- en vervoerbeleid.

  19. Enantiospecific adsorption of cysteine on a chiral Au34 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, José de Jesús; Valencia, Israel; Díaz, Gabriela; López-Lozano, Xóchitl; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of biological molecules like chiral amino acids with chiral metal clusters is becoming an interesting and active field of research because of its potential impact in, for example, chiral molecular recognition phenomena. In particular, the enantiospecific adsorption (EA) of cysteine (Cys) on a chiral Au55 cluster was theoretically predicted a few years ago. In this work, we present theoretical results, based on density functional theory, of the EA of non-zwitterionic cysteine interacting with the C3-Au34 chiral cluster, which has been experimentally detected in gas phase, using trapped ion electron diffraction. Our results show that, indeed, the adsorption energy of the amino acid depends on which enantiomers participate in the formation Cys-Au34 chiral complex. EA was obtained in the adsorption modes where both the thiol, and the thiol-amino functional groups of Cys are adsorbed on low-coordinated sites of the metal cluster surface. Similarly to what was obtained for the Cys-Au55 chiral complex, in the present work, it is found that the EA is originated from the different strength and location of the bond between the COOH functional group and surface Au atoms of the Au34 chiral cluster. Calculations of the vibrational spectrum for the different Cys-Au34 diastereomeric complexes predict the existence of a vibro-enantiospecific effect, indicating that the vibrational frequencies of the adsorbed amino acid depend on its handedness.

  20. Ge-Au eutectic bonding of Ge {100} single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, W. B.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Emes, J. H.; Loretto, D.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-11-01

    We present preliminary results on the eutectic bonding between two {100} Ge single crystal surfaces using thin films of Au ranging from 900Å/surface to 300Å/surface and Pd (10% the thickness of Au). Following bonding, plan view optical microscopy (OM) of the cleaved interface of samples with Au thicknesses ≤ 500Å/surface show a eutectic morphology more conducive to phonon transmission through the bond interface. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) cross sectional interface studies of a 300Å/surface Au sample show epitaxial growth of Ge. In sections of the bond, lattice continuity of the Ge is apparent through the interface. TEM studies also reveal heteroepitaxial growth of Au with a Au-Ge lattice mismatch of less than 2%. Eutectic bonds with 200Å/surface Au have been attained with characterization pending. An optical polishing technique for Ge has been optimized to insure intimate contact between the Ge surfaces prior to bonding. Interferometry analysis of the optically polished Ge surface shows that surface height fluctuations lie within ±150Å across an interval of 1mm. Characterization of phonon transmission through the interface is discussed with respect to low temperature detection of ballistic phonons.

  1. Tailoring the FeRh magnetostructural response with Au diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, M.; de Vries, M. A.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Le Graët, C.; Liu, X.; Fan, R.; Langridge, S.; Heiman, D.; Marrows, C. H.; Lewis, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    Factors which contribute to magnetostructural transition control have been demonstrated by study of the effects of Au incorporation on the magnetic and structural character of CsCl-structured equiatomic FeRh thin films. Sputtered films were capped with 2 nm of Au deposited at 873 K and at 323 K and subsequently characterized with magnetometry and synchrotron-based structural probes. Diffusion of Au into the FeRh film layer at 873 K is confirmed by a reduction in the Au capping layer thickness relative to the film capped at 323 K. The impact of Au diffusion on the FeRh magnetostructural character is noted by a decrease in the onset of the transition temperature, a thermally broadened first-order transition and an increased sensitivity of the transition to applied magnetic field. Additionally, magnetization data indicate that Au diffusion causes retention of the ferromagnetic phase well below the normal magnetostructural transition temperature. These results are attributed to a multiphase FeRh film layer created by thermally driven Au diffusion.

  2. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Au-based monolayer derivatives in honeycomb structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present electronic properties of atomic layer of Au, Au2-N, Au2-O and Au2-F in graphene-like structure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The lattice constant of derived monolayers are found to be higher than the pristine Au monolayer. Au monolayer is metallic in nature with quantum ballistic conductance calculated as 4G0. Similarly, Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers show 4G0 and 2G0 quantum conductance respectively while semiconducting nature with calculated band gap of 0.28 eV has been observed for Au2-O monolayer. Most interestingly, half metalicity has been predicted for Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers. Our findings may have importance for the application of these monolayers in nanoelectronic and spintronics.

  3. Optical Behaviour of ZnO/Au Nanojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital V. Kahane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/Au nanojunctions were prepared by electrochemical method at room temperature. Nanojunction formation is vivid from appearance of ZnO and Au features in x-ray diffraction pattern. Optical absorption spectra reveal excitonic as well as surface plasmon resonance (SPR feature in case of nanojunctions. Bleaching of the excitonic feature associated with the blue shift, is a signature of charge transfer from Au to ZnO at the interface of nanojunction. An increase in intensity of band edge luminescence and quenching of green emission indicates the passivation of surface defects due to formation of nanojunctions.

  4. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.

    2013-09-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientation of the surface pentacene layer, flipping part of the surface pentacene molecules into a flat lying geometry, maximizing the orbital interaction across the pentacene-PTCDA heterojunction.

  5. Thermodynamic description of Au-Ag-Si ternary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the available experimental information, the Ag-Si binary system was thermodynamically assessed using the CALPHAD method. The solution phases, including liquid, fcc-Al and diamond-A4, were modeled as substitutional solutions, of which the excess Gibbs energies were expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomial functions. Combined with previous assessment of the Ag-Au and Au-Si binary systems, thermodynamic description of the Au-Ag-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce the reported phase equilibria. Thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys, liquidus projection and several vertical and isothermal sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  6. Au(111) and Pt(111) surface phase behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandy, A.R.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Zehner, D.M.;

    1993-01-01

    We describe our recent X-ray scattering studies of the structure and phases of the clean Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. Below 0.65 of their respective bulk melting temperatures, the Au(111) surface has a well-ordered chevron reconstruction and the Pt(111) surface is unreconstructed. Above these...... temperatures, both surfaces reconstruct to form layers that are isotropically compresses and have only short-range order. Throughout their reconstructed phases, the densities of the Au and Pt(111) surfaces increase with increasing temperature....

  7. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  8. Electrochemical Capacitance DNA Sensing at Hairpin-Modified Au Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Rivera-Gandía; Maria del Mar Maldonado; Yarimar De La Torre-Meléndez; Edwin O. Ortiz-Quiles; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    An interfacial capacitance measurement electrochemical technique has been used for the sensing of self-assembled DNA hairpin probes (M. tuberculosis and B. anthracis) attached to Au electrodes. The double-layer capacitance (Cdl) was determined with electrochemical perturbations from 0.2 V to 0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at a Au/M. tuberculosis DNA hairpin probe at surface coverage Au electrodes. The capacitance study was done at pH 7, which was necessary to maintain the M. tuberculosis and B. anthrac...

  9. d+Au Hadron Correlation Measurements from PHENIX

    OpenAIRE

    Sickles, Anne M.; Collaboration, for the PHENIX

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of extended pseudorapidity correlations at the LHC in p+p and p+Pb collisions are of great interest. Here we present related re- sults from d+Au collisions at PHENIX. We present the observed v2 and discuss the possible origin in the geometry of the collision region. We also present new measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge in d+Au collision. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems using 3He+Au collisions are discussed.

  10. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  11. Au plasmonics in a WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} photocatalyst for significantly enhanced hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongzhou [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; He, Jun, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Quanlin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Promoting the activities of photocatalysts is still the critical challenge in H{sub 2} generation area. Here, a Au plasmon enhanced photocatalyst of WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} is developed by inserting Au nanoparticles between WS{sub 2} nanotubes and CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles. Due to the localized surface plasmonic resonance properties from Au nanoparticles, WS{sub 2}-Au-CIS shows the best performance as compared to Au-CIS, CIS, WS{sub 2}-CIS, CIS-Au, WS{sub 2}-Au, and WS{sub 2}-CIS-Au. The surface plasmonic resonance effects dramatically intensify the absorption of visible light and help to inject hot electrons into the semiconductors. Our findings open up an efficient method to optimize the type-II structures for photocatalytic water splitting.

  12. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Ford, Michael J; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Hush, Noel S

    2016-03-15

    The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)-thiyl, with Au(I)-thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method for quantifying these contributions is presented, revealing that a driving force for nanoparticle growth is nobleization, minimizing Au(I)-thiolate involvement. Predictions that Brust-Schiffrin reactions involve thiolate anion intermediates are verified spectroscopically, establishing a key feature needed to understand nanoparticle growth. Mixing of preprepared Au(I) and thiolate reactants always produces Au(I)-thiolate thin films or compounds rather than monolayers. Smooth links to O, Se, Te, C, and N linker chemistry are established.

  13. Design and Preparation of Supported Au Catalyst with Enhanced Catalytic Activities by Rationally Positioning Au Nanoparticles on Anatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Rice, Andrew E; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiaokun; Chen, Mingshu; Meng, Xiangju; Lewis, James P; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-06-18

    A synergistic effect between individual components is crucial for increasing the activity of metal/metal oxide catalysts. The greatest challenge is how to control the synergistic effect to obtain enhanced catalytic performance. Through density functional theory calculations of model Au/TiO2 catalysts, it is suggested that there is strong interaction between Au nanoparticles and Ti species at the edge/corner sites of anatase, which is favorable for the formation of stable oxygen vacancies. Motivated by this theoretical analysis, we have rationally prepared Au nanoparticles attached to edge/corner sites of anatase support (Au/TiO2-EC), confirmed by their HR-TEM images. As expected, this strong interaction is well characterized by Raman, UV-visible, and XPS techniques. Very interestingly, compared with conventional Au catalysts, Au/TiO2-EC exhibits superior catalytic activity in the oxidations using O2. Our approach to controlling Au nanoparticle positioning on anatase to obtain enhanced catalytic activity offers an efficient strategy for developing more novel supported metal catalysts. PMID:26266615

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Pt system%Au-Pt二元合金的热力学评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓宁; 任玉平; 李长发; 李松; 秦高梧

    2012-01-01

    基于最近实验测得的Au-Pt二元体系相平衡数据,利用Calphad方法重新评估Au-Pt二元体系的热力学参数.采用亚正规溶体模型Redlich-Kister等式描述液相和面心立方相的Gibbs自由能.考虑热力学第三定律的限定,以再现相平衡数据和固相热力学性质,包括活度和混合焓,优化Au-Pt二元系统热力学参数.优化结果表明:Au-Pt合金系统的溶解度间隙边界向富Au侧偏移,其顶点位置在1200 °c,Au-56%Pt.%The thermodynamic re-assessment of Au-Pt binary system was carded out by using the Calphad method and based on the recent experimental data.The Gibbs energies of face-centred cubic and liquid phases were described by a sub-regular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation.Much effort was taken to reproduce the phase equilibrium results and thermodynamic properties of the solid phase,including the activity and mixing enthalpy.The constraint of the third law of thermodynamics was also considered in the assessment.According to the presently assessed results,the miscibility gap region in the Au-Pt system slightly shifts to the Au-rich side,and the critical point of the miscibility gap is about 1200 °C and Au-56% Pt.

  15. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirk@barc.gov.in

    2012-10-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  16. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: ► First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. ► Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. ► Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. ► Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  17. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F

    1991-01-01

    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.

  18. Activated Dissociation of HCl on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirhatti, Pranav R; Geweke, Jan; Steinsiek, Christoph; Bartels, Christof; Rahinov, Igor; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M

    2016-04-01

    We report zero-coverage reaction probabilities (S0) for HCl dissociative adsorption on Au(111) obtained by the seeded molecular beam hot-nozzle method. For measurements at normal incidence with mean translational energies ranging from 0.94 to 2.56 eV (nozzle temperatures 296 to 1060 K), S0 increased from 6 × 10(-6) to 2 × 10(-2). S0 also increased with increasing nozzle temperature for fixed incidence energy associated with the motion normal to the surface. Accounting for the influence of the vibrational state population and translational energy distributions in the incident beam, we are able to compare the experimental results to recent theoretical predictions. These calculations, performed employing 6-D quantum dynamics on an electronically adiabatic potential energy surface obtained using density functional theory at the level of the generalized gradient approximation and the static surface approximation, severely overestimate the reaction probabilities when compared with our experimental results. We discuss some possible reasons for this large disagreement. PMID:26990513

  19. De l’individu postcommuniste au citoyen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krasteva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article analyse le paradoxe de la conception communiste du citoyen engagé : au niveau idéologique, citoyenneté et engagement sont intrinsèquement liés, au niveau politique ils sont souvent radicalement dissociés. Le citoyen communiste est plus engagé que citoyen. La citoyenneté était dépourvue de plusieurs de ses attributs : de la jouissance de la loi qui établit « l’égalité arithmétique » et minorise les maîtres ; de la citoyenneté active – civile et politique – pour ne jouir que la protection sociale ; de la participation au profit de l’appartenance. L’individu communiste était engagé, non pas parce qu’il l’avait choisi dans la liberté, mais parce qu’il n’avait pas la liberté de se désengager. L’article compare l’engagement communiste et postcommuniste en analysant le second au croisement de l’individualité et de la citoyenneté et en distinguant trois formes de désengagement – contestataire, « bonapartiste » et individualiste et trois formes d’engagement – mimétique, héroïque, civique.From the postcommunist individual to the citizenThe article analysis the paradox of the communist conception of the engaged citizen: at ideological level, citizenship and participation are closely linked; at political level, they are radically dissociated. The communist citizen is more engaged than citizen. The citizenship is deprived of several of its attributes: of the law which establishes "the arithmetic equality" and minimises the masters; of the active citizenship, civic and political, enjoying just the social one; of the participation for emphasizing on the belonging. The communist individual is engaged not because he has chosen freely to be such, but because he had not the freedom to disengage him/herself. The article compares the communist and the post communist participation analysing the latter at the intersection of individuality and citizenship and distinguishing three forms

  20. Shadowing effects on the nuclear suppression factor, RdAu, in d+Au interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore how nuclear modifications to the nucleon parton distributions affect production of high transverse momentum hadrons in deuteron-nucleus collisions. We calculate the charged hadron spectra to leading order using standard fragmentation functions and shadowing parameterizations. We obtain the d+Au to pp ratio both in minimum bias collisions and as a function of centrality. The minimum bias results agree reasonably well with the BRAHMS data while the calculated centrality dependence underestimates the data and is a stronger function of pT than the data indicate

  1. Distributions of Charged Hadrons Associated with High Transverse Momentum Particles in pp and Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Hughes, E; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, D A; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Yuting, B; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zhaomin, P; Zizong, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2005-01-01

    Charged hadrons in 0.15 4 GeV/c are reconstructed in pp and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV. The associated multiplicity and pt magnitude sum are found to increase from pp to central Au+Au collisions. The associated pt distributions, while similar in shape on the near side, are significantly softened on the away side in central Au+Au relative to pp and not much harder than that of inclusive hadrons. The results, consistent with jet quenching, suggest that the away-side fragments approach equilibration with the medium traversed.

  2. Comparison of the space-time extent of the emission source in $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}=200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dayananda, M K; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Hasegawa, S; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Ivanishchev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, E; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kihara, K; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, H -J; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, A J; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Koop, J D Orjuela; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozaki, H; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, M; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; Whitaker, S; White, S N; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xie, W; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2014-01-01

    Two-pion interferometry measurements in $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}=200$ GeV are used to extract and compare the Gaussian source radii R$_{{\\rm out}}$, R$_{{\\rm side}}$, and R$_{{\\rm long}}$, which characterize the space-time extent of the emission sources. The comparisons, which are performed as a function of collision centrality and the mean transverse momentum for pion pairs, indicate strikingly similar patterns for the $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au systems. They also indicate a linear dependence of R$_{{\\rm side}}$ on the initial transverse geometric size $\\bar{R}$, as well as a smaller freeze-out size for the $d$$+$Au system. These patterns point to the important role of final-state rescattering effects in the reaction dynamics of $d$$+$Au collisions.

  3. Mesure de la capacité différencielle de la double couche électrique en milieu hydrocarbure. Etude de l'interface métal-additifs pour lubrifiants. Première partie Measuring the Differential Capacity of the Electric Double Layer in a Hydrocarbon Medium. Analysis of the Metal Additive Interface for Lubricants. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipeaux J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le phénomène d'adsorption d'additifs détergents-dispersants contenus dans les huiles lubrifiantes est à la base de l'action de ces produits. L'existence d'une double couche électrique est un des paramètres envisagés lors de l'étude de l'interface métal-milieu hydrocarbure. La structure de cette double couche en liaison avec le phénomène d'adsorption à l'interface (courbe électrocapillaire, énergie libre de surface, charge, capacité différentielle sont abordés. L'importance de la connaissance du potentiel de charge nulle est montrée. Une revue bibliographique des moyens d'accès à la mesure des capacités différentielles de la double couche est farte, l'objectif à atteindre étant le choix d'une technique de mesure possible en milieu hydrocarbure, sur électrode solide. Une méthode, basée sur l'étude du début de la charge de la double couche électrique et utilisant la superposition d'une tension carrée à une tension continue maintenue constante, est développée et l'étude théorique du circuit réalisée. Des courbes capacité différentielle = f (tension de polarisation sont tracées pour des solutions dans l'heptane de différents additifs utilisés en lubrification. Une réflexion sur les mécanismes d'adsorption est faite à partir de l'exploitation de ces courbes expérimentales. A titre de comparaison quelques tracés de courbes de capacité différentielle sont effectués avec un produit antistatique rendant fortement conducteur les hydrocarbures et un produit antiusure. Enfin un système de référence utilisant une électrode au calomel est proposé. The adsorption phenomena of detergent-dispersant additives contained in lubricating ails is behind for the action of such products. The existence of an electrical double layer is one of the parameters token into consideration when analyzing the métal/hydrocarbon medium interface. The structure of this double layer in connection with the adsorption phenomenon on

  4. Écoulement polyphasique dans un milieu poreux stratifié. Résultats expérimentaux et interprétation par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle Multiphase Flow in Stratified Porous Media Experimental Results and Interpretation by the Large-Scale Averaging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous abordons l'étude des écoulements polyphasiques en milieu poreux hétérogène d'un point de vue théorique (méthodologie de la prise de moyenne à grande échelle et expérimental. Dans une première partie nous présentons la méthodologie permettant d'obtenir les équations à grande échelle. Le point de départ de l'étude est les équations locales, analogues aux équations de Darcy généralisées obtenues par prise de moyenne des équations de Stokes à l'échelle du pore. La prise de moyenne à grande échelle de ces équations permet d'écrire un système d'équations où les coefficients de transport équivalents sont calculés à partir des données locales, par la résolution d'un problème de fermeture explicité dans le cas quasi-statique (effets capillaires dominants. La seconde partie de notre travail concerne l'étude expérimentale d'un écoulement eau-huile dans un milieu poreux stratifié constitué de deux régions de caractéristiques physiques différentes. Les champs de saturation bidimensionnels sont mesurés tout au long de l'imbibition par absorption d'un rayonnement gamma. Les résultats expérimentaux, évolution de la fraction volumique moyenne par section en fonction du temps, sont comparés aux résultats d'une simulation numérique des équations de transport où les coefficients utilisés ont été déterminés par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle. Two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media is studied from a theoretical point of view (the large-scale averaging method and experimentally. In the first part, we present the methodology leading to the large-scale equations. The starting point of the study is the local equation, analogous to the generalized Darcy's law obtained by averaging the Stokes equation at the pore level. The large-scale averaging of these equations leads to a system where the equivalent transport coefficients are computed from the local data by solving a closure

  5. Composition distributions in FePt(Au) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, C. [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (United States); Nikles, D. E. [University of Alabama, Department of Chemistry (United States); Harrell, J. W. [University of Alabama, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Thompson, G. B., E-mail: gthompson@eng.ua.ed [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Ternary alloy FePt(Au) nanoparticles were prepared by the co-reduction of platinum(II) acetylacetonate and gold(III) acetate and the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in hot phenyl ether in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine ligands. This gave spherical particles with an average diameter of 4.4 nm with a range of diameters from approximately 1.6-9 nm. The as-synthesized particles had a solid solution, face-centered-cubic structure. Though the average composition of the particles was Fe{sub 44}Pt{sub 45}Au{sub 11}, individual particle analysis by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy showed a broad distribution in composition. In general, smaller-sized particles tended to have a lower amount of Au as compared to larger-sized particles. As the Au content increased, the ratio of Fe/Pt widened.

  6. Coexistence of multiple conformations in cysteamine monolayers on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Bilic, A; Reimers, JR;

    2005-01-01

    The structural organization, catalytic function, and electronic properties of cysteamine monolayers on Au(111) have been addressed comprehensively by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in anaerobic environment, and a priori molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and STM image si...

  7. Les immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Dans ce rapport, on examine les facteurs des immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement (RMR) au Canada, les repercussions sur les services publics offerts dans les regions urbaines et les caracteristiques de l'emploi des immigrants.

  8. EST Table: AU004617 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AU004617 ws20666 10/09/28 54 %/178 aa ref|XP_002430772.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew..., putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18034.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew,

  9. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-01

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  10. Dynamic features of rod-shaped Au nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Woong Young; Das, Anindita; Wang, Shuxin; Zhao, Shuo; Byun, Hee Young; Lee, Dana; Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Rongchao; Peteanu, Linda A.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoclusters hold many potential applications such as biosensing and optics due to their emission characteristics, small size, and non-toxicity. However, their low quantum yields remain problematic for further applications, and their fluorescence mechanism is still unclear. To increase the low quantum yields, various methods have been performed: doping, tuning structures, and changing number of gold atoms. In the past, most characterizations have been performed on spherical shaped nanoclusters; in this paper, several characterizations of various rod-shaped Au nanoclusters specifically on Au25 are shown. It has been determined that the central gold atom in Au25 nano-rod is crucial in fluorescence. Furthermore, single molecule analysis of silver doped Au25 nano-rod revealed that it has more photo-stability than conjugated polymers and quantum dots.

  11. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  12. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  13. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  14. Cent ans d'aller au cinéma

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Pierre,; Augier, Agnès; Augros, Joël; Berthomé, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Claude-Jean; Bordat, Francis; Bosséno, Christian-Marc; Dean, John; Etcheverry, Michel; Frey, Nicole Vigouroux; Gomery, Douglas; Masson, Alain; Muraire, André

    2013-01-01

    Aux Etats-Unis plus manifestement encore qu’en Europe, « aller au cinéma » a recouvert des réalités extraordinairement diverses. « Aller au cinéma », en 1902, dans un Hale’s Tours and Scenes of the World n’a rien à voir avec « aller au cinéma » dans un nickelodeon de 1908 ou dans un picture palace de 1925. « Aller au cinéma » dans les années de la Dépression, quand se généralisent les doubles programmes, les primes de fidélité et les loteries, et quand les chômeurs viennent dormir, sinon rêve...

  15. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-26

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the chargedinterfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits shortrange in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  16. Trading for a better environment. Feasibility of CO2 emission trade in the Netherlands; Handelen voor een beter milieu. Haalbaarheid van CO2-emissiehandel in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, J. van der; Harmsen, H

    2002-01-01

    July 1, 2000, the Committee CO2 trade was initiated by the Dutch Minister of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to investigate the desirability and feasibility of a national system for the trade of CO2 emission. Other greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide are not taken into account. [Dutch] In Nederland bestaat belangstelling voor de inzet van emissiehandel als instrument om de emissie van broeikasgassen te reduceren. De Minister van VROM heeft daarom op 1 juli 2000 de Commissie CO2-handel ingesteld, met als opdracht de wenselijkheid en haalbaarheid van een nationaal systeem voor CO2-emissiehandel te onderzoeken. Andere broeikasgassen dan CO2 blijven in dit verband buiten beschouwing. De opdracht van de Commissie maakt deel uit van het zogenoemde vernieuwingspakket in de Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid deel 1. De Commissie heeft ervaren dat het ontwerpen en beoordelen van een nationaal systeem voor emissiehandel vele facetten heeft, variearend van milieueffectiviteit, economische en technische aspecten tot allerlei juridische, fiscale en uitvoeringskwesties. De inzet van het ontwerpproces was een systeem te ontwikkelen dat - binnen de beperkingen van een betrekkelijk klein land - aantrekkelijk is uit milieu- en uit economisch oogpunt. Het resultaat van dit ontwerpproces is neergelegd in hoofdstuk 3, dat de kern vormt van dit rapport. Allereerst echter, wordt in hoofdstuk 2 de achtergrond geschetst waardoor de opdracht van de Commissie CO2-handel is geienspireerd. In hoofdstuk 4 komt aan de orde hoe dit voorstel zich verhoudt tot de optie om emissiehandel binnen Europa mogelijk te maken. De Europese Commissie heeft op 23 oktober 2001 hiervoor een concept richtlijn gepubliceerd. In hoofdstuk 5 ten slotte toetst de Commissie haar eigen voorstel aan verschillende criteria. 40 refs.

  17. Electrochemical Tuning of the Dielectric Function of Au Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ana M.; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-01-01

    The tunable dielectric response of Au nanoparticles under electrochemical bias can be interpreted in terms of changes in the surface charge density, surface damping, and the near-surface volume fraction of the nanoparticles that experience a modified dielectric function, as well as changes in the index of refraction of the surrounding electrolyte medium. Using experimental bias-dependent extinction measurements, we derive a potential-dependent dielectric function for Au nanoparticles that acc...

  18. Surface Crystallization in a Liquid AuSi Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Streitel, Reinhard; Balagurusamy, V. S. K.; Grigoriev, Alexei Y.; Deutsch, Moshe; Ocko, Benjamin M; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Pershan, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray measurements reveal a crystalline monolayer at the surface of the eutectic liquid Au_{82}Si_{18}, at temperatures above the alloy's melting point. Surface-induced atomic layering, the hallmark of liquid metals, is also found below the crystalline monolayer. The layering depth, however, is threefold greater than that of all liquid metals studied to date. The crystallinity of the surface monolayer is notable, considering that AuSi does not form stable bulk crystalline phases at any concen...

  19. Wetting of Au and Ag particles on monocrystalline graphite substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Lee; Toshihiro Tanaka; Kazufumi Seo; Nobumitsu Hirai; Jung-Goo Lee; Hirotaro Mori

    2006-01-01

    The wetting behavior of Au and Ag particles on a monocrystalline graphite substrate was investigated using the microscopic sessile drop method under a purified Ar atmosphere at 1300 K. The measured contact angles of the liquid Au and Ag on monocrystalline graphite substrates of (0001) face were 129° and 124°, respectively. It is believed that the interaction at the interface is dominated by the physical bonding (van der Waal's interaction).

  20. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  1. Formation, Migration, and Reactivity of Au-CO Complexes on Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Baddorf, Arthur P; Maksymovych, Petro; Yates, John T

    2016-02-10

    We report experimental as well as theoretical evidence that suggests Au-CO complex formation upon the exposure of CO to active sites (step edges and threading dislocations) on a Au(111) surface. Room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission infrared spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations point to Au-CO complex formation and migration. Room-temperature STM of the Au(111) surface at CO pressures in the range from 10(-8) to 10(-4) Torr (dosage up to 10(6) langmuir) indicates Au atom extraction from dislocation sites of the herringbone reconstruction, mobile Au-CO complex formation and diffusion, and Au adatom cluster formation on both elbows and step edges on the Au surface. The formation and mobility of the Au-CO complex result from the reduced Au-Au bonding at elbows and step edges leading to stronger Au-CO bonding and to the formation of a more positively charged CO (CO(δ+)) on Au. Our studies indicate that the mobile Au-CO complex is involved in the Au nanoparticle formation and reactivity, and that the positive charge on CO increases due to the stronger adsorption of CO at Au sites with lower coordination numbers. PMID:26754257

  2. Structural and dynamical properties of liquid Al-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.; Kolland, G.; Kobatake, H.; Brillo, J.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate temperature- and composition-dependent structural and dynamical properties of Al-Au melts. Experiments are performed to obtain accurate density and viscosity data. The system shows a strong negative excess volume, similar to other Al-based binary alloys. We develop a molecular-dynamics (MD) model of the melt based on the embedded-atom method (EAM), gauged against the available experimental liquid-state data. A rescaling of previous EAM potentials for solid-state Au and Al improves the quantitative agreement with experimental data in the melt. In the MD simulation, the admixture of Au to Al can be interpreted as causing a local compression of the less dense Al system, driven by less soft Au-Au interactions. This local compression provides a microscopic mechanism explaining the strong negative excess volume of the melt. We further discuss the concentration dependence of self- and interdiffusion and viscosity in the MD model. Al atoms are more mobile than Au, and their increased mobility is linked to a lower viscosity of the melt.

  3. Surface segregation phenomena in extended and nanoparticle surfaces of Cu-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan; Wang, Guofeng; Zhou, Guangwen

    2016-07-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we studied the surface segregation phenomena of Au atoms in the extended and nanoparticle surfaces of Cu-Au alloys. Our MC simulations predicted significant Au enrichment in the outermost layer of (111) and (100) extended surfaces, and Au enrichment in the two outermost layers of (110) extended surfaces. The equilibrium Cu-Au nanoparticles were predicted to develop into an Au-enriched shell structure, where Au atoms preferably segregate to the (100) facets while Cu atoms are mainly located on the (111) facet of the nanoparticles. Our simulation predictions agree with experimental measurements.

  4. Rapidity dependency of (Anti)-deuteron Coalescence in Au-Au collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The coalescence of protons and neutrons into deuterons is sensitive to the space-time extent of the baryon freeze-out region. The coalescence parameter and the phase space density recast the information contained in the proton and deuteron spectra into ``chemical" and ``dynamic" terms. The phase space density is sensitive to the chemical potential and the temperature of the system. The coalescence parameter B2 can be interpreted in terms of a ``volume of homogeniety" which depends upon the temperature of the system and the radial flow. The large rapidity and pT coverage with good particle identification of the BRAHMS spectrometers allow us to measure the rapidity dependence of the volume, which is proportional to 1/B2, and the phase space density of the (anti)-proton source for central Au+Au collisions. We find that B2(pT) is almost independent of rapidity and beam energy. Interpreting 1/B2 as a volume gives numbers that are very close to HBT data and a size which steadily drops with pT. We find that B2(pT) is the same for protons and antiprotons. The phase space density has a weak rapidity dependence but varies rapidily with energy. These results in conjunction with other forward rapidity data start to give us a picture of the longitudinal evolution of the source at RHIC energies. Supported by NSF CAREER award 0449913

  5. A first look at Au + Au collisions at RHIC energies using the PHOBOS detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Birger Back; M D Baker; D S Barton; R R Betts; R Bindel; A Budzanowski; W Busza; A Carroll; J Corbo; M P Decowski; E Garcia; N George; K Gulbrandsen; S Gushue; C Halliwell; J Hamblen; G A Heintzelman; C Henderson; D Hicks; D J Hofman; R Hollis; R Holyńiski; B Holzman; A Iordanova; E Johnson; J L Kane; J Katzy; N Khan; W Kucewicz; P Kulinich; C M Kuo; W T Lin; S Manly; D McLeod; J Michalowski; A C Mignerey; J Mülmenstädt; R Nouicer; A Olszewski; R Pak; I C Park; H Pernegger; M Rafelski; M Rbeiz; C Reed; L P Remsberg; M Reuter; C Roland; G Roland; L Rosenberg; J Sagerer; P Sarin; P Sawicki; W Skulski; S G Steadman; P Steinberg; G S F Stephans; M Stodulski; A Sukhanov; J-L Tang; R Teng; A Trzupek; C Vale; G J van Nieuwenhuizen; R Verdier; B Wadsworth; F L H Wolfs; B Wosiek; K Woźniak; A H Wuosmaa; B Wyslouch

    2003-05-01

    The PHOBOS detector has been used to study Au + Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}=56$, 130, and 200 GeV. Several global observables have been measured and the results are compared with theoretical models. These observables include the charged-particle multiplicity measured as a function of beam energy, pseudo-rapidity, and centrality of the collision. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its almost complete angular coverage such that these quantities can be studied over a pseudo-rapidity interval of ||≤ 5.4. This allows for an almost complete integration of the total charged particle yield, which is found to be about $N^{\\text{tot}}_{\\text{ch}}=4500± 470$ at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}=130$ GeV and $N^{\\text{tot}}_{\\text{ch}}=5300± 530$ at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}$ GeV. The ratio of anti-particles to particles emitted in the mid-rapidity region has also been measured using the PHOBOS magnetic spectrometer. Of particular interest is the ratio of anti-protons to protons in the mid-rapidity region, which was found to be $\\overline{p}/p= 0.6± 0.04$(stat) ± 0.06(syst) at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}=130$ GeV. This high value suggests that an almost baryon-free region has been produced in the collisions.

  6. Thermal Description of Particle Production in Au-Au Collisions at STAR Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    The hadron ratios measured in central Au-Au collisions are analysed by means of Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model over a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV as offered by the STAR Beam Energy Scan I (BES-I). We restrict the discussion on STAR BES-I, because of large statistics and over all homogeneity of STAR measurements (one detector) against previous experiments. Over the last three decades, various heavy-ion experiments utilizing different detectors (different certainties) have been carried out. Regularities in produced particles at different energies haven been studied. The temperature and baryon chemical potential are deduced from fits of experimental ratios to thermal model calculations assuming chemical equilibrium. We find that the resulting freeze-out parameters using single hard-core value and point-like constituents of HRG are identical. This implies that the excluded-volume comes up with no effect on the extracted parameters. We compare the results wit...

  7. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U and Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Li, W; Li, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, X; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, $v_2\\{2\\}$ and $v_2\\{4\\}$, for charged hadrons from U+U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the amount of energy deposited by spectators in the STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of $v_2\\{2\\}$ on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U+U collisions. An initial-state model with gluon saturation describes the slope of $v_2\\{2\\}$ as a function of multiplicity in central collisions better than one based on Glauber with a two-component multiplicity model.

  8. Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)

  9. Phospholipid Encapsulated AuNR@Ag/Au Nanosphere SERS Tags with Environmental Stimulus Responsive Signal Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueming; Wang, Yunqing; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Kaoxiang; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-04-27

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags draw much attention due to the ultrasensitivity and multiplex labeling capability. Recently, a new kind of SERS tags was rationally designed by encapsulating metal nanoparticles with phospholipid bilayers, showing great potential in theranostics. The lipid bilayer coating confers biocompatibility and versatility to changing surface chemistry of the tag; however, its "soft" feature may influence SERS signal stability, which is rarely investigated. Herein, we prepared phospholipid-coated AuNR@Ag/Au nanosphere SERS tags by using three different kinds of Raman reporters, i.e., thio-containing 4-nitrothiophenol (NT), nitrogen-containing hydrophobic chromophore cyanine 7 monoacid (Cy7), and alkyl chain-chromophore conjugate 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD). It was found that signal responses were different upon additional stimulation which the tags may encounter in theranostic applications including the presence of detergent Triton X-100, lipid membrane, and photothermal treatment. Living-cell imaging also showed signal changing distinction. The different SERS signal performances were attributed to the different Raman reporter releasing behaviors from the tags. This work revealed that Raman reporter structure determined signal stability of lipid-coated SERS tags, providing guidance for the design of stimulus responsive tags. Moreover, it also implied the potential of SERS technique for real time drug release study of lipid based nanomedicine. PMID:27052206

  10. Entropy in central Au+Au reactions between 100 and 400{ital A} MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzelalija, M.; Cindro, N.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Hoelbling, S.; Bini, M.; Maurenzig, P.R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Taccetti, N.; Cerruti, C.; Coffin, J.P.; Dona, R.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Rami, F.; Tezkratt, R.; Wagner, P.; Biegansky, J.; Kotte, R.; Moesner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Bastid, N.; Berger, L.; Belayev, I.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Dupieux, P.; Eroe, J.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kraemer, M.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.A.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zhilin, A.V. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)]|[Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)]|[Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[I.N.F.N. and University of Florence, Florence (Italy)]|[Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Forschungzentrum, Rossendorf (Germany)]|[Department of Physics, University of Split, Split (Croatia)]|[Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)]|[Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland)]|[Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1995-07-01

    The ratio of the total charge bound in fragments with {ital Z} between 2 and 15 to the hydrogen yield, ({ital tsum}{sub 2}{sup 15}{ital M}{sub {ital i}{ital Z}{ital i}})/{ital M}{sub {ital H}}, has been measured, and the neutron-to-proton ratio {ital n}/{ital p} has been estimated from the data of central Au + Au reactions between 100 and 400{ital A} MeV, measured with the phase I setup of the detector system FOPI and GSI, Darmstadt, in the polar-angle range between 7{degree} and 30{degree}. These two quantities were used to determine the entropy per nucleon {ital S}/{ital A} by comparing them with the predictions of the FREESCO code. The analysis allows the simulataneous extraction of the values of the baryonic entropy, temperature, and collective flow. The extracted values are in good agreement with the values obtained in earlier FOPI studies, and, for the baryonic entropy, with recent hydrodynamic calculations.

  11. Shape of collective flow in highly central Au(150 A MeV)+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Kuhn, C. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Coffin, J.P. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Crochet, P. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Fintz, P. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Guillaume, G. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Jundt, F. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Maazouzi, C. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Rami, F. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Tizniti, L. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Wagner, P. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Recherches Nucl.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Fan, Z.G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hoelbling, S.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S.C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Moesner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J.L.; Sadchikov, A.G.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, V.; Sodan, U.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G.S.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; Konopka, J.; Stoecker, H.

    1997-06-01

    Using the FOPI facility at GSI, charged particles (1{<=}Z{<=}6) produced in the Au(150 A MeV)+Au reaction have been measured at laboratory angles 1.2{sup 0}<{Theta}{sub lab}<30{sup 0}. Highly central collisions have been selected with two criteria, both dealing with the longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom of the reaction. The relevance of this selection method is supported by QMD calculations which indicate that such criteria are able to select mean impact parameters less than 2 fm. Bias effects introduced by the criteria have been evaluated. The centre-of-mass polar angle distributions of low energy clusters emitted in these central collisions, have been extracted: the intensity ratio deduced for a transverse to longitudinal emission is found to be R=1.4{sup +0.2}{sub -0.4}. Model comparisons using QMD are presented. The value of R appears to depend sensitively on the nucleon-nucleon cross section, {sigma}{sub nn}. Within this model, a value of {sigma}{sub nn}=25{+-}5 mb is derived. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  12. Thermal photon production in Au + Au collisions: Viscous corrections in two different hydrodynamic formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Ramos, J., E-mail: jperalta@ift.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nakwacki, M.S., E-mail: sole@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    We calculate the spectra of produced thermal photons in Au + Au collisions taking into account the nonequilibrium contribution to photon production due to finite shear viscosity. The evolution of the fireball is modeled by second-order as well as by divergence-type 2+1 dissipative hydrodynamics, both with an ideal equation of state and with one based on Lattice QCD that includes an analytical crossover. The spectrum calculated in the divergence-type theory is considerably enhanced with respect to the one calculated in the second-order theory, the difference being entirely due to differences in the viscous corrections to photon production. Our results show that the differences in hydrodynamic formalisms are an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of the value of {eta}/s from measured photon spectra. The uncertainty in the value of {eta}/s associated with different hydrodynamic models used to compute thermal photon spectra is larger than the one occurring in matching hadron elliptic flow to RHIC data.

  13. Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, M.; Tamain, B.; Bougault, R. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, 14 (France)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)

  14. Dielectron production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Al-Ta'ani, H; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Castera, P; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dairaku, S; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hoshino, T; Hotvedt, N; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Issah, M; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Javani, M; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, G W; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Král, A; Krizek, F; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, B; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Masumoto, S; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, S; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nishimura, S; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seidl, R; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Snowball, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, C L; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tsuji, T; Vale, C; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; White, A S; White, S N; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; You, Z; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S; Zou, L

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of $e^+e^-$ production at midrapidity in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The invariant yield is studied within the PHENIX detector acceptance over a wide range of mass ($m_{ee} <$ 5 GeV/$c^2$) and pair transverse momentum ($p_T$ $<$ 5 GeV/$c$), for minimum bias and for five centrality classes. The \\ee yield is compared to the expectations from known sources. In the low-mass region ($m_{ee}=0.30$--0.76 GeV/$c^2$) there is an enhancement that increases with centrality and is distributed over the entire pair \\pt range measured. It is significantly smaller than previously reported by the PHENIX experiment and amounts to $2.3\\pm0.4({\\rm stat})\\pm0.4({\\rm syst})\\pm0.2^{\\rm model}$ or to $1.7\\pm0.3({\\rm stat})\\pm0.3({\\rm syst})\\pm0.2^{\\rm model}$ for minimum bias collisions when the open-heavy-flavor contribution is calculated with {\\sc pythia} or {\\sc mc@nlo}, respectively. The inclusive mass and $p_T$ distributions as well as the centrality dependence are well repr...

  15. QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

  16. Controlled building of CdSe@ZnS/Au and CdSe@ZnS/ Au2S/Au nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel E. Galian[1; Pilar Diaz[1; Antonio Ribera[1; Alejandro Rincon-Bertolin[1; Said Agouram[2; Julia Perez-Prieto[1

    2015-01-01

    The addition of Au3. to spherical amine-capped CdSe@ZnS nanoparticles in toluene at room temperature and under darkness can lead to ternary CdSe@ZnS/Au nanohybrids. We demonstrate that this happens only when the nanoparticles possess a relatively thin ZnS shell, thus showing that thickness plays a key role in gold deposition on the CdSe@ZnS nanoparticle surface. Our hypothesis is that the amine ligand acts as the reductant of Au3+ ions into Au+ ions, whose affinity for sulfur would keep them at the CdSe@ZnS surface. This interaction stabilizes the Au+ ion, making it less prone to reduction than a non-coordinated Au+ ion. In CdSe@ZnS with a thin shell, Au+ ions at the surface of, or most probably within, the ZnS shell cause the transfer of Cd2+ ions into the solution. Subsequently, the core Se2- anion, which is a better reductant than the shell S2- reduces Au+ ions to Au(0), and large gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are quickly deposited on the CdSe@ZnS surface in room temperature process, leading to ternary CdSe@ZnS/Au nanohybrids. In solution, these ternary nanohybrids progressively transform into quaternary CdSe@ZnS/Au2S/Au nanohybrids due to the reaction of the shell S2- anion with the remaining Au+ at the CdSe@ZnS surface, thus leading to the growth of Au2S nanoparticles on the CdSe@ZnS surface while Zn concomitantly leaches from the nanohybrid into the solution. Photoirradiation of the heterostructures with visible light enhances their emission efficiency. Comparatively, irradiation of the precursors, i.e., CdSe@ZnS nanoparticles, causes a drastic decrease in their emission accompanied by a blue shift of their emission maximum. The optical properties of these nanohybrids were analyzed by absorption and fluorescence (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy, and the composition of the samples and the chemical states were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  17. Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Density Distributions from Au+Au Collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2001-09-01

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/dη has been measured for Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV at RHIC, using the PHOBOS apparatus. The total number of charged particles produced for the 3% most-central Au+Au collisions for \\|η\\|<=5.4 is found to be 4200+/-470. The evolution of dNch/dη with centrality is discussed, and compared to model calculations and to data from proton-induced collisions. The data show an enhancement in charged-particle production at midrapidity, while in the fragmentation regions, the results are consistent with expectations from pp and pA scattering.

  18. Fabrication of Au nanostructures in the process of amalgam formation followed by Au-Hg alloy thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au films deposited under ultra-high vacuum conditions on air-cleaved mica substrates were exposed in situ to Hg vapor (residual gas pressure ∼1x10-7 Pa, with Hg vapor pressure of 0.24 Pa). This led to transformation of continuous gold film into isolated amalgam islands of nanometer scale. The changes of Au thin film surface topography caused by amalgamation carried out within ∼40 h were studied by the atomic force microscopy method, while the phase transition in the bulk of Hg-dosed Au films was monitored by means of X-ray diffraction. The island's morphology varies from irregular, ramified structures on terraces to compact shapes along the steps on the mica substrate. After thermal decomposition of the amalgam, thin gold films consisting of isolated Au nanostructures on mica can be obtained

  19. Strangeness Enhancement in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, H; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anderson, B D; Anson, C D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barnby, L S; Beavis, D R; Behera, N K; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Dash, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jones, P G; Jena, C; Jin, F; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Ke, H; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kizka, V; Knospe, A G; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Lukashov, E V; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nayak, T K; Netrakanti, P K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Steadman, S G; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Jr.,; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Witzke, W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2011-01-01

    We report new STAR measurements of mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$, $\\Xi^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, $\\Omega^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Omega}^{+}$ particles in Cu+Cu collisions at \\sNN{200}, and mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$ particles in Au+Au at \\sNN{200}. We show that at a given number of participating nucleons, the production of strange hadrons is higher in Cu+Cu collisions than in Au+Au collisions at the same center-of-mass energy. We find that aspects of the enhancement factors for all particles can be described by a parameterization based on the fraction of participants that undergo multiple collisions. Such a parameterization may be relevant in the core-corona or string excitation/breaking hadron production schemes.

  20. Centrality Dependence of Direct Photons in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J; Srivastava, D K

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the spectra of high energy photons emitted in relativistic Au+Au collisions for various centralities and compare to data recently collected at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider by the PHENIX collaboration. Our results for photons from primary hard scatterings and photons from interactions of jets with the medium are consistent with the measurements of neutral pion and direct photon production in p+p collisions and give a good description of direct photon spectra measured in Au+Au collisions. The contribution of photons from jet-to-photon conversion in the medium can be as large as the photon yield from hard scatterings in the momentum range p_T = 2...6 GeV/c. We show that this novel mechanism is not ruled out by any existing data.

  1. Scaling properties of proton and antiproton production in sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, G; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, L D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2003-10-24

    We report on the yield of protons and antiprotons, as a function of centrality and transverse momentum, in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. In central collisions at intermediate transverse momenta (1.5Au+Au, p+p, and e(+)e(-) collisions. This enhancement is limited to p(T)<5 GeV/c as deduced from the ratio of charged hadrons to pi(0) measured in the range 1.5

  2. Synthesis of Au/C and Au/Pani for anode electrodes in glucose microfluidic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Balcazar, M.; Morales-Acosta, D.; Castaneda, F.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Ledesma-Garcia, J. [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, 76010 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been prepared by two methods: chemical (ex-situ, Au/C) by two phase protocol, and electrochemical (in-situ, Au/Pani) by electroreduction of gold ions on a polyaniline film and compared as anode catalysts in a glucose microfluidic fuel cell. In this paper the structural characteristics and electrocatalytic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements. The catalytic behavior of both anodes was tested in a microfluidic fuel cell with a reference electrode incorporated, by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), showing a cathodic shift in the glucose oxidation peak for Au/Pani. Results show a higher power density (0.5 mW cm{sup -} {sup 2}) for Au/C anode compared with an already reported value, where a glucose microfluidic fuel cell was used in similar conditions. (author)

  3. Structure and Mobility of Metal Clusters in MOFs: Au, Pd, and AuPd Clusters in MOF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Walton, Krista S.; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the adsorption and mobility of metal–organic framework (MOF)-supported metal nanoclusters is critical to the development of these catalytic materials. We present the first theoretical investigation of Au-, Pd-, and AuPd-supported clusters in a MOF, namely MOF-74. We combine density...... functional theory (DFT) calculations with a genetic algorithm (GA) to reliably predict the structure of the adsorbed clusters. This approach allows comparison of hundreds of adsorbed configurations for each cluster. From the investigation of Au8, Pd8, and Au4Pd4 we find that the organic part of the MOF...... is just as important for nanocluster adsorption as open Zn or Mg metal sites. Using the large number of clusters generated by the GA, we developed a systematic method for predicting the mobility of adsorbed clusters. Through the investigation of diffusion paths a relationship between the cluster...

  4. Excitonic luminescence of ZnSe single crystals doped with Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe single crystals doped with Au during a long high-temperature treatment of as-grown crystals in Zn+Au or Se+Au melts are investigated in the temperature range from 83 to 300 K. The Au-doping from Zn+Au melt leads to the formation of both simple defects (Aui donors and AuZn acceptors) and acceptor associates (AuZn-Aui). The edge luminescence is attributed to radiative annihilation of Aui and VSe donor-bound excitons. The edge spectra of the crystals doped with Au from Se+Au melt contain the band ascribed to radiative annihilation of AuZn acceptor-bound excitons

  5. Pion Interferometry of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 130$ GeV Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration; Adler, C.

    2001-01-01

    Two-pion correlation functions in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 130$ GeV have been measured by the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) detector. The source size extracted by fitting the correlations grows with event multiplicity and decreases with transverse momentum. Anomalously large sizes or emission durations, which have been suggested as signals of quark-gluon plasma formation and rehadronization, are not observed. The HBT parameters display a weak energy dependence over a broad ran...

  6. NUCLEAR AND HEAVY ION PHYSICS: Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants, spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au + Au collisions at GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  7. Azimuthally sensitive hanbury brown-twiss interferometry in Au + Au collisions sqrt S sub NN = 200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, L.S.; Hughes, E.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; et al.

    2004-06-30

    We present the results of a systematic study of the shape of the pion distribution in coordinate space at freeze-out in Au+Au collisions at RHIC using two-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry. Oscillations of the extracted HBT radii vs. emission angle indicate sources elongated perpendicular to the reaction plane. The results indicate that the pressure and expansion time of the collision system are not sufficient to completely quench its initial shape.

  8. Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anisotropy parameter (v2), the second harmonic of the azimuthal particle distribution, has been measured with the PHENIX detector in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV for identified and inclusive charged particle production at central rapidities (|η|2 of mesons falls below that of (anti)baryons for pT>2 GeV/c, in marked contrast to the predictions of a hydrodynamical model. A quark-coalescence model is also investigated

  9. Elliptic flow of identified hadrons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN =200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, L D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2003-10-31

    The anisotropy parameter (v(2)), the second harmonic of the azimuthal particle distribution, has been measured with the PHENIX detector in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV for identified and inclusive charged particle production at central rapidities (|eta|2 GeV/c, in marked contrast to the predictions of a hydrodynamical model. A quark-coalescence model is also investigated. PMID:14611277

  10. Au - Be/Ru/Au multilayer metallization as a stable ohmic contact scheme to p-type InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, V.; Moro, L.; Micheli, V.; Mojzes, I.

    1996-07-01

    An attempt has been made to improve the electrical and metallurgical stability of Au - Be alloyed contacts to moderately doped p-type InP by minimizing the thickness of the Au - Be contact layer and using an Ru layer as a new, more effective diffusion barrier between the Au - Be and a thick Au top layer. It was found that the Au - Be contact layer only 40 - 50 nm thick is sufficient to give excellent ohmic contacts with specific contact resistance values as low as 0268-1242/11/7/025/img6 and 0268-1242/11/7/025/img7 (for 0268-1242/11/7/025/img8 and 0268-1242/11/7/025/img9 respectively). When subjected to an aging test at 0268-1242/11/7/025/img10 for 50 h in 0268-1242/11/7/025/img11 gas, the 50 nm Au - Be/50 nm Ru/300 nm Au contacts alloyed at an optimum temperature of about 0268-1242/11/7/025/img12 exhibit good thermal stability and no substantial increase in the specific contact resistance. The remarkable metallurgical stability of such contacts was confirmed by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) in-depth profile measurements. A comparison with the previously investigated diffusion barrier metals (such as Cr, Ti, Pt, etc) shows that the Ru layer is a much better barrier against the migration of Au into the InP substrate and, at the same time, it suppresses the out-diffusion of In and P from the semiconductor.

  11. Production and collective behavior of strange particles in Au + Au collisions at 2-8 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkenburg, C H; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A C; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Law, C; Lauret, J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R L; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L S; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Whitfield, J; Witt, R; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2002-01-01

    The E895 experiment at the AGS measured strange particle production and collective behavior in Au+Au collisions between 2--8 AGeV. The production of $\\Lambda$ Baryons and K$^0$ Mesons as function of energy rises smoothly and exhibits a nonlinear impact parameter dependence. Neutral and positively charged Kaons exhibit a strong anti-flow behavior. $\\Lambda$ Baryons show a smaller flow signal than protons.

  12. Quels liens entre élevages et écosystèmes naturels ?. Lecture croisée en milieu aride et tropical

    OpenAIRE

    Cialdella, Nathalie; HOSTIOU, Nathalie; Girard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Concilier développement de l’élevage et gestion d’écosystèmes reconnus comme biens communs est un enjeu pour de nombreux pays. Mais la manière dont les éleveurs utilisent réellement les écosystèmes, en particulier pour alimenter leurs troupeaux, reste peu explorée. Notre objectif est de qualifier la diversité des liens existant entre élevages et écosystèmes naturels en croisant deux situations d’élevage familial contrastées au niveau écologique et socioéconomique : petits ruminants en Tunisie...

  13. Identified hadron transverse momentum spectra in Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and antiprotons from Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62.4 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The identification of particles relies on three different methods: low momentum particles stopping in the first detector layers; the specific energy loss (dE/dx) in the silicon spectrometer, and time-of-flight measurement. These methods cover the transverse momentum ranges 0.03 0.2, 0.2 1.0, and 0.5 3.0 GeV/c, respectively. Baryons are found to have substantially harder transverse momentum spectra than mesons. The pT region in which the proton to pion ratio reaches unity in central Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62.4 GeV fits into a smooth trend as a function of collision energy. At low transverse mass, the spectra of various species exhibit a significant deviation from transverse mass scaling. The observed particle yields at very low pT are comparable to extrapolations from higher pT for kaons, protons and antiprotons. By comparing our results to Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV, we conclude that the net proton yield at midrapidity is proportional to the number of participant nucleons in the collision.

  14. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  15. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-04-19

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  16. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. M., E-mail: mrkongara@boisestate.edu; Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Padture, Nitin P. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  17. Effect of Au nano-particle aggregation on the deactivation of the AuCl3/AC catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bin; Wang, Qinqin; Yu, Feng; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the valence state and distribution of the AuCl3/AC catalyst during the acetylene hydrochlorination deactivation process is described and discussed. Temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis indicate that the active Au(3+) reduction to metallic Au(0) is one reason for the deactivation of AuCl3/AC catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the particle size of Au nano-particles increases with increasing reaction time. The results indicated that metallic Au(0) exhibits considerable catalytic activity and that Au nano-particle aggregation may be another reason for the AuCl3/AC catalytic activity in acetylene hydrochlorination. PMID:25994222

  18. Jet-Hadron Correlations in sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV Au+Au and p+p Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai,; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, P; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks,; Ding, F; Dion, A; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Gliske, S; Grebenyuk, O G; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Mioduszewski, S; Mitrovski, M K; Mohammed, Y; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Novak, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Powell, C B; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, B; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan,; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal angular correlations of charged hadrons with respect to the axis of a reconstructed (trigger) jet in Au+Au and p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV in STAR are presented. The trigger jet population in Au+Au collisions is biased towards jets that have not interacted with the medium, allowing easier matching of jet energies between Au+Au and p+p collisions while enhancing medium effects on the recoil jet. The associated hadron yield of the recoil jet is significantly suppressed at high transverse momentum ($p_{T}^{assoc}$) and enhanced at low $p_{T}^{assoc}$ in Au+Au collisions, which is indicative of medium-induced parton energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Transverse-energy distributions at midrapidity in $p$$+$$p$, $d$$+$Au, and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$--200~GeV and implications for particle-production models

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, S. S.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the midrapidity transverse energy distribution, $d\\Et/d\\eta$, are presented for $p$$+$$p$, $d$$+$Au, and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and additionally for Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ and 130 GeV. The $d\\Et/d\\eta$ distributions are first compared with the number of nucleon participants $N_{\\rm part}$, number of binary collisions $N_{\\rm coll}$, and number of constituent-quark participants $N_{qp}$ calculated from a Glauber model based on th...

  20. Milieu- en Natuureffecten Nota Ruimte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper R; Niet de R (eds); RIM; Stichting DLO

    2004-01-01

    In april 2004 is de Nota Ruimte van het Ministerie van VROM verschenen. Deze nota bevat het nationaal ruimtelijk beleid tot aan 2030. Het ministerie van VROM heeft aan de vier planbureaus (CPB, SCP, RPB en MNP) gevraagd om te bepalen wat de effecten van deze nieuwe nota zijn. In de evaluatie-ra