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  1. Mass médias et figures du religieux islamique au Mali: entre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass médias et figures du religieux islamique au Mali: entre négociation et appropriation de l'espace public. ... (development of means of transportation and communications technologies) and the extension of democratic rights and freedoms.

  2. Theoretical prediction of the noble gas complexes HeAuF and NeAuF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ab initio calculations were carried out to investigate the structures and the stability of the noble gas complexes HeAuF and NeAuF through MP2 and CCSD(T) methods.The HeAuF was predicted to have a linear structure with weak He-Au covalent bonding,the distance of which is closer to the covalent limit in comparison with the corresponding van der Waals limit.The dissociation energy with respect to He + AuF was found to be 24 and 26 kJ·mol-1 at the CCSD(T)/basis set B and B’ levels,respectively.However,similar calculations for NeAuF indicate that NeAuF is not a stable species.

  3. 229 Age au premier vêlage et intervalle entre vêlages de quatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madjina TELLAH

    ... Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso (UPB), 01 BP 1091 Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso ..... rapportés au Niger et au Tchad [4], au Cameroun chez les zébus Goudali [8], au ... [9], au Sénégal chez le zébu Gobra [10], au Bénin chez les vaches ...

  4. Analyse de régression quantile de la relation entre la langue et l’intervalle entre les grossesses au Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. On sait que les intervalles courts comme les intervalles longs entre les grossesses sont associés à des issues périnatales défavorables, comme des fausses couches et des accouchements prématurés, mais les différences culturelles à ce sujet sont mal connues. Repérer les inégalités culturelles dans les intervalles entre les grossesses est nécessaire afin d'améliorer les résultats relatifs à la santé de la mère et de l’enfant. Nous avons ainsi évalué les intervalles entre les grossesses chez les anglophones et les francophones du Québec. Méthodologie. Nous avons obtenu les dossiers de naissance de tous les enfants nés au Québec entre 1989 et 2011. Nous avons recensé 571 461 femmes ayant eu au moins deux naissances et déterminé l’intervalle entre leurs grossesses. Les intervalles courts entre les grossesses (moins de 18 mois ont été définis comme étant le 20e percentile de la distribution, et les intervalles longs (60 mois ou plus, comme le 80e percentile. À l’aide de régressions quantiles, nous avons évalué l’association entre la langue et les intervalles courts et longs, ajustés en fonction des caractéristiques de la mère. Nous avons évalué les différences au fil du temps et selon l’âge de la mère pour les groupes défavorisés, qui ont été définis par l’absence de diplôme d’études secondaires, la résidence en milieu rural et le fait de vivre dans un quartier défavorisé matériellement. Résultats. Dans les modèles de régression ajustés, les anglophones sans diplôme d’études secondaires avaient des intervalles plus courts de 1,0 mois (intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % : −1,5 à −0,4 par rapport à leurs homologues francophones au 20e percentile de la distribution et plus longs de 1,9 mois (−0,5 à 4,3 au 80e percentile. Les résultats étaient similaires pour les anglophones des régions rurales et des quartiers matériellement défavorisés. Les

  5. Expedient Syntheses of Neutral and Cationic Au(I)–NHC Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.

    2017-09-08

    The synthesis and isolation of gold(I) precatalysts often requires the generation of several isolable intermediates as well as numerous purification steps. New protocols for the expedient synthesis of neutral [Au(OH)(NHC)] and [Au(CH2COCH3)(NHC)] species from [AuCl(NHC)] or [AuCl(DMS)] precursors bearing a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are presented. These methods can be employed in a telescoping manner for the synthesis of catalytically relevant [Au(NTf2)(NHC)] and [Au(NHC)(NCCH3)][BF4] complexes. These attractive methods are straightforward and practical leading to various complexes in high isolated yields and purity.

  6. Expedient Syntheses of Neutral and Cationic Au(I)–NHC Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.; Gasperini, Danila; Nahra, Fady; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cazin, Catherine S. J.; Nolan, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and isolation of gold(I) precatalysts often requires the generation of several isolable intermediates as well as numerous purification steps. New protocols for the expedient synthesis of neutral [Au(OH)(NHC)] and [Au(CH2COCH3)(NHC)] species from [AuCl(NHC)] or [AuCl(DMS)] precursors bearing a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are presented. These methods can be employed in a telescoping manner for the synthesis of catalytically relevant [Au(NTf2)(NHC)] and [Au(NHC)(NCCH3)][BF4] complexes. These attractive methods are straightforward and practical leading to various complexes in high isolated yields and purity.

  7. Exploring the Photoreduction of Au(III) Complexes in the Gas-Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jesse C.; Kaufman, Sydney H.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2010-06-01

    We have used photodissociation spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure and photoreduction of Au(III) in gas-phase complexes containing Cl- and OH-. The gas-phase electronic spectrum of [AuCl_4]- closely resembles the aqueous solution spectrum, showing a lack of strong solvatochromic shifts. Substitution of Cl- ligands with OH- results in a strong blue shift, in agreement with ligand-field theory. Upon excitation, [AuCl_4]- can dissociate by loss of either one or two neutral Cl atoms, resulting in the reduction of gold from Au(III) to Au(II) and Au(I) respectively. The hydroxide substituted complex, [AuCl_2(OH)_2]-, demonstrates similar behavior but the only observable fragment channel is the loss of two neutral OH ligands, leading only to Au(I).

  8. Père au foyer : une nouvelle entrée au répertoire du masculin ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chatot, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Cadre de la recherche : En dépit de la promotion dans les représentations d’un partage égalitaire des tâches domestiques et des responsabilités parentales entre conjoints, les femmes sont encore largement responsables de la prise en charge des enfants et des tâches ménagères ; l’entrée d’un homme dans la situation de « père au foyer » représente une inversion des rôles traditionnels.Objectifs : L’objectif de cet article est de comprendre comment se recomposent les rôles de genre traditionnels...

  9. Time interval measurement between two emissions: Kr + Au; Mesure de l`intervalle de temps entre deux emissions: Kr + Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboufirassi, M; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); LPC (Caen) - CRN (Strasbourg) - GANIL Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    To indicate the method allowing the determination of the emission intervals, the results obtained with the Kr + Au system at 43 and 60 A.MeV are presented. The experiments were performed with the NAUTILUS exclusive detectors. Central collisions were selected by means of a relative velocity criterion to reject the events containing a forward emitted fragment. For the two bombardment energies the data analysis shows that the formation of a compound of mass around A = 200. By comparing the fragment dynamical variables with simulations one can conclude about the simultaneity of the compound deexcitation processes. It was found that a 5 MeV/A is able to reproduce the characteristics of the detected fragments. Also, it was found that to reproduce the dynamical characteristics of the fragments issued from central collisions it was not necessary to superimpose a radial collective energy upon the Coulomb and thermal motion. The distribution of the relative angles between detected fragments is used here as a chronometer. For simultaneous ruptures the small relative angles are forbidden by the Coulomb repulsion, while for sequential processes this interdiction is the more lifted the longer the interval between the two emissions is. For the system discussed here the comparison between simulation and data has been carried out for the extreme cases, i.e. for a vanishing and infinite time interval between the two emissions, respectively. More sophisticated simulations to describe angular distributions between the emitted fragments were also developed 2 refs.

  10. Ecrire au tableau entre pratique langagière et geste professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    HASSAN, Rouba

    2010-01-01

    Les dimensions langagières de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage ont rarement porté sur les productions écrites des enseignants. Pourtant, les travaux de Nonnon (1991, 2000) en didactique du français, ceux de Robert et Vanderbrouck (2003) en didactique des mathématiques ont montré l’importance de cette production dans les pratiques enseignantes, notamment en ce qui concerne l’écriture au tableau. L’écriture au tableau en tant que pratique langagière contribue à la structuration de l’espace ...

  11. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H exchange: application to the hAsf{sup 1}/ histone H{sup 3} complex; Caracterisation des interactions proteine / ligand par echange {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H: application au complexe entre la proteine hAsf{sup 1} et l'histone H{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, G

    2007-05-15

    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H{sup 3}. (N.C.)

  12. Sécurité et ordre politique au Cameroun : entre dynamiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    présidentielle de la sécurité publique et une fabrication politique de l'insécurité ...... L'insécurité participe d'une stratégie globale de soumission des masses. La différenciation qui ... des entreprises privées étrangères de sécurité telles que Wackenhut et ... parti au pouvoir et des lieux de recrutement du personnel politique.

  13. Du texte mis entre parenthèses au texte dit à part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Leroux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de l’aparté dans La Celestina est ici fondée sur une approche codicologique de plusieurs imprimés de l’œuvre de Fernando de Rojas. Une définition théorique de l’aparté permet d’en préciser les différentes réalisations au théâtre : l’aparté au public, l’aparté sélectif et l’aparté au moi, qui se distingue nettement du monologue. Dans le texte dramatique, le repérage de cette forme dramatique se révèle cependant plus délicate. L’étude de l’emploi des parenthèses dans plusieurs imprimés qui conservent La Celestina fait apparaître un usage très vigilant de ces signes de ponctuation pour marquer le recours à l’aparté.

  14. André Gide au miroir de la critique : "Corydon" entre œuvre et manifeste

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah El Sokati , Chahira

    2011-01-01

    Corydon est un essai dans lequel André Gide soutient une nouvelle théorie de l'amour"pédérastique normal". Il y défend sa position tout en esquissant son identité, et en s'efforçantde faire reconnaître celle-ci à travers son oeuvre. Il répond ainsi à l'inquiétude de toute sagénération, ou au moins d'une élite de cette génération. Gide le dit : Corydon est un livre parlequel il veut " gêner ".La thèse suit les transformations de la réception de Corydon depuis sa publication et étudie lesdiffér...

  15. LES SUBSAHARIENS ENTRE TRANSIT AU MAROC ET IMMIGRATION CLANDESTINE EN ESPAGNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración irregular llega a ser la forma dominante de los flujos migratorios con destino a los países de la Unión Europea, y altera las relaciones entre las dos riveras del Estrecho de Gibraltar: Marruecos y España. El presente artículo aborda el análisis del fl ujo migratorio subsahariano en tránsito por Marruecos, la descripción del perfil sociodemográfico de los migrantes, así como el conocimiento de los motivos de partida, itinerarios y condiciones de vida en Marruecos de los retornados subsaharianos así como sus aspiraciones.

  16. A spectrophotometric study of aqueous Au(III) halide-hydroxide complexes at 25-80 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Al; McPhail, D. C.; Brugger, Joël

    2009-06-01

    The mobility and transport of gold in low-temperature waters and brines is affected by the aqueous speciation of gold, which is sensitive in particular to pH, oxidation and halide concentrations. In this study, we use UV-Vis spectrophotometry to identify and measure the thermodynamic properties of Au(III) aqueous complexes with chloride, bromide and hydroxide. Au(III) forms stable square planar complexes with hydroxide and halide ligands. Based on systematic changes in the absorption spectra of solutions in three binary systems NaCl-NaBr, NaCl-NaOH and NaBr-NaOH at 25 °C, we derived log dissociation constants for the following mixed and end-member halide and hydroxide complexes: [AuCl 3Br] -, [AuCl 2Br 2] -, [AuBr 3Cl] - and [AuBr 4] -; [AuCl 3(OH)] -, [AuCl 2(OH) 2] -, [AuCl(OH) 3] - and [Au(OH) 4] -; and [AuBr 3(OH)] -, [AuBr 2(OH) 2] - and [AuBr(OH) 3] -. These are the first reported results for the mixed chloride-bromide complexes. Increasing temperature to 80 °C resulted in an increase in the stability of the mixed chloride-bromide complexes, relative to the end-member chloride and bromide complexes. For the [AuCl (4-n)(OH) n] - series of complexes ( n = 0-4), there is an excellent agreement between our spectrophotometric results and previous electrochemical results of Chateau et al. [Chateau et al. (1966)]. In other experiments, the iodide ion (I -) was found to be unstable in the presence of Au(III), oxidizing rapidly to I 2(g) and causing Au to precipitate. Predicted Au(III) speciation indicates that Au(III) chloride-bromide complexes can be important in transporting gold in brines with high bromide-chloride ratios (e.g., >0.05), under oxidizing (atmospheric), acidic (pH < 5) conditions. Native gold solubility under atmospheric oxygen conditions is predicted to increase with decreasing pH in acidic conditions, increasing pH in alkaline conditions, increasing chloride, especially at acid pH, and increasing bromide for bromide/chloride ratios greater than 0

  17. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Warshaw, Johanna; Berger, Lee R

    2015-10-15

    Studies of facial ontogeny in immature hominins have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution of human growth and development. The recently discovered hominin species Autralopithecus sediba is represented by a well-preserved and nearly complete facial skeleton of a juvenile (MH1) which shows a derived facial anatomy. We examined MH1 using high radiation synchrotron to interpret features of the oronasal complex pertinent to facial growth. We also analyzed bone surface microanatomy to identify and map fields of bone deposition and bone resorption, which affect the development of the facial skeleton. The oronasal anatomy (premaxilla-palate-vomer architecture) is similar to other Australopithecus species. However surface growth remodeling of the midface (nasomaxillary complex) differs markedly from Australopithecus, Paranthropus, early Homo and from KNM-WT 15000 (H. erectus/ergaster) showing a distinct distribution of vertically disposed alternating depository and resorptive fields in relation to anterior dental roots and the subnasal region. The ontogeny of the MH1 midface superficially resembles some H. sapiens in the distribution of remodeling fields. The facial growth of MH1 appears unique among early hominins representing an evolutionary modification in facial ontogeny at 1.9 my, or to changes in masticatory system loading associated with diet.

  18. Electron capture cross-section of Au-Fe complex in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Akbar; Shafi, M; Majid, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A deep level transient spectroscopy technique is applied to study the capture cross-section of an iron-gold complex. The thermal ionization energy obtained from emission rate data is found to be E c -0.36 eV. The Au-Fe complex is a single defect having a capture cross-section of 2.48x10 -16 cm 2 for electrons which is independent of temperature

  19. Electron capture cross-section of Au-Fe complex in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Akbar; Shafi, M; Majid, Abdul [Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-10-15

    A deep level transient spectroscopy technique is applied to study the capture cross-section of an iron-gold complex. The thermal ionization energy obtained from emission rate data is found to be E{sub c} -0.36 eV. The Au-Fe complex is a single defect having a capture cross-section of 2.48x10{sup -16} cm{sup 2} for electrons which is independent of temperature.

  20. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  1. Discours performatifs et constructions politiques de l’identité ethnique : restructuration des rapports entre minorités et pouvoirs publics au Mexique, le cas totonaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ellison

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Le propos de cet exposé est de montrer, à partir de l’étude de terrain concernant le mouvement ethnico-écologique des Indiens totonaques (Mexique central, comment la référence au conflit du Chiapas et l’appropriation des discours sur les droits indigènes et le développement durable sont mobilisés par les organisations indiennes, l’Eglise et les partis politiques pour redéfinir la relation entre les minorités et les pouvoirs publics.

  2. Structural, (197)Au Mössbauer and solid state (31)P CP/MAS NMR studies on bis (cis-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene) gold(I) complexes [Au(dppey)(2)]X for X = PF(6), I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Peter C; Loughrey, Bradley T; Bowmaker, Graham A; Hanna, John V

    2008-07-28

    (197)Au Mössbauer spectra for the d(10) gold(i) phosphine complexes, [Au(dppey)(2)]X (X = PF(6), I; dppey = (cis-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene), and the single crystal X-ray structure and solid state (31)P CPMAS NMR spectrum of [Au(dppey)(2)]I are reported here. In [Au(dppey)(2)]I the AuP(4) coordination geometry is distorted from the approximately D(2) symmetry observed for the PF(6)(-) complex with Au-P bond lengths 2.380(2)-2.426(2) A and inter-ligand P-Au-P angles 110.63(5)-137.71(8) degrees . Quadrupole splitting parameters derived from the Mössbauer spectra are consistent with the increased distortion of the AuP(4) coordination sphere with values of 1.22 and 1.46 mm s(-1) for the PF(6)(-) and I(-) complexes respectively. In the solid state (31)P CP MAS NMR spectrum of [Au(dppey)(2)]I, signals for each of the four crystallographically independent phosphorus nuclei are observed, with the magnitude of the (197)Au quadrupole coupling being sufficiently large to produce a collapse of (1)J(Au-P) splitting from quartets to doublets. The results highlight the important role played by the counter anion in the determination of the structural and spectroscopic properties of these sterically crowded d(10) complexes.

  3. PMO-immobilized Au(I)-NHC complexes: Heterogeneous catalysts for sustainable processes

    KAUST Repository

    van der Voort, Pascal

    2017-11-08

    A stable Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO) with accessible sulfonic acid functionalities is prepared via a one-pot-synthesis and is used as solid support for highly active catalysts, consisting of gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes. The gold complexes are successfully immobilized on the nanoporous hybrid material via a straightforward acid-base reaction with the corresponding [Au(OH)(NHC)] synthon. This catalyst design strategy results in a boomerang-type catalyst, allowing the active species to detach from the surface to perform the catalysis and then to recombine with the solid after all the starting material is consumed. This boomerang behavior is assessed in the hydration of alkynes. The tested catalysts were found to be active in the latter reaction, and after an acidic work-up, the IPr*-based gold catalyst can be recovered and then reused several times without any loss in efficiency

  4. Intermetallic Competition in the Fragmentation of Trimetallic Au-Zn-Alkali Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johannes; Cayir, Merve; Walg, Simon P; Di Martino-Fumo, Patrick; Thiel, Werner R; Niedner-Schatteburg, Gereon

    2016-02-12

    Cationization is a valuable tool to enable mass spectrometric studies on neutral transition-metal complexes (e.g., homogenous catalysts). However, knowledge of potential impacts on the molecular structure and catalytic reactivity induced by the cationization is indispensable to extract information about the neutral complex. In this study, we cationize a bimetallic complex [AuZnCl3 ] with alkali metal ions (M(+) ) and investigate the charged adducts [AuZnCl3 M](+) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IR-MPD) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal a μ(3) binding motif of all alkali ions to the three chlorido ligands. The cationization induces a reorientation of the organic backbone. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) studies reveal switches of fragmentation channels by the alkali ion and by the CID amplitude. The Li(+) and Na(+) adducts prefer the sole loss of ZnCl2 , whereas the K(+) , Rb(+) , and Cs(+) adducts preferably split off MCl2 ZnCl. Calculated energetics along the fragmentation coordinate profiles allow us to interpret the experimental findings to a level of subtle details. The Zn(2+) cation wins the competition for the nitrogen coordination sites against K(+) , Rb(+) , and Cs(+) , but it loses against Li(+) and Na(+) in a remarkable deviation from a naive hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. The computations indicate expulsion of MCl2 ZnCl rather than of MCl and ZnCl2 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. L’élevage pastoral au Sénégal entre pression spatiale et mutation commerciale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraud Magrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L'élevage pastoral est menacé au Sénégal car les dynamiques écologiques, les défrichements et les politiques publiques compromettent l'accès aux ressources sur lequel repose sa mobilité essentielle. Loin des clichés qui le présentent comme une activité homogène et archaïque, l'élevage connaît pourtant des mutations importantes. Sous des formes variées, il se diversifie et se connecte aux marchés urbains nationaux du lait et de la viande, valorisant des marchés de niche. Les dynamiques observées dans le plus urbanisé des États du Sahel préfigurent ainsi celles qui s'amorcent ailleurs.

  6. Electronic Absorption and MCD Spectra for Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), and Related Platinum-Centered Gold Cluster Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrowski, Michael J.; Mason, W. Roy

    1997-03-26

    Electronic absorption and 7.0 T magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the UV-vis region, 1.6 to approximately 4.0 &mgr;m(-)(1) (1 &mgr;m(-)(1) = 10(4) cm(-)(1)) are reported for [Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) and [Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) in acetonitrile solutions at room temperature. The MCD spectra are better resolved than the absorption spectra and consist of both A and B terms. The spectra are interpreted in terms of D(4)(d)() skeletal geometry and MO's that are approximated by 5s and 6s orbitals for Pd and Pt/Au atoms, respectively. The lowest energy excited configurations and states are attributed to intraframework (IF) Au(8)(2+) transitions. Evidence is also presented for Pt 5d --> Au 6s transitions in the MCD spectra for Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+). Acetonitrile solution absorption and MCD spectra for the related Pt-centered cluster complexes [Pt(CO)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AuP(p-tolyl)(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(CuCl)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AgNO(3))(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(Hg)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(HgCl)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2), and [Pt(HgNO(3))(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2) are also reported and interpreted within the context of the model developed for the M(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+) complexes.

  7. Jahn-Teller distortion in the phosphorescent excited state of three-coordinate Au(I) phosphine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Khaldoon A; Cundari, Thomas R; Omary, Mohammad A

    2003-11-26

    DFT calculations were used to optimize the phosphorescent excited state of three-coordinate [Au(PR3)3]+ complexes. The results indicate that the complexes rearrange from their singlet ground-state trigonal planar geometry to a T-shape in the lowest triplet luminescent excited state. The optimized structure of the exciton contradicts the structure predicted based on the AuP bonding properties of the ground-state HOMO and LUMO. The rearrangement to T-shape is a Jahn-Teller distortion because an electron is taken from the degenerate e' (5dxy, 5dx2-y2) orbital upon photoexcitation of the ground-state D3h complex. The calculated UV absorption and visible emission energies are consistent with the experimental data and explain the large Stokes' shifts while such correlations are not possible in optimized models that constrained the exciton to the ground-state trigonal geometry.

  8. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  9. Triazole–Au(I complex as chemoselective catalyst in promoting propargyl ester rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Triazole–Au (TA–Au catalysts were employed in several transformations involving propargyl ester rearrangement. Good chemoselectivity was observed, which allowed the effective activation of the alkyne without affecting the reactivity of the allene ester intermediates. These results led to the investigation of the preparation of allene ester intermediates with TA–Au catalysts under anhydrous conditions. As expected, the desired 3,3-rearrangement products were obtained in excellent yields (generally >90% yields with 1% loading. Besides the typical ester migrating groups, carbonates and carbamates were also found to be suitable for this transformation, which provided a highly efficient, practical method for the preparation of substituted allenes.

  10. Emission of complex fragments in the reaction Ar+Au at 44 and 77 A.MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A.; Guerreau, D.; Jiang, D.X.; Cramer, B.; Ingold, G.; Gatty, B.; Lott, B.; Piasecki, E.

    1992-01-01

    Complex fragment emission from the 44 and 77 A.MeV 40 Ar + 197 Au reaction was investigated, and complex fragments have been detected, together with the associated neutron multiplicity distributions, and are seen to be preferentially emitted in violent collisions. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium components were identified which are discussed in terms of statistical emission from the hot target-like fragment and of a possible persistence of a deep-inelastic process. (R.P.) 45 refs.; 16 figs.; 1 tab

  11. About the problem of the delays between particles belonging to the cosmic radiation; Sur le probleme des retards entre des particules appartenant au rayonnement cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    retard qui s'etablit entre deux particules de masse M appartenant a cette derniere espece est defini par la difference entre les temps qu'elles mettent pour franchir la meme distance. Dans le vide, les retards peuvent atteindre des valeurs quelconques, Mais, lorsque les particules se propagent dans un milieu absorbant, les retards tendent vers une limite bien definie quelles que soient les energies initiales des particules. On demontre que le retard maximum est donne par ({delta}t){sub max} {approx_equal} 0,6 E{sub 0} / cK{sub min}, ou E{sub 0} = Mc{sup 2} represente l'energie au repos de la particule et K{sub min} la perte minimum d'energie par cm de parcours dans le milieu donne. Par exemple, dans le cas des protons traversant differents milieux absorbants, les valeurs de ({delta}t){sub max} pour l'air (TPN), l'eau, l'Al et le Pb sont respectivement egales a 8,3.10{sup -6}, 9,7.10{sup -9}, 45.10{sup -9} et 1,6 10{sup -9} sec. Les valeurs correspondantes de ({delta}t){sub max} pour les electrons, sont de l'ordre de 10{sup -9} sec pour l'air et de l'ordre de 10{sup -12} sec pour les milieux condenses. Il en resulte que, si les particules appartenant a une gerbe manifestaient entre elles des retards superieurs a ceux qui vienent d'etre indiques, le fait constituerait une preuve suffisante de l'existence de particules lourdes au sein de la gerbe. Par ailleurs, la relation qui relie ({delta}t){sub max} a la masse M pourrait servir de base a une methode de spectrographie de masse des particules de grande energie. (auteur)

  12. Gold(I) Complexes with N-Donor Ligands. 2.(1) Reactions of Ammonium Salts with [Au(acac-kappaC(2))(PR(3))] To Give [Au(NH(3))L](+), [(AuL)(2)(&mgr;(2)-NH(2))](+), [(AuL)(4)(&mgr;(4)-N)](+), or [(AuL)(3)(&mgr;(3)-O)](+). A New and Facile Synthesis of [Au(NH(3))(2)](+) Salts. Crystal Structure of [{AuP(C(6)H(4)OMe-4)(3)}(3)(&mgr;(3)-O)]CF(3)SO(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, José; Chicote, María-Teresa; Guerrero, Rita; Jones, Peter G.; Ramírez De Arellano, M. Carmen

    1997-09-24

    The complexes [Au(acac-kappaC(2))(PR(3))] (acac = acetylacetonate, R = Ph, C(6)H(4)OMe-4) react with (NH(4))ClO(4) to give amminegold(I), [Au(NH(3))(PR(3))]ClO(4), amidogold(I), [(AuPR(3))(2)(&mgr;(2)-NH(2))]ClO(4), or nitridogold(I), [(AuPR(3))(4)(&mgr;(4)-N)]ClO(4), complexes, depending on the reaction conditions. Similarly, [Au(acac-kappaC(2))(PPh(3))] reacts with (NH(3)R')OTf (OTf = CF(3)SO(3)) (1:1) or with [H(3)N(CH(2))(2)NH(2)]OTf (1:1) to give (amine)gold(I) complexes [Au(NH(2)R')(PPh(3))]OTf (R' = Me, C(6)H(4)NO(2)-4) or [(AuPPh(3))(2){&mgr;(2)-H(2)N(CH(2))(2)NH(2)}](OTf)(2), respectively. The ammonium salts (NH(2)R'(2))OTf (R' = Et, Ph) react with [Au(acac-kappaC(2))(PR(3))] (R = Ph, C(6)H(4)OMe-4) (1:2) to give, after hydrolysis, the oxonium salts [(AuPR(3))(3)(&mgr;(3)-O)]OTf (R = Ph, C(6)H(4)OMe-4). When NH(3) is bubbled through a solution of [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the complex [Au(NH(3))(2)]Cl precipitates. Addition of [Au(NH(3))(2)]Cl to a solution of AgClO(4) or TlOTf leads to the isolation of [Au(NH(3))(2)]ClO(4) or [Au(NH(3))(2)]OTf, respectively. The crystal structure of [(AuPR(3))(3)(&mgr;(3)-O)]OTf.Me(2)CO (R = C(6)H(4)OMe-4) has been determined: triclinic, space group P&onemacr;, a = 14.884(3) Å, b = 15.828(3) Å, c = 16.061(3) Å, alpha = 83.39(3) degrees, beta = 86.28(3) degrees, gamma = 65.54(3) degrees, R1 (wR2) = 0.0370 (0.0788). The [(AuPR(3))(3)(&mgr;(3)-O)](+) cation shows an essentially trigonal pyramidal array of three gold atoms and one oxygen atom with O-Au-P bond angles of ca. 175 degrees and Au.Au contacts in the range 2.9585(7)-3.0505(14) Å. These cations are linked into centrosymmetric dimers through two short Au.Au [2.9585(7), 3.0919(9) Å] contacts. The gold atoms of the dimer form a six-membered ring with a chair conformation.

  13. Complex fragment emission in the reaction 197Au → 197Au at an incident energy of 15 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoll, R.

    1988-07-01

    For the study of the dominant decay processes in the reaction 15 MeV/u 197 Au → 197 Au in one-particle inclusive experiments the emission characteristics of all ejectiles in the mass range 24 ≤ A ≤ 197 were studied. The deflection function of the projectile-like fragments is for all energy losses at the grazing angle Θ cm gr =27.5 degrees peaked and in fact even for scattering events in which the whole available kinetic energy was dissipated in the collisions. The systematic analysis of the velocity spectra shows that the lightest fragments are formed in double-sequential fission of the highly excited gold-like fragments from the first deep inelastic reaction stage before reaching of a global equilibrium. On the other side symmetrical fission products, which are part of the narrow branch of the mass distribution, are emitted in simple-sequential non-equilibrium fission. This simple-sequential breakup is very closely limited to excitation energies of 75 ≤ E * ≤ 275 MeV of the primary, gold-like fragments, while the probability for double-sequential fission above E * ≅ 200 MeV increases very strongly. Contrarily to equilibrated compound-nucleus fission these processes are characterized by a in the source system strongly anisotropic angular distribution with distinct foreward/backward asymmetry and by an extremely asymmetric mass split. The study of the mass distribution shows that non-equilibrium fission at 15 MeV/u is both in view of the reaction cross section and regarding the creation of the complex fragments is the dominant decay process. The integral cross section of the broad four-body distribution corresponds to 60% of the total reaction cross section; the integral cross section of the narrow three-body distribution corresponds to 10%. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Les partenariats entre les acteurs de tourisme pour la mise en place de durabilité, le cas de la région Marrakech Tensuft Alhaouz, au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hadach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’existence des partenariats entre les acteurs de tourisme est une condition sine qua non de succès des expériences de tourisme durable. D’abord les partenariats entre les acteurs privés et publics permettent la facilité de financement des infrastructures de qualité, nécessaires à la mise en place d’un tourisme qui respecte les exigences environnementales, économiques et socioculturelles, le partage des expériences et le savoir-faire des opérateurs internationaux. Ce travail a tenté de trouvé des raisonnements logiques de l’inadéquation entre l’offre et la demande en ce qui concerne les produits touristiques durables, à travers la mise en place d’une collaboration participative entre les différents acteurs de tourisme de la destination Marrakech au Maroc. En effet nous avons constaté que parmi les facteurs qui peuvent conduire à l’échec de toute forme de tourisme durable, le manque des études au préalable de la demande touristique en adéquation avec ce que les acteurs de tourisme peuvent proposer comme offre durable. Un conflit de temporalité entre la logique des acteurs publiques et celles des organismes privés de tourisme a été soulevé par plusieurs parties prenantes, de plus la nécessité de mettre en place une charte partenariale entre les acteurs de tourisme constitue un pilier pour la mise en place de la durabilité dans ce secteur.

  15. Coprecipitation of gold(III) complex ions with manganese(II) hydroxide and their stoichiometric reduction to atomic gold (Au(0)): analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy and XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Mamiko; Ohashi, Hironori; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Okaue, Yoshihiro; Kurisaki, Tsutomu; Wakita, Hisanobu; Yokoyama, Takushi

    2008-03-01

    To elucidate the formation process of precursor of gold-supported manganese dioxide (MnO2), the coprecipitation behavior of [AuCl4-n(OH)n](-) (n=0-4) (Au(III)) complex ions with manganese(II) hydroxide (Mn(OH)2 and the change in their chemical state were examined. The Au(III) complex ions were rapidly and effectively coprecipitated with Mn(OH)(2) at pH 9. According to the Mössbauer spectra for gold (Au) coprecipitated with Mn(OH)2, below an Au content of 60 wt% in the coprecipitates, all of the coprecipitated Au existed in the atomic state (Au(0)), while, above an Au content of 65 wt%, part of the gold existed in the Au(III) state, and the proportion increased with increasing coprecipitated Au content. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Mn(II) in Mn(OH)2 converted to Mn(IV) in conjunction with coprecipitation of Au(III) complex ions. These results indicate that the rapid stoichiometric reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) is caused by electron transfer from Mn(II) in Mn(OH)2 to the Au(III) complex ion through an Mn-O-Au bond.

  16. Le retour des jeunes diplômés en zone rurale au Maroc: Quelles interactions entre trajectoires individuelles et projets collectifs ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Aroussi Bachari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available l y a, dans les zones rurales du Maroc, une présence de plus en plus affirmée de jeunes diplômés. Ces jeunes peuvent jouer un rôle important pour le développement de ces zones rurales, mais à condition de se construire un rôle économique et social, qui leur permette de fonder un projet de vie en zone rurale. L’étude porte sur 11 jeunes diplômés qui ont initié des projets collectifs en zone rurale dans la province de Séfrou, grâce à des financements publics. Nous étudions les interactions entre les trajectoires individuelles de ces jeunes diplômés et leur projet collectif. Ces jeunes ont étudié voire travaillé pendant un temps en ville avant d’initier un projet collectif en zone rurale, à la fois du fait des difficultés d’insertion en ville mais aussi pour contribuer au développement de leur douar d’origine. Les projets de ces jeunes peuvent être d’ordre purement économique (coopérative de séchage de prune par exemple ou bien d’animation rurale. Plusieurs des jeunes enquêtés sont actifs à la fois dans la sphère économique et dans l’animation rurale, et jugent ces deux acticités comme complémentaires et non en opposition. Ces projets collectifs offrent à leur tour des opportunités de « projets de vie » en zone rurale pour ces jeunes. Si la capacité de ces projets de générer un revenu stable est un critère fort pour que ces jeunes se construisent un tel projet de vie en zone rurale, le rôle d’animateur de développement rural est aussi un élément important. Ces différents projets ont obtenu des financements publics de différents types qui ont, dans deux des quatre cas étudiés, explicitement pris en compte la présence de jeunes diplômés dans les projets. Cependant, ces financements ont souvent été accordés dans le cadre de démarches ponctuelles, qui pourraient être menées de façon plus institutionnalisée.

  17. The energy levels and oscillator strength of a complex atom--Au50+ in a self-consistent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rong; Zou Yu; Fang Quanyu

    1998-01-01

    The effects of free electrons in a plasma on a complex atom are discussed, here the authors are interested in the target ion--Au 50+ in inertia confined fusion (ICF). The results are compared with those in the case of hydrogenic ions. Accurate numerical solutions have been obtained for Schroedinger's equation through Debye screened Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent potential. Solutions have been computed for 28 eigenstates, 1s through n =3D 7, l =3D 6, yielding the energy eigenvalues for a wide range of Debye screening length Λ. As in the case of hydrogenic ions, under screening, all energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum, that is, the ionization limits are shifted downward. Conclusions have been made that when Λ>5a 0 , that is, in the weak screening cases, Debye screening has little effect on oscillator strength, average orbital radius, transition matrix elements, etc., of Au 50+ . For each (n,l) eigenstate, there is a finite value of screening length Λ 0 (n,l), for which the energy becomes zero. When Λ is sufficiently small, level crossing appears at high n states. Optical oscillator strength for Au 50+ has also been calculated, the results are compared with those under unscreened potential

  18. The Lepanto Cu–Au deposit, Philippines: A fossil hyperacidic volcanic lake complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Henley, Richard W.; Lowers, Heather; Pribil, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hyperacidic lakes and associated solfatara in active volcanoes are the expression of magmatic gas expansion from source to surface. Here we show for the first time, that the vein system that comprises the ~ 2 Ma high-sulfidation, Lepanto copper–gold deposit in the Mankayan district (Philippines) was associated with a contemporary hyperacidic volcanic lake complex—possibly the first such lake recognized in the geological record. A 15–20‰ difference in sulfur isotopic composition between barite and sulfides and sulfosalts in the vent fumarole encrustations supports the interpretation that SO2-rich volcanic gas vented into the base of the lake and marginal to it and ties the mineralization directly to magmatic gas expansion, fracture propagation, and mineralization that occurred through a series of decompression steps within the feeder fracture network. These data confirm that crater lake environments such as Kawah Ijen (Java, Indonesia) provide modern day analogs of the Lepanto and other high sulfidation Cu–Au depositing environments.We also provide extensive analysis of sulfosalt–sulfide reactions during vein formation within the hyperacidic lake complex. Pyrite ±  silica deposited first at high temperature followed by enargite that preserves the vapor–solid diffusion of, for example, antimony, tin, and tellurium into the vapor from the crystallizing solid. Subsolidus, intra-crystalline diffusion continued as temperature declined. Pyrite and enargite are replaced by Fe-tennantite in the lodes which initially has low Sb/(Sb + As) atomic ratios around 13.5% close to the ideal tennantite formula, but evolves to higher ratios as crystallization proceeds. Fumarole encrustation clasts and sulfosalts in the lake sediment are more highly evolved with a larger range of trace element substitutions, including antimony. Substitution of especially Zn, Te, Ag, and Sn into tennantite records metal and semi-metal fractionation between the expanding magmatic

  19. Molecular and electronic structure of osmium complexes confined to Au(111) surfaces using a self-assembled molecular bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, Ezequiel de la; Herrera, Santiago E.; Adam, Catherine; Méndez De Leo, Lucila P.; Calvo, Ernesto J.; Williams, Federico J., E-mail: fwilliams@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE-CONICET, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química-Física, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)

    2015-11-14

    The molecular and electronic structure of Os(II) complexes covalently bonded to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) surfaces was studied by means of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopies, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Attachment of the Os complex to the SAM proceeds via an amide covalent bond with the SAM alkyl chain 40° tilted with respect to the surface normal and a total thickness of 26 Å. The highest occupied molecular orbital of the Os complex is mainly based on the Os(II) center located 2.2 eV below the Fermi edge and the LUMO molecular orbital is mainly based on the bipyridine ligands located 1.5 eV above the Fermi edge.

  20. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements; Textes de l'Accord Relatif au Siege Conclu Entre l'Agence et l'Autriche et d'Accords Connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-12-16

    The texts of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Republic of Austria that were in force on 30 September 1975 are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Les textes de l'Accord relatif au siege conclu entre l'Agence et la Republique d'Autriche et de divers accords connexes, qui etaient en vigueur le 30 septembre 1975, sont reproduits dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres de l'Agence.

  1. Seismic microzoning in the metropolitan area of Port - au-Prince - complexity of the subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, R.; Bertil, D.; Belvaux, M.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.; Prepetit, C.; Jean-Philippe, J.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude 7.3 earthquake that struck Haiti in January 12, 2010 has caused a lot of damages in surrounding areas epicenter. These damages are due to a lack of knowledge of the Haitian subsoil. To overcome this problem, the LNBTP, the BME and BRGM have agreed to implement a project of seismic microzonation of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince which is financed by the Fund for the reconstruction of the country. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for knowledge of seismic risk. It is based on a collection of geological, geotechnical, geophysical and measures and recognition and the campaign of numerous sites. It describes a class of specific soils with associated spectral response. The objective of the microzoning is to identify and map the homogeneous zones of lithology, topography, liquefaction and ground movements. The zoning of lithological sites effect is to identify and map areas with geological and geomechanical consistent and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each area, seismic movements adapted to the ground. This zoning is done in about five steps: 1- Cross-analysis of geological, geotechnical and geophysical information; 2- Such information comprise the existing data collected and the data acquired during the project; 3- Identification of homogeneous areas. 4- Definition of one or more columns of representative soils associated with each zone; 5 - Possible consolidation of area to get the final seismic zoning. 27 zones types were considered for the study of sites effects after the analysis of all geological, geotechnical and geophysical data. For example, for the formation of Delmas, there are 5 areas with soil classes ranging from D to C. Soil columns described in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince are processed with the CyberQuake software, which is developed at the BRGM by Modaressi et al. in 1997, to calculate their response to seismic rock solicitation. The seismic motion is determined by 4

  2. Cation-Poor Complex Metallic Alloys in Ba(Eu)-Au-Al(Ga) Systems: Identifying the Keys that Control Structural Arrangements and Atom Distributions at the Atomic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Steinberg, Simon; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Miller, Gordon J; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2015-11-02

    Four complex intermetallic compounds BaAu(6±x)Ga(6±y) (x = 1, y = 0.9) (I), BaAu(6±x)Al(6±y) (x = 0.9, y = 0.6) (II), EuAu6.2Ga5.8 (III), and EuAu6.1Al5.9 (IV) have been synthesized, and their structures and homogeneity ranges have been determined by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. Whereas I and II originate from the NaZn13-type structure (cF104-112, Fm3̅c), III (tP52, P4/nbm) is derived from the tetragonal Ce2Ni17Si9-type, and IV (oP104, Pbcm) crystallizes in a new orthorhombic structure type. Both I and II feature formally anionic networks with completely mixed site occupation by Au and triel (Tr = Al, Ga) atoms, while a successive decrease of local symmetry from the parental structures of I and II to III and, ultimately, to IV correlates with increasing separation of Au and Tr on individual crystallographic sites. Density functional theory-based calculations were employed to determine the crystallographic site preferences of Au and the respective triel element to elucidate reasons for the atom distribution ("coloring scheme"). Chemical bonding analyses for two different "EuAu6Tr6" models reveal maximization of the number of heteroatomic Au-Tr bonds as the driving force for atom organization. The Fermi levels fall in broad pseudogaps for both models allowing some electronic flexibility. Spin-polarized band structure calculations on the "EuAu6Tr6" models hint to singlet ground states for europium and long-range magnetic coupling for both EuAu6.2Ga5.8 (III) and EuAu6.1Al5.9 (IV). This is substantiated by experimental evidence because both compounds show nearly identical magnetic behavior with ferromagnetic transitions at TC = 6 K and net magnetic moments of 7.35 μB/f.u. at 2 K. The effective moments of 8.3 μB/f.u., determined from Curie-Weiss fits, point to divalent oxidation states for europium in both III and IV.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, and characterization of double complex salts [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Makotchenko, Evgenia V.; Shubin, Yury V.; Baidina, Iraida A.; Korolkov, Ilya V.; Sheludyakova, Liliya A.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2015-11-01

    Double complex salts of rhodium(III) and gold(III) of the composition [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O (1) and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6] (2) have been prepared. Crystal structures of the compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been characterized by PXRD, IR, far-IR, CHN and DTA. The complexes have a layered structures. The presence of water in 1 makes the structure of the hydrated DCS less dense as compared to the anhydrous one. The environment of the cation and the anion in the two structures is the same, oxygen atoms of the nitro groups are involved in hydrogen bonds N-H⋯O, N⋯O distances being approximately the same. The structures of 1 and 2 are notable in having shortened contacts between the gold atoms and the oxygen atoms of the nitro groups of the neighboring complex anions. The thermal behavior of the complexes in a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated. The final product of thermolysis prepared at the temperature 600°C is a two-phase mixture of pure metallic gold and the solid solution Rh0.93Au0.07.

  4. Observation of Au + AuAu + Au + ρ0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ0 with STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.

    2002-01-01

    First observation of the reactions Au + AuAu + Au + ρ 0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ 0 with the STAR detector are reported. The ρ are produced at small perpendicular momentum, as expected if they couple coherently to both nuclei. Models of vector meson production and the correlation with nuclear breakup are discussed, as well as a fundamental test of quantum mechanics that is possible with the system. (author)

  5. Acquisition des constructions syntaxiques complexes chez l’enfant français entre 2 et 6 ans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canut Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    L’étude développementale réalisée en fonction de l’âge et du type de discours montre une évolution dans la verbalisation des complexités syntaxiques, qui s’avère significative pour certaines d’entre elles à 4 et 5 ans. De plus, la narration dialoguée - c’est-à-dire le récit par l’enfant d’une histoire qui lui a été lue, avec le support des illustrations, dans un cadre interactif – joue un rôle majeur dans cette évolution puisqu’elle permet une augmentation significative de la production de constructions complexes à 5 ans, ce qui n’est pas le cas dans les conversations ordinaires.

  6. A density functional theory study of the electronic properties of Os(II) and Os(III) complexes immobilized on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Boyle, N.M.; Albrecht, Tim; Murgida, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a density functional theory (DFT) study of an osmium polypyridyl complex adsorbed on Au(111). The osmium polypyridyl complex [Os(bpy)(2)(P0P)Cl](n+) [bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, P0P is 4,4'-bipyridine, n = 1 for osmium(II), and n = 2 for osmium(III)] is bound to the surface through the fre...

  7. Is the largest aqueous gold cluster a superatom complex? Electronic structure & optical response of the structurally determined Au146(p-MBA)57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lozano, Xóchitl; Plascencia-Villa, G; Calero, G; Whetten, R L; Weissker, Hans-Christian

    2017-12-07

    The new water-soluble gold cluster Au 146 (p-MBA) 57 , the structure of which has been recently determined at sub-atomic resolution by Vergara et al., is the largest aqueous gold cluster ever structurally determined and likewise the smallest cluster with a stacking fault. The core presents a twinned truncated octahedron, while additional peripheral gold atoms follow a C 2 rotational symmetry. According to the usual counting rules of the superatom complex (SAC) model, the compound attains a number of 92 SAC electrons if the overall net charge is 3- (three additional electrons). As this is the number of electrons required for a major shell closing, the question arises of whether Au 146 (p-MBA) 57 should be regarded as a superatom complex. Starting from the experimental coordinates we have analyzed the structure using density-functional theory. The optimized (relaxed) structure retains all the connectivity of the experimental coordinates, while removing much of its irregularities in interatomic distances, thereby enhancing the C 2 -symmetry feature. On analyzing the angular-momentum-projected states, we show that, despite a small gap, the electronic structure does not exhibit SAC model character. In addition, optical absorption spectra are found to be relatively smooth compared to the example of the Au 144 (SR) 60 cluster. The Au 146 (SR) 57 does not derive its stability from SAC character; it cannot be considered as a superatom complex.

  8. Via Lyon: Parcours de romans et mutations éditoriales au XVIe siècle. Partie II. La circulation des textes entre Lyon et Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La première partie du dossier Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analysait le rôle de carrefour économique et culturel de la ville de Lyon dans la constitution d’une identité éditoriale des romans publiés en France au XVIe siècle. L’étude de ces «parcours de romans» conduit à replacer, en cette seconde partie du dossier, la notion d’«étape lyonnaise» dans la dynamique qui anime les deux principaux centres d’imprimerie français de la Renaissance. L’étude des pérégrinations éditoriales, de Paris à Lyon et de Lyon à Paris, de Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, de Valentin et Orson (M. Colombo Timelli et de Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô met ainsi au jour les diverses formes de circulation, d’adaptation et de réappropriation que les ateliers parisiens et lyonnais confèrent aux œuvres romanesques qui passent sous leurs presses tout au long du siècle. The first part of the file Via Lyon (Carte Romanze 2/2 [2014] analyzed the role of economic and cultural crossroad of Lyon city in the constitution of an editorial identity of novels published in France in the sixteenth century. The study of these «novels’ route» leads to situate the concept of «Lyon step» in the dynamics which animates the two major French printing centers of the Renaissance. The editorial peregrinations, from Paris to Lyon and from Lyon to Paris, of three french novels, Lancelot du Lac (G. Burg, Valentin and Orson (M. Colombo Timelli and Méliadus chevalier de la Croix (A. Réach-Ngô, shows the various forms of circulation, adaptation and reappropriation that various Parisian and Lyon workshops give to novels they print throughout the century. 

  9. L'école des Springboks : le rugby scolaire au Cap, entre ségrégation et déségrégation

    OpenAIRE

    Migozzi , Julien

    2012-01-01

    International audience; — La géographie du sport offre de précieux axes de lecture de l'espace urbain sud-africain. Au Cap, la pratique du rugby scolaire, fortement liée à l'histoire politique de la ville et du pays, témoigne des fractures, des inégalités et des évolutions de la société sud-africaine. À la fois facteur de maintien et de renouvellement de la ségrégation raciale et sociale et vecteur de nouvelles pratiques citadines et d'interactions sociales, le rugby scolaire, par ses spatial...

  10. DEFINITION, MESURE ET PILOTAGE DE LA PERFORMANCE CLIENT-FOURNISSEUR : DES FREINS AU « PARTENARIAT INTERNE » ENTRE ACHETEURS ET OPERATIONNELS ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebti , Hicham

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Le présent article s’intéresse à la manière dont s’organisent les liens entre les acheteurs et les clients internes autour de la définition, des leviers et des dispositifs de pilotage de la performance client-fournisseur. Nous interrogeons la diversité des représentations de la performance, des activités pour la réaliser et des usages des dispositifs de gestion qui servent de fondement aux interprétations de ce qui est performant et orientent les comportements. Nous so...

  11. Une reine entre ombres et lumières ou le pouvoir au féminin : le cas d’Isabelle Bourbon, reine d’Espagne, première femme de Philippe IV (1603-1644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Sicard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le rôle de la Reine et sa relation au pouvoir sont strictement réglementés, mais son influence politique est paradoxalement difficile à apprécier car elle s’exerce à l’ombre de ce qui est permis. Isabelle de Bourbon, née Princesse de France, épouse en 1615 le Prince héritier Philippe d’Espagne et fait partie de ces Reines de l’ombre, peu étudiées. Elevée dans une certaine liberté, le contraste avec la cour d’Espagne et la surveillance de l’omniprésent Favori, le Comte-Duc d’Olivares, lui pèsent d’autant plus. Quel éclairage le cas de la Reine Isabelle permet-il d’apporter à la relation entre genre et pouvoir au Siècle d’Or ? Trois points seront abordés : les tensions et dominations qui se jouent autour du Roi Philippe IV, le poids de la famille, au sens large, indissociable des relations entretenues entre genre et pouvoir. Enfin, nous nous intéresserons à l’activité politique de la Reine Isabelle.The role of French queens and their relation to power were strictly regulated, but their political influence is difficult to assess given the shadows within which they worked. In 1615, Isabelle of Bourbon, born Princess of France, married Philip of Spain and became one of these seldom-studied Queens of the shadows. What illumination does Queen Isabelle’s case bring to the gender-power relationship during the Golden Age? Three points are addressed in the article: the tensions and power dynamics around Philip IV; the weight of the family, in a broad sense, which necessarily affected relations between gender and power. Finally, we will focus on the political activity of Queen Isabelle; her example constitutes a concrete example of women’s power in the Golden Age.

  12. Contribution to the study of low fragments correlations during Au + Au collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV; Contribution a l`etude des correlations entre fragments legers dans les collisions Au+Au a 150 et 400 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbel, I.

    1994-06-01

    The study of fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momenta can give informations on the space-time extend of the emitting source, and on the nuclear density, which is one of the variables used in the equation of state. This analysis shows the experimental results obtained with the FOPI detector at GSI-Darmstadt, for Au + Au central collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV. These results are the first studies at such high energies and for heavy systems. Two fragments correlation functions are compared with theoretical calculations of D.H. Boal, including the size of the source as a parameter. We must take into account effects of experimental biases (namely the relative momentum resolution) on the theoretical correlation function, in order to make a comparison with experimental results. The extracted experimental radii correspond to the final phase of the expansion, and the obtained densities are smaller that normal density of nuclear matter. In the final state of the interaction, intermediate mass fragments and their excited states are observed. We note a shift of these excited states at 400 A.MeV, which can be explained by the detector effects. We observe a weak sensibility of the source size versus the centrality of the collision. That can be explained either by a mixing of sources, or by the observation of a source at the end of expansion whose the radius is quite independent of the initial centrality. Energetic particles correspond to smaller size of the source, which can be explained as a higher compression, or as a different stage of the collision. We give some prospectives for the future experiments at GSI-Darmstadt. (author). 117 refs.

  13. Reduction of fields between co-axial cylinders by means of interposed screens; L'abaissement des champs entre cylindres coaxiaux au moyen d'ecrans intercales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Bruck, H; Prevot, F

    1950-05-01

    The dielectric rigidity of the space between two coaxial cylinders at a given potential can be increased by interposing coaxial cylindrical screens (the method of C. M. Turner, Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1943). The combination of screens reducing the maximum value of a simple field between two cylinders is calculated as a function of number of screens, their radius, and their potential, and, for a given number of screens, the optimum radii and potentials for maximum field reduction are determined. [French] La rigidite dielectrique de l'espace compris entre deux cylindres coaxiaux, portes a des potentiels donnes, peut etre augmentee en intercalant des ecrans cylindriques coaxiaux (methode de C.M. Turner). En fonction de leur nombre, de leur rayon et de leur potentiel, on calcule de combien ces ecrans permettent de reduire la valeur du champ regnant primitivement entre les deux cylindres, et, pour un nombre d'ecrans donne, on determine les valeurs optima de leur rayon et potentiel, correspondant a la reduction maximum des champs. (auteur)

  14. Regards croisés sur le régionalisme en Asie Orientale au travers de la concurrence entre le Japon, la Chine et l’Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Defraigne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article retrace l’origine du leadership économique japonais dans le processus d’intégration régionale en Asie orientale et comment il est remis en question par la montée en puissance de la Chine depuis son ouverture commencée dans les années 1980. Il analyse les obstacles qui empêchent encore la Chine de jouir d’une position hégémonique régionale et qui entretiennent une situation dans laquelle la direction du processus d’intégration régionale en Asie orientale reste contestée. L’article met en évidence les limites au rôle que pourrait jouer dans ce processus l’autre grande puissance émergente d’Asie qu’est l’Inde du fait de sa position périphérique.

  15. La relation entre les sources externes de connaissances, l’innovation organisationnelle et la performance organisationnelle : application au contexte tunisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Maâlej Ben Zaied

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les entreprises d’aujourd’hui sont devenues plus intéressées à stimuler la connaissance, qui est considérée comme le principal atout. En conséquence, le concept de knowledge management attire une attention particulière et considérable. Cette recherche examine l’importance des sources externes de connaissances et sa relation avec l’innovation organisationnelle et la performance organisationnelle. Nous avons fait cette recherche sur un échantillon de 200 entreprises tunisiennes opérant dans différents secteurs. Notre étude a été construite principalement sur la base d’une méthode quantitative. La méthode de collecte de données est le questionnaire dans le cadre d’une approche hypothétique-déductive et le mode d’administration est l’enquête auto-administrée et l’e-mail. La vérification empirique des hypothèses de cette recherche nous a conduits à confirmer la relation entre, d’une part, les sources externes de connaissances et, d’autre part, la performance et l’innovation organisationnelles, et de confirmer aussi la relation entre l’innovation et la performance organisationnelle. Notre recherche de travail suggère un certain nombre de limitations : le fait que cette recherche repose en grande partie sur la perception des différents gestionnaires visés avec un voile, qui empêche plus de subjectivité, et la généralisation des résultats. Cela pourrait poser un certain biais puisque la plupart des données nécessaires pour mesurer les variables sont intangibles par nature, et il serait difficile, voire impossible, de les récupérer d’une manière objective.

  16. Correlations between deformations, surface state and leak rate in metal to metal contact; Correlations entre deformations, etat de surface et debit de fuite au contact metal-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armand, G; Lapujoulade, J; Paigne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of metal to metal contact from the stand-point of the leak rate has been carried on a copper ring located between two hard-steel flanges. The analysis of the results confirms the hysteresis phenomenon already seen. Some curves (leak rate versus force and leak rate versus true deformation) in semi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. Likewise some curves (electrical contact resistance versus force) in bi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. All these results can be understood by looking at the conductance introduced by the deformations of the micro-geometry of the surfaces in contact. Some tests carried out in rising the temperature confirm these hypothesis. (authors) [French] L'etude du contact metal-metal du point de vue debit de fuite a ete poursuivie en utilisant un anneau de cuivre place entre brides d'acier dur. L'analyse des resultats confirme le phenomene d'hysteresis deja constate, montre l'influence de l'etat de surface des brides et du joint. Certaines courbes (debit de fuite/force et debit de fuite/deformation rationnelle), en coordonnees semi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. De meme, certaines courbes (resistance de contact/force) en coordonnees bi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. Ces resultats s'interpretent en considerant la conductance produite par la deformation des microgeometries des surfaces en contact. Quelques essais d'elevation de temperature confirment ces resultats. (auteurs)

  17. Pincer-CNC mononuclear, dinuclear and heterodinuclear Au(III) and Pt(II) complexes supported by mono- and poly-N-heterocyclic carbenes: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonell, S; Poyatos, M; Peris, E

    2016-04-07

    A family of cyclometallated Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complexes containing a CNC-pincer ligand (CNC = 2,6-diphenylpyridine) supported by pyrene-based mono- or bis-NHC ligands have been synthesized and characterized, together with the preparation of a Pt-Au hetero-dimetallic complex based on a Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand. The photophysical properties of all the new species and of two related Ru(ii)-arene complexes were studied and compared. Whereas the pyrene-based complexes only exhibit emission in solution, those containing the Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand are only luminescent when dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In particular, the pyrene-based complexes were found to be emissive in the range of 373-440 nm, with quantum yields ranging from 3.1 to 6.3%, and their emission spectra were found to be almost superimposable, pointing to the fluorescent pyrene-centered nature of the emission. This observation suggests that the emission properties of the pyrene fragment may be combined with some of the numerous applications of NHCs as supporting ligands allowing, for instance, the design of biological luminescent agents.

  18. « Petits meurtres entre amis », Approche psychosomatique et psychodynamique du harcèlement moral au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Grenier-Pezé

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La présence médiatique du harcèlement moral interroge sa légitimité sociale et psychopathologique. Comprendre la redoutable toxicité de la situation de harcèlement impose de se pencher sur les enjeux identitaires liés à la situation de travail. Il s’agit de replacer ce nouveau syndrome dans le contexte plus large des effets positifs et négatifs de l’organisation du travail sur la santé psychique et physique. Les mécanismes de défense individuels et les stratégies collectives mobilisés par les sujets pour tenir au travail peuvent souder ou disloquer un collectif de travail entraînant la désignation d’un bouc émissaire. L’intériorisation des valeurs organisationnelles de l’entreprise autorisent la banalisation du mal exercé sur autrui, sa systématisation en techniques de disciplinarisation du corps. La rencontre avec le réseau de prise en charge, médecin du travail, médecin inspecteur, médecin généraliste, psychologue n’est pas qu’une stratégie médico-administrative. Ce travail du lien met un terme symbolique à l’isolement du harcelé et un point d’arrêt à la désintrication psychosomatique en cours.The presence of moral harassment in the media questions its own social and psychopathological legitimacy. To understand the formidable toxicity of the harassment situation, identity issues related to the work situation need to be investigated. This new syndrome must be re-situated within the broader framework of the positive and negative effects of work organization on mental and physical health. The individual defence mechanisms and collective strategies that subjects mobilize to cope at work can either strengthen or dismantle a work collective, thus resulting in the creation of a scapegoat. Internalizing the company’s organizational values allows banalization of the harm imposed on others, and its systematization through bodily discipline techniques. Meeting with the network (the company medical

  19. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  20. Two complexes of Pt(IV) and Au(III) with 2,2'-dipyridylamine and 2,2'-dipyridylaminide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Haukka, Matti

    2014-12-01

    Two noble metal complexes involving ancillary chloride ligands and chelating 2,2'-bipyridylamine (Hdpa) or its deprotonated derivative (dpa), namely [bis(pyridin-2-yl-κN)amine]tetrachloridoplatinum(IV), [PtCl4(C10H9N3)], and [bis(pyridin-2-yl-κN)aminido]dichloridogold(III), [AuCl2(C10H8N3)], are presented and structurally characterized. The metal atom in the former has a slightly distorted octahedral coordination environment, formed by four chloride ligands and two pyridyl N atoms of Hdpa, while the metal atom in the latter has a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment, formed by two chloride ligands and two pyridyl N atoms of dpa. The difference in conjugation between the pyridine rings in normal and deprotonated 2,2'-dipyridylamine is discussed on the basis of the structural features of these complexes. The influence of weak interactions on the supramolecular structures of the complexes, providing one-dimensional chains of [PtCl4(C10H9N3)] and dimers of [AuCl2(C10H8N3)], are discussed.

  1. Génomique comparative et évolutive au sein du complexe d’espèces Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa

    OpenAIRE

    Grandaubert, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans ‘brassicae’ (Lmb) est un champignon filamenteux de la classe des Dothideomycètes faisant partie du complexe d’espèces Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa composé d’agents pathogènes des crucifères. Lmb est particulièrement adapté au colza (Brassica napus) et provoque la maladie qui lui est la plus dommageable : la nécrose du collet. Dans le but de mieux comprendre et contrôler cette maladie, l’équipe d’accueil a initié un projet de génomique visant à identifi...

  2. Pratiques et identités professionnelles dans le conseil en management en France : entre ethos du service au client et pression du « up or out »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Boni-Le Goff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Les consultants en management exercent leurs activités dans des conditions marquées par un fort nomadisme et par un système de gestion de carrière de « up or out » omniprésent. Le contenu et les conditions de travail donnent une place particulière au public et partant, produisent des activités de coulisses spécifiques. Ils façonnent la construction d’identités professionnelles marquées par l’individualisme et un investissement intense.Practices and professional identities of management consultants in France: between the customer service ethos and pressure of “up or out”Management consultants exercise their activities under conditions stamped by a prevalent tendency to nomadism and by an omnipresent "up or out" approach to career management. The working contents and conditions set forth a prominent part to the public and consequently generate specific backstage activities. They bring about the construction of professional identities marked by downright individualism and unrestricted professional self-involvement.Maneras de actuar e identidades profesionales de los consejeros en management en Francia. Entre el "ethos" deontológico debido al cliente y la presión del "up or out"Los consejeros en management ejercen sus funciones dentro de un ámbito caracterizado por un fuerte nomadismo y por un sistema omnipresente de gestión de la carrera de tipo "up or out". El contenido y las condiciones de trabajo dan una gran importancia al cliente lo que desemboca indirectamente en "movimientos en los bastidores" específicos que contribuyen a moldear una identidad profesional caracterizada por un individualismo y una implicación intensas.

  3. Insight into the electronic structure of the supramolecular “rods-in-belt” Au{sup I}-Cu{sup I} and Au{sup I}-Ag{sup I} self-assembled complexes from X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, Anna A. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Grachova, Elena V.; Krupenya, Dmitry V. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, Oleg [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Fedorov, Alexander [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Usachov, Dmitry [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Generalov, Alexander [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Koshevoy, Igor O. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101 (Finland); Tunik, Sergey P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Rühl, Eckart [Physikalische Chemie, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie Freie Universität Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of rods-in-belt complexes was described via PES and NEXAFS. • With increasing size the molecule becomes more sensitive to X-ray damage effects. • The HOMO consists of a combination of the d-Cu/Ag and π-C≡C states. • HOMOs are positioned at about 2.2 eV for Au-Cu and 2.5 eV BE for Au-Ag complexes. • LUMOs are located on the C-skeleton including π*-C≡C and π*-C=C{sub aromatic} orbitals. - Abstract: The recently discovered “rods-in-belt” supramolecular complexes with Au-Cu or Au-Ag cluster cores exhibit self-assembly behavior, have a very unusual structural motif, and what is most important, show remarkable light emitting properties. The electronic and photophysical characteristics of these unique objects can be relatively easy tuned by modifying the ligand (alkynyl and phosphine) environment. Because of these properties the “rods-in-belt” supramolecules could serve as building blocks for next generation electronics, and in particular, for light-emitting devices and in bioimaging applications. Herein, we report a comprehensive characterization of the electronic structure of two families of alkynyl-diphosphine supramolecular complexes with the heterometallic Au-Cu and Au-Ag cores. Using X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopy we disentangled the structure of their occupied and unoccupied electronic states close to the Fermi level. The results obtained suggest that the major contribution to the highest occupied molecular orbitals is made by the triple bonded carbons hosted in the dialkynyl-gold “rods” and the copper (silver) atoms from the central cluster core of the heterometallic Au-Cu (Au-Ag) molecules. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are located on the carbon skeleton of the complexes and include π*-C≡C and π*-C=C{sub aromatic} orbitals. The onset of the valence band in the Au-Ag systems starts at about 0.3 eV lower than that in the Au-Cu complexes, implying a slightly larger energy

  4. Age and tectonomagmatic setting of the Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex and porphyry-epithermal Au deposit, East Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    The Çöpler epithermal Au deposit and related subeconomic porphyry Cu-Au deposit is hosted by the middle Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex in central eastern Anatolia. The intrusive rocks of the complex were emplaced into Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic metamorphosed sedimentary basement rocks near the northeastern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Block. Igneous biotite from two samples of the magmatic complex yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 43.75 ± 0.26 Ma and 44.19 ± 0.23, whereas igneous hornblende from a third sample yielded a plateau age of 44.13 ± 0.38. These ages closely overlap with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hydrothermal sericite (44.44 ± 0.28 Ma) and biotite (43.84 ± 0.26 Ma), and Re-Os ages from two molybdenite samples (44.6 ± 0.2 and 43.9 ± 0.2 Ma) suggesting a short-lived (history at Çöpler. No suitable minerals were found that could be used to date the epithermal system, but it is inferred to be close in age to the precursor porphyry system. The Çöpler-Kabataş intrusive rocks show I-type calc-alkaline affinities. Their normalized trace element patterns show enrichments in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements and relative depletions in middle and heavy rare earth elements, resembling magmas generated in convergent margins. However, given its distance from the coeval Eocene Maden-Helete volcanic arc, the complex is interpreted to be formed in a back-arc setting, in response to Paleocene slab roll-back and upper-plate extension. The tectonomagmatic environment of porphyry-epithermal mineralization at Çöpler is comparable to some other isolated back-arc porphyry systems such as Bajo de la Alumbrera (Argentina) or Bingham Canyon (USA).

  5. Transition from metal-ligand bonding to halogen bonding involving a metal as halogen acceptor a study of Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, and Hg complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vytor; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing all-electron Dirac-exact relativistic calculations with the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (NESC) method and the local vibrational mode approach, the transition from metal-halide to metal halogen bonding is determined for Au-complexes interacting with halogen-donors. The local stretching force constants of the metal-halogen interactions reveal a smooth transition from weak non-covalent halogen bonding to non-classical 3-center-4-electron bonding and finally covalent metal-halide bonding. The strongest halogen bonds are found for dialkylaurates interacting with Cl2 or FCl. Differing trends in the intrinsic halogen-metal bond strength, the binding energy, and the electrostatic potential are explained.

  6. Spectrophotometric study of neptunium (VI) complexation by nitrate ions; Etude par spectrophotometrie de la complexation du neptunium au degre d'oxydation (VI) par les ions nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, P. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre Regional Associe de Lyon, 69 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Neptunium(VI) complexation by nitrate ions was investigated by visible and near-infrared spectrophotometry, a technique suitable for observing the appearance and evolution of the species in solution. In the absence of reference spectra for Np(VI) nitrate- complexes, mathematical (factor analysis) tools were used to interpret the spectra. These chemo-metric techniques were first tested and validated on a simpler chemical system: Np(VI)complexation by the SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-} anion. The test media used to investigate Np(VI) nitrate- complexes generally contain nitrate and perchlorate salts at high concentrations (high ionic strength). Media effects arising from the presence of cations, acidity or the perchlorate ion concentration are therefore significant, and no doubt account for the scattered values of the complexation constants published in the literature. The evolution of the neptunium spectra according to the parameters of the reaction medium illustrated these effects and allowed them to be quantified by a global 'perturbation constant'. In order to minimize the spectrum modifications due to media effects, the neptunium nitrate-complexes were studied at constant ionic strength in weak acidic media (2 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}) in the presence of sodium salts. The bulk formation constants and the spectrum of the NpO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sup +} complex were determined for ionic strength values of 2.2, 4, 6 and 8 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}. The constants remained on the same order of magnitude regardless of the ionic strength; the thermodynamic constant {beta}{sub 1}{sup 0} determined from them according to specific interaction theory is thus probably of little significance. Conversely, the bulk constants can be corrected for the effects of the perchlorate ions by taking the global 'perturbation constant' into account. (author)

  7. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richardson, John D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lugaz, Noé, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  8. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

    2014-01-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished

  9. La connaissance du climat au Brésil : entre le vernaculaire et le scientifique O conhecimento do clima no Brasil : Entre o vernacular e o científico The knowledge of the climate in Brazil: Between the vernacular and scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La connaissance du climat au Brésil résulte du chevauchement entre le savoir vernaculaire et le savoir scientifique, même si dans le cadre académique la conception scientifique et technique est prédominante. Pour la plus grande partie de la population, le savoir vernaculaire (ou traditionnel sur le climat est plus important que le savoir scientifique. Toutefois, dans le cadre de la science, le développement et la consolidation de la climatologie brésilienne ne se font remarquer qu’autour des 70 dernières années. La diffusion du principe de la météorologie dynamique était un des aspects principaux au développement de l’étude des climats brésiliens. L’analyse rythmique des types de temps et les études du climat urbain sont deux exemples du progrès et de l’originalité de la climatologie brésilienne. La question environnementale, l’utilisation des images de satellite et le débat à propos des changements globaux sont les sujets principaux d’intérêt de la climatologie brésilienne dans le temps présent. Un courant d’études lié à la perception du climat a attribué plus d’importance à la connaissance vernaculaire du climat au Brésil, en inaugurant une nouvelle opportunité à la science, une approche plus ouverte, plurielle et donc plus riche que la science strictement moderne.O conhecimento acerca do clima do Brasil é resultado tanto do conhecimento científico quanto do conhecimento vernacular, mesmo se no âmbito da academia prevaleça a perspectiva cientifico-técnica. Para a maioria da população o saber vernacular (tradicional sobre o clima é mais importante que o saber científico. Todavia, do ponto de vista da ciência, o desenvolvimento e a consolidação da climatologia brasileira só veio a ocorrer nos últimos 70 anos. A difusão do príncipio da meteorologia dinâmica constituiu-se num dos principais aspectos para o desenvolvimento dos estudos dos climas do Brasil. Neste período a

  10. Le web social – La complexité au service de l'apprentissage informel de l'anglais The social web: complexity in the service of the informal learning of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Sockett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d'un projet de recherche dans lequel de futurs enseignants de langues sont invités à écrire un blogue au sujet de leurs activités informelles de réseautage social en anglais. Les participants, qui ont suivi une formation dans des domaines tels que les théories de l'acquisition des langues, s'expriment en particulier sur l'impact de ces activités sur leur apprentissage de la langue cible. Le corpus ainsi obtenu est analysé et des résultats sont présentés. Le cadre théorique de cette étude est celui des systèmes complexes et dynamiques. Nous soulignons la pertinence de ce modèle pour décrire l'apprentissage informel de l'anglais en ligne. Les résultats de l'étude font apparaître que le très grand nombre d'interactions entre personnes, médias, langues et interfaces de réseautage social conduit à un développement langagier non linéaire et à des transitions entre différentes phases dans des domaines tels que l'aisance et l'acquisition du vocabulaire. Nous présentons des applications pratiques de cette recherche pour l'enseignement des langues, notamment dans la valorisation des pratiques informelles, et suggérons de futures orientations pour la recherche dans ce domaine.This article presents the results of a research project using blogs written by trainee language teachers to report on their informal online social networking activities in English. The respondents, who are trained in areas such as language acquisition theories, are invited to discuss how they might be learning English through these activities. The resulting corpus of blogs is analysed and the impact of these activities on learning of the target language is discussed. The theoretical framework for this study is dynamic systems theory, and it is argued that this model is particularly pertinent for the description of language learning in an informal online context. The results of the study suggest that the very large

  11. De la plate-forme urgonienne au bassin vocontien : le Barrémo-Bédoulien des Alpes occidentales entre Isère et Buëch (Vercors méridional, Diois oriental et Dévoluy)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud , Hubert

    1981-01-01

    Vol. 1 : Stratigraphie. Vol. 2 : Sédimentologie et paléogéographie. Vol. 3 (écrit en commun avec Annie Arnaud-Vanneau) : Atlas des microfaciès et de la microfaune de la plate-forme urgonienne entre la Chartreuse et le Dévoluy Géologie alpine. Mémoire.- 1981, n° 12; Entre la plate-forme urgonienne et la bordure septentrionale du bassin vocontien, les assises barrémo-bédouliennes du Vercors, de la zone de Borne et du Dévoluy sont caractérisées par des variations constantes d'épaisseur et de fac...

  12. Diagnostic moléculaire du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis résistant à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désire, Ilboudo; Cyrille, Bisseye; Florencia, Djigma; Souba, Diande; Albert, Yonli; Valerie, Bazie Jean Telesphore; Rebecca, Compaore; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Tamboura, Djibril; Rémy, Moret; Virginio, Pietra; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Martial, Ouedraogo; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude a eu pour objectifs de diagnostiquer la tuberculose pulmonaire par l'examen microscopique et par la PCR des crachats et de déterminer les bases moléculaires de la résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. Méthodes Le diagnostic du Complexe Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CMTB) a été effectué par microscopie après coloration au Ziehl Nielsen et par PCR en temps réel en utilisant le kit d'identification du complexe MTB (Sacace Biotechnologie, Italie). Les résistances à la Rifampicine et à l'Isoniazide ont été étudiées par la technique de la PCR en utilisant le kit MTB résistance 8 (Sacace, Biotechnologie). Résultats Sur les 59 patients diagnostiqués pour la tuberculose pulmonaire, 59,3% étaient positifs en microscopie optique et 44,1% étaient positifs par PCR en Temps réel. Les résistances à la rifampicine (rpoB) et à l'isoniazide (katG et inhA) ont été observées chez 9 patients. La résistance à la rifampicine était due aux mutations (Asp516Val, Ser531Trp, Leu533Pro) et celle à l'isoniazide par les substitutions Ser315Thr du gène katG et C209T du gène inhA. Les multi résistances à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide ont été observées dans 55,5% des échantillons et concernaient les associations: ropBAsp513Val + inhAC209T et rpoBLeu533Pro + katGSer315Thr. Conclusion La PCR en temps réel qui permet l'identification des allèles mutants rpoB, katG et inhA de M. tuberculosis est un outil de diagnostic épidémiologique de grande importance car elle permet de déterminer le niveau de résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. PMID:26491516

  13. L’esprit de la chair. Images de la sainteté féminine entre Rhône et Alpes au XVe siècle, thèse de doctorat en histoire médiévale sous la direction Marie-Anne Polo de Beaulieu, EHESS, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Doustaly

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans un espace provençal compris au sens large, du Rhône aux Alpes et de la Méditerranée à la haute Durance, la thèse interroge les choix opérés parmi le sanctoral féminin par les prescripteurs des nombreuses peintures publiques – retables et peintures murales –, les confronte aux cultes, pèlerinages, croyances et à d’autres media promoteurs des saintes –hagiographie, exempla. L’analyse des images et des prix-faits révèle des connivences culturelles entre les commanditaires et les peintres, e...

  14. Group Chemical Changes and Physical Property Correlations in Refining of Lube Base Stocks. Ir and Nmr Spectroscopy Corrélations entre les propriétés physiques et les changements de composition chimique au cours du raffinage des huiles de base. Spectrométrie infra rouge et résonance magnétique nucléaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes occurring in the chemical composition of lubricating oil base stocks with different degreeand typeof refining have been investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Significant conclusions about the chemical composition have been reached through the study of structural parameters. Correlations between molecular parameters such as aromaticity , average number of carbon atoms per alkyl substituentand the Viscosity Indexof base oils are reported. The term degree of refininghas been assigned a quantitative value in combination with the VI to denote the progressive refining of raw lube distillates to base stocks. Les modifications de la composition chimique d'huiles lubrifiantes au cours de divers type de raffinage à des degrés variables de sévérité sont étudiées par spectrométries IR et RMN. L'étude des paramètres structuraux aboutit à des conclusions significatives sur la composition chimique. Des corrélations entre l'indice de viscosité et des paramètres structuraux tels que l'aromaticité et le nombre moyen d'atomes de carbone par substituant alkyl sont dégagées. On attribue au terme degré de raffinage une valeur quantitative - combiné avec l'indice de viscosité pour signifier le raffinage progressif de distillats bruts en huiles de base.

  15. (DEEE) au Sénégal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilisateurs professionnels ont moins de 40 ans; 65,9% des réparateurs sont âgés au plus de 36 ans. Les acteurs de sexe ..... conséquences négatives des DEEE sur la santé ..... Chine où un réseau de coopération entre les institutions ...

  16. Competition entre supraconductivite et magnetisme au voisinage de la transition de Mott dans le conducteur organique quasi-bidimensionnel k-(BEDT-TTF)2copper[N(CN)2]bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, David

    Les conducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels kappa-ET2X presentent d'importantes similitudes avec les SCHT telles qu'une phase isolant de Mott, un regime de pseudogap et un etat supraconducteur. L'etude de leurs proprietes apparait donc complementaire. Parmi les interrogations persistantes concernant la physique de ces systemes, l'origine du (ou des) processus exotique d'appariement, responsable de la supraconductivite est le sujet suscitant l'interet le plus marque dans la communaute. L'hypothese d'un mecanisme lie a la proximite d'un etat antiferromagnetique est privilegiee. Une etape importante dans la resolution de cette problematique est l'identification de la symetrie du parametre d'ordre. D'apres de nombreux travaux sur les systemes fortement correles, la sonde ultrasonore, de par sa sensibilite aux excitations de quasiparticule a basse temperature, est consideree comme particulierement adaptee a l'etude de cette propriete. Cependant, son emploi necessite l'utilisation d'un compose metallique a basse temperature et completement supraconducteur. Le compose metallique organique kappa-ET 2Cu[N(CN)2]Br presente toutes les caracteristiques necessaires a l'etude de cette propriete. En effet, il est situe loin de la transition du premier ordre de Mott et est completement supraconducteur. De facon surprenante, ce systeme semble se coupler fortement avec le reseau ce qui augmente significativement la sensibilite de cette sonde aux proprietes du gaz electronique. Cependant, des difficultes techniques importantes, liees a la nature intrinseque de ce materiau, doivent etre surmontees pour proceder a des mesures suivant differentes polarisations. La presente etude a profondement modifie notre comprehension de ce systeme. En effet, ces mesures ont permis de constater que le kappa-ET2Cu[N(CN)2]Br est un compose qui est situe en bordure de la zone de coexistence entre la supraconductivite et le magnetisme, ce qui constitue un resultat totalement inattendu. De plus, la

  17. Entre itinéraires et trajets : représentations des déplacements dans les guides de voyage au tournant du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Devanthéry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un itinéraire est plus qu’une route : c’est une route sélectionnée, choisie par une époque et jalonnée de savoirs, de devoirs et d’émotions. Le Grand Tour ayant connu des itinéraires fortement codés, comment se fait le passage au tourisme ? En douceur ou avec fracas ? Y a-t-il alors abandon de tout itinéraire, invention de nouveaux cheminements ou redéfinition ? Et si la transformation du Grand Tour en tourisme se jouait aussi dans les manières de mettre en scène l’espace des voyages ?An itinerary is more than a route: it is a selected route, chosen by a time and lined with knowledge and emotions. As the Grand Tour had known some strongly coded itineraries, how does the transition to tourism happen? Smoothly or with a crash? Is then a giving up of all itineraries, new ways invented, or redefinition? And what if the Grand Tour converting into tourism was also been acted in the way of displaying the travelling space?

  18. La Disparition de la langue française d’Assia Djebar: espaces au féminin, ombres et lumières, ou le tangage entre les langues et le temps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Serrano Mañes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The autofictional side of Assia Djebar is particularly obvious in La Disparition de la langue française. This work is focused on some singularly attractive topics : starting from a male protagonist, Berkane, we intend to clear the linguistic ground that is said to be through diverse horizons. Languages become feminine territories : first her mother ; Marise, the woman from the other river bank, tomb of light ; Nadjia, the visitor, shadow and call from the roots. The landscapes show the progressive loss of the language of the Other, leading to silence, despair and death. Le versant autofictionnel d’Assia Djebar est particulièrement clair dans La Disparition de la langue française. Ce travail est axé sur quelques éléments singuliè-rement captivants : à partir d’un protagoniste masculin, Berkane, nous défrichons les territoires de la langue, qui se dit à travers plusieurs horizons. Les langues deviennent des territoires féminins : sa mère d’abord ; Marise, la femme de l’autre rive, tombeau de lumière; Nadjia, la visiteuse, ombre et appel des racines. Les paysages montrent la perte progressive de la langue de l’autre, qui mène au silence, à la disparition et à la mort.

  19. Le Hodna occidental entre régions méditerranéennes et plaines désertiques : organisation des terroirs, communautés rurales et productions agricoles au Moyen Âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Meouak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Les objectifs de notre contribution reposent sur deux axes méthodologiques précis : proposer une lecture critique des sources arabes et offrir un tableau précis des terroirs du Hodna occidental, région située entre la Kabylie maritime et les zones désertiques du Maghreb central à l'époque médiévale. Dans un premier temps, nous concentrerons nos efforts sur les lieux d'activités des communautés rurales afin d'établir un inventaire des diverses structures de peuplement. Dans une deuxième partie, il sera question des principaux aspects de l'organisation tribale comme moteur du peuplement rural dans le Hodna occidental avec la présence fondamentale de groupes arabes, tribus berbères et autres « étrangers ». Enfin dans une troisième et dernière étape, nous essaierons de dresser un tableau des paysages agraires et des productions agricoles en mettant l'accent notamment sur la gestion des espaces agricoles.

  20. Value of the Debris of Reduction Sculpture: Thiol Etching of Au Nanoclusters for Preparing Water-Soluble and Aggregation-Induced Emission-Active Au(I) Complexes as Phosphorescent Copper Ion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Su, Lei; Wang, Jianxing; Lu, Xin; Liang, Feng; Li, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-06-07

    Chemical etching of gold by thiols has been known to be capable of generating nonluminescent gold(I) complexes, e.g., in size-focusing synthesis of atomically precise gold nanoclusters (GNCs). These nonluminescent gold(I) complexes have usually been considered as useless or worthless byproducts. This study shows a promising potential of thiol etching of GNCs to prepare novel water-soluble and phosphorescent gold(I) materials for sensing application. First, cysteamine-induced etching of GNCs is used to produce nonluminescent oligomeric gold(I)-thiolate complexes. Then, cadmium ion induces the aggregation of these oligomeric complexes to produce highly water-soluble ultrasmall intra-aggregates. These intra-aggregates can phosphoresce both in dilute aqueous solutions and in the solid phase. Studies on the effect of pH on their phosphorescent emission reveal the importance of the interaction between the amino groups of the ligands and cadmium ion for their phosphorescent emission property. Furthermore, Cu(2+) ion is found to quickly quench the phosphorescent emission of the intra-aggregates and simultaneously cause a Cu(2+)-concentration-dependent peak wavelength shift, enabling the establishment of a novel colorimetric sensor for sensitive and selective visual sensing of Cu(2+).

  1. La construction de l’espace touristique de la Grande Barrière de Corail : entre protection de l’environnement et modifications de l’accessibilité au récif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Vacher

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La Grande Barrière de Corail s’étend sur 2000 kilomètres le long de la côte orientale de l’État du Queensland en Australie. Chaque année, le “ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park ”, le plus grand parc marin du monde établi en 1975, compte plus de 1,8 millions d’entrées. Depuis 1981, cet ensemble d’îles et de récifs est aussi inscrit sur la Liste du Patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO. La mise en tourisme de la région, qui s’est faite progressivement autour de l’exploitation de cette attraction, n’a pas été uniforme.  Ce texte a pour objectif d’aider à comprendre la différentiation spatiale du développement touristique dans la région. Une analyse des changements dans la perception du récif montre que l’importance de la préoccupation environnementale est ancienne dans la gestion de cet ensemble, mais qu’elle a évolué. L’augmentation de la fréquentation de la Grande Barrière par les touristes est ensuite replacée dans le contexte de la croissance du tourisme australien. Enfin l’importance des conditions techniques et du cadre légal de l’accès aux récifs sont envisagés pour expliquer la polarisation actuelle du développement autour des zones de Cairns/Port Douglas et des îles Whitsunday.The Great Barrier Reef extends over 2000 kilometres along the eastern coast of Queensland in Australia. Every year, the "Great Barrier Reef Marine Park", the biggest marine park in the world established in 1975, counts more than 1.8 million entries. Since 1981, this group of islands and reefs is also registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The touristification of the region, which was gradually achieved around the operation of this attraction, was not uniform. This text has for objective to help to understand the spatial differentiation of the tourist development in the area. An analysis of the changes in the perception of the reef show that the importance of the environmental concern  is well established

  2. Determination of Tetracycline in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Molecular and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography via Complex Formation with Au(III) and Hg(II) Ions in Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Ahlam Jameel; Jasim, Hadi Hassan; Hassan, Abbas Shebeeb

    2013-01-01

    UV-visible and atomic spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques were applied for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in pharmaceutical preparations via complexation of the drug with Au(III) and Hg(II) ions in solutions. The mole ratio of TC to metal ions was 1 : 1. Maximum peak absorption at λ 425 and 320 nm for the two ions, respectively, was optimized at heating temperature 75°C for 15 minutes at pH = 4 followed by the extraction with ethyl acetate. The percentage of extraction and stability constants for the two complexes was 95.247, 95.335% and 2.518 × 104, 1.162 × 105 M−1, respectively. HPLC method was applied without extraction process. The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves of UV-visible absorption, FAAS, and HPLC for Au(III) complexes were recovery (100.78, 104.85, and 101.777%, resp.); detection limits (0.7403, 0.0997, and 2.647 μg/ml, resp.); linearity (5–70, 5–30, and 10–150 μg/ml, resp.), and correlation coefficient (0.9991, 0.9967, and 0.9986, resp.). The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves for Hg(II) complexes by UV-visible spectrophotometry and HPLC were recovery (100.95 and 102.000%, resp.); detection limits (0.5867 and 2.532 μg/ml, resp.); linearity (5–70 and 10–150 μg/ml, resp.); and correlation coefficients (0.9989 and 0.9997, resp.). PMID:23853607

  3. Study of reactions of metals with sulphur and phosphorus compounds by pulsed temperatures; Etude des reactions entre metaux et composes du soufre et du phosphore au moyen de brusques hausses de temperature; Issledovanie reaktsii metallov s soedineniyami sery i fosfora pri regulyarnykh izmeneniyakh temperatury; Estudio de reacciones entre metales y compuestos de azufre y de fosforo empleando impulsos de temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R B; Grunberg, L [National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    The anti-wear action of sulphur and phosphorus compounds which are usually added to gear-oils depends on chemical reactions with the metallic surfaces of the gears. These reactions occur both at the bulk oil temperature (approx. 100 Degree-Sign C) and during high temperatures (approx. 600 Degree-Sign C) of short duration when the gearteeth come into contact under lead. The temperature flashes were simulated in an apparatus in which short pulses of electric current were used to heat metal wires immersed in mineral oil containing S{sup 35} and P{sup 32} labelled compounds in solution. The radioactivity acquired by the wires was measured. The extent of the reactions was determined as a function of temperature and time and the results were interpreted in terms of conventional kinetic laws. The modification of the reaction rates by the presence of other compounds in the solution was studied. The effect of pre-formed surface films containing sulphur phosphorus, chlorine and/or oxygen was also determined. In explaining the results, the structure of the materials used and the diffusion processes whereby the reactions occur beyond the initial stages were considered. (author) [French] Les composes du soufre et du phosphore que l'on ajoute souvent aux huiles de graissage offrent une protection contre l'usure, mais cette protection depend des reactions chimiques avec les surfaces metalliques des engrenages. Ces reactions ont lieu aussi bien a la temperature de la masse de l'huile (environ 100 Degree-Sign C) qu'au moment des brusques hausses de temperature (environ 600 Degree-Sign C) qui se produisent lorsque les dents d'engrenage viennent en contact avec pression. Les chocs thermiques ont ete simules dans un appareil a l'interieur duquel on a produit de breves impulsions de courant electrique pour chauffer des fils metalliques immerges dans une huile minerale contenant des composes marques au soufre-35 et au phosphore-32 en solution. Les auteurs ont mesure la radioactivite

  4. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  5. Adaptation, mise à l'épreuve et évaluation d'interventions complexes en santé publique : leçons tirées du Nurse-Family Partnership dans le secteur de la santé publique au Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Jack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Le Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP est un programme de visites à domicile destiné aux nouvelles jeunes mères défavorisées sur le plan socioéconomique. Les données issues de trois essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR américains ont solidement démontré l'efficacité des interventions quant à l'amélioration de l'issue de la grossesse, de la santé et du développement des enfants ainsi que de l'autonomie économique des mères. Cependant, l'efficacité du NFP dans le contexte canadien des services de santé et des services sociaux, qui diffère de celui des États-Unis, reste à déterminer. Cet article vise à décrire le processus complexe suivi pour adapter la recherche sur le NFP et mettre ainsi en œuvre ce programme au Canada. Méthodologie : L'évaluation menée au Canada se divise en trois étapes : 1 adaptation de l'intervention, 2 mise à l'épreuve de l'intervention dans des études de faisabilité et d'acceptabilité à petite échelle et 3 réalisation d'un ECR et d'une évaluation du processus dans le cadre de l'étude intitulée British Columbia Healthy Connections Project (BCHCP. Cette évaluation à grande échelle permettra d'enrichir la base de données probantes du NFP par la tenue d'une étude supplémentaire sur les mécanismes biologiques susceptibles de témoigner de la relation entre l'intervention et les effets sur le comportement des enfants. Résultats : L'adaptation de la documentation du NFP pour les visites à domicile est un processus continu. Un projet pilote a montré la faisabilité du recrutement des femmes admissibles au NFP. Il a aussi révélé qu'il était préférable au Canada que le NFP soit mis en œuvre par les organismes de santé publique et que les infirmières et infirmiers en santé publique (ISP s'occupent des interventions. Enfin, il a montré que ce programme intensif de visites à domicile a bénéficié d'une réception positive de la part des clientes, des membres de

  6. Highly Stable [C60AuC60]+/- Dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Marcelo; Kuhn, Martin; Martini, Paul; Chen, Lei; Hagelberg, Frank; Kaiser, Alexander; Scheier, Paul; Ellis, Andrew M

    2018-05-17

    Ionic complexes between gold and C 60 have been observed for the first time. Cations and anions of the type [Au(C 60 ) 2 ] +/- are shown to have particular stability. Calculations suggest that these ions adopt a C 60 -Au-C 60 sandwich-like (dumbbell) structure, which is reminiscent of [XAuX] +/- ions previously observed for much smaller ligands. The [Au(C 60 ) 2 ] +/- ions can be regarded as Au(I) complexes, regardless of whether the net charge is positive or negative, but in both cases, the charge transfer between the Au and C 60 is incomplete, most likely because of a covalent contribution to the Au-C 60 binding. The C 60 -Au-C 60 dumbbell structure represents a new architecture in fullerene chemistry that might be replicable in synthetic nanostructures.

  7. Effets Josephson generalises entre antiferroaimants et entre supraconducteurs antiferromagnetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Dominique

    L'effet Josephson est generalement presente comme le resultat de l'effet tunnel coherent de paires de Cooper a travers une jonction tunnel entre deux supraconducteurs, mais il est possible de l'expliquer dans un contexte plus general. Par exemple, Esposito & al. ont recemment demontre que l'effet Josephson DC peut etre decrit a l'aide du boson pseudo-Goldstone de deux systemes couples brisant chacun la symetrie abelienne U(1). Puisque cette description se generalise de facon naturelle a des brisures de symetries continues non-abeliennes, l'equivalent de l'effet Josephson devrait donc exister pour des types d'ordre a longue portee differents de la supraconductivite. Le cas de deux ferroaimants itinerants (brisure de symetrie 0(3)) couples a travers une jonction tunnel a deja ete traite dans la litterature Afin de mettre en evidence la generalite du phenomene et dans le but de faire des predictions a partir d'un modele realiste, nous etudions le cas d'une jonction tunnel entre deux antiferroaimants itinerants. En adoptant une approche Similaire a celle d'Ambegaokar & Baratoff pour une jonction Josephson, nous trouvons un courant d'aimantation alternee a travers la jonction qui est proportionnel a sG x sD ou fG et sD sont les vecteurs de Neel de part et d'autre de la jonction. La fonction sinus caracteristique du courant Josephson standard est donc remplacee.ici par un produit vectoriel. Nous montrons que, d'un point de vue microscopique, ce phenomene resulte de l'effet tunnel coherent de paires particule-trou de spin 1 et de vecteur d'onde net egal au vecteur d'onde antiferromagnetique Q. Nous trouvons egalement la dependance en temperature de l'analogue du courant critique. En presence d'un champ magnetique externe, nous obtenons l'analogue de l'effet Josephson AC et la description complete que nous en donnons s'applique aussi au cas d'une jonction tunnel entre ferroaimants (dans ce dernier cas, les traitements anterieurs de cet effet AC s'averent incomplets). Nous

  8. La libre circulation des personnes au sein de l’espace de la C.E.M.A.C : entre mythes et réalités Free movement of people within the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community : between myths and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Loungou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La question de la libre circulation des personnes est une des pierres d’achoppement entre les Etats membres de la Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (C.E.M.A.C. Cette mésentente est liée à une multitude de raisons, dont certaines participent de constructions imaginaires développées en particulier au Gabon et en Guinée équatoriale. Trois grands mythes sous-tendent le refus manifeste de ces deux Etats d’appliquer le principe communautaire de la libre circulation des personnes ; il s’agit des mythes de l’invasion démographique, de la spoliation économique et de la perversion sociale associée à la délinquance d’origine étrangère. Fortement ancrées dans les consciences nationales, ces représentations s’expriment à travers des politiques migratoires et des pratiques frontalières particulièrement discriminatoires à l’égard des ressortissants de la sous-région.The issue of free movement of people is one of the stumbling blocks between the Members of the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community (C.A.E.M.C. This disagreement is related to many reasons, some of which are part of imaginary constructions developed especially in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Three great myths are underlying the apparent reluctance of these two states to apply the principles of free movement of people: the myth of demographic invasion and the myths of economic and social perversion associated with the crime of foreign origin. Deeply rooted in the national consciousness, these representations are expressed through migration policies and border practices which are particularly discriminatory against nationals of the sub region.

  9. Theoretical studies on the electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/C*.A(WC)]-Au8 mismatch nucleobase complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruby

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of [A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC)/C.2AP(w)/C*.2AP(WC)/C.A(w)/ C*.A(WC)]-Au8 metal-mismatch nucleobase complexes are investigated by means of density functional theory and time-dependent methods. We selected these mispairs as 2-aminopurine (2AP) produces incorporation errors when binding with cytosine (C) into the wobble (w) C.2AP(w) mispair, and is tautomerised into Watson-Crick (WC)-like base mispair C*.2AP(WC) and less effectively produces A.2AP(w)/A*.2AP(WC) mispairs. The vertical ionisation potential, vertical electron affinity, hardness and electrophilicity index of these complexes have also been discussed. The modifications of energy levels and charge density distributions of the frontier orbitals are also analysed. The absorption spectra of these complexes lie in the visible region, which suggests their application in fluorescent-bio imaging. The mechanism of cooperativity effect is studied by molecular orbital potential (MEP), atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and natural bond orbital analyses. Most metalated pairs have smaller HOMO-LUMO band gaps than the isolated mismatch nucleobases which suggest interesting consequences for electron transfer through DNA duplexes.

  10. La participation citoyenne en contexte local au Cameroun. Entre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traduit aussi une volonté sociale d'exercer des formes de contrôle et/ou de surveillance sur l'action des détenteurs .... Cette variation dépendant du niveau de performance de chaque dispositif dans son ... (3) La coordination, la gestion, le suivi-évaluation et la communication. ... Pour mesurer la portée de ces tensions dans.

  11. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  12. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seock, E-mail: lee@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  13. Génomique comparative et évolutive au sein du complexe d’espèces Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa

    OpenAIRE

    Grandaubert , Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans ‘brassicae’ (Lmb) is a filamentous ascomycete from class Dothideomycetes. It belongs to the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex which comprises pathogens of crucifers. Lmb is specifically adapted to oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and is responsible for the most damaging disease of this crop: “stem canker”. In order to better understand and control the disease, the host team initiated a genomic project aiming at systematically identify genes inv...

  14. An AU-rich element in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the spinach chloroplast petD gene participates in sequence-specific RNA-protein complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiuyun; Adams, C.C.; Usack, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    In chloroplasts, the 3{prime} untranslated regions of most mRNAs contain a stem-loop-forming inverted repeat (IR) sequence that is required for mRNA stability and correct 3{prime}-end formation. The IR regions of several mRNAs are also known to bind chloroplast proteins, as judged from in vitro gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, and these RNA-protein interactions may be involved in the regulation of chloroplast mRNA processing and/or stability. Here we describe in detail the RNA and protein components that are involved in 3{prime} IR-containing RNA (3{prime} IR-RNA)-protein complex formation for the spinach chloroplast petD gene, which encodes subunit IV of the cytochrome b{sub 6}/f complex. We show that the complex contains 55-, 41-, and 29-kDa RNA-binding proteins (ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]). These proteins together protect a 90-nucleotide segment of RNA from RNase T{sub 1} digestion; this RNA contains the IR and downstream flanking sequences. Competition experiments using 3{prime} IR-RNAs from the psbA or rbcL gene demonstrate that the RNPs have a strong specificity for the petD sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to define the RNA sequence elements required for complex formation. These studies identified an 8-nucleotide AU-rich sequence downstream of the IR; mutations within this sequence had moderate to severe effects on RNA-protein complex formation. Although other similar sequences are present in the petD 3{prime} untranslated region, only a single copy, which we have termed box II, appears to be essential for in vivo protein binding. In addition, the IR itself is necessary for optimal complex formation. These two sequence elements together with an RNP complex may direct correct 3{prime}-end processing and/or influence the stability of petD mRNA in chloroplasts. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... traités au service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale et chirurgie plastique de l'hôpital ... qui est la fracture simple isolée du corps, on a inclut ce type de fracture ... sion latérale au niveau de la queue du sourcil. La voie vestibulaire ...

  16. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  17. Study of new complexes of uranium and comba radical. I.- Complexes defective in sodium carbonate; Estudio de nuevos complejos entre el uranio y el radical CDMBA. I. Complejos con defectos de carbonato sodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J; Galiano Sedano, J A; Parellada Bellod, R; Bellido Gonzalez, A

    1975-07-01

    Some complexes formed in presence of defect of sodium carbonate with respect to the stoichiometric ratio (U): (C0{sub 3}) = 1:3 are studied. This ratio corresponds to the main complex which is responsible for the uranium extraction with CDMBAC organic solutions and from U(VI) aqueous solutions with an excess of sodium carbonate. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. Entre/Plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro Coso, Ricardo; Sonntag, Franca Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    La palabra Inter-és proviene etimológicamente de las palabras latinas inter y esse; y significa “lo que está-entre dos o más personas, o sea lo que las une pero también las separa”. Los prefijos inter- y entre-, en la mayor parte de los casos, describen estados o acciones ambiguas de los términos que preceden. De esta operación aditiva surgen maclas de vocablos; el inter-sticio como la “hendidura o espacio que media entre dos cuerpos o entre dos partes de un mismo cuerpo”; y así sucesivamente...

  19. Brain Tumour Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) Complex and {sup 131}I-Labelled Macroaggregated Albumin - Comparison of Results; La Scintigraphie des Tumeurs Cerebrales a l'Aide de Pertechnetate Marque au {sup 99m}Tc, de Complexe {sup 99m}Tc-Fe-II et de Macroagregats d'Albumine Marques au {sup 131}I. Comparaison des Resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J. P.; Dietz, H.; Schmidt, K. J.; Doerr, F.; Brod, K. H.; Wolf, R. [Institut de Radiologie Clinique et Clinique de Neurochirurgie, Universite de Mayence, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    from a wide selection of case studies. (author) [French] Aujourd'hui le {sup 99m}Tc, sous forme de pertechnetate, a trouve sa place dans la scintigraphie cerebrale.' Selon les experiences des auteurs du memoire ainsi que celles d'autres auteurs, sa valeur diagnostique est egale a celle des substances marquees au mercure ou a l'iode. Tout en utilisant le pertechnetate marque au {sup 99m}Tc les auteurs ont cherche a elargir le diagnostic isotopique par deux methodes; l'injection intra-arterielle de macro-agregats d'albumine, et l'injection, par voie intraveineuse, d'une nouvelle substance, le complexe {sup 99m}Tc-Fe-II. Les auteurs ont publie en 1966 les resultats obtenus a l'aide de la premiere methode; ils presentent maintenant le bilan de leurs experiences sur un grand nombre de patients, plus de cent, souffrant de tumeurs cerebrales. Comparee a la scintigraphie au pertechnetate marque au {sup 99m}Tc apres injection par voie intraveineuse, la nouvelle methode donne des informations complementaires qui facilitent souvent grandement le diagnostic neuroradiologique clinique. La plupart des cas furent verifies par l'operation ou l'autopsie. La methode donne pour la premiere fois la possibilite de visualiser par la scintigraphie le reseau arteriel du cerveau. Les auteurs ont ete amenes a utiliser la deuxieme methode pour la detection des tumeurs cerebrales en raison de la facilite de mise en oeuvre de la scintigraphie cerebrale apres injection par voie intraveineuse, et parce qu'ils disposaient des resultats d'experiences effectuees avec le complexe {sup 99m}Tc-Fe-H sur la scintigraphie des reins ainsi que d'une breve communication parue dans la litterature americaine. Les premieres experiences montrent que cette substance est nettement superieure a toutes celles qui ont ete utilisees jusqu'ici par voie intraveineuse. Elle unit les avantages incontestables du {sup 99m}Tc, en ce qui concerne surtout la dose d'irradiation du patient, a la nettete extraordinaire de

  20. La Franc-maçonnerie, entre cité céleste et cité terrestre : divisions et équilibrages internes au sujet du théisme, de la religion et des questions sociétales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bryon-Portet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La bonne santé de la Franc-maçonnerie française, qui n’a pas vu ses effectifs chuter contrairement à ceux des Etats-Unis par exemple, semble attester de la satisfaction qu’apporte de nos jours à des hommes en quête de sens ce modèle d’un espace qui se veut public au sens habermassien (en ce sens qu’il débat de questions politico-sociétales en se servant d’un usage éclairé de la raison tout en étant privatif (puisqu’il est à huis-clos et réservé à quelques rares initiés, et qui propose une réflexion autour des problématiques spirituelles et terrestres, religieuses et sociopolitiques. Elle constitue une spiritualité tout à la fois religieuse dans son esprit et laïque dans sa forme, une sorte de troisième voie1. Un sociologue comme Michel Maffesoli voit même dans cet attrait pour une « raison sensible » et une « transcendance immanente »2 – qui manifestent une véritable « coincidentia oppositorum » et dont nous avons montré qu’elle était une finalité de l’ordre maçonnique –, la marque de la postmodernité. Si ces intuitions sont justes, alors il est fort probable la Franc-maçonnerie a encore un bel avenir devant elle.This text studies the paradoxical position of Freemasonry, which tries to conciliate spiritual quest and socio-political engagement. First, the author shows that Freemasonry contains some religious aspects because it cultivates the sacred through an initiation and ritual practices, even if it can’t be considered as a religion: in fact, it is non-dogmatic, and many obediences refuse to evocate God during their ceremonies and the question of belief in a Superior Being is source of disputes between the lodges. After that, the author points the fact that freemasons who belong to the liberal branch of Freemasonry want to participate to the evolution of the laws in profane society and to defend the principles of secularism, according to the Masonic objective, consisting in

  1. Genèse du nouveau master « Histoire des sciences et techniques, humanités numériques et médiations culturelles » : de l'articulation entre la recherche et la formation au Centre François Viète de l'Université de Bretagne Occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambon Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available L'objet de cet article est de montrer comment la dynamique de création simultanée, à Brest et depuis 2008, d'une nouvelle équipe de recherche et d'un nouveau master recherche à distance en 2012 s'est traduit par une proposition originale de formation par la recherche. Nous détaillons les spécificités de cette dernière. D'une part, elle prend fortement appui sur des axes de recherches et des nouvelles méthodologies en histoire des sciences et des techniques, qui s'inspirent des travaux sur la culture matérielle et la compréhension des systèmes complexes. En outre, nous montrons que des questions de recherche et de formation y sont intégrées concernant le développement ou l'usage des outils numériques (web sémantique, réalité virtuelle ou augmentée, etc. pour la recherche en SHS et médiations culturelles. L'équipe de Brest s'inscrit de ce fait dans le champ des travaux de recherches en humanités numériques en très forte collaboration avec notamment des laboratoires d'informatique. Au travers des thématiques traitées, des méthodologies enseignées, d'une pédagogie universitaire basée sur une classe virtuelle ainsi que de la nature des différents partenaires qui y enseignent, nous montrons ainsi que le master en question constituent un laboratoire où il est possible d'expérimenter de nouvelles pratiques de formation par la recherche.

  2. Evidence of significant covalent bonding in Au(CN)(2)(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Yi-Lei; Yang, Jie; Xing, Xiao-Peng; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2009-11-18

    The Au(CN)(2)(-) ion is the most stable Au compound known for centuries, yet a detailed understanding of its chemical bonding is still lacking. Here we report direct experimental evidence of significant covalent bonding character in the Au-C bonds in Au(CN)(2)(-) using photoelectron spectroscopy and comparisons with its lighter congeners, Ag(CN)(2)(-) and Cu(CN)(2)(-). Vibrational progressions in the Au-C stretching mode were observed for all detachment transitions for Au(CN)(2)(-), in contrast to the atomic-like transitions for Cu(CN)(2)(-), revealing the Au-C covalent bonding character. In addition, rich electronic structural information was obtained for Au(CN)(2)(-) by employing 118 nm detachment photons. Density functional theory and high-level ab initio calculations were carried out to understand the photoelectron spectra and obtain insight into the nature of the chemical bonding in the M(CN)(2)(-) complexes. Significant covalent character in the Au-C bonding due to the strong relativistic effects was revealed in Au(CN)(2)(-), consistent with its high stability.

  3. Solvent extraction of Au(III) for preparation of a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer from an Au target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weginwar, R.G.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ambe, S.; Liu, B.; Enomoto, S.; Ambe, F.

    1996-01-01

    Separation of Au(III) and various carrier-free radionuclides by solvent extraction was investigated using an Au target irradiated by an energetic heavy-ion beam. Percentage extraction of Au(III) and coextraction of the radionuclides were determined with varying parameters such as kinds of solvent, molarity of HCl or pH, and Au concentration. Under the conditions where Au(III) was effectively extracted, namely extraction with ethyl acetate or isobutyl methyl ketone from 3 mol*dm -3 HCl, carrier-free radionuclides of many elements were found to be more or less coextracted. Coextraction of radionuclides of some elements was found to increase with an increase in the concentration of Au(III). This finding is ascribed to the formation of strong association of the complex of these elements with chloroauric acid. In order to avoid serious loss of these elements by the extraction, lowering of the Au(III) concentration or the use of a masking agent such as sodium citrate is necessary. Gold(III) was shown to be effectively back extracted with a 0.1 mol*dm -3 aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. Thus, a radiochemical procedure has been established for preparing a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer with carrier form from an Au target irradiated with a heavy-ion beam. Both tracers are now used individually for chemical and biological experiments. (author). 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Les Caisses d’épargne face à l’avènement d’un groupe bancaire universel : le changement organisationnel entre ingénierie managériale de la mémoire et attachement au passé The Caisses d'Epargne, a mutual savings bank in transition to a global banking Group: Organisational change between managing institutional memory and attachment to the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tassel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il est d’usage d’aborder le changement organisationnel sous l’angle de sa gestion, de son accompagnement ou de sa conduite. Si l’on ne peut nier le caractère opératoire de ces approches, elles passent sous silence la dimension essentielle pour la compréhension du changement que constitue le rapport à la mémoire et au passé.A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain menée de 2003 à 2007 au sein d’une grande institution bancaire (le Groupe Caisse d’Epargne, cet article entend montrer quelques uns des enjeux proprement mémoriels que le changement engage : difficultés à reconnaître l’entreprise dans ce qu’il advient d’elle, production managériales visant à renouer le lien entre présent et passé que le changement est venu altérer, mise en place, par les collaborateurs de pratiques qui permettent de maintenir l’engagement originel de l’organisation.Organisational change is usually considered from a management or an implementation point of view. This approach, as operational as it may be, ignores the relationship to memory and the past generally, which is fundamental in order to understand changes.Based on ethnographic field studies carried out from 2003 and 2007 at a major financial institution (Caisse d'Epargne Group, this article purports to shed light on certain memory-based challenges induced by change: difficulties to recognise the company as it evolves, managerial efforts to link the current situation with the past, which has been altered by the changes, conducts of staff members influenced by a willingness to uphold the original mission of the organisation. 

  5. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  6. Evidence of different stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes of lanthanides(3); Mise en evidence d'un changement de stoechiometrie du complexe carbonate limite au sein de la serie des lanthanides(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippini, V

    2007-12-15

    Two stoichiometries have been proposed by different laboratories to interpret measurements on the limiting carbonate complexes of An{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} cations. The study of the solubility of double carbonates (AlkLn(CO{sub 3}){sub 2},xH{sub 2}O) in concentrated carbonate solutions at room temperature and high ionic strengths has shown that on the one hand the lightest lanthanides (La and Nd) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} whereas the heaviest (Eu and Dy) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} in the studied chemical conditions, and on the other hand, that the kinetics of precipitation of double carbonates depends on the alkali metal and the lanthanide ions. The existence of two stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (CE-ICP-MS), used to extend the study to the whole series of lanthanides (except Ce, Pm and Yb). Two behaviours have been put forward comparing the electrophoretic mobilities: La to Tb form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} while Dy to Lu form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-}. Measurements by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) on Eu(III) indicate small variations of the geometry of Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} complex, specially with Cs{sup +}. Although analogies are currently used among the 4f-block trivalent elements, different aqueous speciations are evidenced in concentrated carbonate solutions across the lanthanide series. (author)

  7. Patpong, entre sexe et commerce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Roux

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme dit « sexuel » est aujourd’hui décrié comme une forme de tourisme international immoral, un dysfonctionnement grave de la mondialisation appelant une réaction politique contre « l’exploitation sexuelle » dont seraient victimes des millions de femmes et d’enfants. Pourtant, derrière l’apparente évidence du « tourisme sexuel » comme expression de sens commun, rares sont les enquêtes qui explicitent la réalité concrète des échanges prostitutionnels. En adoptant une démarche ethnographique, l’article décrit le fonctionnement de Patpong, un quartier rouge de Bangkok dédié à une clientèle internationale. Par la description des offres disponibles, des revenus générés, des codes et des pratiques, la complexité de l’espace réapparaît. Il s’agit de donner à voir la réalité des échanges pour interroger l’articulation entre commerce et sexualité. L’analyse ethnographique du tourisme sexuel permet ainsi de souligner la diversité des pratiques et de rappeler que les formes les plus visibles — et les plus commentées — d’échanges prostitutionnels éclipsent trop souvent une pluralité d’expériences qui participe pourtant au succès de ces ruelles mondialement connues. So-called sex tourism is condemned as an immoral form of international tourism, a serious failure of globalization requiring political action against the “sexual exploitation” suffered by millions of women and children. Yet behind the common and seemingly evident understanding of “sexual tourism,” few studies have focused on the actual reality of such relations. Based on an ethnographic study, this article presents the structure of Patpong, a red-light district of Bangkok dedicated to international tourism. First, the article aims to briefly present the historical development of Patpong. This peculiar space is intrinsically linked to sex tourism, as these world-renowned streets expanded since the mid-60s to

  8. Studies of the source complex behaviour and of the ultrasound radiation of contact flexible multi-element transducers; Etudes du comportement complexe de source et du rayonnement ultrasonore des traducteurs multi-elements flexibles au contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amory, V

    2007-12-15

    This work deals with the ultrasonic nondestructive testing of parts with complex geometries using soft multi-element sensors. The different types of contact control configurations are presented first. Then, the difficulties encountered with conventional contact transducers are explained and the multi-element piezoelectric transducers technology, developed to meet these difficulties, is presented. The second chapter presents the results of finite-element calculations showing the complexity of a transducer in a condition of testing utilization. In a same configuration, the radiated far field calculated by finite-elements is compared to the measurement in order to validate the way the source behaviour is calculated. However, despite the efficiency of the finite-elements simulation, this tool is numerically too costly and cannot be used to optimize a full multi-element transducer. Therefore, a realistic source model is built and implemented in a radiation code based on high-frequency asymptotic approximations where only L and T volume waves are calculated. The incapacity of this model to reproduce the behaviour of T waves in some directions of propagation has led to give a particular attention to the fore-waves, neglected in the radiation calculation. Chapter 3 treats of the building of an exact radiation model taking into consideration the fore-waves contribution emitted by a contact transducer exerting a random space-time distribution constraint at the surface of the considered medium. A radiation model, based on the calculation of exact Green functions of the Lamb problem is proposed. The exact model is particularly interesting in the case of sensor geometries with a long length with respect to other dimensions (2D case). Field calculation results are shown for an element of the matrix network (3D case) and for a linear element (2D case). A study of different existing approached models is carried out as well. The last chapter presents some results of the field

  9. La migration féminine au Mali

    OpenAIRE

    KEITA, Modibo

    2011-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Les données et les recherches au sujet de la migration féminine au Mali sont rares. Cet article, qui privilégie une approche qualitative, suggère d’approfondir la question de la relation entre migration féminine et promotion de la femme, autrement dit la connaissance des conséquences de la migration féminine aux plans individuel, social, économique et culturel. Cette question renvoie, plus largement, à la...

  10. Controlled synthesis of PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers and cap-like Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nana; Li, Lianshan; Huang, Teng; Qi, Limin

    2010-11-01

    Uniform PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers consisting of one Au nanoparticle grown on one horn of a well-defined six-horn PbS nanostar were prepared using the PbS nanostars as growth substrates for the selective deposition of Au nanoparticles. The size of the Au nanoparticles on the horns of the PbS nanostars could be readily adjusted by changing the PbS concentration for the deposition of Au nanoparticles. An optimum cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentration and temperature were essential for the selective deposition of uniform Au nanoparticles on single horns of the PbS nanostars. Unusual PbS-Au nanoframe-nanoparticle heterodimers were obtained by etching the PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers with oxalic acid while novel cap-like Au nanoparticles were obtained by etching with hydrochloric acid. The obtained heterodimeric nanostructures and cap-like nanoparticles are promising candidates for anisotropic nanoscale building blocks for the controllable assembly of useful, complex architectures.

  11. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  12. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  13. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  14. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  15. Uptake of Au(III) Ions by Aluminum Hydroxide and Their Spontaneous Reduction to Elemental Gold (Au(0)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama; Matsukado; Uchida; Motomura; Watanabe; Izawa

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of AuCl(4)(-) ions during the formation of aluminum hydroxide at pH 6 was examined. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the content of gold taken up by aluminum hydroxide decreased, suggesting that chloro-hydroxy complexes of Au(III) ion were taken up due to the formation of Al-O-Au bonds. It was found unexpectedly that the Au(III) ions taken up were spontaneously reduced to elemental gold without addition of a specific reducing reagent and then colloidal gold particles were formed. The mechanisms for the uptake of Au(III) ions by aluminum hydroxide and for their spontaneous reduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Le CRDI au Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pour prévenir le paludisme, des études ayant démontré que leur utilisation pouvait réduire considérablement la mortalité infantile. Les chercheurs ont également suggéré aux gouvernements différents moyens pour inciter les gens à acheter les moustiquaires et à les utiliser correctement. Les TI au service de la démocratie.

  17. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et traité à temps, le risque de complications et de morbidité peut être écarté. Les auteurs rapportent 2 cas de kystes de la vallécule. La tomodensitométrie a confirmé la présence d'une formation kystique prenant origine au niveau de la val- lécule. Une laryngoscopie directe a été faite pour les 2 patients sous anesthésie ...

  18. Gold chloride clusters with Au(III) and Au(I) probed by FT-ICR mass spectrometry and MP2 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Kono H

    2014-05-07

    Microsolvated clusters of gold chloride are probed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and scalar relativistic electronic structure calculations. Electrospray ionization of aqueous AuCl3 leads to mononuclear clusters of types [AuCl2](+)(H2O)n (n = 0-4), [AuOHCl](+)(H2O)n (n = 0-1) and [AuCl2](+)(HCl)2(H2O)n (n = 0-4). In addition, strong ion signals due to dinuclear [Au2Cl5-xOHx](+)(H2O)n (x = 0-1) are present in ESI mass spectra of aqueous AuCl3, with the abundance of individual dinuclear species controlled by the concentration-dependent variation of the precursor complexes [AuCl2-xOHx](+)(H2O)n and AuCl3. Equilibrium structures, energies and thermodynamic properties of mono- and dinuclear gold clusters have been predicted using MP2 and CCSD(T) theory, and these data have been applied to examine the influence of microsolvation on cluster stability. Specifically, results from CCSD(T) calculations indicate that non-covalently bound ion-neutral complexes Au(+)(Cl2)(H2O)n, with formal Au(I), are the dominant forms of mononuclear gold with n = 0-2, while higher hydrates (n > 2) are covalently bound [AuCl2](+)(H2O)n complexes in which gold exists as Au(III). MP2 calculations show that the lowest energy structure of dinuclear gold is an ion-molecule cluster [Au2Cl(Cl2)2](+) consisting of a single-bridged digold-chloronium ion bound end-on to two dichlorine ligands, with two higher energy isomers, single-bridged [Au2Cl3(Cl2)](+) and double-bridged [Au2Cl5](+) clusters. Finally, AuAu interactions in the singly-bridged clusters [Au2Cl(Cl2)2](+)(H2O)n and [Au2Cl3(Cl2)](+)(H2O)n are examined employing a wide range of computational tools, including natural bond order (NBO) analysis and localized orbital locator (LOL) profiles.

  19. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'une septoplastie entre 2000 et 2010 ont été inclus dans l'étude, soit un total de .... n'existe pas un outil objectif pour l'évaluation pré opéra- toire. L'examen ... 7. 17.YoultonLTF. The peak nasal inspiratory flow meter a new instrument for the.

  20. The rational design of a Au(I) precursor for focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Tiesma, Thiadrik; van Velzen, Niels J. C.; Harder, Sjoerd; Havenith, Remco W. A.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; van Dorp, Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    Au(I) complexes are studied as precursors for focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP). FEBIP is an advanced direct-write technique for nanometer-scale chemical synthesis. The stability and volatility of the complexes are characterized to design an improved precursor for pure Au deposition.

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Elucidates Differential Substitution Pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) with Zinc Fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbehausen, Camilla; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Gomes, Saulo Quintana; Du, Zhifeng; Corbi, Pedro Paulo; Lima, Frederico Alves; Farrell, Nicholas

    2018-01-02

    A combination of two elements' (Au, Zn) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allowed the elucidation of differential substitution pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) compounds reacting with biologically relevant zinc fingers (ZnFs). Gold L 3 -edge XAS probed the interaction of gold and the C-terminal Cys 2 HisCys finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7, and the Cys 2 His 2 human transcription factor Sp1. The use of model compounds helped assign oxidation states and the identity of the gold-bound ligands. The computational studies accurately reproduced the experimental XAS spectra and allowed the proposition of structural models for the interaction products at early time points. The direct electrophilic attack on the ZnF by the highly thiophilic Au(I) resulted in a linear P-Au-Cys coordination sphere after zinc ejection whereas for the Sp1, loss of PEt 3 results in linear Cys-Au-Cys or Cys-Au-His arrangements. Reactions with Au(III) compounds, on the other hand, showed multiple binding modes. Prompt reaction between [AuCl(dien)] 2+ and [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ with Sp1 showed a partially reduced Au center and a final linear His-Au-His coordination. Differently, in the presence of NCp7, [AuCl(dien)] 2+ readily reduces to Au(I) and changes from square-planar to linear geometry with Cys-Au-His coordination, while [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ initially maintains its Au(III) oxidation state and square-planar geometry and the same first coordination sphere. The latter is the first observation of a "noncovalent" interaction of a Au(III) complex with a zinc finger and confirms early hypotheses that stabilization of Au(III) occurs with N-donor ligands. Modification of the zinc coordination sphere, suggesting full or partial zinc ejection, is observed in all cases, and for [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ this represents a novel mechanism for nucleocapsid inactivation. The combination of XAS and TD-DFT presents the first direct experimental

  2. Etude des mécanismes d'interaction, au cours du procédé d'emboutissage à chaud, entre les surces atmosphériques d'hydrogène et les aciers à haute résistance revêtus d'Al-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy, Mélodie; Jacques, Pascal; Georges, Cédric; Journée Jeunes Chercheurs 2015 - Commission "Corrosion sous contrainte / Fatigue-Corrosion"

    2015-01-01

    Dans l’industrie automobile, le défi permanent d’allègement en vue de diminuer la consommation de carburant est profitable tant au niveau économique qu’écologique. Pour permettre cette diminution de masse sans compromettre pour autant la sécurité des passagers, il est donc essentiel de développer des nuances d’aciers toujours plus résistantes. Néanmoins, ces aciers doivent également garder une certaine ductilité nécessaire à leur mise en forme, mais aussi fondamentale pour la sécurité des pas...

  3. Endostatin (EntreMed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosios, K

    2000-07-01

    EntreMed has licensed the worldwide rights to the angiogenesis inhibitor Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, from the Children's Hospital of Boston, a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School. It is being developed as a potential cancer treatment and may also be useful in certain types of blindness and arthritis [227427]. EntreMed filed an IND for Endostatin in June 1999 [334125] and as of September 1999, phase I trials were underway [341462]. As of April 2000, the company had initiated plans for testing low doses of Endostatin in cancer patients using continuous infusion and sc administration in a further phase I study to be conducted in Europe [361594]. A phase I trial of Endostatin which will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Endostatin at a range of doses in no more than 100 cancer patients has been initiated. The trial will take place at the University of Texas MD Anderson Medical Center and the University of Wisconsin Cancer Center in Madison. The National Cancer Center will be sponsoring the trial, which is expected to be completed in late 2000. As of March 2000, there had been no serious adverse events attributable to Endostatin administration. The first report from this trial is expected in autumn 2000 [341462], [366312]. The mechanism of action for Endostatin remains unclear, although reports from the 91st AACR Meeting in April 2000 showed that recombinant human endostatin bound to a number of tropomyosin cDNAs in a library screen [362039]. In preclinical studies, repeated administration of Endostatin consistently shrank primary tumors and did not produce any drug resistance. In mice, a variety of tumors which had progressed to 1 to 2% of total body weight, regressed to microscopic, dormant lesions following Endostatin treatment [231418], [231470], [270673]. Types of cancers which respond to Endostatin include lung, skin, vascular and fibrosarcomas. Toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys showed that bolus injections of

  4. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  5. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  6. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... the au pairs resist and embrace such dominant representations, and on how such representations are ascribed different meanings in the transnational social fields of which the migrant are a part. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Denmark, the Philippines...

  7. Weak aurophilic interactions in a series of Au(III) double salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N; Chernysheva, Maria V; Hirva, Pipsa; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Haukka, Matti

    2015-08-28

    In this work, several new examples of rare Au(III)Au(III) aurophilic contacts are reported. A series of gold(iii) double salts and complexes, viz. [AuX2(L)][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ), [AuX3(biq)] (biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [LH][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [AuBr2(bpy)]2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , [AuCl2(bpm)][AuCl2] , (bpmH)2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , and (dpaH)[AuBr2] (, , and were reported earlier) was synthesized by coordination of a particular ligand to the Au(III) center and subsequent reduction of the formed product with acetone. Inspection of the X-ray structural data for , , and indicates that the Au(III) metal centers approach each other closer than the sum of their van der Waals radii, thus forming the aurophilic contacts, which were confirmed by topological charge density analysis according to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). In , , and , such contacts are located only between the metal centers of the ion pair, whereas in , the aurophilic interactions form the cation-anion-anion array, and in , the aurophilicity exists between the gold atoms of the cations. It was also demonstrated that the interatomic distance alone is not a reliable measure of the aurophilic interactions, at least at the weakest limit of the interaction strength, and it needs to be complemented with structural analysis of the whole molecule and computational results.

  8. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  9. Cluster-to-cluster transformation among Au6, Au8 and Au11 nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuqing; Fu, Junhong; Lin, Xinzhang; Fu, Xuemei; Yan, Jinghui; Wu, Ren'an; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jiahui

    2018-05-22

    We present the cluster-to-cluster transformations among three gold nanoclusters, [Au6(dppp)4]2+ (Au6), [Au8(dppp)4Cl2]2+ (Au8) and [Au11(dppp)5]3+ (Au11). The conversion process follows a rule that states that the transformation of a small cluster to a large cluster is achieved through an oxidation process with an oxidizing agent (H2O2) or with heating, while the conversion of a large cluster to a small one occurs through a reduction process with a reducing agent (NaBH4). All the reactions were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ESI-MS. This work may provide an alternative approach to the synthesis of novel gold nanoclusters and a further understanding of the structural transformation relationship of gold nanoclusters.

  10. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of ...

  11. Site-specific growth of Au-Pd alloy horns on Au nanorods: A platform for highly sensitive monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhancement raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2013-06-12

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly sensitive probe for molecular detection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient platform for investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with SERS. To achieve this, we synthesized a novel Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructure (HIF-AuNR@AuPd) through site-specific epitaxial growth of Au-Pd alloy horns as catalytic sites at the ends of Au nanorods. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we successfully reconstructed the complex three-dimensional morphology of HIF-AuNR@AuPd and identified that the horns are bound with high-index {11l} (0.25 < l < 0.43) facets. With an electron beam probe, we visualized the distribution of surface plasmon over the HIF-AuNR@AuPd nanorods, finding that strong longitudinal surface plasmon resonance concentrated at the rod ends. This unique crystal morphology led to the coupling of high catalytic activity with a strong SERS effect at the rod ends, making HIF-AuNR@AuPd an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of surface catalytic reactions. Using the hydrogenation of 4-nitrothiophenol as a model reaction, we demonstrated that its first-order reaction kinetics could be accurately determined from this platform. Moreover, we clearly identified the superior catalytic activity of the rod ends relative to that of the rod bodies, owing to the different SERS activities at the two positions. In comparison with other reported Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructures, HIF-AuNR@AuPd offered both higher catalytic activity and greater detection sensitivity. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Malawi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Conscients de la corrélation entre la pauvreté, la vulnérabilité sociale et les inégalités entre les sexes, les chercheurs se demanderont dans quelle mesure la situation sociale, économique, culturelle et politique des femmes qui vivent en milieu rural au Malawi influe sur la participation, à la vie politique locale, des jeunes ...

  13. Les concerts européens à la radio dans l'entre-deux-guerres : mise en ondes d'une métaphore diplomatique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborie, L.; Lommers, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    L’expression « concert européen » s’applique à la fois aux relations diplomatiques tissées entre les Etats au xixe siècle et à la diffusion d’émissions musicales à l’échelle continentale entre 1929 et 1939. Au-delà des prouesses techniques, l’ambition culturelle et pacifiste de ces concerts

  14. L’économie politique du désir dans le rituel et le militantisme au SriLanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le désir est au cœur des interactions complexes entre le développement et la religion. Cet article examine ses différentes expressions, comme étant une des préoccupations fondamentales de nombreuses religions, qui motivent à la fois le développement et les alternatives au développement. Au SriLanka, face au changement social, la forme néolibérale et mondialisée du développement est comprise et réinterprétée à travers des idiomes et des formations locales du désir. L’économie néolibérale cultive le désir et mène à un accroissement présumé de la présence des preta (fantômes affamés et avides qui se manifestent parfois au moment de la mort d’une personne. Les fantômes affamés, en tant que formations fétichisées du désir, trouvent un écho chez les consommateurs et les entrepreneurs, qui montrent unappétit insatiable vis-à-vis d’une richesse matérielle en constante croissance. Ainsi, l’apaisement ritualisé des fantômes affamés et le militantisme social de groupes tels que le Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR sont clairement liés par leur préoccupation mutuelle face à l’insécurité existentielle des êtres humains et non humains, causée par un désir excessif et déséquilibré. L’action rituelle et le militantisme social divergent toutefois dans la formulation explicite de leurs préoccupations spécifiques concernant le désir. Le rituel matérialise et condense l’angoisse liée au désir, alors que le militantisme social décrit la fétichisation du désir en termes économiques, politiques et scientifiques plus abstraits.

  15. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tubaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much higher catalytic activity and selectivity compared to more commonly employed palladium(II catalysts. Moreover, the complex was active, albeit to a minor extent, even under neutral conditions, and exhibited lower activity but higher selectivity compared to the previously published complex AuCl(PPh3. Preliminary results on intramolecular hydroarylations using this catalytic system indicate, however, that alkyne hydration by traces of water may become a serious competing reaction.

  16. Les professionnels mobiles à l’épreuve des radars automatiques. Une acceptation entre stress contenu et identités au travail bousculées Mobile professionals facing automatic radars. An acceptance between contained stress and shaken work identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Eyssartier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction, en 2003, du recours à l’automatisation pour le contrôle et la sanction des infractions au code de la route a introduit un changement majeur dans la politique de sécurité routière en France. L’objet de ce papier est de saisir l’impact de ce dispositif sur ceux qui en sont les destinataires mais également sur ceux en charge de sa mise en œuvre, d’autant que le recours à l’automatisation a été étendu au franchissement des feux rouges en 2009, en attendant l’introduction de la lecture automatisée des plaques d’immatriculation. La réalisation de focus groups réunissant des professionnels exerçant un « travail de mobilité » (il s’agissait dans ce travail d’agents d’exploitation et d’agents des forces de l’ordre et des professionnels exerçant un « travail dans la mobilité » (il s’agissait ici des usagers professionnels de la route, fournit le matériau empirique du papier. L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence l’impact du radar automatique sur les pratiques professionnelles, et notamment sur les déplacements, mais également sur l’identité au travail. Les travaux sur les modèles psychologiques du stress et sur la sociologie des professions et du travail offrent une grille d’analyse pertinente pour en saisir tous les éléments.The introduction, in 2003, of the recourse to automation for the control and the sanction of the offences against the highway code introduced a major change into the road safety policy in France. The object of this paper is to seize the impact of this device on those who are the recipients, but also by those in load of its implementation, the more so as the recourse to automation was extended to the crossing of red lights in 2009, while waiting for the introduction of the automated reading of the number plates. The realization of focus groups bringing together professionals exerting a “work of mobility” (i.e. agents of

  17. Liens entre le savoir et l'innovation dans les services de gestion des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet de recherche-action portera sur l'innovation dans la prestation de services par les administrations locales au Sri Lanka. Il ciblera principalement les administrateurs locaux chargés de la prestation des services de gestion des déchets solides. Les chercheurs établiront dans quelle mesure les interactions entre les ...

  18. Entre monos y centauros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available    ¿Qué relación puede existir entre Ovidio, Tiziano y unos tlacuilo indios de la sierra otomí ? ¿Qué tienen en comun  el pintor mas famoso del siglo XVI , el veneciano Tiziano (+ 1576,  un poeta latino del primer siglo despues de Cristo, Publio Ovidio Nasón (-43/17 ,  y unos artistas indígenas anónimos del pueblo otomi de Ixmiquilpan?   Aunque la reunión de estos tres nombres parezca extraña y sorprendente, los hilos que los unen no son nada anecdóticos.  Permiten entender mejor la manera...

  19. Entre formigas e estrelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Prates

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta resenha apresenta o livro Reagregando o social: uma introdução à teoria do ator-rede, última obra do filósofo francês Bruno Latour publicada no Brasil. Nele, o autor se propõe a elaborar uma suma da crítica que faz aos conceitos usualmente aceitos de “social”, o que vem desenvolvendo ao longo dos últimos anos de produção intelectual. Neste processo ele criou a “Teoria-ator-rede”, que busca reestabelecer teoricamente as relações entre o que chama de mediadores “humanos” e “não-humanos”.

  20. Sciences, technologie et innovation au service du développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    innovation (STI) sont essentielles au développement économique et social. Toutefois, faire le pont entre la recherche scientifique et le développement grâce à l'innovation technologique est un défi de taille, étant donné la complexité des questions ...

  1. Multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions studied with AMD-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-07-01

    AMD-V is an optimum model for calculation of multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions. AMD-V consider anti-symmetry of incident nucleus, target nucleus and fragments, furthermore, it treat the quantum effect to exist many channels in the intermediate and final state. 150 and 250 MeV/nucleon incident energy were used in the experiments. The data of multifragment atom in {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions was reproduced by AMD-V calculation using Gognny force, corresponding to the imcompressibility of nuclear substance K = 228 MeV and its mean field depend on momentum. When other interaction (SKG 2 force, corresponding to K = 373 KeV) was used an mean field does not depend on momentum, the calculation results could not reproduce the experimental values, because nucleus and deuteron were estimated too large and {alpha}-particle and intermediate fragments estimated too small. (S.Y.)

  2. Genre et harcèlement entre pairs à l'école primaire: analyse quantitative et qualitative des résultats d'une enquête de prévalence du harcèlement au prisme des études de genre

    OpenAIRE

    Barby Carole; Jaffé Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Cette recherche a pour objet le harcèlement entre pairs à l’école primaire, examiné sous l’angle des études de genre. Menée en Valais (Suisse), elle se base sur les données d’une enquête de prévalence organisée par l’Institut universitaire Kurt Bösch et la Haute école pédagogique du Valais auprès de 4091 enfants âgés de 10 à 13 ans. Les résultats mettent en évidence des variations significatives dans les proportions de filles et de garçons victimes et auteurs des différentes formes de victima...

  3. Que faisons-nous au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Le CERN a pour vocation la science pure, l'étude des questions les plus fondamentales de la nature:Qu'est-ce que la matière ?D'ou vient-elle ? Comment s'agglomère-t-elle en formes complexes comme les étoiles, les planètes et les êtres humains ? Au CERN, les collisions de particules servent à sonder le coeur de la matière et les chercheurs du Laboratoire étudient ces millions de collisions de particules afin de trouver des réponses à ces questions.

  4. Transverse expansion in 197 Au + 197 Au collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, K.; Schweda, K.; Xu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Using the RQMD model, transverse momentum distributions and particle ratios are studied for 197 Au + 197 Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV. In particular, they present results on the mean transverse momentum of charged pions, charged kaons, protons and anti-protons and compare with experimental measurements. They discuss an approach to study early partonic collectivity in high energy nuclear collisions

  5. La sociologie au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Bourqia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sans prétendre à l’exhaustivité, l’article donne un aperçu de la genèse et du développement de la sociologie, produite par les sociologues marocains, depuis l’indépendance du Maroc et jusqu’en 2006. Il faire ressortir les grandes étapes, les grands thèmes de recherche et éventuellement les paradigmes théoriques qui les orientent, tout en tenant compte du caractère flou des frontières entre la sociologie et d’autres disciplines, notamment l’anthropologie.Sociology in Morocco. Major steps and thematic milestonesWhile not pretending to thoroughness, this article gives an overview of the origins and the development of the sociology produce by Moroccan sociologists, from Morocco’s independence until 2006. It will highlight its major steps, the main research themes, and eventually theoretical paradigms that orient them. It will also take into account the blurring of the boundaries between sociology and other fields, especially anthropology.La sociología en Marruecos. Principales etapas y jalones temáticosSin pretender ser exhaustivo, este artículo permite atisbar la génesis y el desarrollo de la sociología producida por los sociólogos marroquíes, desde la independencia hasta 2006. Se subrayan las  principales etapas, los principales temas de investigación y eventualmente los paradigmas teóricos que los orientan teniendo en cuenta la imprecisión de las fronteras entre la sociología y las otras materias particularmente la antropología.

  6. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  7. BODIPY-Au(I): A Photosensitizer for Singlet Oxygen Generation and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçüncü, Muhammed; Karakuş, Erman; Kurulgan Demirci, Eylem; Sayar, Melike; Dartar, Suay; Emrullahoğlu, Mustafa

    2017-05-19

    Upon complexation with Au(I), a photoinactive BODIPY derivative was transformed into a highly photoactive triplet sensitizer. Along with high efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (Φ Δ = 0.84), the new BODIPY-Au(I) skeleton showed excellent photocytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (EC 50 = 2.5 nM).

  8. A theoretical study of the decomposition of gold (I) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossell, J. A.

    1998-04-01

    Structures, energetics and excitation energies are calculated for the gold (I) complexes CH 3Au, (CH 3) 2Au -, CH 3AuOH 2, CH 3AuPH 3 and PH 3AuCl at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and for CH 3AuP(CH 3) 3, CH 3AuP(OH) 3 and Au 3Cl 3 at the HF level. The lowest-energy neutral triplet state of each 2-coordinate compound dissociates into either two or three radical species (always including the CH 3 radical), with the exception of (CH 3) 2Au - which shows only slight Au-C bond elongation. In contrast, the doublet anion states dissociate neutral ligands, like PH 3, but do not dissociate CH 3. These results indicate that gold (I) chemical vapor deposition processes must involve excited states of the neutrals rather than their anions.

  9. Entre grafos y bits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Boserman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se propone ahondar en las intersecciones de lo analógico y lo digital, en el encuentro de la baja y la alta tecnología. Tomando consciencia de la materialidad de ambas esferas para pensar desde ahí en objetos, prácticas de dibujo y documentación que puedan aportar otras formulaciones aplicables a métodos de investigación. Entre grafos y bits, diseccionaremos un objeto, el #relatograma, analizaremos su ecología y propondremos una reflexión acerca de su condición digital que genera paisajes por agregación #coreograma, explorando así su capacidad de ser reporte y aporte cognitivo. Between graphs and bits  Abstract This paper delves into the intersections of analogue and digital cultures, at the points at which low and high technology converge. While acknowledging the materiality of these two spheres, I aim to produce an enquiry into objects, drawings and documentation practices that can contribute to developing new research methods. Among graphs and bits, I will dissect one object: the #relatograma, in order to analyze its ecology and propose a critical reflection on its digital condition and its ability to produce aggregated landscapes, or what I define as #coreograma. I will thereby explore its ability to be share information and produce knowledge. Keywords: Material culture; research methods; digital objects; drawing; #relatograma.

  10. Atomistic Simulations of Functional Au-144(SR)(60) Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, E.; Gurtovenko, A. A.; Martinez-Seara, H.

    2012-01-01

    and Cl-/Na+ counterions, respectively. The radial distribution functions show that the side chains and terminal groups show significant flexibility. The orientation of water is distinct in the first solvation shell, and AuNPs cause a long-range effect in the solvent structure. The radial electrostatic...... of the nanoparticle together with surrounding ions and water. We focus on Au-144 nanoparticles that comprise a nearly spherical Au core (diameter similar to 2 nm), a passivating Au-S interface, and functionalized alkanethiol chains. Cationic and anionic AuNPs have been modeled with amine and carboxyl terminal groups...... in aqueous solutions. They suggest that electrostatics is one of the central factors in complexation of AuNPs with other nanomaterials and biological systems, and that effects of electrostatics as water-mediated interactions are relatively long-ranged, which likely plays a role in, e.g., the interplay...

  11. LA FINANCE ISLAMIQUE, DES FONDEMENTS AU SYSTÈME

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Zahra ALIOUI; Zeyneb GUELLIL; Soufyane BADRAOUI

    2015-01-01

    Force est de constater aujourd’hui, que la finance basée sur les préceptes de l’Islam, à savoir la finance islamique, remet violemment en cause notre conception de la finance et de l’économie. Cette nouvelle finance, pour certains, de «toutes les vertus«éthiques» et anti-crise», ou simple attirail marketing pour d’autres, a au moins le mérite de faire parler d’elle! Associé finance et Islam, c’est faire le postulat qu’il existe une relation entre économie et religio...

  12. Les Murchidât au Maroc. Entre islam d’État et islam au féminin

    OpenAIRE

    Dirèche, Karima

    2013-01-01

    Avec l’émergence des murchidât dans l’espace religieux marocain, c’est la reconnaissance inédite du rôle religieux d’éducatrice des femmes dans la sphère publique. Elles sont  présentées, par l’État et relayé en cela par la presse nationale, comme un des vecteurs de diffusion d’un islam marocain moderne et féministe. Ces nouvelles prédicatrices, soumises à une formation endroit musulman et en sciences sociales sont actives dans le cadre des prisons, des hôpitaux, des lieux de travail et des e...

  13. The formation and deexcitation of hot nuclei in 40Ar + 197Au collisions at 44 and 77 MeV/A. Neutrons emission light charged particles and complex fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A.

    1990-05-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the formation and decay of hot nuclei produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. By studying the system Ar + Au and Ar + Th at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u we first show how to classify events in two groups: peripheral and very dissipative collisions, measuring the number of evaporated neutrons, which depend directly on the violence of the collision. Associated with these neutrons, different deexcitation channels were observed (heavy residues, fission fragments, light charged particles, intermediate mass fragments). The ratio between peripheral and very dissipative collisions was found independent of the system and the same as the one observed at lower incident energy. The most probable neutron multiplicity for very dissipative collisions is not very different at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u. A measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments and heavy residues was performed. Detected products are essentially associated with large neutron multiplicity and have a cross section close to the one for the very dissipative collisions. The total mass of the fission fragments is close to the mass of the target, while the mass of the heavy residue is much smaller. The backward evaporated light charged particles are also produced in very dissipative collisions. The characteristics of their energy spectra as well as their multiplicities are very similar at 44 MeV/u 77 MeV/u. From the number of evaporated light charged particles, the estimation of the quasi-target excitation energy was done and found to be close to 600 MeV at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u [fr

  14. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  15. Transverse velocity scaling in 197Au+197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasik, J.; Hudan, S.; Lavaud, F.

    2002-07-01

    Invariant transverse-velocity spectra of intermediate-mass fragments were measured with the 4π multi-detector system INDRA for collisions of 197 Au on 197 Au at incident energies between 40 and 150 MeV per nucleon. Their scaling properties as a function of incident energy and atomic number Z are used to distinguish and characterize the emissions in (i) peripheral collisions at the projectile and target rapidities, and in (ii) central and (iii) peripheral collisions near mid-rapidity. The importance of dynamical effects is evident in all three cases and their origin is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt Tonjes, Marguerite; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    The study of flow can provide information on the initial state dynamics and the degree of equilibration attained in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution presents results for both elliptic and directed flow as determined from data recorded by the PHOBOS experiment in Au+Au runs at RHIC at \\sqrt{sNN} = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. The PHOBOS detector provides a unique coverage in pseudorapidity for measuring flow at RHIC. The systematic dependence of flow on pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, centrality and energy is discussed.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 42. Citation on PubMed Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. 1999 Jul ... Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2): ...

  18. Chiral magnetic effect search in p+Au, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Metastable domains of fluctuating topological charges can change the chirality of quarks and induce local parity violation in quantum chromodynamics. This can lead to observable charge separation along the direction of the strong magnetic field produced by spectator protons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). A major background source for CME measurements using the charge-dependent azimuthal correlator (Δϒ) is the intrinsic particle correlations (such as resonance decays) coupled with the azimuthal elliptical anisotropy (v2). In heavy-ion collisions, the magnetic field direction and event plane angle are correlated, thus the CME and the v2-induced background are entangled. In this report, we present two studies from STAR to shed further lights on the background issue. (1) The Δϒ should be all background in small system p+Au and d+Au collisions, because the event plane angles are dominated by geometry fluctuations uncorrelated to the magnetic field direction. However, significant Δϒ is observed, comparable to the peripheral Au+Au data, suggesting a background dominance in the latter, and likely also in the mid-central Au+Au collisions where the multiplicity and v2 scaled correlator is similar. (2) A new approach is devised to study Δϒ as a function of the particle pair invariant mass (minv) to identify the resonance backgrounds and hence to extract the possible CME signal. Signal is consistent with zero within uncertainties at high minv. Signal at low minv, extracted from a two-component model assuming smooth mass dependence, is consistent with zero within uncertainties.

  19. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  20. Level lifetimes of Au52+ in Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Zhu Zhiyan; Jiang Gang; Zhu Zhenghe

    2003-01-01

    Based on the extended relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock theory, the level lifetimes, level widths and wavelengths of Au 52+ have been calculated using the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The wavelengths obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data available. The relationship between the level lifetimes and the level widths satisfies the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  1. Intégration verticale et niveau du risque au sein des compagnies pétrolières internationales. Impact sur la volatilité des bénéfices de 15 compagnies entre 1980 et 1989 Vertical Integration and Risk Level in International Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruchet D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On regroupe couramment les diverses activités pétrolières en deux ensembles que l'on dit complémentaires : l'amont et l'aval. On emploie alors le terme d'intégration verticale pour exprimer le fait qu'une même compagnie soit présente tant à l'amont qu'à l'aval. L'intégration verticale est étudiée ici sur la période 1980-1989 à travers quinze compagnies pétrolières : six Majors et neuf Indépendants. Les volumes d'activité des deux secteurs considérés présentent des évolutions contrastées selon les compagnies et les années. En effet, la recherche d'une intégration verticale plus complète - c'est-à-dire d'une plus grande présence en amont - peut découler de deux logiques différentes. D'un point de vue industriel, si l'amont constitue souvent le fondement de l'activité des compagnies, il existe de plus des facteurs de sécurité d'approvisionnement, d'économie de transaction et d'économie d'échelle. D'un point de vue économique, dans la mesure où les ventes du secteur amont sont les fournitures du secteur aval, c'est l'antisymétrie des résultats des deux secteurs qui est un atout. Il s'agit donc d'analyser les liens entre l'intégration verticale et la stabilité des bénéfices. Sur la période considérée, et pour l'ensemble des compagnies, le coefficient de corrélation entre les bénéfices amont et les bénéfices aval est négatif. L'étude, compagnie par compagnie, montre que plus les compagnies sont intégrées verticalement et plus leurs résultats sont anticorrélés. De même, l'étude des répercussions sur la volatilité des bénéfices est concluante. On constate que la volatilité du bénéfice global (amont et aval est pour chaque compagnie inférieure à celles des bénéfices sectoriels. Des estimations économétriques confirment ces observations. Les Majors se caractérisent par des volatilités faibles, tandis que d'autres compagnies, à forts risques sectoriels, limitent la volatilité de

  2. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of inclusion complexes between local anesthetics and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao e caracterizacao fisico-quimica de complexos de inclusao entre anestesicos locais e hidroxipropil-{beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; Abrami, Priscila; Goncalves, Marcos Moises; Andreo Filho, Newton [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br

    2007-07-15

    S(-) Bupivacaine (S(-)BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC) are widely used local anesthetics (LA). Hydroxypropyl {beta}-cyclodextrin (HP-{beta}-CD) is used as a drug-carrier system. The aim of this work was to characterize inclusion complexes between LA and HP-{beta}-CD. The affinity constants determined at different pHs show favourable complexation. The release kinetics experiments showed that S(-)BVC and LDC changed the released profiles in the presence of HP-{beta}-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments gave information about the interaction between LA and the cyclodextrin cavity. This study focused on the physicochemical characterization of drug-delivery formulations that come out as potentially new therapeutic options for pain treatment. (author)

  3. Estudio geológico de la región entre Cuzco y Machu Picchu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available La région comprise entre Cuzco et Machu Picchu est située sur la terminaison orientale de la 'déflexion d'Abancay'. On y observe la superposition de deux cycles tectorogéniques: le cycle hercynien et le cycle andin. Nous verrons pourquoi l'existence du Précambrien est problématique. La série du Paléozoïque inférieur est analogue à celle connue depuis le Nord de l'Argentine. Au Dévonien supérieur à lieu la tectonique éohercynienne. Les structures qui en résultent sont polyphasées et accompagnées par 2 schistosités. Le Paléozoïque supérieur, semblable à celui du reste du Pérou, repose en discordance angulaire sur les roches plissées à l'éohercynien. En concordance sur le Paléozoïque supérieur vient la série Méso-Cénozoïque, marine jusqu'au Crétacé puis continentale. Du Lias au Sénonien notre région constitue la transition entre 2 bassins subsidents, l'un marin, l'autre continental (Altiplano. Au Sénonien la mer se retire et commence le dépôt d'une épaisse série de Couches Rouges. La sédimentation continentale est interrompue à l'Eocène supérieur-Oligocène Inférieur par la phase paroxysmale de la tectonique andine. Les failles préexistantes rejouent soit en faille inverse soit en décrochement selon leur orientation par rapport à la direction de raccourcissement. Ces rejeux complexes peuvent entraîner des inhomogénéités dans la répartition de la déformation souple et provoquer de nouvelles failles en grosses perpendiculaires aux structures. L'Oligocène voit le dépôt de molasses conglomératiques discordantes sur le substratum plissé à l'Eocène sup.-Oligocène inférieur. Le Tertiaire se termine par la mise en place à l'Oligo-Miocène de batholites granodioritiques et par un magmatisme effusif au Mio-Pliocène. Le cycle andin est bouclé par la dernière phase de la tectonique andine (Pliocène suivie par quelques manifestations volcaniques au Quaternaire. La región comprendida entre

  4. Pirotte Jean, Zélis Guy, Dir., Pour une histoire du monde catholique au 20e siècle. Wallonie-Bruxelles. Guide du chercheur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Servais

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C’est à une véritable somme des connaissances en histoire du monde catholique wallon et bruxellois que se sont livrés les vingt-six auteurs des différents chapitres de cet ouvrage. Celui-ci est imposant et le pari s’avérait difficile à tenir : couvrir une pé­riode historique très riche dans un ensemble géographique complexe. On notera toutefois, au niveau strictement matériel, que la qualité d’impression de certaines parties de l’ouvrage que nous avons eu entre les mains laissait à désirer… E...

  5. Igneous Complexes of the Orochenka Caldera of the East Sikhote-Alin Belt: U-Pb (SHRIMP) Age, Trace and Rare Earth Element Composition, and Au-Ag Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    New data are presented on the geology and composition of volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Orochenka caldera, which is located in the western part of the East Sikhote Alin volcanic belt. The SHRIMP and ICP MS age of zircons of volcanic and intrusive rocks, respectively, and the composition of the volcanic rocks allow comparison of these complexes with volcanic rocks of the eastern part of the volcanic structure. New data indicate the period of transition between subduction to transform regimes.

  6. Studies on coordination and addition compounds and anti microbial activity of some mixed ligand complexes of Au(III), Mo(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) with dibasic acid and heterocyclic amines and addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with benzamide and acetophenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.; Sultana, C.; Saidul Islam, M.; Zakaria, C.M.

    2008-06-01

    Three new mixed ligand complexes of Au(III) and Mo(II) with dibasic acid e.g., homophthalic acid, oxalic acid and heterocylic amines e.g., quinonine, iso-quinonine, bipyridine, Phenylanaline and the two new addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with N-donor ligands viz. benzamide and acetophenone and one complex [Cd(DPH)(IQ) 2 ], where IQ = Iso-quinoline and DPH = Deprotonated phthalic acid have been prepared according to the procedure in the literature. Their conventional physical and chemical analyses have been done. Their antibacterial studies against nine gram positive and five gram negative pathogenic bacteria and antifungal activities against eight plant and three human fungi have been evaluated. Kanamycin and Nystatin have been used as a standard for carrying out experiments of antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these compounds, as antibiotic against two gram positive and two gram negative pathogenic bacteria, have also been carried out and in this case, Amoxacilin antibiotic has been used as a standard antibiotic. (author)

  7. Séminaire: Accessibilité au lieu de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Un intérêt pour les questions liées au handicap et à l’accessibilité au lieu de travail ? Voulez-vous en apprendre plus sur la différence entre handicap et situation handicapante ? Sur la notion de design universel ? Alors réservez un peu de temps pour participer au séminaire avec Jérôme Cibadier, Adjoint Technique de la Déléguée Nationale pour le Handicap du Ministère Français des Armées. Jérôme Cibadier parcourra avec nous les notions de handicap et les concepts généraux autour de la mise en place d’une politique en matière d’aménagement raisonnable (accessibilité et équipements) en s’appuyant sur les textes internationaux, en particulier ceux produits par le Conseil de l’Europe et les Nations Unies. Il nous présentera également le besoin de mettre en place une approche technique de l’aménagement raisonnable, ainsi que de structurer la réponse de l’Organisation à cette question, et partagera sa propre expérience sur le sujet. Ce séminaire sera interactif, av...

  8. La course au logement social

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Ce billet a été publié dans le cadre de l'opération Têtes Chercheuses, qui permet à des étudiants ou chercheurs de grandes écoles, d'universités ou de centres de recherche partenaires de promouvoir des projets innovants en les rendant accessibles, et ainsi participer au débat public.

  9. Entre Dissection et Empathie: le cinéma en direct de Katie Mitchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Magris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article étudie deux spectacles réalisés par la metteuse en scène britannique Katie Mitchell à la Schaubühne de Berlin – Fraulein Julie (2010, en collaboration avec le vidéaste Leo Warner, et Die Gelbe Tapete (2013 – qui, comme dans un diptyque, explorent la vie intime de deux femmes souffrantes grâce à un dispositif ciné-théâtral complexe au fonctionnement spécifique. La simultanéité de deux régimes de présence sur scène, le jeu et le tournage, ainsi que de l’action scénique et du film, produit une tension permanente entre effets contradictoires – identification/distanciation, continuité/discontinuité, éclatement/concentration – tant sur les acteurs que sur les spectateurs, en créant une interface élastique qui enveloppe la scène et la salle et permet une immersion théâtrale dans la subjectivité.

  10. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 2,4-Dichlorophenol can be converted to phenol via the catalytic HDC method over Pd-Au/CNTs and the catalytic activity first increased and then decreased with Au content. - Highlights: • Bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger number of exposed active site than the monometallic catalysts. • The cationization of Pd particles increased with Au content in the bimetallic catalysts. • The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activities for HDC of 2,4-DCP than the monometallic counterparts. • The concerted pathway for HDC of 2,4-DCP was more predominant with increasing Au content in the bimetallic catalyst. - Abstract: Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H 2 chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d 5/2 shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f 7/2 had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest catalytic activity

  11. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Juan [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen, Huan, E-mail: hchen404@njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Province for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental & Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: 2,4-Dichlorophenol can be converted to phenol via the catalytic HDC method over Pd-Au/CNTs and the catalytic activity first increased and then decreased with Au content. - Highlights: • Bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger number of exposed active site than the monometallic catalysts. • The cationization of Pd particles increased with Au content in the bimetallic catalysts. • The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activities for HDC of 2,4-DCP than the monometallic counterparts. • The concerted pathway for HDC of 2,4-DCP was more predominant with increasing Au content in the bimetallic catalyst. - Abstract: Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d{sub 5/2} shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f{sub 7/2} had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest

  12. Some recent results in Au+Au collisions at AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Many interesting results have been obtained for Au + Au reactions at AGS. The basic information about the reaction dynamics comes from the hadronic distribution. and this article reviews the recent progress of these distributions in details. The proton rapidity distribution shows significantly increased stopping compared to lighter systems, implying the formation of a state of high baryon density. Unlike reactions at this energy induced by lighter heavy ions, at low m t - m 0 the proton invariant spectra deviate from a single exponential shape and become fear,. while pion spectra are found to rise in this region, with the π - spectra rising faster than the π + spectra. The inverse slope parameter increases faster for particles of larger mass as the number of participants in the reaction increases, an indication of increased effect of radial expansion in central collision. Anti-proton Needs have been measured recently, and unfortunately a comparison among current results from different experiments indicates discrepancy

  13. L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... durables axées sur l'utilisation des eaux pluviales et le recyclage des eaux usées urbaines. ... L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance ... Traitement des eaux usées à Mexico – équilibre entre les bienfaits et les ...

  14. Accès au savoir en Afrique australe : le libre accès à la recherche à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa (A2KSA) a pour but de mieux comprendre les différentes contraintes entourant l'accès des universités d'Afrique australe au savoir à des fins de recherche et d'enseignement. Le projet, une collaboration de recherche entre la Southern African Regional Universities Association ...

  15. A redox-switchable Au8-cluster sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Haw; Hsu, Yu-Yen; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2012-07-09

    The proof of concept of a simple sensing platform based on the fluorescence of a gold cluster consisting of eight atoms, which is easily manipulated by reduction and oxidation of a specific molecule in the absence of chemical linkers, is demonstrated. Without using any coupling reagents to arrange the distance of the donor-acceptor pair, the fluorescence of the Au(8) -cluster is immediately switched off in the presence of 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) quencher. Through an upward-curving Stern-Volmer plot, the system shows complex fluorescence quenching with a combination of static and dynamic quenching processes. To analyze the static quenching constant (V) by a "sphere of action" model, the collisional encounter between the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT presents a quenching radius (r) ≈5.8 nm, which is larger than the sum of the radii of the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT. This implies that fluorescence quenching can occur even though the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT are not very close to each other. The quenching pathway may be derived from a photoinduced electron-transfer process of the encounter pair between the Au(8) -cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-PyT (as an electron acceptor) to allow efficient fluorescence quenching in the absence of coupling reagents. Interestingly, the fluorescence is restored by oxidation of 2-PyT to form the corresponding disulfide compound and then quenched again after the reduction of the disulfide. This redox-switchable fluorescent Au(8) -cluster platform is a novel discovery, and its utility as a promising sensor for detecting H(2) O(2) -generating enzymatic transformations is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nuclear spin of 185Au and hyperfine structure of 188Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, C.; Ingelman, S.; Wannberg, G.

    1977-03-01

    The nuclear spin of 185 Au, I = 5/2, and the hyperfine separation of 188 Au, Δγ = +- 2992(30) MHz, have been measured with the atomic-beam magnetic resonance method. The spin of 185 Au indicates a deformed nuclear shape in the ground state. The small magnetic moment of 188 Au is close in value to those of the heavier I = 1 gold isotopes 190 192 194 Au, being located in a typical transition region. (Auth.)

  17. Complexidade & desenvolvimento: abordagem metodológica e panorama da discussão propagada pelo Ipea entre 2008 e 2010 Complexity and development: methodological and panoramic approaches to the discussion on the Ipea between 2008 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Celso Cardoso Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O declínio das versões mais ortodoxas do liberalismo na primeira década do século XXI ofereceu oportunidade para a revalorização da atuação estatal. No Brasil, a recuperação da capacidade de investimento do Estado e a atualização - ainda que insuficientes - de sua estrutura administrativa revitalizaram os campos do planejamento e desenvolvimento, outorgando-lhes novos e mais complexos e desafiadores objetivos. Como repensar, portanto, o binômio "planejamento-desenvolvimento" nesse novo contexto? O ensaio explora aspectos da complexificação do tempo presente, o que, por sua vez, suscita a necessidade de requalificar e ressignificar os sentidos e as práticas do planejamento governamental e do próprio desenvolvimento pretendido ao país na atual quadra histórica. Conclui se afirmando que o desenvolvimento é processo coletivo, contínuo e cumulativo de aprendizado e conquistas, cujas dimensões ou qualificativos agregam-se - teórica e politicamente - tanto em simultâneo como em patamares equivalentes de importância estratégica, pois hoje, afinal, sabe-se que ou é assim ou não se está falando de desenvolvimento.The decline of more orthodox versions of liberalism in the first decade of this century has provided an opportunity for the reevaluation of state action. In Brazil, the recovery of the state's investment capacity and the updates (albeit inadequate updates to the state's administrative structure have revitalized the fields of planning and development, giving them new, challenging, and more complex goals. But to what extent should the concept of "planning and development" be reconsidered in this new context? The paper explores aspects of the complexity of current events, which themselves raise the need to retrain and reframe meanings and practices of government planning, as well as of the very development that has been planned for the country during this period. We conclude by stating that development is a collective

  18. Fluorescence enhancement by Au nanostructures: nanoshells and nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Grady, Nathaniel K; Cole, Joseph R; Joshi, Amit; Halas, Naomi J

    2009-03-24

    Metallic nanoparticles influence the quantum yield and lifetime of adjacent fluorophores in a manner dependent on the properties of the nanostructure. Here we directly compare the fluorescence enhancement of the near-infrared fluorophore IR800 by Au nanoshells (NSs) and Au nanorods (NRs), where human serum albumin (HSA) serves as a spacer layer between the nanoparticle and the fluorophore. Our measurements reveal that the quantum yield of IR800 is enhanced from approximately 7% as an isolated fluorophore to 86% in a NSs-HSA-IR800 complex and 74% in a NRs-HSA-IR800 complex. This dramatic increase in fluorescence shows tremendous potential for contrast enhancement in fluorescence-based bioimaging.

  19. Coopération entre milieux ruraux et urbains dans la gestion de l'eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coopération entre milieux ruraux et urbains dans la gestion de l'eau face aux changements climatiques au Burkina Faso. Les villes dépendent fortement des milieux ruraux qui leur assurent un apport en produits alimentaires, en eau et en matières premières. Les changements climatiques, en augmentant la fréquence des ...

  20. Augmentation de l'égalité entre les sexes chez les producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... La baisse de la production de petits mils est attribuable, entre autres, au fait que leur transformation nécessite de longs et pénibles travaux qui incombent habituellement aux femmes. Le projet Revalorisation des petits mils en Asie du Sud, axé sur les femmes, vise à accroître leur rôle dans la recherche ...

  1. How Does Amino Acid Ligand Modulate Au Core Structure and Characteristics in Peptide Coated Au Nanocluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Xu; Zhao, Hongkang; Zhao, Lina

    2018-03-01

    The atomic structures and the corresponding physicochemical properties of peptide coated Au nanoclusters determine their distinctive biological targeting applications. To learn the modulation of amino acid ligand on the atomic structure and electronic characteristics of coated Au core is the fundamental knowledge for peptide coated Au nanocluster design and construction. Based on our recent coated Au nanocluster configuration study (Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 11454), we built the typically simplified Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) system to more clearly learn the basic modulation information of amino acid ligand on Au core by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. There are two isomers as ligand adjacent bonding (Iso1) and diagonal bonding (Iso2) to Au13 cores. The geometry optimizations indicate the adjacent bonding Iso1 is more stable than Iso2. More important, the Au13 core of Iso1 distorts much more significantly than that of Iso2 by Cys-Au-Cys bonding through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) analysis, which modulate their electronic characteristics in different ways. In addition, the frontier molecular orbital results of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) isomers confirm that the Au cores mainly determine the blue shifts of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) systems versus the original Au13 core in their UV-visible absorption spectrum studies. The configuration of Au13 core performs deformation under Cys-Au-Cys ligand modulation to reach new stability with distinct atomic structure and electronic properties, which could be the theory basis for peptide coated AuNCs design and construction.

  2. Cartographie et contrôle au Maroc sous le Protectorat espagnol (1912-1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villanova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La principale fonction des interventores (contrôleurs du Protectorat espagnol au Maroc entre 1912 et 1956 a consisté à surveiller l’action des autorités tribales marocaines pour asseoir la présence coloniale. Cependant, le Haut-Commissariat d’Espagne au Maroc leur a souvent demandé de préparer des rapports d’ordre économique, social ou à finalité militaire sur les tribus, généralement mal connues de l’autorité coloniale. Ces documents contiennent des cartes de qualité variée qui ont pu constituer un instrument précieux de contrôle et, dans certains cas, un outil de propagande au service de l’action coloniale espagnole.

  3. Adaptation aux changements climatiques au Malawi grâce à l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... Depuis 2001, le programme Écosystèmes et santé humaine du CRDI finance au Malawi des recherches centrées sur les liens entre la fertilité des sols, ... L'équipe examine la façon dont la recherche participative peut guider l'élaboration de stratégies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques, dans un ...

  4. Le témoignage de terrain d'une chercheuse candidate au doctorat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 mai 2017 ... Certaines d'entre elles ont été enlevées durant la guerre et d'autres ont ... que je comprenais quelque chose au phénomène que j'étudiais. Or, quand j'y retourne, je me rends compte que j'ignore encore tout du phénomène. ... ÉTUDE DE CAS — mondiale : Repenser les stratégies de recherche agricole.

  5. Au rendez-vous allemand (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bouvier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La parution en 1857 des Études d’histoire religieuse d’Ernest Renan marque l’entrée en France des conceptions allemandes du mythe appliquées à l’histoire des textes sacrés. Or, cette date est aussi celle de la rencontre intellectuelle entre Renan et Flaubert, rencontre qui se matérialisera deux ans plus tard : au moment où Flaubert entreprend Salammbô, il accède aux travaux philologiques de la « nouvelle école » représentée en France par Renan. La supériorité de l’école allemande tient essentiellement selon Renan à sa capacité de penser le mythe comme un tout « indivis » irréductible à toute interprétation univoque : en dépit de certaines outrances des « rationalistes » et des « mythologues », dont il distingue nettement les deux types d’approche, Renan envisage l’exégèse allemande comme un progrès dont il montre les étapes et qu’il se propose d’achever en développant ce qu’il appelle une critique « sympathique ». Davantage qu’une méthode, il définit une posture critique d’adhésion à l’objet que Flaubert pourra mettre en oeuvre dans son roman.The publication in 1857 of Ernest Renan’s Études d’histoire religieuse signals the introduction in France of German ideas about myths applied to the history of religious texts. Now this date is also that of the intellectual encounter between Renan and Flaubert. Their actual meeting came about two years later. Indeed, while Flaubert was starting Salammbô, he discovered the philological studies of the “New School” represented in France by Renan. According to Renan the superiority of the German School was due to its capacity to comprehend the myth as an undivided whole irreducible to a univocal interpretation. Thus, despite the excesses of the “rationalists” and “mythologs”, whose methods he clearly distinguished, Renan considered the German exegesis a progress. He outlined its stages which he sought to complete by

  6. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  7. Transport characteristics in Au/pentacene/Au diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Naka, Akiyoshi; Hiroki, Masanobu; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao; Fujiwara, Akira

    2018-03-01

    We have used scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM) to study the structure of a pentacene thin film grown on a Au layer with and shown that it consists of randomly oriented amorphous pentacene clusters. We have also investigated the transport properties of amorphous pentacene in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diode structure and shown that the current is logarithmically proportional to the square root of the applied voltage, which indicates that transport occurs as the result of hopping between localized sites randomly distributed in space and energy.

  8. Jeter des ponts entre les agriculteurs et les supermarchés au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juil. 2014 ... Eric Smith. Que sont-ils devenus ? Sara Elder a reçu du financement qui lui a permis de poursuivre sur le terrain des travaux de recherche doctorale sur la façon dont les petits exploitants agricoles sont touchés par le fait qu'ils doivent vendre leurs produits à des supermarchés modernes plutôt qu'à des ...

  9. Évolution des marchés du travail au Bangladesh - interaction entre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Bangladesh, dont l'économie et la population sont en croissance, a surtout réussi à créer des emplois dans les industries du textile et du vêtement. ... Le South Asian Network on Economic Modeling, situé à Dhaka, réalisera le projet de ...

  10. Bases del intercambio entre las sociedades norperuanas y surecuatorianas: una zona de transición entre 1500 A.C. y 600 D.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available BASES DE L'ECHANGE ENTRE LES SOCIETES NORD-PERUVIENNES ET SUD-EQUATORIENNES : UNE ZONE DE TRANSITION ENTRE 1500 AV. J.C. ET 600 AP. J.C. Cet article est le fruit d’une tentative de coopération entre des chercheurs qui travaillent en Équateur et au Pérou, pour relier les deux aires culturelles nettement différenciées, nord-andine et centre-andine, à partir de la définition et de l’étude d’une zone de transition, localisée entre le Río Jubones dans le sud de l'Équateur et le Río Olmos dans le nord du Pérou, entre environ 1500 av. J.C. et 600 ap. J.C. El artículo es resultado de un intento de cooperación entre investigadores que trabajan el Ecuador y el Perú para vincular las dos áreas culturales marcadamente diferenciadas, norandina y centroandina, a partir de la definición y estudio de una zona de transición, localizada entre el río Jubones, al sur de Ecuador y el Río Olmos, al norte de Perú, entre aproximadamente 1500 AC y 600 DC. BASIS OF THE EXCHANGE BETWEEN NORTH PERUVIAN AND SOUTH ECUATORIAN SOCIETIES: A TRANSITIONAL ZONE BETWEEN 1500 B.C. AND 600 A.C. This paper is a collaborative effort by researchers working in Ecuador and Peru, to explore the relationship between two clearly differentiated cultural areas (North and Central Andes on the basis of a definition and study of the prehistory transitional zone located between Río Jubones in Southern Ecuador and Río Olmos in Northern Peru between 1500 B.C. and 600 A.C.

  11. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  12. High-p$_{T}$ Tomography of d+Au and Au+Au at SPS, RHIC, and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vitev, I; Vitev, Ivan; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2002-01-01

    The interplay of nuclear effects on the p_T > 2 GeV inclusive hadron spectra in d+Au and Au+Au reactions at root(s) = 17, 200, 5500 GeV is compared to leading order perturbative QCD calculations for elementary p+p (p-bar+p) collisions. The competition between nuclear shadowing, Cronin effect, and jet energy loss due to medium-induced gluon radiation is predicted to lead to a striking energy dependence of the nuclear suppression/enhancement pattern in A+A reactions. We show that future d+Au data can used to disentangle the initial and final state effects.

  13. Configuration dependent deformation in 183Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Mukherjee, G.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime measurements in 183 Au nucleus were carried in order to probe the deformation properties of the band built on the i 3/2 and h 9/2 configurations. The nucleus of 183 Au was populated using a reaction 28 Si( 159 Tb,4n) 183 Au at a beam energy of 140 MeV. Lifetime measurements were carried out using Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) method

  14. El periodista, entre el Poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Dader

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo se debate, desde sus orígenes, entre la reproducción servil de versiones interesadas o la distorsión de propio cuño, por conocimiento insuficiente de una realidad que sólo puede entrever. Los poderes que amenazan la independencia periodística no han hecho más que crecer o aumentar su habilidad con el paso del tiempo. Surgido como ‘oficio de esclavos’ en la época romana, muchos indicadores actuales parecen retornarle al punto de partida: relaciones públicas estratégicas a gran escala, auge de los ‘spin doctors’, extorsión descarnada en las democracias más débiles y populismo de las redes sociales, entre otros. Todo ello, unido o alentado por la degradación interna y el desaliento de la propia institución periodística incapaz de distanciarse de todas esas fuerzas. Su respuesta no puede ser de alianza o competencia con los poderes que la circundan, sino de hábil distanciamiento para moverse entre todos ellos sin dejar de ejercer la vigilancia que los ciudadanos siguen necesitando de su ejercicio profesional.

  15. LA FINANCE ISLAMIQUE, DES FONDEMENTS AU SYSTÈME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra ALIOUI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Force est de constater aujourd’hui, que la finance basée sur les préceptes de l’Islam, à savoir la finance islamique, remet violemment en cause notre conception de la finance et de l’économie. Cette nouvelle finance, pour certains, de «toutes les vertus«éthiques» et anti-crise», ou simple attirail marketing pour d’autres, a au moins le mérite de faire parler d’elle! Associé finance et Islam, c’est faire le postulat qu’il existe une relation entre économie et religion. Pour comprendre la finance islamique, il faut la considérer, comme un tout, non pashomogène, mais un tout dont les valeurs forment un système qui se veut intrinsèquement éthique.

  16. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  17. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  18. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  19. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  20. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  1. Synthesis of nir-sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L.; Chow, G.M

    2003-01-15

    Near IR (NIR) sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids were prepared by mixing HAuCl{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S in aqueous solutions. An anti-tumor drug, cis-platin, was adsorbed onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticle surface via the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) layers. The results show that the degree of adsorption of cis-platin onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticles was controlled by the solution pH value, and the drug release was sensitive to near-infrared irradiation. The cis-platin-loaded Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids can be potentially applied as NIR activated drug delivery carrier.

  2. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir andAu-Ir-Rh nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Yury; Plyusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6] х [Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals ‘mixed’ at the atomic level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5 ± 3 nm. Еnergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In situ high-temperature synchrotron XRD (HTXRD) was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the ‘conversion chemistry’ mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 °C for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  3. Le CRDI au Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    région ont-elles besoin du commerce, mais elles doivent en outre acquérir de nouvelles compétences afin de pouvoir prospérer dans l'économie du savoir. La capacité d'utiliser les technologies de l'information, entre autres, est désormais une nécessité. Le CRDI subventionne la Fundación. Omar Dengo afin qu'elle puisse ...

  4. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a synthetic approach to the kinds of housing found in the mountainous Alta Rocca sector of southern Corsica during the late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. Study of protohistoric non-fortified sites in Corsica is relatively new, but the numerous projects carried out in recent years reveal the structural and developmental complexity of living spaces, thus permitting an initial comparative analysis. This is based mainly on the excavations of the large settlement of Cuciurpula that began in 2008 and are still in progress. It also makes use of the 2012 test pits in the villages of Puzzonu and Nuciaresa. The chronology of the areas that were studied cover the entire time span from the 12th to the 4th century B.C., and thus permit one to understand the developmental changes that occurred with respect to both the overall settlement organization and the internal space and architecture of the dwellings.El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer un acercamiento sintético a las formas de hábitat en Córcega entre el Bronce final (BF y la primera Edad del Hierro (F1, a escala de la microrregión montañosa de la Alta Rocca, ubicada en el sur de Córcega en el corazón de la cuenca occidental del Mediterráneo. La problemática de estudio de los asentamientos protohistóricos sin fortificar es reciente en la isla, sin embargo, en los últimos años los estudios se han multiplicado y dan cuenta de la complejidad estructural y evolutiva de los espacios habitados, permitiendo así un primer análisis comparativo. El razonamiento se apoya esencialmente en la aportación de las excavaciones del gran hábitat de Cuciurpula, iniciadas en 2008 y todavía en curso, así como en la explotación de los poblados de Puzzonu y de Nuciaresa, sondeados en 2012. La cronología de los sectores estudiados permite abarcar un arco cronológico completo entre el siglo XII y el siglo VI a.C., y por tanto aprehender los fenómenos evolutivos, tanto en términos de

  6. Some Peculiarities in the Interaction of $^{6}$He with $^{197}$Au and $^{206}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Demekhina, N A; Dlouhý, Z; Kalpakchieva, R; Kulko, A A; Lobastov, S P; Lukyanov, S M; Markaryan, E R; Maslov, V A; Muzycjka, Yu A; Oganessian, Yu T; Rassadov, D N; Skobelev, N K; Sobolev, Yu G; Ugryumov, V Yu; Vincour, J; Zholdybaev, T

    2005-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured for fusion followed by the evaporation of neutrons in the reactions $^{206}$Pb($^{6}$He, 2$n$)$^{210}$Po and $^{197}$Au($^{6}$He, $xn$)$^{203 - xn}$Tl, where $x$ = 2-7, as well as for the transfer reactions on a $^{197}$Au target with the formation of the $^{196}$Au, $^{198}$Au and $^{199}$Au isotopes. The experiment was carried out at the Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams (DRIBs) complex of FLNR, JINR. The $^{6}$He-beam intensity was about 5$\\cdot$10$^{6 }$ s$^{-1}$, the maximum energy being (60.3$\\pm $0.4) MeV. A significant increase in the cross section was observed below the Coulomb barrier for the fusion reaction with the evaporation of two neutrons compared to statistical model calculations. Unusual behaviour for the production of $^{198}$Au is observed, whereas the cross section for the formation of $^{199}$Au is very low. The analysis of the data in the framework of the statistical model for the decay of excited nuclei, which took into account the sequential fusion of $^{6...

  7. The Electronic Properties and L3 XANES of Au and Nano-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiu, Y.M.; Zhang, P.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation based on the first principles. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously.

  8. La Nuit des Chercheurs au CERN / Researchers' Night at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Pohl, Martin; Paniccia, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Vendredi 29 septembre 2017 de 17h à 23h Entrée libre - pas d'inscription nécessaire. Depuis maintenant 8 ans, le Laboratoire ouvre ses portes en soirée au grand public, à l’occasion de cette fête scientifique. C’est un plaisir d’accueillir tous ces curieux et de partager les découvertes de la science, toutes plus étonnantes les unes que les autres. L’invention du Web en est une particulièrement intégrée au quotidien, mais il y en a tellement d’autres ! Venez découvrir cette science insoupçonnée et en prendre plein les yeux ! Le programme est prêt ! Nous sommes ravis de vous présenter toutes les activités que nous avons prévues pour vous, scientifiques en herbe, novices ou aficionados de tout âge . Il y aura même une surprise pour les 400 premiers visiteurs ! Activités sur le site du CERN Activités en ligne (Facebook Live) Nous avons hâte de vous accueillir !     ...

  9. Cosensitization Properties of Glutathione-Protected Au25 Cluster on Ruthenium Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Nakata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosensitization by glutathione-protected Au25 clusters on Ru complex, N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes is demonstrated. Glutathione-protected Au25 clusters showed no significant changes in properties after adsorption onto TiO2 particles, as confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Adsorption property of the glutathione-protected Au25 clusters depends on the pH, which affects the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE of the TiO2 photoelectrode containing Au25 clusters. When pH 7. The IPCE of a TiO2 photoelectrode sensitized by both glutathione-protected Au25 clusters and N719 was increased compared with photoelectrodes containing either glutathione-protected Au25 clusters or N719, which suggests that glutathione-protected Au25 clusters act as a coadsorbent for N719 on TiO2 photoelectrodes. This is also supported by the results that the IPCE of N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes increased upon addition of glutathione. Furthermore, cosensitization by glutathione-protected Au25 clusters on N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes allows that wavelength of photoelectric conversion was extended to the near infrared (NIR region. These results suggest that glutathione-protected Au25 clusters act not only as a coadsorbent to increase IPCE but also as an NIR-active sensitizer.

  10. L'ultime atome de Démocrite au boson de Higgs et au-delà

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2019-01-01

    L'enjeu de ce dialogue entre un spécialiste de la pensée antique, Heinz Wismann, et un théoricien de la physique moderne, Etienne Klein, est de retracer la longue histoire de l'idée de l'atome qui n'a cessé de hanter l'imagination des chercheurs. Il ressort de cette reconstruction des étapes successives de l'atomisme que, même si les moyens de vérification changent d'une époque à l'autre, c'est le génie créatif des savants qui, d'hypothèses en hypothèses, fait progresser les découvertes. De Démocrite, qui au Ve siècle avant notre ère pense au vide dynamique, à la théorie moderne de l'atome, ce sont des hypothèses spéculatives qui ont fait bouger les lignes ; pour progresser, la science a besoin de "penser". Avec ces deux complices, il sera démontré de façon vivante et passionnante que la jonction se fait entre la science la plus avancée et la culture, que tout commence toujours par la pensée, la spéculation, c'est-à-dire quelque chose qui n'est pas encore schématisé.

  11. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  12. Les livres de recettes « francisés » au Mexique au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bak-Geller Corona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’apparition des premiers livres de cuisine au Mexique - publiés par des maisons d’édition françaises spécialisées en ouvrages en espagnol - marque le début de l’histoire de la cuisine mexicaine. Cet événement s’inscrit par ailleurs dans une histoire plus large : celle de la construction de l’État-nation, entre nationalisme et cosmopolitisme. L’article s’intéresse aux idéaux de nation et de cuisine cohabitant dans deux des livres de recettes francisés du XIXe siècle au Mexique : l’Arte novísimo de cocina et le Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario.French-fashioned Mexican recipe books in the 19th century. Globalization and construction of a national culinary modelThe first Mexican recipe books were published in the early 1830’s by French publishing houses specialized in Spanish written books. This article deals with the different nationalistic and cuisine models in two French-fashioned Mexican recipe books -the Arte novísimo de cocina and the Nuevo cocinero americano/mexicano en forma de diccionario- and their relationship with the nation-building context in nineteenth century Mexico.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  14. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  15. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...

  16. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector; Etude des collisions relativistes Au+Au avec le detecteur Fopi-Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupieux, P

    1995-01-01

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  18. Energie nominale atteinte au SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    * Le 9 juillet les premiers essais du système d'extraction ont permis de réaliser l'extraction rapide sur un tour de la quasi-totalité du faisceau circulant qui a été envoyé sur une décharge externe. Des difficultés entre les dipôles et les quadrupô/es principaux ont été surmontées et, le 15 juillet, plus de 4 x lu'2 protons par impulsion étaient accélérés à 200 GeV.

  19. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  20. Adsorptive behavior of dimethylglyoxime on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jandee; Kim, Sechul; Rhee, Choong Kyun

    2011-12-06

    Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) adsorbed on Au(111) was investigated using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). STM experiments revealed three different structures of adsorbed DMG at open circuit potential (~0.07 V versus Ag/AgCl): (2√3×2√3)R30°-α, (2√3×4√3)R30°-β, and (2√3×4√3)R30°-γ. The coverage of adsorbed DMG obtained using XPS was 0.33. A combination of structural and quantitative information identified the adsorbed DMG as an anionic tetramer, held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonding and arrayed in three ordered patterns. Domains of adsorbed DMG underwent phase transitions between the observed structures, most likely due to the influence of the STM tip. However, a significant correlation between the observed structures and the imaging conditions was not found. The ordered layers existed only at open circuit potential as evidenced by their disappearance when the potential was shifted to 0.2 or -0.15 V. The ordered layers were also removed by immersion in a solution of Ni(2+), implying that the adsorbed DMG was converted to a soluble dimer complex with the Ni(2+) ion. This particular observation is discussed in terms of the rigidity of the organic network. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. A recyclable Au(I) catalyst for selective homocoupling of arylboronic acids: significant enhancement of nano-surface binding for stability and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Jianhui

    2010-08-01

    Au nanoparticles stabilized by polystyrene-co-polymethacrylic acid microspheres (PS-co-PMAA) were prepared and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The Au nanoparticles supported on the microspheres showed highly selective catalytic activity for homo-coupling reactions of arylboronic acids in a system of aryl-halides and arylboronic acids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the catalyst shows large amounts of Au(I) complexes band to the surface of the Au nanoparticles, which contributes to the selective homocoupling of the arylboronic acids. More importantly, this supported Au complex is a highly recyclable catalyst. The supported Au catalyst can be recycled and reused at least 6 times for a phenylboronic acid reactant, whereas the parent complex shows very low catalytic activity for this compound. The high catalytic activity of this material is attributed to: (1) the high surface to volume ratio which leads to more active sites being exposed to reactants; (2) the strong surface binding of the Au nanoparticle to the Au(I) complexes, which enhances both the stability and the catalytic activity of these complexes.

  2. Structure investigation of organic molecules on Au(111) surfaces; Strukturuntersuchung organischer Molekuele auf Au(111)-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazempoor, Michel

    2009-02-02

    The present work covers two topics namely the coadsorption of formic acid and water on Au(111) and the structure of biphenylalkanthiole SAMs on Au(111) surfaces. The coadsorption of formic acid and water on Au(111) surfaces has been investigated by means of vibrational and photoelectron spectroscopy (HREELS, XPS). Formic acid adsorbs at 90 K molecularly with vibrational modes characteristic for flat lying zig-zag chains in the mono- and multilayer regime, like in solid formic acid. The structure of the flat lying formic acid chains was determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) as a (2r3 x r19) unit cell. Annealing results in a complete desorption at 190 K. Sequential adsorption of formic acid and water at 90 K shows no significant chemical interaction. Upon annealing the coadsorbed layer to 140 K a hydrogenbonded cyclic complex of formic acid with one water molecule could be identified using isotopically labelled adsorbates. Upon further annealing this complex decomposes leaving molecularly adsorbed formic acid on the surface at 160 K, accompanied by a proton exchange between formic acid and water. The influence of the alkane spacer chain length on the structure of biphenylalkanethiols on Au(111) surfaces was investigated as well. A systematic study was done on BPn-SAMs deposited from the gas phase. For every chain length a structure was found by LEED. Furthermore the influence of temperature on the structure was investigated in the range from room temperature up to about 400 K. To obviate influences from different preparation methods BP3 and BP4 was deposited from gas phase and from solution. No LEED spots were observed on BP4 SAMs deposited from solution. For BP3 an influence of the preparation could be excluded. For all BPn-SAMs a good agreement between LEED and STM data's was found. Nevertheless different unit cells were determined by LEED and STM consistent structures could be suggested considering the unit cell size given by LEED and the

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-02

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles.

  4. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  5. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  6. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. La voix off au féminin : Hiroshima mon amour et Aurélia Steiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cazenave

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Une étude comparée du grand film moderne d’Alain Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour (1959, et du dyptique de Marguerite Duras, Aurélia Steiner (1979, laisse entrevoir une filiation entre deux films que vingt ans séparent et où s’entrecroisent un certain nombre de fils conducteurs : le lieu et la parole ; l’histoire et la mémoire ; la voix-off au féminin et l’irreprésentable. Il s’agira donc de penser ces deux œuvres cinématographiques à partir du rapport entre le parler féminin et la représentation du passé, soit la tonte des femmes au moment de la libération dans Hiroshima mon amour, soit l’extermination des Juifs d’Europe dans Aurélia Steiner.

  8. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  9. Synthesis of axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework and a study of their coordination with AuCl·SMe(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijun; Li, Shengke; Qu, Mingliang; Zhao, Mei-Xin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Shi, Min

    2012-01-01

    Axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework were successfully prepared, and their coordination behavior with AuCl·SMe(2) was also investigated, affording the corresponding Au(I) complexes in moderate to high yields.

  10. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys Au x Cu 1-x and Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in Au x Cu 1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in Au x Cu 1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for Au x Cu 1-x clusters of 10 5 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data

  11. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  12. Comparative efficiencies of photothermal destruction of malignant cells using antibody-coated silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Fong-Yu; Chen, Chen-Tai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng, E-mail: csyeh@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-21

    Three Au-based nanomaterials (silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods) were evaluated for their comparative photothermal efficiencies at killing three types of malignant cells (A549 lung cancer cells, HeLa cervix cancer cells and TCC bladder cancer cells) using a CW NIR laser. Photodestructive efficiency was evaluated as a function of the number of nanoparticles required to destroy the cancer cells under 808 nm laser wavelength at fixed laser power. Of the three nanomaterials, silica/Au nanoshells needed the minimum number of particles to produce effective photodestruction, whereas Au nanorods needed the largest number of particles. Together with the calculated photothermal conversion efficiency, the photothermal efficiency rankings are silica-Au nanoshells > hollow Au/Ag nanospheres > Au nanorods. Additionally, we found that HeLa cells seem to present better heat tolerance than the other two cancer cell lines.

  13. Intense fluorescence of Au 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-21

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. We show that their fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the HOMO-LUMO diabatic bandgap of the cluster. The cluster shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral), therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorptionand predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in good agreement with experiment.

  14. Interplanetary shock phenomena beyond 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to spatial dependences exhibited by spacecraft measurements obtained between 1 and 30 AU, together with temporal variations occurring between solar activity cycle maxima and minima. At 1-3 AU radial distances, shocks develop in association with the corotating solar wind streams characterizing solar minimum and accelerate solar wind evolution with distance while heating the solar wind and generating waves and turbulence. At solar maximum, shocks are observed more frequently at 1 AU but still in association with transient solar events; acceleration leading to energetic storm particles is observed both within and beyond 1 AU. The superimposed effect of large numbers of intense shocks may be responsible for the solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. 77 references

  15. L’équité au cœur des politiques climatiques : l’exemple des négociations relatives au climat et de la recherche de solutions à la crise énergétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Aubrée

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’article débat de la question de l’équité dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Il établit un parallèle entre le développement pris au niveau international de la négociation entre Etats d’une part, et la pauvreté au niveau d’une collectivité d’autre part. Dans les deux cas, il s’agit à la fois d’un principe moral essentiel, mais aussi d’une condition centrale des consensus et donc de la réussite des politiques face au défi climatique. La question de l’équité renvoie aussi très vite au changement nécessaire des modes de vie vers plus de sobriété.The article debates Equity Issues in the Climate Change debate is debated. A parallel is set between the development issues at the international level of negotiations between States, and poverty alleviation at the local community level. In both cases, the discussions stem from an essential moral principle, but also as a requisite for consensus and thus a condition of success of climate change policies to combat Climate Change. The issue of equity brings also forward the necessary modification of consumption patterns, into more frugal modes.

  16. Amélioration de la nutrition au Cambodge au moyen de l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de la nutrition au Cambodge au moyen de l'aquaculture et des jardins potagers domestiques (FCRSAI). Si l'on produit au Cambodge suffisamment de riz pour nourrir la population, la sous-alimentation maternelle et infantile y demeure quand même élevée en raison de la faible diversification des cultures et du ...

  17. Intégration des TIC dans la gouvernance locale au Sénégal | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intégration des TIC dans la gouvernance locale au Sénégal. Ce projet s'inscrit dans le contexte de la mise en oeuvre du plan d'action du Somment mondial sur la société de l'information (SMSI). Ce plan met l'accent entre autres sur la nécessité d'un partenariat public-privé pour permettre aux collectivités africaines un ...

  18. Proton channeling in Au at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, J.E.; Vargas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author)

  19. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  1. Evidence of final-state suppression of high-p{_ T} hadrons in Au + Au collisions using d + Au measurements at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons with pT 2 GeV/c). In contrast, the d + Au nuclear modification factor exhibits no suppression of the high-pT yields. These measurements suggest a large energy loss of the high-pT particles in the highly interacting medium created in the central Au + Au collisions. The lack of suppression in d + Au collisions suggests that it is unlikely that initial state effects can explain the suppression in the central Au + Au collisions. PACS: 25.75.-q

  2. Entre palabra, escritura e imagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez Parga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantea el autor que, hace quinientos años, cuando se produjo el encuentro entre la cultura europea y las americanas junto con la conquista y la dominación colonial se instauró un régimen de comunicación en el que se reprodujo una situación de incomunicación y transcomunicaciones hasta ahora existentes. Se refiere el autor también a la violencia verbal y la ley del silencio, a lo que se entiende por mundo andino, a la comunicación como intercambio, la tradición oral-galaxia radial, la dominación gráfica, la Biblia-Gramática- leyes de Indias, Otavalo, quema de papeles, Guamán Poma, el imperialismo de la imagen, destrucción de ídolos, imagen cristiana colonizadora, imperialismo de la imagen, resistencia cultural, importancia de la virgen y el neocolonialismo electrónico.

  3. De la ferme à la fourchette : liens entre productivité, nutrition et santé ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 sept. 2013 ... Ce projet met à l'essai une démarche qui va « de la ferme à la fourchette » et qui établit des liens entre l'agriculture, d'une part, et la santé et la nutrition, d'autre part, pour s'attaquer aux problèmes que pose la sécurité alimentaire au Guyana, à Trinité-et-Tobago, à Saint-Kitts-et-Nevis. et à Sainte-Lucie.

  4. The sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for α-fetoprotein based on enrichment by Fe3O4-Au magnetic nano probes and signal amplification by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hankun; Gan, Ning; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Zeng, Saolin; Zheng, Lei; Guo, Zhiyong

    2012-10-09

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe(3)O(4)-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL(-1). The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the amplification of the signal tag, the immunosensor is highly sensitive, which can offer great promise for rapid, simple, selective and cost-effective detection of effective biomonitoring for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  6. Au Contraire: Differentiation Requires HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Everybody is doing it: differentiating curriculum to make it deeper, broader, parallel, and more complex. No longer the private property of gifted specialists, differentiation is now a democratic pursuit of classroom teachers, curriculum specialists, and anyone else who subscribes to "Educational Leadership." In an era of competency-based tests…

  7. Toward hybrid Au nanorods @ M (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) core-shell heterostructures for ultrasensitive SERS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Lei, Yanhua; Pan, Zhengyin; Shibayama, Tamaki; Cai, Lintao

    2017-06-01

    Being able to precisely control the morphologies of noble metallic nanostructures is of essential significance for promoting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Herein, we demonstrate an overgrowth strategy for synthesizing Au @ M (M = Au, Ag, Pd, Pt) core-shell heterogeneous nanocrystals with an orientated structural evolution and highly improved properties by using Au nanorods as seeds. With the same reaction condition system applied, we obtain four well-designed heterostructures with diverse shapes, including Au concave nanocuboids (Au CNs), Au @ Ag crystalizing face central cube nanopeanuts, Au @ Pd porous nanocuboids and Au @ Pt nanotrepangs. Subsequently, the exact overgrowth mechanism of the above heterostructural building blocks is further analysed via the systematic optimiziation of a series of fabrications. Remarkably, the well-defined Au CNs and Au @ Ag nanopeanuts both exhibit highly promoted SERS activity. We expect to be able to supply a facile strategy for the fabrication of multimetallic heterogeneous nanostructures, exploring the high SERS effect and catalytic activities.

  8. Entre contener y ser contenido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales Meneses

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una nueva manera de entender los elementos comunes en la formación y el hacer del diseño y de la arquitectura, posibilitando un pensar común y un coactuar en diversas escalas de intervención, necesarias para el manejo de la complejidad del paisaje contemporáneo. La convicción de un pensar común entre ambas disciplinas permite explorar un marco filosófico que incluye a pensadores tan trascendentales como Aristóteles, Kant y Heidegger, estableciendo un orden de pensamiento que los relaciona y sitúa. En momentos en que el territorio está siendo visible y negativamente afectado por elementos no pensados o que fueron imaginados separadamente, este artículo propone una mirada que le dé sentido de totalidad a las acciones del diseño y de la arquitectura, como elementos que permanentemente se contienen en otros de diferente escala, pero que siempre están vinculados. Reconocer el paisaje físico y mental, tangible e intangible que contiene al diseño y a la arquitectura contribuirá a establecer un marco de acción donde todos los elementos construidos por el ser humano puedan tener un rol específico y una escala asumida, e intercomprenderse para mejor utilización de los recursos, disminuir el impacto ambiental y contribuir a un orden social mejor interpretado por los objetos, espacios y sus representaciones.

  9. INDRA at GSI; INDRA au GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougault, R.; Bocage, F.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration INDRA: IPN-Orsay, DAPNIA-Saclay, SUBATECH-Nantes, IPN- Lyon, GANIL-Caen

    1997-12-31

    In connection to the decision of installing the INDRA detector by the SIS synchrocyclotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) the report presents the tasks taken into account by the LPC-Caen. These refer to the detector displacement and (mechanical) installation at GSI, the tests before beam (i.e. electronics acquisition software, detectors, etc.) as well as the data acquisition and processing. The physical pro-arguments mention the possibility of disposing of heavy ion beams in a range from 50 MeV to several GeV/nucleon so extending the study of multifragmentation done at GANIL between 30 and 90 MeV/nucleon. More specific, the scientific program of INDRA at GSI inserts studies between those done at around Fermi energy, were the reaction mechanisms are of type of deep inelastic scattering/incomplete fusion, and the studies in the relativistic energy domain where the individual properties of nucleons and transparency of nuclear matter implies mechanisms of the participant-spectator type (fire-ball creation). Also mentioned as fields of extensive studies are: the multifragmentation and its fundamental relation with the nuclear matter equation of state, the role of reaction dynamics in the appearance of collective effects of the radial flow type and its relations with the nuclear compressibility and phase transitions and the thermodynamics of nuclear matter. It appeared that the heavy systems Xe + Sn and Au + Au are the best compromise for the different topics to be approached. The bombarding energies extend from 50 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The report ends with the table giving for six heavy systems (Xe + Sn, Au + Au, C + Au, Ar + Au and P + Au) the required bombarding energies 15 refs.

  10. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... Selon Evans Kituyi, spécialiste de programme principal au Centre de ... principal au Gadam Sorghum Production and Marketing Project. Si les graines occupent une place de premier plan dans l'alimentation des oiseaux, ...

  11. The extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from Au concentrate by thiourea solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Cho, Kanghee; On, Hyunsung; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    The cyanidation process has been used commercially for the past 100 years, there are ores that are not amenable to treatment by cyanide. Interest in alternative lixiviants, such as thiourea, halogens, thiosulfate and malononitrile, has been revived as a result of a major increase in gold price, which has stimulated new developments in extraction technology, combined with environmental concern. The Au extraction process using the thiourea solvent has many advantages over the cyanidation process, including higher leaching rates, faster extraction time and less than toxicity. The purpose of this study was investigated to the extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from two different Au concentrate (sulfuric acid washing and roasting) under various experiment conditions (thiourea concentration, pH of solvent, temperature) by thiourea solvent. The result of extraction experiment showed that the Au-Ag extraction was a fast extraction process, reaching equilibrium (maximum extraction rate) within 30 min. The Au-Ag extraction rate was higher in the roasted concentrate than in the sulfuric acid washing. The higher the Au-Ag extraction rate (Au - 70.87%, Ag - 98.12%) from roasted concentrate was found when the more concentration of thiourea increased, pH decreased and extraction temperature increased. This study informs extraction method basic knowledge when thiourea was a possibility to eco-/economic resources of Au-Ag utilization studies including the hydrometallurgy.

  12. Search for hyperheavy toroidal nuclear structures formed in Au + Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochocka, A.; Planeta, R.; Starypan, Z.; Benisz, A.; Hachaj, P.; Nicolis, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of an experimental observation of toroidal breakup configurations in Au+Au collisions using the CHIMERA multidetector system. BUU simulations indicate that the threshold energy for toroidal configuration is around 23 MeV/nucleon. The simulations of decay process using the ETNA code indicate the sensitivity of some observables to different studied break-up geometries. (author)

  13. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng, E-mail: xhliu@mail.njust.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An inversed Au/ZnO nanostructure was fabricated with ZnO loaded onto Au. • The Au/ZnO nanocomposites showed enhanced properties in visible-light photocatalysis. • The SPR effect of Au was considered important for visible-light photocatalysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  14. Identified particles in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Wosiek, Barbara; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The yields of identified particles have been measured at RHIC for Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV using the PHOBOS spectrometer. The ratios of antiparticle to particle yields near mid-rapidity are presented. The first measurements of the invariant yields of charged pions, kaons and protons at very low transverse momenta are also shown.

  15. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An inversed Au/ZnO nanostructure was fabricated with ZnO loaded onto Au. • The Au/ZnO nanocomposites showed enhanced properties in visible-light photocatalysis. • The SPR effect of Au was considered important for visible-light photocatalysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  16. [Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III)

  17. [Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  18. (Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  19. Comparative Study of the Methods Used for the Computer Resolution of Composite Gamma-Ray Spectra; Etude Comparative des Methodes Utilisees pour la Resolution de Spectres Gamma Complexes au Moyen d'un Ordinateur; Sravnitel'noe izuchenie metodov razresheniya sostavnykh gamma-spektrov pri pomoshchi schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Estudio Comparativo de los Metodos Aplicados para Resolver Espectros Gamma Complejos Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaan, A. Jr.; Leventhal, L.; Benson, P. [Tracerlab, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    analysis. Statistical estimates for the errors in the resulting concentration of the radionuclides are provided for each analytical method when they are applied to multicomponent radionuclide mixtures. (author) [French] La resolution du rayonnement de melanges oomplexes d'emetteurs gamma a ete facilitee par l'emploi de spectrometres gamma tres perfectionnes et de calculatrices numeriques. Ces appareils sont maintenant a la disposition de presque tousles laboratoires techniques. Les auteurs etudient les techniques utilisees dans leur laboratoire pour mesurer les concentrations individuelles de differents radionucleides emetteurs gamma dans des echantillons provenant de retombees radioactives et comparent les resultats obtenus par les differentes methodes mathematiques avec des echantillons de composition complexe. Les donnees fournies par l'ordinateur sont comparees avec les resultats obtenus par analyse radiochimique de l'echantillon. Apres avoir analyse des composes binaires au moyen des methodes decrites ci-apres, les auteurs ont etendu l'analyse aux emetteurs composes de nombreux elements. Ils ont mis au point une methode avec ordinateur qui normalise les spectres gamma de maniere a reduire au minimum le glissement a long terme du spectrometre et qui convertit le spectre en une configuration dont l'energie est l'une des coordonnees. Ils etudient par les diverses methodes ci-apres les effets d'un 'pic photoelectrique imprevu ', d'un element d'intensitezero et de la superposition de pics, en particulier dans le cas d'echantillons de faible activite. Les auteurs ont analyse les methodes mathematiques les plus courantes pour la resolution des diverses composantes d'un spectre gamma complexe. La plupart de ces methodes aboutissent a une evaluation des concentrations de differents emetteurs gamma par l'un des procedes suivants: 1. Elimination successive des radionucleides a pic photoelectrique de forte energie, le spectre pur etant extrait du spectre compose jusqu

  20. Entre Dawkins e Platinga: apontamentos

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Mauro Sérgio Santos; Garcia Xavier, Dennys

    2015-01-01

    This paper contextualizes epistemologically and establishes some differences between the materialistic naturalism of Richard Dawkins and the analytical theism of Alvin Plantinga. It presents some of the main currents in contemporary philosophy of religion, especially for Anglo-American scenary, considering this scenary relevant, present and central. Then talks about the Dawkin's idea that organized complexity has no design, their criticism to the notions of chance and intelligent design, its ...

  1. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by the shape of the seeds used. Exposure of Cu2O{111} and Cu2O{001} favored when the overgrowth happened on Au{111} and Au{001} surface, respectively. The size of the product can also be tuned by the amount of the seeds. The results reported here provide a thinking clue to modulate the shape and size of core-shell nanocrystals, which is useful in developing new materials with desired performance.

  2. Insights into the Halogen Oxidative Addition Reaction to Dinuclear Gold(I) Di(NHC) Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, Marco; Tubaro, Cristina; Basato, Marino; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Cavallo, Luigi; Graiff, Claudia; Dolmella, Alessandro; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Gold(I) dicarbene complexes [Au2(MeIm-Y-ImMe)2](PF6)2(Y=CH2(1), (CH2)2(2), (CH2)4(4), MeIm=1-methylimidazol-2-ylidene) react with iodine to give the mixed-valence complex [Au(MeIm-CH2-ImMe)2AuI2](PF6)2(1 aI) and the gold(III) complexes [Au2I4(Me

  3. Voix-off et voix(e narrative : la conscience entre les lignes dans l’œuvre de Arnaud Desplechin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Lieb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’œuvre d’Arnaud Desplechin est particulièrement intéressante à bien des égards et a fortiori pour sa virtuosité narrative. Cinéma romanesque et introspectif, la narration passe entre autres, par l’usage savant de la voix-off comme mode d’énonciation ou par celui des voix (es narratives proches de la « moving box » propre à Terence Malick. Des aventures spirituelles, au marivaudage et aux quêtes existentielles, leur utilisation au sein de la filmographie confère aux personnages une tendance à l’affabulation. L’enjeu réside en ce que le cinéaste cherche à raconter une histoire autant que ses personnages tentent de se raconter eux-mêmes. Recomposant la complexité humaine, Desplechin déploie un cinéma dans lequel la voix-off ouvrent un peu plus les possibles narratifs en forme d’insularité humaine.Arnaud Desplechin’s work is particularly interesting in many respects but especially so for his narrative virtuosity. In his style of cinema, which combines both story-telling and introspection, the plot unfolds by the wise use, amongst other things, of voice-over as a means of statement or by narrative voices similar to the “moving box” technique used by Terence Malick. The use of such techniques, ranging from spiritual adventures to light hearted banter and existential quests, in the heart of filmography can give the impression that characters do not ring true. For the film-maker, the problem is how to balance the unfolding of the overall story-line with the exteriorisation of each character’s personal thoughts. By rearranging human complexity, Desplechin develops a cinema in which the voice-over progressively opens up the possible narratives reflecting human insularity.

  4. Les maisons bâties au village d’origine dans les représentations des migrants roumains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Larionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Les maisons des migrants bâties dans le pays d’origine revêtent de significations différentes: certains migrants les perçoivent comme un moyen de valider leur statut social au sein de la communauté d’origine, tandis que d’autres les conçoivent comme un investissement ou comme une « sécurité » à la retraite, ou bien comme un abri en cas d’échec. Néanmoins, pour la majorité des migrants, la maison reste un « chez soi» lié soit au pays d’origine, soit au pays de destination, le sentiment d’appartenance étant déterminé par l’âge du sujet, le gendre, le niveau d’éducation, les liens familiaux, l’expérience de la migration et les caractéristiques du marché du travail. En utilisant un travail de terrain mené entre 2009 et 2011 dans le village de Marginea, au nord de la Roumanie, l’article examine les facteurs qui influent sur la sémantique de la maison bâtie au village d’origine.

  5. Les ornements liturgiques au XIXe siècle : origine, fabrication et commercialisation, l’exemple du diocèse de Moulins (Allier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Chatard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le concile Vatican II, la volonté de l’Église catholique de tendre vers une plus grande simplicité pour réduire la distance, tant physique que psychologique, entre ses ministres et l’ensemble des fidèles a contribué à abandonner certains fastes de la liturgie. Aujourd’hui, l’étude des ornements liturgiques rend compte de leur place au cours des rites et de l’attention portée à leur réalisation. Le XIXe siècle est souvent considéré comme l’âge d’or de leur confection. Une recherche menée dans le diocèse de Moulins a permis de mettre au jour la richesse et la diversité des collections de cette époque, ainsi que le renouvellement de la portée symbolique et politique dont ils ont fait l’objet.Since the II Vatican Council, the wish of the Catholic Church for simplification in order to reduce the distance, both physically and psychologically, between their Ministers and all the believers, contributed to abandon some complex aspects of the liturgy. Nowadays, the liturgical ornaments studying, reports their role during the rites and the particular attention paid to their realization. The XIXth century is often considered as the golden age of their confection. A research led in the diocese of Moulins, allowed to reveal the wealth and the variety of this period’s collections, as well as the renewal of their symbolic and political mean.

  6. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhu, Yihan; Huang, Xiao; Han, Yu; Wang, Qingxiao; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ying; Gan, Chee Lip; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    @Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase

  7. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Dylan

    The character of Au-Ag mineralization and volcanic/hydrothermal relationships at the underexplored Miocene-age Bruner low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit are elucidated using field and laboratory studies. Bruner is located in central Nevada within the Great Basin extensional province, near several major volcanic trends (Western Andesite, Northern Nevada Rift) associated with world-class Miocene-age epithermal Au-Ag provinces. Despite its proximity to several >1 Moz Au deposits, and newly discovered high-grade drill intercepts (to 117 ppm Au/1.5m), there is no published research on the deposit, the style of mineralization has not been systematically characterized, and vectors to mineralization remain elusive. By investigating the nature of mineralization and time-space relationships between volcanic/hydrothermal activity, the deposit has been integrated into a regional framework, and exploration targeting improved. Mineralization occurs within narrow quartz + adularia +/- pyrite veins that manifest as sheeted/stockwork zones, vein swarms, and rare 0.3-2 m wide veins hosted by two generations of Miocene high-K, high-silica rhyolite flow dome complexes overlying an andesite flow unit. The most prominent structural controls on veining are N­striking faults and syn-mineral basalt/rhyolite dikes. Productive veins have robust boiling indicators (high adularia content, bladed quartz after calcite, recrystallized colloform quartz bands), lack rhythmic banding, and contain only 1-2 stages; these veins overprint, or occur separately from another population of barren to weakly mineralized rhythmically banded quartz-only veins. Ore minerals consist of coarse Au0.5Ag 0.5 electrum, fine Au0.7Ag0.3 electrum, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2) and minor embolite Ag(Br,Cl). Now deeply oxidized, veins typically contain Bruner appears to belong to a small subset of mid-Miocene epithermal deposits in Nevada with low base metal contents and low to no Se, related to calc

  8. Le recours aux catégories dans la gestion du choix au cours d’un repas au restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugol-Gential Clémentine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail, ancré dans le champ de l’Analyse Conversationnelle (Sacks, 1992, s’intéresse à une question centrale à laquelle les clients sont perpétuellement confrontés lors de la prise d’un repas au restaurant : le choix. Plus précisément, nous nous intéressons à son caractère situé et à son déploiement en interaction en nous basant sur un corpus audiovisuel collecté en situation « naturelle » de production, lors de repas au restaurant, afin d’étudier la parole-en-interaction telle qu’elle est localement produite et organisée par les participants (Heath, Hindmarsch & Luff, 2010. Après avoir exposé le lien entre identité et alimentation et la notion de catégorisation telle qu’elle a été développée en Analyse Conversationnelle, nous proposerons deux analyses de séquences de prise de commande pendant lesquelles les choix des clients sont discutés et négociés avec le sommelier ou le serveur. Grâce à des analyses séquentielles basées sur des transcriptions fines, nous soulignerons que les participants à l’interaction manifestent de façon reconnaissable qui ils sont (clients experts, non experts, habitués... afin d’organiser de façon intelligible leurs actions et de permettre à leurs partenaires de s’y ajuster. Nous analyserons finement les catégories utilisées par les participants, et nous décrirons les différents procédés mobilisés afin d’organiser et d’orienter la prise de commande. Ainsi, dans un premier extrait, nous verrons que les clients s’orientent, tout d’abord, vers l’exhibition de leur propre identité, tandis que dans un deuxième extrait, c’est le plat à la carte qui fait l’objet d’une première catégorisation. L’ensemble de ce travail nous permettra de montrer que les catégories sont structurantes pour l’organisation du choix et que leur déploiement séquentiel au cours de l’interaction est constitutif des affiliations ou des désaffiliations lors

  9. Evolução das relações entre cidades e portos: entre lógicas homogeneizantes e dinâmicas de diferenciação Évolution des relations entre villes et ports: entre logiques homogénéisatrices et dynamiques de différenciation Evolution of relationships between cities and ports: homogenizing trends and differentiation dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Nico Vasconcelos

    2012-06-01

    maille globale des interactions spatiales de longue distance redéfinit le paysage institutionnel, les modalités technico opérationnelles et l´organisation spatiale du système portuaire mondial. La situation des ports, par lesquels transite l´essentiel du commerce international de marchandises, n´en est pas moins paradoxale et complexe. Les stratégies développées par les acteurs dominant l´horizon maritime du port et celles imposées par les acteurs économiques dominant son horizon terrestre, placent les villes portuaires dans le double champs des réseaux du transport et de la production. L´enjeu pour les politiques portuaires, oscillant entre concurrence et complémentarité, consiste donc à positionner le port au cœur de ces réseaux en incorporant un nombre croissant de variables économiques, commerciales, urbanistiques, environnementales et sociales face aux rationnalités fonctionnelles et territoriales d´acteurs pouvant transformer le port en simple nœud de transbordement ou, à l´opposé, en grand centre logistique. S’appuyant sur la définition des ports de commerce comme territoires multi-situés dont les marges de manœuvre sur «l’échiquier» mondial et régional sont à l´origine d´une articulation différenciée des compétences liées au port de commerce, au système productif et aux ressources du territoire urbain, une analyse de leur trajectoire à trois échelles, au niveau global, dans le cadre de la mondialisation ; au niveau méso-économique, au sein de systèmes régionaux qui capturent des volumes croissants de flux et d´activités de transformation; et au niveau local, sur le territoire de la ville portuaire permet d´élaborer une typologie des villes portuaires comme territoires circulatoires et/ou productifs.The current stage of globalisation presents mutations that act on the global network of long distance spatial interactions and redefine the institutional scenery, the technic-operational modalities and the

  10. Excitation functions for 197Au (d, p)198Au, 197Au(d, 2n)197mHg, 197Au(d, 2n)197Hg and 197Au(d, p2n)196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xianguan; Peng Xiufeng; He Fuqing

    1987-01-01

    By using activation method and stack-foil technique, the excitation functions for d + 197 Au reaction in 6.6-13.1 MeV energy range are measured. The measured values are compared with previous results and theoretical calculations

  11. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelo, T.E.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Maldonado, R.D.; Oliva, A.I.; Alonzo-Medina, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au 2 Cu 3 and Au 3 Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au 3 Cu and Au 2 Cu 3 phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation

  12. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L; Sanchez Ramirez, J F

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm -1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  14. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  15. Dynamiques complexes et morphogenèse Introduction aux sciences non linéaires

    CERN Document Server

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2011-01-01

    Les sciences non linéaires ont pour objet l’ensemble des phénomènes dont l’analyse résiste au principe de superposition. Elles concernent en grande partie les systèmes dits « complexes » dont l’interaction et l’interdépendance entre les parties empêchent de prédire précisément l’évolution du système. Pour expliquer ces phénomènes, deux approches complémentaires ont été proposées : la théorie des bifurcations et la théorie des catastrophes. Mais la pleine compréhension et la modélisation de la non-linéarité restent chacune un défi pour les scientifiques du XXIe siècle. C’est dans la perspective d’accompagner tous ceux qui voudront le relever que ce livre a été conçu. Son objectif est d’exposer au lecteur le langage et le formalisme nécessaires à l’étude de la non-linéarité. Partant d’exemples simples, pour ensuite atteindre un niveau d’abstraction visant l’universalité, l’auteur explore les divers scénarios possibles de bifurcations et les catastr...

  16. Au nanorice assemble electrolytically into mesostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Neumann, Oara; Mirin, Nikolay; Wang, Hui; Halas, Naomi J

    2009-02-24

    Star-shaped mesotructures are formed when an aqueous suspension of Au nanorice particles, which consist of prolate hematite cores and a thin Au shell, is subjected to an electric current. The nanorice particles assemble to form hyperbranched micrometer-scale mesostars. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of nanoparticle assembly into larger ordered structures under the influence of an electrochemical process (H(2)O electrolysis). The assembly is accompanied by significant modifications in the morphology, dimensions, chemical composition, crystallographic structure, and optical properties of the constituent nanoparticles.

  17. Marie Nimier, au cœur du silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Papillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans La Reine du silence, Marie Nimier se confronte à la figure de son père, l’écrivain Roger Nimier, mort lorsqu’elle avait cinq ans. Elle y montre le poids qui pèse sur l’enfant d’écrivain, mais aussi celui de l’héritage du secret familial et de l’injonction au silence. La difficulté de l’élaboration de son récit de filiation se révèle dans les constants recommencements et reformulations, qui constituent la marque de la tension angoissante entre l’obligation de dire et celle de taire. In La Reine du silence, Marie Nimier confronts her father’s memory – the writer Roger Nimier, who died when she was five years old. The novel describes the burden of being a writer’s child, along with that of inheriting family secrets and submitting to a code of silence. The difficulty of recounting her relationship with her late father is evidenced by the narrator’s numerous “false starts” and her constant rewritings. The hesitant nature of the narration captures an anguish born of two irreconcilable obligations : the need to put things into words and the pressure to remain silent.

  18. Ré-imaginer Alice au pays des merveilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Cheron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland fait l’objet d’adaptations cinématographiques dès les débuts du cinéma. De nombreuses analyses soulèvent, et ce dès les années 1990, le lien tacite entre les films de Tim Burton et les aventures d’Alice. Que ce soient les personnages, les univers ou encore l’absurdité des situations, il semblait évident que le cinéaste en viendrait un jour à filmer sa vision des écrits de Lewis Carroll, comme l’aboutissement d’une idée qui serait en germe depuis toujours. Le réalisateur rendant hommage aux premières illustrations mais aussi aux différentes adaptations d’Alice au cinéma, effectue une synthèse visuelle et narrative de l’ensemble de ces œuvres comme si son Alice in Wonderland devait être une transposition-somme.

  19. Contribution de la consolidation au maintien du patrimoine

    CERN Document Server

    Chevret, P

    2001-01-01

    Les premiers bâtiments du Laboratoire datent de 1954 et les équipements techniques les plus anciens encore en service dans ces bâtiments datent de 1956. Nombre d'entre eux sont toujours constitués des matériels d'origine qui ont largement dépassé leur espérance de vie normale et ne satisfont plus aux normes de sécurité. La non disponibilité fréquente de pièces de rechange sur des matériels obsolètes, les risques encourus tant par les exploitants que par les utilisateurs du point de vue de la sécurité, et les co ts de maintenance qui ne peuvent être contenus en l'absence de budget d'investissement, ont conduit le groupe ST-TFM, au cours des dernières années, à lancer un minimum de projets de consolidation pour empêcher la dégradation du patrimoine. Ce document synthétise les différentes actions entreprises et montre que l'effort doit être maintenu, voire accru, si l'on veut globaliser vers l'extérieur les opérations de maintenance dans de bonnes conditions.

  20. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jie; Lu, Na; Chen, Wei; Kong, Lina; Yang, Yun; Ma, Dekun; Huang, Shaoming

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by ...

  1. Surface chemistry of 2-butanol and furfural on Cu, Au and Cu/Au single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Megginson, Rory

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of 2-butanol and furfural was investigated on Au (111), Cu (111) and Cu/Au (111) surfaces. It was hoped that by studying how these species adsorbed on these surfaces , insight would be provided into the roles of Cu and Au in the “hydrogen free” hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. This is a valuable process as currently furfuryl alcohol is derived from crude oil but it is possible to derive furfural from corn husk making it a greener process...

  2. Terminal Gold-Oxo Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R.; Anderson, T.M.; Piccoli, P.M.B.; Schultz, A.J.; Koetzle, T.F.; Geletii, Y.V.; Slonkina, E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hardcastle, K.I.; Fang, X.; Kirk, M.L.; Knottenbelt, S.; Kogerler, P.; Musaev, D.G.; Morokuma, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hill, C.L.; /Emory U. /Argonne /SLAC, SSRL /New Mexico U. /Iowa State U. /Toho U.

    2007-10-19

    In contradiction to current bonding paradigms, two terminal Au-oxo molecular complexes have been synthesized by reaction of AuCl{sub 3} with metal oxide-cluster ligands that model redox-active metal oxide surfaces. Use of K{sub 10}[{alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}] x 20H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}WO{sub 4} (forming the [A-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 9-} ligand in situ) produces K{sub 15}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 68}] x 25H{sub 2}O (1); use of K{sub 10}[P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 22H{sub 2}O (3) produces K{sub 7}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 27H{sub 2}O (2). Complex 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic Fddd, with a = 28.594(4) Angstroms, b = 31.866(4) Angstroms, c = 38.241(5) Angstroms, V = 34844(7) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 16 (final R = 0.0540), and complex 2 crystallizes in hexagonal P6(3)/mmc, with a = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, b = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, c = 19.7659(15) Angstroms, V = 4477.4(5) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 2 (final R = 0.0634). The polyanion unit in 1 is disorder-free. Very short ({approx}1.76 Angstroms) Au-oxo distances are established by both X-ray and 30 K neutron diffraction studies, and the latter confirms oxo and trans aqua (H2O) ligands on Au. Seven findings clarify that Au and not W is present in the Au-oxo position in 1 and 2. Five lines of evidence are consistent with the presence of d8 Au(III) centers that are stabilized by the flanking polytungstate ligands in both 1 and 2: redox titrations, electrochemical measurements, 17 K optical spectra, Au L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Au-oxo bond distances. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for crystalline 1 and 2 establish that both solids are diamagnetic, and {sup 31}P and {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy confirm that both remain diamagnetic in solution. Both complexes have been further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and other techniques.

  3. Passage des Gravilliers, Paris, 1er juin 2009: entre champ visuel et territoire sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Perichet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available À défaut d’enquêter sur le lieu dans la perspective d’y trouver l’indice qui détourne l’attention, plus que chercher d’autres espaces, c’est au gré de mes déambulations que je tente un « être-là », une présence au lieu, à l’espace que je traverse en même temps qu’il me parle et me touche. Au passage des Gravilliers, placé au centre du dispositif d’enregistrement de l’image panoramique autour duquel s’enroulait l’architecture et déambulaient les personnages, mon corps s’avérait l’élément catalyseur à l’origine de la représentation. Quelle place aujourd’hui réserver au visiteur qui expérimente Passage des Gravilliers, le dispositif de mise en scène de l’image en mouvement imaginé pour tenter de restituer le temps d’une expérience, l’histoire à même de s’inventer, entre champ visuel et territoire sonore ? RESUMO Evito investigar o lugar com o objetivo de encontrar o índice que desvia a atenção, mais do que buscar outros espaços, é isto que procuro com minhas andanças. Busco um “estar lá”. A presença de um lugar que eu cruzo ao mesmo tempo em que ele me atravessa. A travessa Passage des Gravilliers está colocada no centro do dispositivo de gravação da imagem panorâmica que se desenrola em torno da arquitetura e do passear dos personagens, meu corpo é o catalisador por trás do espetáculo. Que lugar se reserva hoje para o visitante experimenta a obra Passage des Gravilliers, dispositivo encenado de imagem em movimento, concebido para tentar restaurar o tempo de uma experiência, a própria história para inventar, entre o campo visual e o território sonoro? PALAVRAS-CHAVE Experiência, panorâmica, campo visual, território sonoro, performance, dispositivos de encenação.

  4. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Gold(I)-Chloroquine Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Maribel; Castro, William; González, Sorenlis; Abad, María Jesús; Taylor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Two new gold(I) -chloroquine complexes, Au(CQ)(Cl) (1) and Au(CQ)(tgta) (2), were prepared and their most probable structure were established through a combination of different spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Their interaction with two important targets of action, DNA and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), were investigated. These studies showed that complexes 1 and 2 displayed two types of interaction with DNA, covalent binding through the metal center, and additionally a non-covalent in...

  5. Les Antigones espagnoles contemporaines, figures mythiques de l’opposition au pouvoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Blin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de mettre en lumière les dimensions idéologiques des réécritures du mythe d’Antigone par les dramaturges espagnols, de la Guerre civile à la Transition démocratique. L’omniprésence de la figure mythique d’Antigone dans leur dramaturgie entre 1939 et la décennie 1980 révèle que la période de crise historique est allée de pair avec une mise en cause du pouvoir, qui a été représentée à travers le recours au mythe. Le personnage d’Antigone symbolise en effet la résistance, l’opposition sans concession au pouvoir tyrannique incarné par Créon. C’est pourquoi tant de dramaturges espagnols ont choisi ce mythe pour lire et relire leur époque troublée au prisme d’un récit séculaire.

  6. 370 emplois auraient ete supprimes au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit-Godet, S

    2002-01-01

    "La FTMH demande un plan social pour les salaries des sous-traitants.  Environ 370 postes ont ete supprimes au CERN ces douze derniers mois.» Alain Perrat, secretaire de la FTMH, tire la sonnette d'alarme" (1 page).

  7. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  8. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  9. HYPERTENSION AU COURS DE LA GROSSESSE: Aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypertension soit une prévalence de 8,2%. Cette pathologie survient dans notre .... consultations prénatales ou le post-partum. Sur le plan clinique, la ... des patientes étaient au terme de leur grossesse alors que 22.11%, avaient un âge ...

  10. Parrains et voisins? Espace et parrainage en banlieue parisienne au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gourdon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Située à proximité de Paris, Aubervilliers, au cours du XIXe siècle, connaît une forte croissance de sa population et une transformation de son tissu social avec l’arrivée de migrants et l’orientation des activités économiques vers l’industrie au détriment de l’agriculture traditionnelle. Dans le cadre d’une réfl exion générale concernant la place du parrainage dans la construction des liens sociaux et particulièrement de la sociabilité communautaire à l’échelle locale, la distribution spatiale des parrains et marraines des enfants baptisés dans l’unique église paroissiale de la localité a été analysée sur trois siècles, afi n de montrer la fi n progressive du parrainage entre voisins appartenant à une même communauté, la paroisse, entre XVIIIe siècle et XIXe siècle, et l’élargissement du bassin de recrutement des parents spirituels, celui-ci témoignant du recul de l’esprit communautaire ancien. Au XIXe siècle, quand les choix dans la parenté n’amènent pas à aller quérir des parrains loin d’Aubervilliers, d’autres types de parrains voisins apparaissent: les gens du quartier, voire les voisins d’immeuble, prennent alors une place importante, notamment dans le quartier ouvrier peuplé de migrants de Quatre Chemins-Champ Blanc, au sud de la commune. Il ressort ainsi de l’analyse détaillée des baptêmes de 1881 que l’espace de la banlieue était loin d’être uniforme. Par beaucoup d’aspects dont le parrainage, Aubervilliers était bien une «périphérie» de Paris (cf. la proportion de parrains et marraines vivant dans la capitale, mais en son sein plusieurs quartiers, où des logiques de choix diff érentes étaient mises en oeuvre au moment des baptêmes, coexistaient.

  11. A reagentless amperometric immunosensor based on nano-au and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... which was then mixed with AU nanoparticles (nano-Au) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) ..... Kaminishi D, Ozaki H, Ohno Y, Maehashi K, Inoue K, Matsumoto K, Seri ... nanoparticle doped chitosan film. Anal.

  12. Molecules on vicinal Au surfaces studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, J; Neel, N; Jensen, H; Berndt, R; Rurali, R; Lorente, N

    2006-01-01

    Using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy we investigated the adsorption characteristics of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dianhydride and fullerenes on Au(788), Au(433), and Au(778). On Au(788) and Au(778), 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dianhydride exhibits three coexisting superstructures, which do not reflect the periodicity of the hosting substrate. The adsorption on Au(433) leads to the formation of molecule chains along the step edges after annealing the sample. Fullerene molecules on Au(788) arrange in a mesh of islands, which extends over several hundreds of nanometres with an extraordinarily high periodicity. A combination of fullerene adsorption and annealing leads to facetting of Au(433) and the formation of extraordinarily long fullerene stripes

  13. Three-particle correlations from parton cascades in Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Zhang, S.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.H.; He, Z.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Long, J.L.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, X.H.; Zhong, C.; Zuo, J.X.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of three-particle correlations among a trigger particle and two associated particles in Au+Au collisions at s NN =200 GeV using a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) with both partonic and hadronic interactions. We found that three-particle correlation densities in different angular directions with respect to the triggered particle ('center', 'cone', 'deflected', 'near' and 'near-away') increase with the number of participants. The ratio of 'deflected' to 'cone' density approaches to 1.0 with the increasing of number of participants, which indicates that partonic Mach-like shock waves can be produced by strong parton cascades in central Au+Au collisions

  14. pH-Induced transformation of ligated Au25 to brighter Au23 nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkielewicz, Magdalena; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Comby-Zerbino, Clothilde; Bertorelle, Franck; Dagany, Xavier; Bansal, Ashu K; Sajjad, Muhammad T; Samuel, Ifor D W; Sanader, Zeljka; Rozycka, Miroslawa; Wojtas, Magdalena; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta; Antoine, Rodolphe; Ozyhar, Andrzej; Samoc, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters have recently attracted considerable attention due to their size-dependent luminescence characterized by a long lifetime and large Stokes shift. However, the optimization of nanocluster properties such as the luminescence quantum yield is still a challenge. We report here the transformation of Au25Capt18 (Capt labels captopril) nanoclusters occurring at low pH and yielding a product with a much increased luminescence quantum yield which we have identified as Au23Capt17. We applied a simple method of treatment with HCl to accomplish this transformation and we characterized the absorption and emission of the newly created ligated nanoclusters as well as their morphology. Based on DFT calculations we show which Au nanocluster size transformations can lead to highly luminescent species such as Au23Capt17.

  15. The sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein based on enrichment by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au magnetic nano probes and signal amplification by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hankun [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Gan Ning, E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Li Tianhua; Cao Yuting; Zeng Saolin [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zheng Lei, E-mail: nfyyzl@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Guo Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2012-10-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sandwich immunoreaction, testing a large number of samples simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic separation and enrichment by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au magnetic nano probes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amplification of detection signal by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost no background signal, which greatly improve the sensitivity of detection. - Abstract: A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0 ng mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL{sup -1}. The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Bilal; Ahmad, Sultan; Parwaz, M.; Rahul, Khan, Zishan H.

    2018-05-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of pure and Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires. These nanowires are synthesized using thermal vapor transport method. The luminescence intensity of Au incorporated Alq3 nanowires are recorded to be higher than that of pure Alq3 nanowires, which is found to increase with the increase in Au concentration. Fluorescence quenching is also observed when Au concentration is increased beyond the certain limit.

  17. Energy dependence of collective flow of neutrons and charged particles in 197Au+197Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaich, T.; Freiesleben, H.; Holzmann, R.; Keller, J.G.; Prokopowicz, W.; Schuetter, C.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.

    1994-01-01

    Our contribution focusses on one particular aspect of collective flow of nuclear matter: the so-called ''squeeze-out'', i.e. the preferential emission of mid-rapidity particles perpendicular to the reaction plane. The data were taken for the system 197 Au + 197 Au at 400, 600 and 800 MeV/u. We cover two topics, the comparison of neutrons and protons, and the bombarding energy dependence of the neutrons' squeeze-out. (orig.)

  18. Appui au réseautage et au renforcement des télécentres ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En Afrique de l'Ouest francophone, les télécentres luttent pour atteindre la viabilité financière tout en demeurant au diapason des collectivités, une situation qui tient au fait qu'ils ont accès à un moins grand nombre de ressources en ligne et à une communauté d'utilisateurs plus restreinte que les télécentres anglophones.

  19. Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions at the AGS: recent results from E917

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.-C.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Britt, H.C.; Chang, W.C.; Gillitzer, A.; Henning, W.F.; Hofman, D.J.; Holzman, B.; Nanal, V.; Wuosmaa, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions has been measured via the yields of K + , K - at 6, 8 AGeV and of bar Λ at 10.8 AGeV beam kinetic energy in experiment E917. By varying the collision centrally and beam energy, a systematic search for indications of new phenomena and in-medium effects under high baryon density is undertaken

  20. Pondération de la base juridique du droit au logement au Zimbabwe ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  1. Flow and bose-einstein correlations in Au-Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Manly, Steven; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyinski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    Argonne flow and Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured in Au-Au collisions at S=130 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. The systematic dependencies of the flow signal on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity, and centrality of the collision, as well as the beam energy are shown. In addition, results of a 3-dimensional analysis of two-pion correlations in the 200 GeV data are presented.

  2. The effect of Au amount on size uniformity of self-assembled Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Wang, D-C; Chen, G-Y; Chen, K-Y [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-15

    The self-assembled fabrication of nanostructure, a dreaming approach in the area of fabrication engineering, is the ultimate goal of this research. A finding was proved through previous research that the size of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles could be controlled with the mole ratio between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol. In this study, the moles of Au were fixed, only the moles of thiol were adjusted. Five different mole ratios of Au/S with their effect on size uniformity were investigated. The mole ratios were 1:1/16, 1:1/8, 1:1, 1:8, 1:16, respectively. The size distributions of the gold nanoparticles were analyzed by Mac-View analysis software. HR-TEM was used to derive images of self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The result reached was also the higher the mole ratio between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol the bigger the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Under the condition of moles of Au fixed, the most homogeneous nanoparticles in size distribution derived with the mole ratio of 1:1/8 between AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} and thiol. The obtained nanoparticles could be used, for example, in uniform surface nanofabrication, leading to the fabrication of ordered array of quantum dots.

  3. A reagentless amperometric immunosensor based on nano-au and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, carboxyl-ferrocene (Fc-COOH) was explored to label alphafetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP), which was then mixed with AU nanoparticles (nano-Au) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed by chitosan (CS) to form the nano-Au/MWCNTs/anti-AFP-Fc chitosan composite. After that, the composite ...

  4. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the ...

  5. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  6. Preparation and use of 195m Au-containing liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A 195m Au-containing liquid is prepared by adsorbing 195m-Hg on an adsorption agent and then eluting the daughter radioisotope 195m-Au. A radioisotope generator and the adsorption agent to be used in preparation of 195m Au-containing liquids are also claimed

  7. Anomolous, intensity dependent losses in Au(32+) beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Ahrens, L.; Calvani, H.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a rapid cycling proton and heavy ion synchrotron. Anomolous, intensity dependent losses in Au(32+) beams have been observed in the AGS Booster. No collective signal is expected, or observed, but increasing the number of injected ions decreases the beam lifetime. The loss rates for Au(32+) are compared with those for Au(15+)

  8. φ meson production in Au + Au and p + p collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, S.M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravstov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    We report the STAR measurement of ψ meson production in Au + Au and p + p collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV. Using the event mixing technique, the ψ spectra and yields are obtained at midrapidity for five centrality bins in Au+Au collisions and for non-singly-diffractive p+p collisions. It is found that the ψ transverse momentum distributions from Au+Au collisions are better fitted with a single-exponential while the p+p spectrum is better described by a double-exponential distribution. The measured nuclear modification factors indicate that ψ production in central Au+Au collisions is suppressed relative to peripheral collisions when scaled by the number of binary collisions ( bin >). The systematics of T > versus centrality and the constant ψ/K - ratio versus beam species, centrality, and collision energy rule out kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for ψ production

  9. Jet-Hadron Correlations in √sNN =200 GeV p +p and Central Au +Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L., Jr.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Azimuthal angular correlations of charged hadrons with respect to the axis of a reconstructed (trigger) jet in Au +Au and p +p collisions at √sNN =200 GeV in STAR are presented. The trigger jet population in Au +Au collisions is biased toward jets that have not interacted with the medium, allowing easier matching of jet energies between Au +Au and p +p collisions while enhancing medium effects on the recoil jet. The associated hadron yield of the recoil jet is significantly suppressed at high transverse momentum (pTassoc) and enhanced at low pTassoc in 0%-20% central Au +Au collisions compared to p +p collisions, which is indicative of medium-induced parton energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  10. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Lee, J. W.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2<η<1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  11. Microarray analysis of Arabidopsis under gold exposure to identify putative genes involved in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Krishnamurthy, Sneha; Sahi, Shivendra V

    2015-03-01

    Very little is known about the genes responsible for Au uptake, reduction and detoxification in plants, which indeed essential to understand the complex trait of AuNP biosynthesis. We designed a targeted experiment to elucidate the response of plant at transcriptional level under Au exposure, and a microarray was performed on root tissue treated with AuCl4 (-) in the absence of nutrient media to record specific gene expression signature. Here, we describe the experimental procedures and data analysis in detail to reproduce the results (available at GEO database under GSE55436) published by Shukla et al. (2014) [1] in the Frontiers in Plant Sciences. The data produced from this study provide significant information of genes which may be used to enhance the AuNP biosynthesis.

  12. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: bis-carbene metal adatom bonding scheme of monolayer films on Au, Ag and Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Bodong; Médard, Guillaume; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Haag, Felix; Allegretti, Francesco; Reichert, Joachim; Kuster, Bernhard; Barth, Johannes V; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C

    2017-12-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), complementary density functional theory (DFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) we investigate the binding and self-assembly of a saturated molecular layer of model N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on Cu(111), Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. On all three surfaces, we resolve similar arrangements, which can be interpreted only in terms of mononuclear M(NHC) 2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes, reminiscent of the paired bonding of thiols to surface gold adatoms. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au(111) surface covered by Au(NHC) 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

  13. Distribution of physical therapists working on public and private establishments in different levels of complexity of health care in Brazil Distribuição de fisioterapeutas entre estabelecimentos públicos e privados nos diferentes níveis de complexidade de atenção à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa R. Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brazilian Health System is organized on a regional and hierarchical form with three levels of complexity of health care. The Primary Care represents the first element of a continuing health care process, complemented by specialized actions. However, the centrality of the specialized care is still a problem in Brazil, especially in the private sector. Studies on the distribution of professionals in the health system allowing the formulation of appropriate policies are needed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution of physical therapists in the levels of complexity of health care and between public and private establishments, according to data from the National Register of Health Service Providers (NRHSP. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed considering NRHSP-national bank data collected in March 2010 and demographic census 2010 data. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics techniques. RESULTS: We identified 53,181 registries of physical therapists, 60% linked to the private sector. Only 13% of all entries were linked to primary care. The predominance in specialized care occurred in the public sector (65% and private sector (100%. The specialized establishments of private sector linked to the southeast region (16,043 were the main sites of physical therapists. Only the public sector in the south had a majority in the Primary Care. When considering the sizes of the cities, there is focus on specialist care in bigger cities. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the concentration of physical therapists in the specialized care, mostly in metropolis and big cities and in the private sector, with restricted to participation in the primary care.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS é organizado de forma regionalizada e hierarquizada, apresentando três níveis de complexidade de atenção à saúde. A atenção primária à saúde (APS representa o primeiro elemento de um continuado

  14. Analysis of the intermediate stage in the heavy ion interactions of 208Pb+197Au and 197Au+197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Tabassum; Khan, E.U.; Baluch, J.J.; Qureshi, I.E.; Sajid, M.; Shahzad, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Two different projectiles 208 Pb and 197 Au at the same energy (11.67MeV/u) have been bombarded on 197 Au target to study heavy ion interactions using mica as a passive detector. In this paper we present results on the study of energy damping and time scale of the existence of di-nuclear composite system in the intermediate reaction step. The plots of Q-values as well as reaction cross sections in various angular bins of scattering angles suggest that K.E. damping was complete and dynamic equilibrium was established between the first and second reaction steps. The time scale of this duration was also determined

  15. Grafting of a novel gold(III) complex on nanoporous MCM-41 and evaluation of its toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Amini, Mostafa M; Ashourion, Hamed; Heydari, Homayoun; Majdabadi, Abbas; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Abolmaali, Shamsozoha

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the potential of newly synthesized gold complex trichloro(2,4,6-trimethylpyridine)Au(III) as an anticancer agent. The gold(III) complex was synthesized and grafted on nanoporous silica, MCM-41, to produce AuCl(3)@PF-MCM- 41 (AuCl(3) grafted on pyridine-functionalized MCM-41). The toxicity of trichloro(2,4,6- trimethylpyridine)Au(III) and AuCl(3)@PF-MCM-41 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as a model system) was studied. The gold(III) complex showed a mid cytotoxic effect on yeast viability. Using the drug delivery system, nanoporous MCM-41, the gold(III) complex became a strong inhibitor for growth of yeast cells at a very low concentration. Furthermore, the animal tests revealed a high uptake of AuCl(3)@PF-MCM-41 in tumor cells. The stability of the compound was confirmed in human serum.

  16. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Sougrat, Rachid; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au

  17. Seed-mediated growth and manipulation of Au nanorods via size-controlled synthesis of Au seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juncheng; Duggan, Jennifer N.; Morgan, Joshua; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth of gold (Au) nanorods with highly controllable length, width, and aspect ratio was accomplished via carefully size-controlled synthesis of the original Au seeds. A slow dynamic growth of Au nanoparticle seeds was observed after reduction of the Au salt (i.e., hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate) by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). As such, the size of the Au nanoparticle seeds can therefore be manipulated through control over the duration of the reaction period (i.e., aging times of 2, 8, 48, 72, and 144 h were used in this study). These differently sized Au nanoparticles were subsequently used as seeds for the growth of Au nanorods, where the additions of Au salt, CTAB, AgNO 3 , and ascorbic acid were employed. Smaller Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via short growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with higher aspect ratio and thus longer longitudinal surface plasmon wavelength (LSPW). The larger Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via longer growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with lower aspect ratio and shorter LSPW.

  18. Les politiques d’appui à l’agriculture familiale au Brésil : quelques éléments de comparaison avec le Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bonnal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Au Brésil comme au Maroc, le secteur agricole est marqué par des différences extrêmes en termes de taille d’exploitation, ainsi que de niveaux d’équipement, de capitalisation et de techniques. L’article présente la politique brésilienne d’appui à l’agriculture familiale, et quelques éléments de comparaison avec les choix faits au Maroc. Les politiques agricoles brésiliennes proposent depuis une vingtaine d’années un appui spécifique aux exploitations familiales, avec notamment la constitution d’un ministère spécifique. De nombreux dispositifs d’appui à l’agriculture familiale ont été mis en place, dont notamment des crédits à taux préférentiel et des programmes d’achat de denrées agricoles pour les institutions publiques (écoles, hôpitaux, etc.. Dans les zones rurales particulièrement fragiles, des dispositifs permettent une coordination entre l’ensemble des politiques publiques concernant ces zones. Enfin, la conception et la mise en oeuvre de ces politiques publiques se font avec une forte implication des syndicats agricoles. Les politiques publiques brésiliennes et marocaines reconnaissent la dualité du monde agricole, mais cette dualité est définie par zone au Maroc, tandis qu’elle est fondée sur des caractéristiques explicites des exploitations au Brésil. Dans les deux pays, le coeur des politiques publiques d’appui aux exploitations familiales porte sur l’aide à l’investissement. Au-delà de ce coeur commun, les politiques brésiliennes ont plus spécifiquement développé des approches au niveau des territoires locaux et associent plus fortement qu’au Maroc les organisations professionnelles agricoles représentant l’agriculture familiale dans la conception de l’action publique. La comparaison des politiques agricoles au Maroc et au Brésil sur quelques éléments permet de souligner la forte étendue des choix qu’il est possible de considérer, pour définir des

  19. La filière d’oignon d’été dans le Saïs au Maroc : la place et le rôle des intermédiaires de la commercialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lejars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Les agriculteurs dépendent souvent, pour la commercialisation de leur produit, d'un réseau complexe d'intermédiaires privés. Dans les pays en développement, ces intermédiaires de la vente sont souvent accusés de réaliser des profits excessifs et d’être responsables des énormes écarts entre le prix de vente au champ et le prix payé par le consommateur. En s’appuyant sur l’étude de la filière oignon d’été dans le Saïs au Maroc, cet article analyse le rôle de ces réseaux d'intermédiaires, et la répartition des coûts et de la marge bénéficiaire le long de la chaine de production et de commercialisation. On montre ainsi que cette filière crée un grand nombre d'emplois en aval de la production, que ce soit pour la collecte, le stockage, le transport ou la vente. La part de la marge bénéficiaire revenant à l’ensemble des intermédiaires est supérieure à celle revenant aux producteurs, ce qui entraine effectivement une importante différence de prix entre le prix de vente et le prix du marché. Même si les profits et les rôles des intermédiaires sont très variables, certains des acteurs intermédiaires, notamment les détaillants et les revendeurs en gros, récupèrent des marges bien supérieures à celles des agriculteurs. L’organisation des producteurs autour de zones de stockage et d’activités de commercialisation permettrait de limiter le nombre d’intermédiaires, d’accroitre le profit des agriculteurs et de modifier les rapports de négociations souvent asymétriques entre agriculteurs et commerçants.

  20. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  1. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum-bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  2. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, JK; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, EC; Averichev, GS; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, AK; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, LC; Bordyuzhin, IG; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, D; Brandin, AV; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, JM; Cebra, D; Cervantes, MC; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, JH; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, HJ; Das, S; De Silva, LC; Debbe, RR; Dedovich, TG; Deng, J; Derevschikov, AA; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, JL; Draper, JE; Du, CM; Dunkelberger, LE; Dunlop, JC; Efimov, LG; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, CE; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, CA; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, DS; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, JW; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, GW; Hofman, DJ; Horvat, S; Huang, T; Huang, B; Huang, HZ; Huang, X; Huck, P

    2015-10-23

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  3. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-24

    competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products.

  4. Buddhism in Čampā Le Bouddhisme au Champa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Valérie Schweyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Čampā is a Far East country, whose Māhāyana Buddhism is known from 7th to 14th century. In fact, Sanskrit and Cam Inscriptions mostly attested Tantric practices, belonging to the Vajrāyana Buddhism, mixing Śaiva and Buddhist believes. More precisely, side by side Śiva and the three Buddha’ emanations, Śākyamuni, Amitābha and Vairocana, are honoured in Čampā, alone with the Goddess Prajñāpāramitā, the true substance of the Doctrine, and, secondary, with Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara and Vajrasattva. The confrontation of the epigraphic testimonies with the archaeological remains is very useful to understand the Buddhism of Čampā, crossroads of trade roads between India and China. Therefore, epigraphic and artistic evidences are used to propose a chronological presentation, with a special development on the revival of the 10th century, and especially, the esoteric way.Le Čampā, pays du centre Vietnam, connut un bouddhisme Māhāyana du xe au xive siècle. Les inscriptions en sanskrit et en cam montrent que ce bouddhisme était essentiellement tantrique, relevant du bouddhisme Vajrāyana, mêlant pratiques Śivaïtes et bouddhiques. Plus précisément, le bouddhisme cam montre qu’aux côtés de Śiva sont honorées les trois émanations du Bouddha, Śākyamuni, Amitābha et Vairocana, avec la déesse Prajñāpāramitā, la Vraie Substance de la Connaissance ; on trouve également Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara et Vajrasattva. La confrontation des témoignages épigraphiques et archéologiques permet de mieux appréhender le bouddhisme cam, à la croisée des routes commerciales entre l’Inde et la Chine. Cet article exploite ces témoignages dans une perspective chronologique, avec un développement particulier pour le Bouddhisme ésotérique au xe siècle.

  5. First results on d+Au collisions from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at √SNN = 200 GeV, in the range 0.25 < pT < 6.0 GeV/c. With increasing collision centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-pT hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions.

  6. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  7. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-technological approaches of actinides decorporation by an in vivo sequestering agent. Application to the development of new treatments; Approches pharmacocinetique et pharmacotechnique de la decorporation d'actinides par un agent complexant in vivo. Application a la mise au point de nouveaux traitements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, G.

    2005-05-24

    distribution tissulaire et forte excretion urinaire) qui ne coincide pas avec la distribution des actinides dans l'organisme. De plus, du fait de ses proprietes physico-chimiques, la molecule hydrophile et polaire n'a pas la capacite de traverser les membranes plasmiques et de penetrer dans les cellules. En consequence, l'utilisation de vecteurs colloidaux tels que les liposomes pourrait permettre de moduler la pharmacocinetique du DTPA ainsi que de promouvoir l'acces de l'agent chelateur au compartiment intracellulaire des macrophages du systeme reticulo-endothelial ou se concentrent egalement les radionucleides. L'objectif de cette these a donc ete d'ameliorer le traitement de decorporation des actinides transuraniens en etudiant le cas du plutonium (Pu) par le DTPA selon une approche double. La strategie a consiste a developper des formes pharmaceutiques de types liposomes afin d'encapsuler et de modifier la distribution du DTPA in vivo. L'encapsulation du DTPA dans de larges liposomes multilamellaires (MLV) conventionnels (composEs de DOPC:CH:PG) et furtifs (composes de DOPC:CH:DSPE-PEG) a en effet pu modifier la pharmacocinEtique du DTPA en prolongeant son temps de circulation plasmatique et en augmentant sa distribution surtout dans le foie (MLV conventionnels) et au niveau du squelette (MLV furtifs). Ces modifications de distribution du DTPA ont ete dans un premier temps correlees a une augmentation du pouvoir decorporant du DTPA vis-a-vis du Pu chez le rat. La reduction du diametre des liposomes a environ 100 nm a permis de moduler davantage les paramEtres pharmacocinetiques en allongeant leur temps de circulation. Les liposomes furtifs de diametres reduits autour de 100 nm (SL-100nm) prEsentent une distribution a priori la plus favorable a une amelioration de l'effet pharmacologique du DTPA. En effet, l'administration d'une dose unique d'environ 3 {mu}mol.kg{sup -1} de DTPA encapsule dans les SL-100nm

  8. Floridablanca entre la modernidad y la posmodernidad

    OpenAIRE

    Senatore, María Ximena

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en los diálogos entre el pasado y el presente creados en el marco de la modernidad y de la posmodernidad. La arqueología como práctica social puede ser entendida como un diálogo pasado-presente. Floridablanca es una historia, un sitio, una experiencia, una idea, una utopía. Es también un punto de encuentro entre modernidad y posmodernidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar ciertas reflexiones sobre los diálogos pasado-presente que crean, transforman y reproducen...

  9. Efficient adsorption of Au(CN)2- from gold cyanidation with graphene oxide-polyethylenimine hydrogel as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Jia, Feifei; Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

    The adsorption of gold cyanide complex ion (Au(CN)2-) on graphene oxide-polyethylenimine hydrogel (GO/PEI hydrogel) from gold cyanidation has been studied to explore the possibility of the application of GO/PEI hydrogel in gold cyanidation process for extracting gold from ores. The adsorption was carried out in artificial Au(CN)2- aqueous solution with GO/PEI hydrogel as adsorbent. The experimental results, as well as IR, XPS and SEM-EDS, have shown that GO/PEI hydrogel exhibited a high adsorption capacity and a fast adsorption rate of Au(CN)2-, suggesting that GO/PEI hydrogel might be a good adsorbent for the recovery of Au(CN)2-. The adsorption of Au(CN)2- on GO/PEI hydrogel obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model and fitted well with the pseudo second order model. The good recovery of Au(CN)2- was largely related to the porous structure, large specific surface area, as well as the oxygenous functional groups on the surface of GO/PEI hydrogel.

  10. Self-assembled Au nanoparticles on heated Corning glass by dc magnetron sputtering: size-dependent surface plasmon resonance tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammatikopoulos, S.; Pappas, S. D. [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece); Dracopoulos, V. [Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, (FORTH/ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology (Greece); Poulopoulos, P., E-mail: poulop@upatras.gr [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik (Germany); Velgakis, M. J.; Politis, C. [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece)

    2013-02-15

    We report on the growth of Au nanoparticles on Corning glass by direct current magnetron sputtering and on the optical absorption of the films. The substrate temperature was kept to relatively high temperatures of 100 or 450 Degree-Sign C. This lead to the growth of Au nanoparticles instead of smooth Au films as the surface energy of Au is much larger than the one of glass. The size of the particles depended on the substrate temperature and deposition time and was shown to follow a logarithmic normal distribution function. Both, the surface plasmon resonance position and bandwidth, were found to depend upon the average particle size. The surface plasmon resonance position showed a 75 nm continuous blue shift from 14 nm down to 2.5 nm average particle size. Thus, we have shown how to tune the nanoparticle size and surface plasmon resonance of Au by varying the substrate temperature and deposition time. The experimental results are reproduced reasonably using a method which is based on the size- and wavelength-dependent complex dielectric function of Au within the framework of the Mie theory for the optical properties of metallic nanospheres.

  11. Chemial Bond and Stability of Adsorption of[Au(AsS3)]2- on the Surface of Kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Xin-min; CHEN Yun; HONG Han-lie

    2004-01-01

    Density function theory and discrete variation method (DFT-DVM) were used to study the adsorption of [Au(AsS3 ) ]2- on the surface of kaolinite. The correlation among structure, chemical bond and stability was discussed. Several models were selected with [ Au( AsS3 ) ]2- in different directions and sites. The resultsshow that the models with gold on the edge of kaolinite basal layer contain pincerlike bond among gold and severaloxygen atoms and form strong Au - O covalent bond, so these models are more stable than those with gold aboveor under the layer. The models with gold near to [ AlO2(OH)4 ] octahedra are more stable than those with goldnear to the vacancy without aluminium. These two stable tendencies in kaolinite- [ Au( AsS3 ) ]2- are stronger thanthat in kaolinite-Au systems. The interaction between [ Au( AsS3 ) ]2- and kaolinite is stronger than that betweengold and kaolinite, and this interaction is strong enough to form the surface complexes.

  12. [Hyp-Au-Sn9(Hyp)3-Au-Sn9(Hyp)3-Au-Hyp]-: the longest intermetalloid chain compound of tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Mareike; Schrenk, Claudio; Block, Theresa; Pöttgen, Rainer; Schnepf, Andreas

    2017-10-12

    The reaction of the metalloid tin cluster [Sn 10 (Hyp) 4 ] 2- with (Ph 3 P)Au-SHyp (Hyp = Si(SiMe 3 ) 3 ) gave an intermetalloid cluster [Au 3 Sn 18 (Hyp) 8 ] - 1, which is the longest intermetalloid chain compound of tin to date. 1 shows a structural resemblance to binary AuSn phases, which is expected for intermetalloid clusters.

  13. Au Based Nanocomposites Towards Plasmonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panniello, A.; Curri, M. L.; Placido, T.; Reboud, V.; Kehagias, N.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mecerreyes, D.; Agostiano, A.; Striccoli, M.

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of nano-sized metals in polymers can transfer their unique features to the host matrix, providing nanocomposite materials with improved optical, electric, magnetic and mechanical properties. In this work, colloidal Au nanorods have been incorporated into PMMA based random co-polymer, properly functionalized with amino groups and the optical and morphological properties of the resulting nanocomposite have been investigated by spectroscopic and AFM measurements. Au nanorods have demonstrated to preserve the plasmon absorption and to retain morphological features upon the incorporation, thus making the final metal modified polymer composite exploitable for the fabrication of plasmonic devices. The prepared nanocomposites have been then patterned by Nano Imprint Lithography technique in order to demonstrate the viability of the materials towards optical applications.

  14. The gold-rich indide Sr{sub 5}Au{sub 13.5}In{sub 8.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muts, Ihor [Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine). Inorganic Chemistry Dept.; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Zaremba, Vasyl' I. [Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine). Inorganic Chemistry Dept.

    2011-11-15

    The orthorhombic indide Sr{sub 5}Au{sub 13.5}In{sub 8.5} was obtained during phase-analytical studies of the Sr-Au-In system. This new indide is formed upon melting of the elements in a sealed tantalum tube. Sr{sub 5}Au{sub 13.5}In{sub 8.5} was characterized on the basis of powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction: Pmmn, a = 476.37(9), b = 2927.5(9), c = 894.9(2) pm, wR2 = 0.056, 2355 F{sup 2} values, 87 variables. The structure is of a new type. The gold and indium atoms build up a complex three-dimensional [Au{sub 13.5}In{sub 8.5}] polyanionic network in which the strontium atoms fill channels which extend in the a direction. One site within the polyanion shows Au/In mixing. The Sr{sub 5}Au{sub 13.5}In{sub 8.5} structure is composed of SrAu{sub 3}In{sub 3-} and SrAu-related slabs. (orig.)

  15. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Near-infrared-responsive, superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadee Vittur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a new type of nanomaterial, namely superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains with optical extinctions in the near infrared (NIR. The Au@Co nanochains were synthesized via a one-pot galvanic replacement route involving a redox-transmetalation process in aqueous medium, where Au salt was reduced to form Au shells on Co seed templates, affording hollow Au@Co nanochains. The Au shells serve not only as a protective coating for the Co nanochain cores, but also to give rise to the optical properties of these unique nanostructures. Importantly, these bifunctional, magneto-optical Au@Co nanochains combine the advantages of nanophotonics (extinction at ca. 900 nm and nanomagnetism (superparamagnetism and provide a potentially useful new nanoarchitecture for biomedical or catalytic applications that can benefit from both activation by light and manipulation using an external magnetic field.

  17. Mechanical properties and grindability of experimental Ti-Au alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Au alloys (5, 10, 20 and 40 mass% Au) were made. Mechanical properties and grindability of the castings of the Ti-Au alloys were examined. As the concentration of gold increased to 20%, the yield strength and the tensile strength of the Ti-Au alloys became higher without markedly deteriorating their ductility. This higher strength can be explained by the solid-solution strengthening of the a titanium. The Ti-40%Au alloy became brittle because the intermetallic compound Ti3Au precipitated intensively near the grain boundaries. There was no significant difference in the grinding rate and grinding ratio among all the Ti-Au alloys and the pure titanium at any speed.

  18. Synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals via controlled overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungkwon; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yu, Taekyung; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia, Younan

    2010-03-03

    This paper describes the synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals with controlled morphologies via a one-step seeded-growth method. Two different reducing agents, namely, L-ascorbic acid and citric acid, were utilized for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in an aqueous solution to control the overgrowth of Au on cubic Pd seeds. When L-ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent, conformal overgrowth of Au on the Pd nanocubes led to the formation of Pd-Au nanocrystals with a core-shell structure. On the contrary, localized overgrowth of Au was observed when citric acid was used as the reducing agent, producing Pd-Au bimetallic dimers. Through this morphological control, we were able to tune the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks of Pd-Au bimetallic nanostructures in the visible region.

  19. Electrosynthesis and characterization of polypyrrole/Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, C.M. [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg; Chen Peng [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, C.Q. [School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-11-12

    Polypyrrole films containing gold nanoparticles (PPy/Au) were electrosynthesized on a glassy carbon electrode. This was done by applying a constant current of 1.43 mA cm{sup -2} in solutions containing colloidal Au particles and pyrrole monomer. A chloroaurate medium with a citrate/tannic acid reducing/protection agent was employed for generating the Au colloids. The PPy/Au films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Also, electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Au films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that PPy/Au has greater conductivity and better stability than PPy. The effect of incorporated Au nanoparticles in PPy matrix was studied and the mechanism was suggested.

  20. Synthesis of SERS active Au nanowires in different noncoordinating solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhang Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Capital Normal University (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-06-15

    Au nanowires with length up to micrometers were synthesized through a simple and one-pot solution growth method. HAuCl{sub 4} was reduced in a micellar structure formed by 1-octadecylamine and oleic acid in hexane, heptane, toluene and chloroform, respectively. As the non-polarity of noncoordinating solvents can affect the nucleation and growth rates of Au nanostructures, Au nanowires with different diameters could be obtained by changing the noncoordinating solvents in the synthetic process. The influences of the solvents on the morphology of Au nanowires were systematically studied. When using hexane as reaction solvent, the product turned to be high portion of Au nanowires with more uniform size than the others. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of 2-thionaphthol was obtained on the Au nanowire-modified substrate, indicating that the as-synthesized Au nanowires have potential for highly sensitive optical detection application.

  1. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcik, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Rezanka, P.; Slepicka, P.; Kolska, Z.; Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  2. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  3. Le CRDI au Brésil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les recherches subventionnées par le CRDI au Brésil ont permis d'éclairer les débats sur nombre de questions, dont la démocratie, la croissance économique, la santé, les services sociaux, l'innovation, la foresterie et l'eau. Pendant la dictature militaire, qui a pris fin en 1985, le CRDI s'est employé à assurer la survie de la ...

  4. La cardiomyopathie dilatee au centre hospitalier Universitaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Afin d'améliorer la prise en charge, d'éviter l'évolution rapide vers une insuffisance cardiaque réfractaire au traitement, nous avons entrepris cette étude en milieu hospitalier. Méthode : il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive dans le service de cardiologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tokoin de Lomé.

  5. Decay of 184Hg to 184Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.; Beraud, R.; Cole, J.D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Spejewski, E.H.; Sastry, K.S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Levels in 184 Au were investigated by e--γ--t and γ--γ--t coincidence techniques. A level scheme with eight definite and two tentative levels is presented; gamma branching ratios are shown. The state at 156 keV was found to have a lifetime of 36 +- 6 ns; for four of the next five levels, T 1 / 2 was less than 2 ns. 2 figures

  6. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Falivene, Laura; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2014-05-02

    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Optimizing the planar structure of (1 1 1) Au/Co/Au trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumah, D P; Cebollada, A; Clavero, C; Garcia-MartIn, J M; Skuza, J R; Lukaszew, R A; Clarke, R

    2007-01-01

    Au/Co/Au trilayers are interesting for a range of applications which exploit their unusual optical and electronic transport behaviour in a magnetic field. Here we present a comprehensive structural and morphological study of a series of trilayers with 0-7 nm Co layer thickness fabricated on glass by ultrahigh vacuum vapour deposition. We use a combination of in situ electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and x-ray scattering to determine the optimum deposition conditions for highly textured, flat and continuous layered structures. The 16 nm Au-on-glass buffer layer, deposited at ambient temperature, is found to develop a smooth (1 1 1) texture on annealing at 350 deg. C for 10 min. Subsequent growth of the Co layer at 150 deg. C produces a (1 1 1) textured film with lateral grain size of ∼150 nm in the 7 nm-thick Co layer. A simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane Co lattice expansion is observed for the thinnest Co layers, converging to bulk values for the thickest films. The roughness of the Co layer is similar to that of the Au buffer layer, indicative of conformal growth. The 6 nm Au capping layer smoothens the trilayer surface, resulting in a surface roughness independent of the Co layer thickness

  9. Magnetic properties and microstructure study of high coercivity Au/FePt/Au trilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.K.; Yuan, F.T.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Horng, Lance

    2006-01-01

    High-coercivity Au(60 nm)/FePt(δ nm)/Au(60 nm) trilayer samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature, followed by post annealing at different temperatures. For the sample with δ=60 nm, L1 ordering transformation occurs at 500 deg. C. Coercivity (H c ) is increased with the annealing temperature in the studied range 400-800 deg. C. The H c value of the trilayer films is also varied with thickness of FePt intermediate layer (δ), from 27 kOe for δ=60 nm to a maximum value of 33.5 kOe for δ=20 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the diffusion of Au atoms into the FePt L1 lattice is negligible even after a high-temperature (800 deg. C) annealing process. Furthermore, ordering parameter is almost unchanged as δ is reduced from 60 to 15 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photos indicate that small FePt Ll particles are dispersed amid the large-grained Au. We believe that the high coercivity of the trilayer sample is attributed to the small and uniform grain sizes of the highly ordered FePt particles which have perfect phase separation with Au matrix

  10. Responsabilidad extracontractual y contractual: barrera entre ambas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Hernández, Rut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad que persigue el sistema de responsabilidad civiles el resarcimiento del daño causado con independencia de que proceda la responsabilidad contractual o la extracontractual, coexistiendo ambas en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico y resultando en ocasiones complicado discernir la frontera entre una y otra.

  11. Au 38 (SPh) 24 : Au 38 Protected with Aromatic Thiolate Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambukwella, Milan; Burrage, Shayna; Neubrander, Marie; Baseggio, Oscar; Aprà, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Dass, Amala

    2017-03-21

    Au38(SR)24 is one of the most extensively investigated gold nanomolecules along with Au25(SR)18 and Au144(SR)60. However, so far it has only been prepared using aliphatic-like ligands, where R = –SC6H13, -SC12H25 and –SCH2CH2Ph. Au38(SCH2CH2Ph)24 when reacted with HSPh undergoes core-size conversion to Au36(SPh)24, and existing literature suggest that Au38(SPh)24 cannot be synthesized. Here, contrary to prevailing knowledge, we demonstrate that Au38(SPh)24 can be prepared if the ligand exchanged conditions are optimized, without any formation of Au36(SPh)24. Conclusive evidence is presented in the form of MALDI-MS, ESI-MS characterization, and optical spectra of Au38(SPh)24 in a solid glass form showing distinct differences from that of Au38(S-aliphatic)24. Theoretical analysis confirms experimental assignment of the optical spectrum and shows that the stability of Au38(SPh)24 is comparable to that of its aliphatic analogues, but results from different physical origins, with a significant component of ligand-ligand attractive interactions.

  12. 197 Au Mössbauer study of the gold species adsorbed on carbon from cyanide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Bahr, A.; Friedl, J.; Wagner, F. E.

    1990-04-01

    The gold species present on activated carbon after adsorption from solutions of Au(CN)2 - have been studied by197Au Mössbauer spectroscopy as a function of the pH value of the solution, the loading of the carbon, the coadsorption of polyvalent cations, and the treatment of the samples after adsorption. The gold was found to be adsorbed mainly as Au(CN)2 -. Coadsorbed polyvalent cations (Ca²+, Gd³+) have no influence on the Mössbauer parameters of the adsorbed gold complex. After adsorption from acidic solutions (pH ≲ 4), one finds a substantial amount of adsorbed gold with Mössbauer parameters similar to those of crystalline AuCN. Presumably, this gold is bound in Aux(CN)x+1 oligomers which form during drying. An additional product with Mössbauer parameters close to those of KAu(CN)2Cl2 was observed on dried samples after adsorption at pH 1. A minor gold species with an uncommonly small electric quadrupole splitting was found on wet carbons but disappeared on drying.

  13. Controlling the Nanoscale Patterning of AuNPs on Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Allender

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effectiveness of vapour-phase deposition for creating sub-monolayer coverage of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES on silicon in order to exert control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition. Surface coverage was evaluated indirectly by observing the extent to which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited onto the modified silicon surface. By varying the distance of the silicon wafer from the APTES source and concentration of APTES in the evaporating media, control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition was achievable to an extent. Fine control over AuNP deposition (AuNPs/μm2 however, was best achieved by adjusting the ionic concentration of the AuNP-depositing solution. Furthermore it was demonstrated that although APTES was fully removed from the silicon surface following four hours incubation in water, the gold nanoparticle-amino surface complex was stable under the same conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to study these affects.

  14. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-01-01

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model

  15. Magnetic gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe–Au): catalytic applications for the oxidative esterification and hydrogen transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient and sustainable protocol is described for the oxidative esterification of aldehydes and the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds that uses magnetically separable and reusable maghemite-supported gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe-Au) under mild conditions. The complex ch...

  16. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  17. Le CRDI au Pérou

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    environnement), entre autres, s'est penchée sur la nécessité de protéger les ... bénéficiaires de milieu rural d'un programme gouvernemental d'atténuation de la pauvreté. □ De meilleurs emplois pour les jeunes. Financement : 195 000 CAD.

  18. Search for toroidal and bubble nuclei formed in the Au + Au reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Majka, Z.; Blicharska, J.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W.; Schmidt, K.; Kowalski, S.; Cibor, J.; Hachaj, P.; Nicolis, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we present the feasibility study for the experimental observation of toroidal and bubble nuclei. This search is based on data collected by the CHIMERA collaboration for the Au + Au reaction at 15 MeV/nucleon. The beam time needed to achieve this goal is calculated for events with at least 5 heavy fragments. We found that the fraction of such events among the accumulated data is equal to 8*10 -4 . Assuming the Au beam intensity is 0.03 pnA and target thickness equals 0.3 mg/cm 2 we estimated that 450 hours of beam time is needed to record 10 6 multifragment events. Present status of the Monte-Carlo simulation predictions is shortly discussed. (A.C.)

  19. Search for toroidal and bubble nuclei formed in the Au + Au reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Majka, Z. [M.Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Blicharska, J.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W.; Schmidt, K.; Kowalski, S. [Silesian University, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Cibor, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Hachaj, P. [Cracow Univ. of Technology, Krakow (Poland); Nicolis, N. [Ioannina Univ. (Greece)

    2003-07-01

    In this contribution we present the feasibility study for the experimental observation of toroidal and bubble nuclei. This search is based on data collected by the CHIMERA collaboration for the Au + Au reaction at 15 MeV/nucleon. The beam time needed to achieve this goal is calculated for events with at least 5 heavy fragments. We found that the fraction of such events among the accumulated data is equal to 8*10{sup -4}. Assuming the Au beam intensity is 0.03 pnA and target thickness equals 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} we estimated that 450 hours of beam time is needed to record 10{sup 6} multifragment events. Present status of the Monte-Carlo simulation predictions is shortly discussed. (A.C.)

  20. Photoluminescence from Au nanoparticles embedded in Au:oxide composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongbo; Wen, Weijia; Wong, George K.

    2006-12-01

    Au:oxide composite multilayer films with Au nanoparticles sandwiched by oxide layers (such as SiO2, ZnO, and TiO2) were prepared in a magnetron sputtering system. Their photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated by employing a micro-Raman system in which an Argon laser with a wavelength of 514 nm was used as the pumping light. Distinct PL peaks located at a wavelength range between 590 and 680 nm were observed in most of our samples, with Au particle size varying from several to hundreds of nanometers. It was found that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in these composites exerted a strong influence on the position of the PL peaks but had little effect on the PL intensity.

  1. Photoluminescence from Au nanoparticles embedded in Au:oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Hongbo; Wen Weijia; Wong, George K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Au:oxide composite multilayer films with Au nanoparticles sandwiched by oxide layers (such as SiO 2 , ZnO, and TiO 2 ) were prepared in a magnetron sputtering system. Their photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated by employing a micro-Raman system in which an Argon laser with a wavelength of 514 nm was used as the pumping light. Distinct PL peaks located at a wavelength range between 590 and 680 nm were observed in most of our samples, with Au particle size varying from several to hundreds of nanometers. It was found that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in these composites exerted a strong influence on the position of the PL peaks but had little effect on the PL intensity

  2. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Rungger, Ivan; Schuster, Cosima; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  3. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  4. La nécropole mérovingienne d’Erstein (Bas-Rhin) : étude des textiles minéralisés au contact des fibules

    OpenAIRE

    Médard, Fabienne; Rohmer, Pascal; Moulherat, Christophe; Guillaume, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Au cours des années 1999 et 2000, des fouilles de sauvetage ont été menées au lieu dit « Beim Limersheimerweg », non loin de la ville d’Erstein (France, Bas-Rhin). Une importante nécropole datée entre le début du VIe et la fin du VIIe siècle après J.-C. a été mise au jour. 239 sépultures au mobilier funéraire très riche ont été découvertes. Alors que les matières organiques d’origine végétale et animale ont été peu préservées, les nombreuses pièces d’armement (épées longues, scramasaxes, cout...

  5. Mesure et réduction du fossé numérique entre les sexes dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environ 70 % des 160 millions de Pakistanais vivent en milieu rural; or, près de 90 % des infrastructures de TIC se trouvent en région urbaine. Par conséquent, une très grande partie de la population n'a pas accès au potentiel des TIC en matière de développement humain. Cette disparité d'accès entre divers groupes de la ...

  6. Les savanes d'Afrique centrale entre enclavement et intégration aux marchés

    OpenAIRE

    Magrin , Géraud; Jamin , Jean-Yves; Faure , Guy; Duteurtre , Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Les savanes d'Afrique centrale qui s'étendent à travers le nord du Cameroun, le sud du Tchad et la République centrafricaine présentent une certaine homogénéité. Milieux de transition entre Sahel et Afrique forestière, ce sont des espaces enclavés, encore peu urbanisés, au peuplement contrasté, où la culture cotonnière marque fortement les systèmes agraires. Des changements rapides sont néanmoins en cours. La croissance démographique encourage l'intensification des cul...

  7. EXAFS studies on the reaction of gold (III) chloride complex ions with sodium hydroxide and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacławski, K; Zajac, D A; Borowiec, M; Kapusta, Cz; Fitzner, K

    2010-11-11

    EXAFS and QEXAFS experiments were carried out at Hasylab laboratory in DESY center (X1 beamline, Hamburg, Germany) to monitor the course of the hydrolysis reactions of [AuCl(4)](-) complex ions as well as their reduction using glucose. As a result, changes in the spectra of [AuCl(4)](-) ions and disappearance of absorption Au-L(3) edge were registered. From the results of the experiments we have carried out, the changes in bond lengths between Au(3+) central ion and Cl(-) ligands as well as the reduction of Au(3+) to metallic form (colloidal gold was formed in the system) are evident. Good quality spectra obtained before and after the reactions gave a chance to determine the bond length characteristic of Au-Cl, Au-OH and Au-Au pairs. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the simulated spectra of different gold (III) complex ions, possibly present in the solution. Finally, the mechanism of these reactions was suggested. Unfortunately, it was not possible to detect the changes in the structure of gold (III) complex ions within the time of reaction, because of too high rates of both processes (hydrolysis and reduction) as compared with the detection time.

  8. Production of φ mesons in Au-Au collisions at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B. B.; Betts, R. R.; Chang, J.; Gillitzer, A.; Henning, W. F.; Hofman, D. J.; Nanal, V.; Seto, R.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Xiang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The first measurements of φ meson production in Au-Au collisions at AGS energies are presented via the decay to K + K - . A measurement of the centrality dependence of the yield shows an increase similar to that seen for the K - with a spectral shape consistent with a relativistic Breit-Wigner distribution within the statistical errors of the present data set. Future analysis using the full data set with 4 times the statistics will allow a more accurate determination of the yields, slopes and spectral shapes

  9. Elliptic Flow in Au+Au Collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, K. H.; Adams, N.; Adler, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Allgower, C.; Amsbaugh, J.; Anderson, M.; Anderssen, E.; Arnesen, H.; Arnold, L.; Averichev, G. S.; Baldwin, A.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Beddo, M.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellwied, R.; Bennett, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Berger, J.; Betts, W.; Bichsel, H.; Bieser, F.; Bland, L. C.; Bloomer, M.; Blyth, C. O.; Boehm, J.; Bonner, B. E.; Bonnet, D.; Bossingham, R.; Botlo, M.; Boucham, A.; Bouillo, N.; Bouvier, S.; Bradley, K.; Brady, F. P.; Braithwaite, E. S.; Braithwaite, W.; Brandin, A.; Brown, R. L.; Brugalette, G.; Byrd, C.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carr, L.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Caylor, B.; Cebra, D.; Chatopadhyay, S.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S. P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Chrin, J.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J. P.; Conin, L.; Consiglio, C.; Cormier, T. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Danilov, V. I.; Dayton, D.; Demello, M.; Deng, W. S.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Dialinas, M.; Diaz, H.; Deyoung, P. A.; Didenko, L.; Dimassimo, D.; Dioguardi, J.; Dominik, W.; Drancourt, C.; Draper, J. E.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Eggert, T.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Etkin, A.; Fachini, P.; Feliciano, C.; Ferenc, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fessler, H.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Flores, I.; Foley, K. J.; Fritz, D.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gojak, C.; Grabski, J.; Grachov, O.; Grau, M.; Greiner, D.; Greiner, L.; Grigoriev, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gross, J.; Guilloux, G.; Gushin, E.; Hall, J.; Hallman, T. J.; Hardtke, D.; Harper, G.; Harris, J. W.; He, P.; Heffner, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hill, D.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horsley, M.; Howe, M.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Hümmler, H.; Hunt, W.; Hunter, J.; Igo, G. J.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu. I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jacobson, S.; Jared, R.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kenney, V. P.; Khodinov, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S. R.; Klyachko, A.; Koehler, G.; Konstantinov, A. S.; Kormilitsyne, V.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotov, I.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krupien, T.; Kuczewski, P.; Kuhn, C.; Kunde, G. J.; Kunz, C. L.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lakehal-Ayat, L.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lamont, M. A.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C. P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lebedev, A.; Lecompte, T.; Leonhardt, W. J.; Leontiev, V. M.; Leszczynski, P.; Levine, M. J.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Z.; Liaw, C.-J.; Lin, J.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Locurto, G.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Lopiano, D.; Love, W. A.; Lutz, J. R.; Lynn, D.; Madansky, L.; Maier, R.; Majka, R.; Maliszewski, A.; Margetis, S.; Marks, K.; Marstaller, R.; Martin, L.; Marx, J.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; Matyushevski, E. A.; McParland, C.; McShane, T. S.; Meier, J.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Middlekamp, P.; Mikhalin, N.; Miller, B.; Milosevich, Z.; Minaev, N. G.; Minor, B.; Mitchell, J.; Mogavero, E.; Moiseenko, V. A.; Moltz, D.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, V.; Morse, R.; de Moura, M. M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nelson, J. M.; Nevski, P.; Ngo, T.; Nguyen, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nikitin, V. A.; Nogach, L. V.; Noggle, T.; Norman, B.; Nurushev, S. B.; Nussbaum, T.; Nystrand, J.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Olchanski, K.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Ososkov, G. A.; Ott, G.; Padrazo, D.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Pentia, M.; Perevotchikov, V.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, V. A.; Pinganaud, W.; Pirogov, S.; Platner, E.; Pluta, J.; Polk, I.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rai, G.; Rasson, J.; Ravel, O.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reichhold, D.; Reid, J.; Renfordt, R. E.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Riso, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Roehrich, D.; Rogachevski, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, C.; Russ, D.; Rykov, V.; Sakrejda, I.; Sanchez, R.; Sandler, Z.; Sandweiss, J.; Sappenfield, P.; Saulys, A. C.; Savin, I.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheblien, J.; Scheetz, R.; Schlueter, R.; Schmitz, N.; Schroeder, L. S.; Schulz, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Sedlmeir, J.; Seger, J.; Seliverstov, D.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seymour, R.; Shakaliev, E. I.; Shestermanov, K. E.; Shi, Y.; Shimanskii, S. S.; Shuman, D.; Shvetcov, V. S.; Skoro, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smykov, L. P.; Snellings, R.; Solberg, K.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Stone, N.; Stone, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Suaide, A. A.; Sugarbaker, E.; Suire, C.; Symons, T. J.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarchini, A.; Tarzian, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Tikhomirov, V.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tonse, S.; Trainor, T.; Trentalange, S.; Tokarev, M.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trofimov, V.; Tsai, O.; Turner, K.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Vakula, I.; van Buren, G.; Vandermolen, A. M.; Vanyashin, A.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vigdor, S. E.; Visser, G.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vu, C.; Wang, F.; Ward, H.; Weerasundara, D.; Weidenbach, R.; Wells, R.; Wells, R.; Wenaus, T.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitfield, J. P.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Willson, R.; Wilson, K.; Wirth, J.; Wisdom, J.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wolf, J.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yakutin, A. E.; Yamamoto, E.; Yang, J.; Yepes, P.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zanevski, Y. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhu, J.; Zimmerman, D.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zubarev, A. N.

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 130 GeV using the STAR Time Projection Chamber at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow signal, v2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  10. Narrowing of the balance function with centrality in Au + Au collisions at √sNN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Alder, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Averichev, G.S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Caines, H.; Calderonde la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Corral, M.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Draper, J.E.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C.P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, V.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Long, H.

    2003-01-01

    The balance function is a new observable based on the principle that charge is locally conserved when particles are pair produced. Balance functions have been measured for charged particle pairs and identified charged pion pairs in Au + Au collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using STAR. Balance functions for peripheral collisions have widths consistent with model predictions based on a superposition of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Widths in central collisions are smaller, consistent with trends predicted by models incorporating late hadronization

  11. Proton channeling in Au at low energies; Canalizacion de protones en Au a bajas energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, J E; Vargas, P [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the <100> direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  12. D and $^{3}He$ production in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 GeV Au + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, C; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A B; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, Kenneth J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Greiner, D E; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Guschin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A V; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Oson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.262301

    2001-01-01

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d and /sup 3/He are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the 3He freeze-out volume is smaller than the d freeze-out volume. (22 refs).

  13. Light Fragment Production and Power Law Behavior in Au + Au Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D.A.; Chacon, A.D.; Chance, J.L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J.B.; Gilkes, M.L.; Hauger, J.A.; Hirsch, A.S.; Hjort, E.L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Lisa, M.A.; Matis, H.S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.L.; Partlan, M.D.; Porile, N.T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J.L.; Russo, G.V.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B.K.; Symons, T.J.M.; Tincknell, M.L.; Tuve, C.; Warren, P.G.; Weerasundara, D.; Wieman, H.H.; Wolf, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Using charged-particle-exclusive measurements of Au+Au collisions in the LBL Bevalac's EOS time projection chamber, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity, and beam energy. Most features of these densities above a transverse momentum threshold are consistent with momentum-space coalescence, and, in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is generally well described by a momentum-space power law

  14. Energy Dependence of Particle Multiplicities in Central Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 200 GeV. For the 6% most central collisions, we obtain dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1 = 650+/-35(syst). Compared to collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV, the highest energy studied previously, an increase by a factor of 1.14+/-0.05 at 90% confidence level, is found. The energy dependence of the pseudorapidity density is discussed in comparison with data from proton-induced collisions and theoretical predictions.

  15. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  16. Fermi surfaces properties of AuAl2, AuGa2, and AuIn2 with the CaF2-type cubic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Kakihana, M.; Suzuki, F.; Yara, T.; Hedo, M.; Nakama, T.; Ōnuki, Y.; Harima, H.

    2018-05-01

    We grew high-quality single crystals of AuAl2, AuGa2, and AuIn2 with the fluorite (CaF2)-type cubic structure and determined the Fermi surface properties by the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments using full-potential LAPW bad calculations. The Fermi surface and optical properties for three compounds were once studied from an interest of colors because AuAl2 has a striking bright reddish-purple color, whereas AuGa2 and AuIn2 are, respectively, neutral and bluish. The detected dHvA frequencies in the present study are found to be in a wide range of (0.1-13)×107 Oe. The main dHvA branches for three compounds are in excellent agreement with the theoretical ones, but some dHvA branches with small dHvA frequencies are slightly deviated from the theoretical ones, especially in AuGa2 and AuIn2.

  17. Azimuthal di-hadron correlations in d plus Au and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV measured at the STAR detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barnby, L. S.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A.V.; Bridgeman, A.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Chen, J.Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Leyva, A.D.; De Silva, L.C.; Debbe, R.R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R.G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.X.; Harris, J.W.; Hays-Wehle, J.P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, B.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Koroleva, L.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S. (ed.); Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.M.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Luo, X.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.K.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M.M.; Morozov, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E.W.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Powell, C.B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Pujahari, P.R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Stevens, J.R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D.N.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L.H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlustý, David; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.M.S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.F.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, J.B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, W.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y.H.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 024912/1-024912/14 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : AU+AU COLLISIONS * RADIATION * PLASMA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2010

  18. Balance functions from Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barnby, L. S.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A.V.; Bridgeman, A.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Chen, J.Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Leyva, A.D.; De Silva, L.C.; Debbe, R.R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R.G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.X.; Harris, J.W.; Hays-Wehle, J.P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, B.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Koroleva, L.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S. (ed.); Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.M.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Luo, X.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.K.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M.M.; Morozov, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E.W.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Powell, C.B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Pujahari, P.R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Stevens, J.R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D.N.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L.H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlustý, David; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.M.S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.F.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, J.B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, W.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y.H.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 024905/1-024905/16 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS * AU-AU COLLISIONS * TIME PROJECTION CHAMBER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2010

  19. L’orientation au travail des générations : le cas de la génération X au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fleury

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article examine l’évolution de l’orientation au travail des membres de la génération X au Québec, génération dont les difficultés d’insertion professionnelle et les valeurs de jeunesse ont suscité de multiples interrogations au cours des années 1980 et au début des années 1990. S’appuyant sur des données d’enquête récoltées entre 1981 et 2006, il examine plus spécifiquement l’évolution de la valeur accordée au travail et de la signification du travail au sein de cette génération et en regard des autres générations. Il montre que, contrairement aux thèses défendues par plusieurs sociologues de la jeunesse au cours des années 1980 et 1990, l’orientation au travail des membres de la génération X se distingue assez peu de celle des autres générations. Il conclut que les difficultés économiques rencontrées de manière toute particulière par les membres de la génération X au moment de leur insertion professionnelle n’ont pas modifié, de manière durable et typique, leur orientation au travail.This paper examines the evolution of work orientation of members of the X generation in Quebec whose difficulties of employability and youth values sparked multiple questions in the 1980s and early 1990s. Based on survey data collected between 1981 and 2006, it specifically examines the evolution of the importance given to work and the meaning of work in this generation when compared with other generations. It shows that unlike numerous theses defended by some youth sociologists in the 1980s and 1990s, work orientation of the members of the X generation differs little from other generations. It concludes that the specific economic difficulties experienced by members of X generation have not changed their work orientation in a typical and sustainable way.Este artículo examina la evolución de la orientación laboral de los miembros de la generación X en Quebec cuyos problemas de inserción laboral y

  20. Produits locaux entre nature et culture : de la ferme voisine au terroir. Entretien avec Laurence Bérard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A. : Laurence Bérard, vous représentez la moitié du célèbre duo Bérard et Marchenay, dont articles et ouvrages sur produits de terroir en France sont incontournables, et c’est à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal Anthropology of Food. Alors je commencerais par la traditionnelle question : si je vous dis produits locaux, à quoi pensez-vous ?  L.B. : Produits locaux… et pas de produits de terroir…I.T. : Non j...

  1. Existe-t-il une corrélation entre la taille tumorale au scanner et les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots-Clés: cancer; rein; tomodensitométrie; anatomie pathologique; imagerie. English Title: Is there a correlation between tumor size on CT scan and pathological characteristics of kidney cancer? English Abstract. Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may vary in prognosis according to staging, histological subtype, ...

  2. La gouvernance de la sécurité au Mali : entre libéralisation et/ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pan entier de l'économie de la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité. Nous identifions ...... de la sécurité et le transfert de certains instruments de politique publique en .... Sacrifices, prix du sang, eau du maître : fondation des territoires de.

  3. Entrée des jeunes dans l'arène politique au Brésil | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2010 ... ... et qu'ont menée des chercheurs de l'Ibase, l'institut brésilien d'analyse sociale et économique. Ces chercheurs ont réalisé quelque 8 000 entrevues et organisé 40 groupes de discussion qui ont permis aux jeunes de s'exprimer avec franchise et grâce auxquels les constatations émanant de l'étude sont ...

  4. Study of new complexes of uranium and comba radical. II-Complexes formed in the presence of OH{sup -}, CO{sub 3}H{sup -}, CH{sub 3}-COO{sup -}, and B{sub 4}={sub 7}; Estudio de nuevos complejos entre uranio y el radical CADMBA. II. Complejos formados en presencia de OH{sup -}, CO{sub 3}H, CH{sub 3}-COO{sup -} y B{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, V; Galiano Sedano, J A; Parellada Bellod, R; Bellido Gonzalez, A

    1975-07-01

    Several complexes extracted with CDMBAC organic solutions from uranium aqueous solutions, in presence of sodium and ammonium hydroxides, are studied. These complexes fit to the general formula: U0{sub 2}(OH){sub n}(CDMBA){sub n}-2 . The uranium extraction in presence of an excess of sodium bicarbonate is also studied. From aqueous solutions of uranyl acetate we have isolated the complex U0{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}-C00){sub n} (CDMBA){sub n}-2. In presence of boric acid and sodium tetraborate an U-CDMBA compound containing boron in its molecule has being obtained by precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Electron diffraction on amorphous and crystalline AuAl2 , AuGa2 and AuIn2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohorquez, A.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental (in situ) measurements of electron diffraction and resistivity of amorphous and crystalline AuAl 2 , AuGa 2 and AuIn 2 thin films were performed. Thin films were produced by quench condensation. Interference and atomic distribution functions were analyzed assuming the same short range order for the three systems in the amorphous phase. The experimental results do not agree with this assumption, giving evidence that the short range order is not the same for the three amorphous systems. Further discussion of interference and atomic distribution functions shows a more evident tendency in amorphous AuIn 2 where short order of AuIn 2 and In can be inferred. (Author)

  6. Site-Selective Carving and Co-Deposition: Transformation of Ag Nanocubes into Concave Nanocrystals Encased by Au-Ag Alloy Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaewan; Wang, Daniel; Ding, Yong; Zhang, Jiawei; Qin, Dong

    2018-01-23

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes with concave side faces and Au-Ag alloy frames, namely Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals, by titrating HAuCl 4 solution into an aqueous mixture of Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc), NaOH, and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) at an initial pH of 11.6 under ambient conditions. Different from all previous studies involving poly(vinylpyrrolidine), the use of CTAC at a sufficiently high concentration plays an essential role in carving away Ag atoms from the side faces through galvanic replacement. Concurrent co-deposition of Au and Ag atoms via chemical reduction at orthogonal sites on the surface of Ag nanocubes leads to the generation of Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals with well-defined and controllable structures. Specifically, in the presence of CTAC-derived Cl - ions, the titrated HAuCl 4 is maintained in the AuCl 4 - species, enabling its galvanic replacement with the Ag atoms located on the side faces of nanocubes. The released Ag + ions can be retained in the soluble form of AgCl 2 - by complexing with the Cl - ions. Both the AuCl 4 - and AgCl 2 - in the solution are then reduced by ascorbate monoanion, a product of the neutralization reaction between H 2 Asc and NaOH, to Au and Ag atoms for their preferential co-deposition onto the edges and corners of the Ag nanocubes. Compared with Ag nanocubes, the Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals exhibit much stronger SERS activity at an excitation of 785 nm, making it feasible to monitor the Au-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH 4 in situ. When the Ag cores are removed, the concave nanocrystals evolve into Au-Ag nanoframes with controllable ridge thicknesses.

  7. Growth and size distribution of Au nanoparticles in annealed Au/TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, S.; Saviot, L.; Potin, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Lopes, C.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-28

    Nanocomposites consisting of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in TiO{sub 2} thin films are of great interest for applications in optoelectronics, photocatalysis and solar-cells for which the plasmonic properties of the metal NPs play a major role. This work investigates the first stages of the formation of gold NPs by thermal annealing of Au-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A low concentration of gold in the films is considered (5 at.%) in order to study the first stages of the formation of the NPs. Raman spectroscopy is used to follow the crystallization of TiO{sub 2} when increasing the annealing temperature. In addition, low-frequency Raman scattering (LFRS) is used to investigate the formation of gold NPs and to determine their size. Resonant LFRS measurements obtained by using a laser wavelength matching the surface plasmon resonance of the metallic NPs significantly enhances the Raman peak intensity enabling to focus on the first stages of the NPs formation. A double size distribution is observed at T{sub a} = 800 °C calling for additional investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations reveal an inhomogeneous in-depth size distribution of gold NPs. The annealed films are structured in two sublayers with bigger NPs at the bottom and smaller NPs at the top. At T{sub a} = 800 °C, a double size distribution is confirmed near the surface. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the sublayers. The modification of the diffusion of gold atoms by stresses in the film near the substrate is assumed to be responsible for the observed two layers structure. - Highlights: • Gold-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering. • The first stages of the formation of Au nanoparticles after annealing are studied. • Au nanoparticles and crystallized TiO{sub 2} are observed above 400 °C. • The size distribution of the gold nanoparticles is complex and depth-dependent.

  8. Preferential Au precipitation at deformation-induced defects in Fe–Au and Fe–Au–B–N alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S., E-mail: S.Zhang-1@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Langelaan, G. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Brouwer, J.C.; Sloof, W.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Brück, E. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Zwaag, S. van der [Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands); Dijk, N.H. van [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • Fe–Au–B–N forms a good model alloy system for self healing of deformation damage. • Solute Au atoms exclusively precipitate at grain boundaries, cracks and cavities. • XPS indicates a strong tendency for Au segregation on free surfaces at 550 °C. • Interstitial B and N form hexagonal BN on free surfaces at 550 °C. • Selective Au precipitation at open volume defects can cause autonomous repair. -- Abstract: The influence of deformation-induced defects on the isothermal precipitation of Au was studied in high-purity Fe–Au and Fe–Au–B–N alloys. Preferential Au precipitation upon annealing at 550 °C is observed at local plastic indentations. In fractured Fe–Au–B–N, solute Au atoms were found to heterogeneously precipitate at grain boundaries and local micro-cracks. This is supported by in-situ creep tests that showed a strong tendency for Au precipitation at cracks and cavities also formed during creep loading at 550 °C. Complementary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments indicate a strong tendency of Au, B and N segregation onto free surface during aging. The observed site-specific precipitation of Au holds interesting opportunities for defect healing in steels subjected to creep deformation.

  9. Émergence de la « nationalité » et institutionnalisation des clivages sociaux au Koweït et au Bahreïn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Beaugrand

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A travers l’étude des variations de signification du concept de nationalité dans le Golfe au cours du xxe siècle, cet article analyse l’origine et l’institutionnalisation des lignes de clivages sociaux dans les sociétés nationales du Koweït et du Bahreïn. Il distingue entre le concept de « nationalité », considérée par l’empire britannique comme un groupe ethnico-culturel, et l’interprétation moderne qui en fait un lien juridique entre l’individu et l’État. Dans ce contexte, les deux pays étudiés ont opté pour une application hybride de ce concept. Bien que définissant légalement leurs ressortissants conformément aux exigences internationales, leurs lois sur la nationalité ont non seulement établi des hiérarchies entre nationaux, mais surtout favorisé l’absence d’intégration, ce qui a contribué à rendre plus difficile l’émergence d’une identité nationale propre.The Appearance of « Nationality » and the Institutionnalization of Social Hierarchy in Kuweit et au BahreinBy investigating the variations that affected the meaning of ‘nationality’ in the Gulf during the 20th century, this article aims at analysing the origin and the institutionalisation of the cleavages existing within the national Kuwaiti and Bahraini societies. It distinguishes between two kinds of conception: ‘nationality’ as understood by the British Empire in the sense of ethno-cultural groups and ‘nationality’ as the juridical link between an individual and a state as theorised by the international law. Against this background, it shows that Kuwait and Bahrain have both opted for an ambiguous application of the concept: though filing the international system’s requirements, their nationality laws set up hierarchies between nationals, providing no mechanisms of integration between them. This, it is claimed, hampered the national identity building.

  10. CO Oxidation by Subnanometer AgxAu3–x Supported Clusters via Density Functional Theory Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R.; Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Vajda, S.; Apra, Edoardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2012-09-07

    The activity of AgxAu3–x/MgO(100) clusters in CO oxidation is investigated computationally via systematic sampling techniques. It is found that these subnanometer species transform after ligand adsorption into reaction complexes which catalyze CO oxidation through a variety of different mechanisms, occurring via both Langmuir–Hinshelwood and Eley–Rideal paths and in some cases directly involving the oxide support. The alloyed Ag2Au1 cluster is proposed as the best catalyst in terms of efficiency and robustness.

  11. The impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics at the interfaces between cationic porphyrin and silver nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq A.

    2017-02-04

    We explore the impact of Au doping on the charge transfer dynamics between the positively charged porphyrin (TMPyP) and negatively charged silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs). Our transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the interfacial charge transfer, the intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin can be tuned by the doping of Au atoms in Ag29 NCs. Additionally, we found that the electrostatic interaction between the negative charge of the cluster and the positive charge on the TMPyP is the driving force that brings them close to each other for complex formation and subsequently facilitates the transfer process.

  12. The impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics at the interfaces between cationic porphyrin and silver nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq A.; Parida, Manas R.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Maity, Partha; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the impact of Au doping on the charge transfer dynamics between the positively charged porphyrin (TMPyP) and negatively charged silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs). Our transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the interfacial charge transfer, the intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin can be tuned by the doping of Au atoms in Ag29 NCs. Additionally, we found that the electrostatic interaction between the negative charge of the cluster and the positive charge on the TMPyP is the driving force that brings them close to each other for complex formation and subsequently facilitates the transfer process.

  13. Conductive Au nanowires regulated by silk fibroin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Ju; Lu, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Conductive Au-biopolymer composites have promising applications in tissue engineering such as nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, silk fibroin nanofibers were formed in aqueous solution by regulating silk self-assembly process and then used as template for Au nanowire fabrication. We performed the synthesis of Au seeds by repeating the seeding cycles for several times in order to increase the density of Au seeds on the nanofibers. After electroless plating, densely decorated Au seeds grew into irregularly shaped particles following silk nanofiber to fill the gaps between particles and finally form uniform continuous nanowires. The conductive property of the Au-silk fibroin nanowires was studied with current-voltage ( I-V) measurement. A typical ohmic behavior was observed, which highlighted their potential applications in nerve tissue regeneration.

  14. Structure of eutectic alloys of Au with Si and Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Tahara, S.; Nakashima, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S.; Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Koto Sayo-cho, Sayo Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2008-03-06

    Au-Si and Au-Ge alloy systems have a deep eutectic point in the Au-rich concentration region where the melting point falls down to 633 K. In order to investigate the liquid structure in relation to the glass-forming tendency of these alloys, high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out at the eutectic composition and at compositions with excess amounts of Au or IVb element. The nearest neighbor correlations in the eutectic liquids are intense and sharp in the pair distribution function and exhibit a rather small temperature dependence in comparison with those alloys of other than the eutectic composition. Structural models for these liquid alloys are proposed with the aid of reverse Monte Carlo simulation. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region exhibit a substitutional-type structure where the dense random packing of Au atoms is preserved and Si or Ge atoms occupy the Au-sites at random.

  15. Quantum interference effects in nanostructured Au

    CERN Document Server

    Pratumpong, P; Evans, S D; Johnson, S; Howson, M A

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the magnetoresistance and temperature dependence of the resistivity for nanostructured Au produced by chemical means. The magnetoresistance was typical of highly disordered metals exhibiting quantum interference effects. We fitted the data and were able to determine the spin-orbit scattering relaxation time to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s and we found the inelastic scattering time at 10 K to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 s. The inelastic scattering rate varied as T sup 3 between 4 and 20 K, which is typical for electron-phonon scattering in disordered metals.

  16. Reconfigurable c-Si/Au hybrid nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebykin, A. V.; Zalogina, A. S.; Zuev, D. A.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We have performed numerical optimization of hybrid c-Si/Au nanoantenna's geometry to improve efficiency of NV-centers radiation. We have shown that Purcell factor at the wavelength 635 nm can be as much as 4550 for point light emitter placed in the gap between gold spherical nanoparticle and truncated silicon nanocone. We have demonstrated that electric field enhancement can reach a value of 12.9 at the wavelength of NV-center pumping, 532 nm. Our results can be useful for the development of more efficient sources of single photons based on NV-centers in nanodiamonds.

  17. Le CRDI au Népal

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, les recherches menées dans le domaine de la phytosélection ont donné lieu à l'amélio- ration du rendement de céréales telles que le mil et l'orge. Par la suite, d'autres activités de recherche ont rendu les agriculteurs mieux en mesure de préserver la diversité génétique de leurs cultures ...

  18. Sinergias entre Luxemburgo, ACNUR y Skype

    OpenAIRE

    Bertout, Antoine; Bourcy, Marc de; Faisal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Una reciente asociación estratégica entre ACNUR, el Gobierno de Luxemburgo y el proveedor de software para comunicaciones Skype permite al personal de ACNUR en zonas de condiciones de vida difíciles mantenerse en contacto con sus familiares y amigos. Los socios evalúan de qué forma podría adaptarse la tecnología para otras organizaciones humanitarias.

  19. Schottky and Ohmic Au contacts on GaAs: Microscopic and electrical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gronsky, R.; Washburn, J.; Newman, N.; Spicer, W.E.; Weber, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    We report here a systematic study which uses electrical device measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods to investigate the electrical, morphological, and structural properties of Au/GaAs Schottky diodes. The electrical characteristics of Au diodes formed on atomically clean and air-exposed GaAs(110) surfaces are found to change from rectifying to Ohmic behavior after annealing above the Au--Ga eutectic temperature (360 0 C). This change is shown to be due to an Ohmic-like contact at the periphery of the device. TEM studies of these structures indicate that the Ohmic peripheral current pathway can be correlated with the formation of near surface Ga-rich Au crystallites at the diode circumference upon annealing. Further evidence of the correlation of the Ohmic electrical characteristics with the morphology of the periphery comes from data which indicate that the removal of these Au crystallites by mesa etching is also accompanied with the elimination of the Ohmic current. The morphology of the overlayer was found to depend strongly on annealing and surface treatment. TEM indicates that the interface is flat and abrupt for all unannealed diodes, as well as for annealed diodes formed on atomically clean surfaces. For annealed diodes formed on the air-exposed surfaces, the metal--semiconductor interface contains large metallic protrusions extending up to several hundred angstroms into the semiconductor. For comparison to practical structures, the morphology of annealed diodes formed using typical commercial processing technology [i.e., formed on chemically prepared (100) surfaces annealed in forming gas] was also investigated using TEM. The interface for these structures is more complex than interfaces formed on the atomically clean and air-exposed cleaved (110) surfaces

  20. Dialogue avec les groupes islamistes au Moyen-Orient | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Par exemple, les groupes islamistes en Égypte, en Jordanie, au Koweït, au Maroc et au Yémen rejettent la violence politique, appuient la primauté du droit et acceptent le pluralisme politique. Il n'en demeure pas moins que certaines politiques des groupes islamistes, même les plus modérés, continuent à poser problème ...

  1. Electrochemical Properties of Alkanethiol Monolayers Adsorbed on Nanoporous Au Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yeon Yi; Seo, Bora; Kim, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on NPG surfaces by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the results are compared to those on flat Au surfaces. The reductive desorption of alkanethiols on NPG surfaces is observed in more negative potential regions than that on flat Au surfaces due the stronger S-Au interaction on NPG surfaces. While the electron transfer through alkanethiol monolayers on flat Au surfaces occurs via a tunneling process through the monolayer films, the redox species can permeate through the monolayers on NPG surfaces to transfer the electrons to the Au surfaces. The results presented here will help to elucidate the intrinsic electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on curved Au surfaces, particularly on the surface of AuNPs. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces have been the subject of intensive research for the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The well-organized surface structures of thiolate SAMs with various end-group functionalities can be further utilized for many applications in biology and nanotechnology. In addition to the practical applications, SAMs of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces also provide unique opportunities to address fundamental issues in surface chemistry such as self-organized surface structures, electron transfer behaviors, and moleculesubstrate interactions. Although there have been numerous reports on the fundamental physical and chemical properties of thiolate SAMs on Au surfaces, most of them were investigated on flat Au surfaces, typically on well-defined Au(111) surfaces

  2. First principles study of pentacene on Au(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Stokbro, Kurt; Smidstrup, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the atomic and electronic structure of a single layer of pentacene on the Au(111) surface using density functional theory. To find the candidate structures we strain match the pentacene crystal geometry with the Au(111) surface, in this way we find pentacene overlayer structures with a low strain. We show that the geometries obtained with this approach has lower energy than previous proposed surface geometries of pentacene on Au(111). We also show that the geometry and workfunc...

  3. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...

  4. Experimental evidence for electron localization on Au upon photo-activation of Au/anatase catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements show that the presence of Au on anatase Hombikat UV100 significantly reduces the lifetime of mobile electrons formed by photo-excitation of this photocatalyst at 300 nm, providing evidence for the widely acclaimed electron localization effect

  5. A desnecessidade do trabalho entre pescadores artesanais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Wellington Norberto Ramalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As relações socioculturais e econômicas, entre alguns grupos de pescadores artesanais, não colocam como entes antagônicos trabalho e tempo livre. Do contrário, tais relações celebram aproximações entre saber-fazer pesqueiro, lazer e vida, formando e conformando um todo societário. Inseridos nesse quadro, estão os pescadores artesanais do mar-de-fora da praia de Suape, no município do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, litoral sul de Pernambuco, distante 50 km de Recife. Este artigo busca desvelar a mencionada moral do trabalho e do tempo livre no fazer cotidiano de pescadores dessa Praia, com base na pesquisa etnográfica e na história de vida de 13 pescadores. No geral, identificou-se que há uma moral do trabalho que se confunde à moral do tempo livre, pois o cerceamento de uma delas representa limites à outra. Assim, para esses homens, definir o que é um ser liberto ou cativo liga-se ao encontro indissociável, em termos práticos e simbólicos, entre as referidas morais, o que é essencial para classificar o fazer-se pescador artesanal em seu sentido pleno fundamentado na desnecessidade do trabalho.

  6. Magnetic holes in the solar wind between 0.3 AU and 17 AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sperveslage

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes (MHs are depressions of the magnetic field magnitude. Turner et al. (1977 identified the first MHs in the solar wind and determined an occurrence rate of 1.5 MHs/d. Winterhalter et al. (1994 developed an automatic identification criterion to search for MHs in Ulysses data in the solar wind between 1 AU and 5.4 AU. We adopt their criterion to expand the search to the heliocentric distances down to 0.3 AU using data from Helios 1 and 2 and up to 17 AU using data from Voyager 2. We relate our observations to two theoretical approaches which describe the so-called linear MHs in which the magnetic vector varies in magnitude rather than direction. Therefore we focus on such linear MHs with a directional change less than 10º. With our observations of about 850 MHs we present the following results: Approximately 30% of all the identified MHs are linear. The maximum angle between the initial magnetic field vector and any vector inside the MH is 20º in average and shows a weak relation to the depth of the MHs. The angle between the initial magnetic field and the minimum variance direction of those structures is large and very probably close to 90º. The MHs are placed in a high β environment even though the average solar wind shows a smaller β. The widths decrease from about 50 proton inertial length in a region between 0.3 AU and 0.4 AU heliocentric distance to about 15 proton inertial length at distances larger than 10 AU. This quantity is correlated with the β of the MH environments with respect to the heliocentric distance. There is a clear preference for the occurrence of depressions instead of compressions. We discuss these results with regard to the main theories of MHs, the mirror instability and the alternative soliton approach. Although our observational results are more consistent with the soliton theory we favour a combination of both. MHs might be the remnants of initial mirror mode structures which can be described as

  7. Un bilan des enjeux et impacts de l’écotourisme au Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Nicolas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionS’étirant sur 520 000 km², l’Amérique centrale est une région constituée d’un long isthme étroit formé entre l’Amérique du Nord et l’Amérique du Sud. Outre la péninsule du Yucatan et du Mexique, cette région comprend du Nord au Sud, sept états dont le Guatemala, le Belize, le Salvador, le Honduras, le Nicaragua, le Costa Rica et le Panama.Cette région fut marquée pour son instabilité économique, sociale et politique et à ce titre, elle a longtemps été perçue – et le reste encore –...

  8. Viollet-le-Duc ou la caricature au cour du style

    OpenAIRE

    Linford, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    « Il y a le style ; il y a les styles. » Ainsi commence l’un des articles phares du Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle, d’Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. L’article sur le style paraît dans le huitième tome, en 1868, quatorze ans après la publication du premier. Article de maturité, il constitue un condensé de la pensée de Viollet-le-Duc et révèle certaines clefs de voûte de son système. « Les styles sont les caractères qui font distinguer entre elles les é...

  9. De l’amour et du mariage. Une correspondance familiale au xixe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Cécile; Poublan, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    L’article se propose d’explorer ce qui est dit du mariage et de l’amour dans la correspondance d’une famille bourgeoise qui couvre plusieurs générations sur un large xixe siècle. Trois épisodes ont été retenus qui permettent d’observer bien des tensions entre mariage arrangé et mariage d’inclination. D’abord, au début du siècle, la correspondance d’un jeune homme à l’aube d’une brillante carrière scientifique explicite les « raisons » sociales et économiques qui déterminent son choix matrimon...

  10. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, E.; Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P.; Nunes, B.; Lopes, J.; Cavaleiro, A.; Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 °C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 × 10 15 Au/cm 2 –1 × 10 17 Au/cm 2 with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 × 10 16 Au/cm 2 the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3–5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 °C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 °C. Annealing above 700 °C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  11. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEC-CEMUC - Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. Eng. Mecanica, Polo II, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 Degree-Sign C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} Au/cm{sup 2}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} Au/cm{sup 2} with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} Au/cm{sup 2} the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3-5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 Degree-Sign C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 Degree-Sign C. Annealing above 700 Degree-Sign C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  12. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLF-JÜRGEN BEHM

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition of Ru on Au(111 was performed in 0.5 M H2SO4+10-4 M RuCl3 . The obtained bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces were character-ised by cyclic voltammetry and in situ STM in 0.5 MH2SO4. The Ru deposit consists of nanoscale islands, which merge with increasing coverage. Two different types of bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces with respect to the distribution of Ru islands over the Au(111 substrate surface were obtained. When the deposition was performed at potentials more positive than the range of Au(111 reconstruction, homogeneous nucleation occured resulting in a random distribution of Ru islands. When the deposition was performed on reconstructed Au(111 at low overpotentials, selective nucleation occured resulting in the replication of the Au(111 reconstruction. Only at higher deposition overpotentials, can multilayer deposits be formed, which exhibit a very rough surface morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of such structurally well defined Ru/Au(111 bimetallic surfaces was studied towards CO oxidation with the Ru coverage ranging from submonolayer to several monolayer. COstripping commences at about 0.2 Vand occurs over a broad potential range. The observed influence of the Ru structure on the CO stripping voltammetry is explained by local variations in the COadsorption energy, caused by differences in the local Ru structure and by effects induced by the Au(111 substrate.

  13. Au(111) and Pt(111) surface phase behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandy, A.R.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Zehner, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    We describe our recent X-ray scattering studies of the structure and phases of the clean Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. Below 0.65 of their respective bulk melting temperatures, the Au(111) surface has a well-ordered chevron reconstruction and the Pt(111) surface is unreconstructed. Above these te......We describe our recent X-ray scattering studies of the structure and phases of the clean Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. Below 0.65 of their respective bulk melting temperatures, the Au(111) surface has a well-ordered chevron reconstruction and the Pt(111) surface is unreconstructed. Above...

  14. (TEC) et ciblage des pauvres au Mali

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Comment est-ce que c'est vrai. La preuve par … □ Différentiel de ciblage entre P et NP. □ Part normalisée de consommation/achat des Pauvres. □ Part normalisée de la pression fiscale. (totale et de porte) sur les achats des P. □ Part normalisée des "exonérations" revenant aux Pauvres ...

  15. Observation of D0 Meson Nuclear Modifications in Au +Au Collisions at √sNN =200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    We report the first measurement of charmed-hadron (D0) production via the hadronic decay channel (D0→K-+π+) in Au +Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV with the STAR experiment. The charm production cross section per nucleon-nucleon collision at midrapidity scales with the number of binary collisions, Nbin, from p +p to central Au +Au collisions. The D0 meson yields in central Au +Au collisions are strongly suppressed compared to those in p+p scaled by Nbin, for transverse momenta pT>3 GeV /c, demonstrating significant energy loss of charm quarks in the hot and dense medium. An enhancement at intermediate pT is also observed. Model calculations including strong charm-medium interactions and coalescence hadronization describe our measurements.

  16. Approche historiographique des pratiques sportives au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwole M. Claude Emmanuel Abolo

    2016-01-01

    En 50 ans d'indépendance, le sport camerounais a beaucoup évolué. De 11 en 1970, les fédérations sportives sont passées à plus de 40 aujourd'hui et les titres, trophées et médailles ne se comptent plus depuis lors. Le Cameroun est devenu progressivement une nation où le sport compte et où l'exploit sportif n'est plus méprisé, rejeté, voire vilipendé. Hier assimilés à des brutes épaisses, les sportifs sont aujourd'hui admirés et adulés. Finie l'image négative de marginaux qui leur collait au corps : finis les sous-entendus ridicules où ils étaient classés au bas de l'échelle sociale, juste bons pour bander les muscles et réaliser des performances. C'est cela la plus grande victoire du sport camerounais en 50 ans d'existence. Il a réussi à faire l'unanimité et les performances des sportifs devenues pour toute la nation un modèle, une référence et un réel motif de fierté.

  17. Apprentissage administratif : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/PMD/RCC L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne,Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège...

  18. Influence of gold species (AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-)) on self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in solutions and morphology of composite thin films fabricated at the air/liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaokai; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2016-01-21

    Composite thin films doped with Au species were fabricated at an air/liquid interface via a series of steps, including the mass transfer of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) across the liquid/liquid interface between a DMF/CHCl3 solution and an aqueous solution containing either AuCl4(-) or AuCl2(-), self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP in a mixed DMF-water solution, and adsorption and further self-organization of the formed aggregates at the air/liquid interface. This is a new approach for fabricating composite polymer films and can be completed within a very short time. AuCl4(-) and AuCl2(-) ions were found to significantly influence the self-assembly behavior of the block copolymer and the morphologies of the composite films, leading to the formation of nanowire arrays and a foam structure at the air/liquid interface, respectively, which originated from rod-like micelles and microcapsules that had formed in the respective solutions. The effect of the metal complex was analyzed based on the packing parameters of the amphiphilic polymer molecules in different microenvironments and the interactions between the pyridine groups and the metal chloride anions. In addition, these composite thin films exhibited stable and durable performance as heterogeneous catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroaromatics in aqueous solutions.

  19. Microstructural evolution of Au/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films: The influence of Au concentration and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kubart, T.; Kumar, S.; Leifer, K. [Solid-State Electronics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, Uppsala SE-751 21 (Sweden); Rodrigues, M.S. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Duarte, N.; Martins, B.; Dias, J.P. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Vaz, F. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of a dielectric matrix, such as titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), with embedded gold (Au) nanoparticles were prepared and will be analysed and discussed in detail in the present work. The evolution of morphological and structural features was studied for a wide range of Au concentrations and for annealing treatments in air, for temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 °C. Major findings revealed that for low Au atomic concentrations (at.%), there are only traces of clustering, and just for relatively high annealing temperatures, T ≥ 500 °C. Furthermore, the number of Au nanoparticles is extremely low, even for the highest annealing temperature, T = 800 °C. It is noteworthy that the TiO{sub 2} matrix also crystallizes in the anatase phase for annealing temperatures above 300 °C. For intermediate Au contents (5 at.% ≤ C{sub Au} ≤ 15 at.%), the formation of gold nanoclusters was much more evident, beginning at lower annealing temperatures (T ≥ 200 °C) with sizes ranging from 2 to 25 nm as the temperature increased. A change in the matrix crystallization from anatase to rutile was also observed in this intermediate range of compositions. For the highest Au concentrations (> 20 at.%), the films tended to form relatively larger clusters, with sizes above 20 nm (for T ≥ 400 °C). It is demonstrated that the structural and morphological characteristics of the films are strongly affected by the annealing temperature, as well as by the particular amounts, size and distribution of the Au nanoparticles dispersed in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • Au:TiO{sub 2} films were produced by magnetron sputtering and post-deposition annealing. • The Au concentration in the films increases with the Au pellet area. • Annealing induced microstructural changes in the films. • The nanoparticle size evolution with temperature depends on the Au concentration.

  20. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Construction of Au@Pt core—satellite nanoparticles based on in-situ reduction of polymeric ionic liquid protected gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlan; Li, Junbo; Zou, Sheng; Guo, Jinwu; Zhou, Huiyun

    2017-03-01

    A method of in-situ reduction to prepare Au@Pt core-satellite nanoparticles (NPs) is described by using Au NPs coating poly[1-methyl 3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine)] (PMMPImB-@-Au NPs) as the template. After electrostatic complex chloroplatinic acid with PMMPImB shell, the composite NP was directly reduced with N2H4 to produce Au@Pt core-satellite NPs. The characterization of composite and core-satellite NPs under different amounts of chloroplatinic acid were studied by DLS, UV-vis absorption spectrum and TEM. The satellite Pt NPs with a small size ( 2 nm) dotted around Au core, and the resulting Au@Pt core-satellite NPs showed a red-shift surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and a good dispersion due to effectively electrostatic repulsion providing by the polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) shell. Finally, Au@Pt core-satellite NPs exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity and cycled catalytic capability for the reduction of p-nitrophenol with NaBH4.

  2. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Busson, Bertrand; De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro; Mele, Claudio; Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN - stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface

  3. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, Benedetto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetto.bozzini@unile.it; Busson, Bertrand [CLIO-LCP, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Mele, Claudio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane [UDIL-CNRS, Bat. 201, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-01-16

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN{sup -} stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface.

  4. Resenha visual - uma entre tantas transgressões possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia Rauen Vianna

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un compte rendue sur !e livre A Ilusão Especular de Arlindo Machado. Pourtant, comrne compte rendue, il est différent de ceux-là dites académiques traditionnels. Au lieu de quelques pages en présentant, décrivant de façon critique le livre a un lecteur probable, celui-ci, d'un prédominant caractere visuel, a été réalisé en rapprochant des fragment du dessin de la couverture du livre et fragments du texte de l'auteur. Des autres textes, qu'on voit en haut de chaque page, retirés du livre Como fazer uma Monografia de Délcio Vieira Salomon, on la fonction d'épigraphes, au même temps que définissent, donnant de explications et des éclaircissements sur ce que soit un compte rendue classique. D' autre coté, quelques f ois, ils misent en évidence la contradiction entre ceux-là discursives et celui-ci foulé en la visual i ation. Ce compte rendue visuel est, finalement, le résultat d'une "transgression poétique" prise par son auteur.

  5. Relatives appositives : entre intégration syntaxique et intégration discursive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytvynova Maryna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif du présent travail est de mettre en lumière certaines propriétés discursives des relatives appositives du français et, par la même occasion, de participer au débat sur le statut dont elles jouissent au niveau du discours. Plus spécifiquement, en prenant comme point de départ la discussion antérieure (cf. Brandt, 1990 ; Combettes, 1992 ; Lambrecht, 1998 ; Holler, 2005 ; Loock, 2007 portant sur la distinction fonctionnelle entre les relatives narratives (1 et les relatives descriptives (2, nous suggérons que, contrairement à ce que postulent les travaux précédents, ni les premières, ni les secondes ne peuvent être assimilées à des unités autonomes du discours, l’hypothèse que nous étayons avec des données expérimentales

  6. Solvent effects on the adsorption and self-organization of Mn12 on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineider, Francesco; Mannini, Matteo; Sessoli, Roberta; Caneschi, Andrea; Barreca, Davide; Armelao, Lidia; Cornia, Andrea; Tondello, Eugenio; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-11-06

    A sulfur-containing single molecule magnet, [Mn12O12(O2CC6H4SCH3)16(H2O)4], was assembled from solution on a Au(111) surface affording both submonolayer and monolayer coverages. The adsorbate morphology and the degree of coverage were inspected by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the determination of the chemical nature of the adsorbate on a qualitative and quantitative basis. The properties of the adsorbates were found to be strongly dependent on the solvent used to dissolve the magnetic complex. In particular, systems prepared from tetrahydrofuran solutions gave arrays of isolated and partially ordered clusters on the gold substrate, while samples prepared from dichloromethane exhibited a homogeneous monolayer coverage of the whole Au(111) surface. These findings are relevant to the optimization of magnetic addressing of single molecule magnets on surfaces.

  7. Novel electrochemical approach to study corrosion mechanism of Al-Au wire-bond pad interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elisseeva, O. V.; Bruhn, A.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A gold-aluminium material combination is typically employed as an interconnection for microelectronic devices. One of the reliability risks of such devices is that of corrosion of aluminium bond pads resulting from the galvanic coupling between an aluminium bond pad and a gold wire. The research...... presented in this manuscript focuses on studying bond pad corrosion by selecting an appropriate model system and a dedicated set of electrochemical and analytical experimental tools. Taking into account the complex three-dimensional structure and the small dimensions of Au-Al interconnections (around 50......-100 μm), a dedicated and novel experimental approach was developed. Au-Al covered silicon chips were developed under clean room conditions. Three-dimensional electrodes were mimicked as flat, two-dimensional bond pad model systems, allowing the use of microelectrochemical local probe techniques. Thin...

  8. Quand l'indéfini négatif pouvait s'employer au pluriel. Les emplois de « aucun(es » au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizot Camille

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’étude porte sur l’existence paradoxale d’indéfinis négatifs au pluriel dans la langue du XIXe siècle. La situation du XIXe siècle atteste en effet d’un état de langue intermédiaire entre deux systèmes stables : celui de l’ancien français où aucun est un indéfini positif qui peut s’employer au singulier comme au pluriel, et celle du français contemporain où aucun est un indéfini négatif qui ne s’emploie plus qu’au singulier, tandis que le sens positif se survit seulement dans la forme de pronom pluriel d’aucuns. Au XIXe siècle, aucun est donc devenu globalement négatif tout en acceptant encore des emplois du pluriel. Si l’explication diachronique motive ce paradoxe, encore faut-il comprendre comment s’interprètent et se justifient ces pluriels pour des indéfinis de sens négatif, dans la synchronie du XIXe siècle. À travers cette étude de cas nous nous interrogeons sur la cohérence synchronique d’un système instable, au croisement de plusieurs évolutions diachroniques. Dans cette optique, nous tentons de comprendre comment se justifie le pluriel des indéfinis négatifs, et comment ces indéfinis pluriels, dont on conçoit mieux la justification a priori pour un sens positif, peuvent développer dans le même état de langue un sens positif et un sens négatif. Nous montrons ainsi que l’emploi du pluriel dans un grammème négatif ne se limite pas au phénomène de l’accord, même s’il tend à s’y cantonner progressivement, et que la coexistence d’un sens négatif et d’un sens positif pour le même grammème n’est pas source d’ambiguïté en synchronie : l’emploi vivant, négatif, vient concurrencer l’emploi positif, résiduel, uniquement dans les contextes à polarité positive et l’interprétation négative y est construite pragmatiquement.

  9. Au/SiO2 nanocomposite film substrates with a high number density of Au nanoparticles for molecular conductance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Gun; Koyama, Emiko; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Kim, Deok-Soo; Tokuhisa, Hideo; Kanesato, Masatoshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    Au/SiO 2 nanocomposite films consisting of an extremely high number density of Au nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO 2 matrix a few nanometres thick were deposited by a co-sputtering method, and employed for molecular conductance measurement by immobilizing and bridging conjugated biphenyl molecules on dispersed Au nanoparticles. The number density of Au nanoparticles in the insulating SiO 2 matrix was approximately 14 000 μm 2 , and the average interparticle distance from their neighbours was about 8 nm. The current increased considerably up to the range of nanoamperes after the immobilization of the conjugated biphenyl molecules, 10 5 times larger than without molecules before immobilization. Although the Au nanoparticles can be connected to only 30% of all combinations of neighbouring Au nanoparticles by biphenyl molecules 2.4 nm long from the topological analysis, the biphenyl molecules can bridge most of the Au nanoparticles, and their bridging continuity is over 100 nm in length. Thus the measured current is suggested to come from the continuously bridged molecules between the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore the I-V data of the whole Au/SiO 2 nanocomposite film immobilized with conjugated molecules are confirmed to be in a reasonable range in comparison with the scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data of similar conjugated molecules

  10. Strange baryon resonance production in sqrt s NN=200 GeV p+p and Au+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S-L; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; de Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Gutierrez, T D; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; LaPointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lehocka, S; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reinnarth, J; Relyea, D; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimanskiy, S S; Sichtermann, E; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Sumbera, M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Buren, G Van; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Molen, A M Vander; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yurevich, V I; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2006-09-29

    We report the measurements of Sigma(1385) and Lambda(1520) production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s{NN}]=200 GeV from the STAR Collaboration. The yields and the p(T) spectra are presented and discussed in terms of chemical and thermal freeze-out conditions and compared to model predictions. Thermal and microscopic models do not adequately describe the yields of all the resonances produced in central Au+Au collisions. Our results indicate that there may be a time span between chemical and thermal freeze-out during which elastic hadronic interactions occur.

  11. Correlated Production of Protons and Antiprotons in Au + Au Collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between p and (anti p) at transverse momenta typical of enhanced baryon production in Au + Au collisions are reported. The PHENIX experiment has measured same and opposite sign baryon pairs in Au + Au collisions at √(ovr S NN ) = 200 GeV. Correlated production of proton and (anti p) with the trigger particle from the range 2.5 T T T range rises with increasing centrality, except for the most central collisions, where baryons show a significantly smaller number of associated mesons. These data are consistent with a picture in which hard scattered partons produce correlated p and (anti p) in the p T region of the baryon excess.

  12. Parton interactions and two particle transverse momentum correlations in Au + Au collisions at √SNN=130 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjun; Guo Liqun; Piao Xingliang

    2006-01-01

    Partonic effects on two-particle transverse momentum correlations are studied for Au + Au collisions at √S NN =130 GeV in the Monte Carlo model, AMPT. This study demonstrates that in these collisions partonic interactions contribute significantly to the correlations. Additionally, model calculations are compared with data of the two-particle transverse momentum correlations measured by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC, and it is found that AMPT with string melting can well reproduce the measured centrality dependence of the two-particle transverse momentum correlations in Au + Au collisions at √S NN =130 GeV. (authors)

  13. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun; Luo, Liangfeng; Jiang, Zhiquan; Huang, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Fengping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg 2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.Graphical Abstract

  15. Resonance production and exotic clusters in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Lungescu, Andrea; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The resonance production in Au+Au, d+Au and p+p collisions at √(s) = 200 AGeV are presented. The resonances are used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width, and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are also discussed. The measurement of resonances provides an important tool for studying the dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by probing the time evolution of the source from chemical to kinetic freeze-out and the hadronic interactions at later stages

  16. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsot, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  17. Surface-imprinted core–shell Au nanoparticles for selective detection of bisphenol A based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jin-Qun; Li, Da-Wei; Qu, Lu-Lu; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The molecularly imprinted polymer capped core–shell AuNPs (MIP-ir-AuNPs) were fabricated as a specific functional SERS substrate. •MIP-ir-AuNPs could be utilized in rapid and selective detection of BPA. •MIP-ir-AuNPs displayed good capability for determination of BPA in real samples. -- Abstract: Surface-imprinted core–shell Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were explored for the highly selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A triethoxysilane-template complex (BPA-Si) was synthesized and then utilized to fabricate a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the AuNPs via a sol–gel process. The imprinted BPA molecules were removed by a simple thermal treatment to generated the imprint-removed material, MIP-ir-AuNPs, with the desired recognition sites that could selectively rebind the BPA molecules. The morphological and polymeric characteristics of MIP-ir-AuNPs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the MIP-ir-AuNPs were fabricated with a 2 nm MIP shell layer within which abundant amine groups were generated. The rebinding kinetics study showed that the MIP-ir-AuNPs could reach the equilibrium adsorption for BPA within 10 min owning to the advantage of ultrathin core–shell nanostructure. Moreover, a linear relationship between SERS intensity and the concentration of BPA on the MIP-ir-AuNPs was observed in the range of 0.5–22.8 mg L −1 , with a detection limit of 0.12 mg L −1 (blank ± 3 × s.d.). When applied to SERS detection, the developed surface-imprinted core–shell MIP-ir-AuNPs could recognize BPA and prevent interference from the structural analogues such as hexafluorobisphenol A (BPAF) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). These results revealed that the proposed method displayed significant potential utility in rapid and selective detection of BPA in real samples

  18. [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}: A designer all-metal aromatic sandwich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wen-Juan; You, Xue-Rui [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Guo, Jin-Chang [Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Da-Zhi, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou 256603 (China); Wang, Ying-Jin [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Sun, Zhong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhai, Hua-Jin, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2016-07-28

    We report on the computational design of an all-metal aromatic sandwich, [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. The triple-layered, square-prismatic sandwich complex is the global minimum of the system from Coalescence Kick and Minima Hopping structural searches. Following a standard, qualitative chemical bonding analysis via canonical molecular orbitals, the sandwich complex can be formally described as [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}[Au{sub 4}]{sup 4−}[Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}, showing ionic bonding characters with electron transfers in between the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers. For an in-depth understanding of the system, one needs to go beyond the above picture. Significant Sb → Au donation and Sb ← Au back-donation occur, redistributing electrons from the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers to the interlayer Sb–Au–Sb edges, which effectively lead to four Sb–Au–Sb three-center two-electron bonds. The complex is a system with 30 valence electrons, excluding the Sb 5s and Au 5d lone-pairs. The two [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +} ligands constitute an unusual three-fold (π and σ) aromatic system with all 22 electrons being delocalized. An energy gap of ∼1.6 eV is predicted for this all-metal sandwich. The complex is a rare example for rational design of cluster compounds and invites forth-coming synthetic efforts.

  19. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  20. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  1. Time-dependent density functional theory study of the luminescence properties of gold phosphine thiolate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidez, Emilie B; Aikens, Christine M

    2015-04-09

    The origin of the emission of the gold phosphine thiolate complex (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 (TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantanetriylphosphine) is investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This system absorbs light at 3.6 eV, which corresponds mostly to a ligand-to-metal transition with some interligand character. The P-Au-S angle decreases upon relaxation in the S1 and T1 states. Our calculations show that these two states are strongly spin-orbit coupled at the ground state geometry. Ligand effects on the optical properties of this complex are also discussed by looking at the simple AuP(CH3)3SCH3 complex. The excitation energies differ by several tenths of an electronvolt. Excited state optimizations show that the excited singlet and triplet of the (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 complex are bent. On the other hand, the Au-S bond breaks in the excited state for the simple complex, and TDDFT is no longer an adequate method. The excited state energy landscape of gold phosphine thiolate systems is very complex, with several state crossings. This study also shows that the formation of the [(TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2]2 dimer is favorable in the ground state. The inclusion of dispersion interactions in the calculations affects the optimized geometries of both ground and excited states. Upon excitation, the formation of a Au-Au bond occurs, which results in an increase in energy of the low energy excited states in comparison to the monomer. The experimentally observed emission of the (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 complex at 1.86 eV cannot be unambiguously assigned and may originate from several excited states.

  2. Epitaxial growth of zigzag PtAu alloy surface on Au nano-pentagrams with enhanced Pt utilization and electrocatalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng; Gao, Xiaohui; Zhuang, Zhihua; Cheng, Chunfeng; Zheng, Fuqin; Li, Xiaokun; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PtAu nanoalloy surface is heteroepitaxially grown on the pre-synthesized Au nano-pentagrams. • The PtAu/Au nano-pentagrams exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. • The charge transfer resistance of PtAu/Au is lower than that of commercial Pt/C. • The durability and anti-poisoning ability of PtAu/Au is much better than those of commercial Pt/C - Abstract: Improving Pt utilization is of fundamental importance for many significant processes in energy conversion, which is strongly dependent on the surface structure of used catalysts. Based on the traditional Pt-on-Au system which has been proved to be an ideal nanostructure for improving the catalytic activity and stability of Pt, and the recent follow-up studies on this system, we introduce here a new strategy for fabricating Pt surface with high-index facets over the Pt-on-Au system. To achieve this goal, we elaborately designed and fabricated a unique zigzag PtAu alloy nanosurface on Au nano-pentagrams (PtAu/Au NPs) through epitaxial growth of Pt along the high-index facets on the pre-synthesized Au nano-pentagrams. Owing to the surface electronic interaction between Au and Pt and the exposed high-index facets from the unique morphology of zigzag PtAu alloy nanosurface, the as-prepared PtAu/Au NPs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline condition. The specific activity (8.3 mA cm"−"2) and mass activity (4.4 A mg"−"1) obtained from PtAu/Au NPs are about 5.2 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than those from commercial Pt/C for EOR.

  3. CO oxidation on Alsbnd Au nano-composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, C.; Majumder, C.

    2018-03-01

    Using first principles method we report the CO oxidation behaviour of Alsbnd Au nano-composites in three different size ranges: Al6Au8, Al13Au42 and a periodic slab of Alsbnd Au(1 1 1) surface. The clusters prefer enclosed structures with alternating arrangement of Al and Au atoms, maximising Auδ-sbnd Alδ+ bonds. Charge distribution analysis suggests the charge transfer from Al to Au atoms, corroborated by the red shift in the density of states spectrum. Further, CO oxidation on these nano-composite systems was investigated through both Eley - Rideal and Langmuir Hinshelwood mechanism. While, these clusters interact with O2 non-dissociatively with an elongation of the Osbnd O bond, further interaction with CO led to formation of CO2 spontaneously. On contrary, the CO2 evolution by co-adsorption of O2 and CO molecules has a transition state barrier. On the basis of the results it is inferred that nano-composite material of Alsbnd Au shows significant promise toward effective oxidative catalysis.

  4. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya, E-mail: satoh@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell structure with shell thickness of 0.16±0.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.5±0.1)×10{sup −2} μ{sub B}/Au atom, respectively. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with clean surface were prepared by the gas evaporation method. • The spontaneous magnetization was observed in Au nanoparticles. • Temperature dependent spontaneous magnetization of smaller Au particles was not monotonic. • The magnetic behavior was interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell model. • The shell thickness and the magnetic moment per Au atom were estimated.

  5. Alternating voltage-induced electrochemical synthesis of colloidal Au nanoicosahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Kevin; Cloud, Jacqueline E.; Yang, Yongan, E-mail: yonyang@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A simple method of alternating voltage-induced electrochemical synthesis has been developed to synthesize highly dispersed colloidal Au nanoicosahedra of 14 ± 3 nm in size. This simple and effective method uses a common transformer to apply a zero-offset alternating voltage to a pair of identical Au electrodes that are immersed in an electrolyte solution containing ligands. The obtained Au nanoicosahedra in this work are among the smallest Au icosahedra synthesized in aqueous solutions. A series of experimental conditions have been studied, such as voltage, the electrolyte identity and concentration, stabilizer identity and concentration, and reaction temperature. The mechanistic study indicates that Au nanoicosahedra are produced on electrode surfaces through an intermediate state of AuO{sub x}. The kinetic rate constant of these Au icosahedra in catalyzing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride is found much larger than the literature values of similar Au nanocrystals. In addition, the synthesis of Au–Pd-alloyed NCs has also been attempted.Graphical Abstract.

  6. The Type II supernovae 2006V and 2006au

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Sollerman, J.

    2012-01-01

    curve evolution similar to that of SN 1987A. At the earliest epochs, SN 2006au also displays an initial dip which we interpret as the signature of the adiabatic cooling phase that ensues shock break-out. SNe 2006V and 2006au are both found to be bluer, hotter and brighter than SN 1987A. Spectra of SNe...

  7. Lessons learned from AU PSO-missions in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    The paper deals with the lessons learned from AU's PSO since 2002, and what that entails for the design of future PSO.......The paper deals with the lessons learned from AU's PSO since 2002, and what that entails for the design of future PSO....

  8. Synthesis and stability of monolayer-protected Au38 clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toikkanen, O.; Ruiz, V.; Rönnholm, G.; Kalkkinen, N.; Liljeroth, P.W.; Quinn, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    A synthesis strategy to obtain monodisperse hexanethiolate-protected Au38 clusters based on their resistance to etching upon exposure to a hyperexcess of thiol is reported. The reduction time in the standard Brust−Schiffrin two-phase synthesis was optimized such that Au38 were the only clusters that

  9. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  10. Para tener entre manos una revista

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Giannone

    2017-01-01

    Consideramos importante rescatar el trabajo colectivo y acumulado que precede y sucede a la labor de intermediación académica que realiza una revista. Para ello recordamos una clásica frase prologal: el texto que usted tiene en sus manos. Con cierta ironía, porque quizás muy pocos de los lectores puedan tener entre manos y oler el papel impreso de Chasqui. Desde sus pantallas, sus tablets o sus teléfonos la intención es que se comprenda este número como un solo cuerpo. Y al mismo tiempo, como...

  11. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  12. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT {approx}500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion; Alonso-Albi, Tomas [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, 28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Pietu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto [IRAM, 300 Rue de la piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut Ciencies Cosmos, Universitat Barcelona, Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Audard, Marc, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-20

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at {approx}500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH, with, additionally, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C{sub 6}H and O{sup 13}CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of {approx}300 and {approx}600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass {approx}> 4 M{sub Sun }. As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated {approx}1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H{sub 2}O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  13. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT ∼500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Alonso-Albi, Tomás; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Boissier, Jérémie; Piétu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto; Busquet, Gemma; Estalella, Robert; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P.; Audard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at ∼500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH 3 CH 2 OH, (CH 2 OH) 2 , CH 3 COCH 3 , and CH 3 OH, with, additionally, CH 3 CHO, CH 3 OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C 6 H and O 13 CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of ∼300 and ∼600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass ∼> 4 M ☉ . As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated ∼1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H 2 O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  14. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films; Croissance et structure des couches minces magnetiques Co/Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot, N

    1999-01-14

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new Cu3Au-type ternary phase in the Au-In-Pd system: distribution of atoms over crystallographic positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptashkina, Evgeniya A; Kabanova, Elizaveta G; Tursina, Anna I; Yatsenko, Alexandr V; Kuznetsov, Victor N

    2018-03-01

    A new Cu 3 Au-type ternary phase (τ phase) is found in the AuPd-rich part of the Au-In-Pd system. It has a broad homogeneity range based on extensive (Pd,Au) and (In,Au) replacement, with the composition varying between Au 17.7 In 25.3 Pd 57.0 and Au 50.8 In 16.2 Pd 33.0 . The occupancies of the crystallographic positions were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three samples of different composition. The sites with m-3m symmetry are occupied by atoms with a smaller scattering power than the atoms located on 4/mmm sites. Two extreme structure models were refined. Within the first, the occupation type changes from (Au,In,Pd) 3 (Pd,In) to (Au,Pd) 3 (In,Pd,Au) with an increase in the Au gross content. For the second model, the occupation type (Au,In,Pd) 3 (Pd,Au) remains essentially unchanged for all Au concentrations. Although the diffraction data do not allow the choice of one of these models, the latter model, where Au substitutes In on 4/mmm sites, seems to be preferable, since it agrees with the fact that the homogeneity range of the τ phase is inclined to the Au corner and provides the same occupation type for all the studied samples of different compositions.

  16. Evidence from d+Au measurements for final-state suppression of high-p(T) hadrons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-08-15

    We report measurements of single-particle inclusive spectra and two-particle azimuthal distributions of charged hadrons at high transverse momentum (high p(T)) in minimum bias and central d+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. The inclusive yield is enhanced in d+Au collisions relative to binary-scaled p+p collisions, while the two-particle azimuthal distributions are very similar to those observed in p+p collisions. These results demonstrate that the strong suppression of the inclusive yield and back-to-back correlations at high p(T) previously observed in central Au+Au collisions are due to final-state interactions with the dense medium generated in such collisions.

  17. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... m(-2) is found. This method also reveals a significant and systematic change of the stress-free lattice parameter of both constituents as a function of modulation period which is shown to account for the difference between the two findings. The method using in-plane diffraction is thus shown...

  18. La Physique au LHC - Partie I

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Le LHC devrait permettre l'observation du boson de Higgs et pouvoir lever le voile sur l'un des scénarios de nouvelle physique présentés dans la cours précédent. Ce cours détaillera les perspectives de physique au LHC (découvertes possibles et mesures de précision) ainsi que les méthodes et difficultés expérimentales. L'accent sera mis sur les problèmes liés à la brisure de la symétrie electrofaible. Les possibilités de développement futur à plus haute luminosité et/ou énergie seront également discutées.

  19. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  20. and Au nanoparticles for SERS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazio Enza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser generated plasmas in water were investigated. First, the ablation efficiency was maximized searching the optimal focusing conditions. The nanoparticle size, measured by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, strongly depends on the laser fluence, keeping fixed the other deposition parameters such as the target to scanner objective distance and laser repetition frequency. STEM images indicate narrow gradients of NP sizes. Hence the optimization of ablation parameters favours a fine tuning of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy helped to determine the appropriate laser wavelength to resonantly excite the localized surface plasmon to carry out Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS measurements. The SERS activity of Ag and Au substrates, obtained spraying the colloids synthesized in water, was tested using crystal violet as a probe molecule. The good SERS performance, observed at excitation wavelength 785 nm, is attributed to aggregation phenomena of nanoparticles sprayed on the support.

  1. Jounin Nicolas, Chantier interdit au public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nuytens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le travail de Nicolas Jounin s’appuie sur des enquêtes de terrain réalisées dans la première moitié des années 2000, en France, dans le monde du bâtiment, sur des chantiers et autour de ceux-ci. Il paraît pour la première fois en 2008 et se présente comme un récit d’observations participantes (tandis que l’auteur aura usé d’autres techniques de recherche au cours de sa thèse de doctorat. Cette option de publier essentiellement une version dynamique du terrain, qui se retrouve dans six des hu...

  2. Neutron scattering study of Ce3Au3Sb4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaya, Mitsuo; Katoh, Kenichi; Kohgi, Masahumi; Osakabe, Toyotaka

    1993-01-01

    Rare-earth compounds with an Y 3 Au 3 Sb 4 -type crystal structure are semiconductors or semi-metals. Among them, Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 is a semiconductor with an activation energy of about 640 K and shows no magnetic order down to 1.5 K. The magnetic part of the specific heat for Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 obtained by subtracting the value for La 3 Au 3 Sb 4 from the total specific heat of Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 shows a broad peak at around 10 K, the origin of which is well explained by the crystalline-field splitting determined by neutron scattering. (author)

  3. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  4. On the electronic, structural, and thermodynamic properties of Au supported on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces and their interaction with CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh-Thuong, E-mail: manhth.nguyen@gmail.com; Gebauer, Ralph [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Farnesi Camellone, Matteo, E-mail: mfarnesi@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS, Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and SISSA Scuola Internazionale di Studi Superiori Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-07-21

    Extensive first principles calculations are carried out to investigate Au monomers and dimers supported on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) surfaces in terms of structure optimizations, electronic structure analyses, and ab initio thermodynamics calculations of surface phase diagrams. All computations rely on density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE)) and account for on-site Coulomb interactions via inclusion of a Hubbard correction (PBE+U). The relative stability of Au monomers/dimers on the stoichiometric termination of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) decorated with various vacancies (multiple oxygen vacancies, iron vacancy, and mixed iron-oxygen vacancies) has been computed as a function of the oxygen chemical potential. The charge rearrangement induced by Au at the oxide contact is analyzed in detail and discussed. On one hand, ab initio thermodynamics predicts that under O-rich conditions, structures obtained by replacing a surface Fe atom with a Au atom are thermodynamically stable over a wide range of temperatures. On the other hand, the complex of a CO molecule on a Au atom substituting surface Fe atoms is thermodynamically stable only in a much more narrow range of values of the O chemical potential under O-rich conditions. In the case of a Au dimer, under O-rich conditions, supported Au atoms at an O-Fe di-vacancy are more stable. However, upon CO adsorption, the complex of a CO molecule and 2 Au atoms located at a single Fe vacancy is more favorable.

  5. L’agronomie au sens large

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    L’agronomie comme champ disciplinaire large regroupant l’ensemble des sciences agricoles n’a pas la même identité selon les pays, entre certains, notamment la France, où son autonomie institutionnelle et socioculturelle est forte, et d’autres, tels les États-Unis, où cette autonomie est faible, les sciences agricoles étant beaucoup plus éclatées institutionnellement, très généralement inscrites dans le cadre des universités. C’est donc avant tout dans un pays comme la France que faire l’histo...

  6. Azimuthal Anisotropy in U +U and Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, v2{2 } and v2{4 }, for charged hadrons from U +U collisions at √{sNN }=193 GeV and Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV . Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the energy deposited by spectators in zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of v2{2 } on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U +U collisions. We also show that v2 vs multiplicity can be better described by models, such as gluon saturation or quark participant models, that eliminate the dependence of the multiplicity on the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  7. Transverse energy measurement in Au + Au collisions by the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, R.

    2011-01-01

    Transverse energy (E T ) has been measured with both of its components, namely hadronic (E T had ) and electromagnetic (E T em ) in a common phase space at mid-rapidity for 62.4 GeV Au+Au collisions by the STAR experiment. E T production with centrality and √S NN is studied with similar measurements from SPS to RHIC and is compared with a final state gluon saturation model (EKRT). The most striking feature is the observation of a nearly constant value of E T /N ch ∼ 0.8 GeV from AGS, SPS to RHIC. The initial energy density estimated by the boost-invariant Bjorken hydrodynamic model, is well above the critical density for a deconfined matter of quarks and gluons predicted by lattice QCD calculations. (author)

  8. Spin-polarized ballistic conduction through correlated Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Morari, C.

    2017-11-20

    We examine the ballistic conduction through Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures consisting of up to four units of the half-metallic NiMnSb in the scattering region, using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a single NiMnSb unit the transmission function displays a spin polarization of around 50% in a window of 1eV centered around the Fermi level. By increasing the number of layers, an almost complete spin polarization of the transmission is obtained in this energy range. Supplementing the DFT calculations with local electronic interactions, of Hubbard-type on the Mn sites, leads to a hybridization between the interface and many-body states. The significant reduction of the spin polarization seen in the density of states is not apparent in the spin polarization of the conduction electron transmission, which suggests that the hybridized interface and many-body induced states are localized.

  9. Deep sub-threshold ϕ production in Au+Au collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Behnke, C.; Belounnas, A.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chernenko, S.; Chlad, L.; Deveaux, C.; Dreyer, J.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Filip, P.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; Greifenhagen, R.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Maurus, S.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D. M.; Morozov, S.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Nowakowski, K. N.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petukhov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramos, S.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, P.; Rosier, P.; Rost, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Scozzi, F.; Seck, F.; Sellheim, P.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Szala, M.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Usenko, E.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wiebusch, M. G.; Wirth, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.; Hades Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We present data on charged kaons (K±) and ϕ mesons in Au(1.23A GeV)+Au collisions. It is the first simultaneous measurement of K- and ϕ mesons in central heavy-ion collisions below a kinetic beam energy of 10A GeV. The ϕ /K- multiplicity ratio is found to be surprisingly high with a value of 0.52 ± 0.16 and shows no dependence on the centrality of the collision. Consequently, the different slopes of the K+ and K- transverse-mass spectra can be explained solely by feed-down, which substantially softens the spectra of K- mesons. Hence, in contrast to the commonly adapted argumentation in literature, the different slopes do not necessarily imply diverging freeze-out temperatures of K+ and K- mesons caused by different couplings to baryons.

  10. Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Akhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopdhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; De Moura, M.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Foley, K.J.; Fomenko, K.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow (v 1 ), elliptic flow (v 2 ), and the fourth harmonic (v 4 ) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a Blast Wave model. For v 2 , scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence is discussed. For v 4 , scaling with v 22 and quark coalescence predictions for higher harmonic flow is discussed. The different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data. For v 2 , scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence are discussed. For v 2 2 and quark coalescence are discussed

  11. Diffractive J/{psi} production in ultra-peripheral Au-Au collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Dept. of Physics, Upton, NY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    During the 2004 Au-Au run with {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV at RHIC, the PHENIX collaboration commissioned a trigger for J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} and the high mass di-lepton continuum. The PHENIX experiment has excellent capability for identifying electrons since it includes a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter array and ring imaging Cerenkov counters. The main features expected from photo-produced di-leptons are small net transverse momentum of the pair and low multiplicity of produced tracks (both characteristic of diffusive processes). Adequate event selection and a thorough extraction of the J/{psi} signal has led to a J/{psi} photoproduction cross-section of (48 {+-} 14 (stat) {+-} 16 (syst)) {mu}b.

  12. Centrality determination in Au-Au collisions at 1.23 AGeV with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuschke, Maximilian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    An important characterization of events in heavy-ion physics is the centrality. It classifies events by considering the collision's cross section relative to the total cross section of the system. This characteristics is needed for many analyses, as it provides indirect information about the initial geometrical reaction properties. As the production rate of particles is a function of the deposited energy, which itself depends on the centrality, quantities based on measured multiplicities allow to draw conclusions about the centrality of a collision. Estimators used to determine the centrality for Au-Au collisions at 1.23 AGeV recorded with HADES include the charged particle multiplicity and hit multiplicities measured with various detectors, such as the TOF/RPC or forward wall. Calibration methods accounting for variations in the acceptance of the detectors are introduced and verified by comparison with the theoretical expectations, as obtained by calculations with the Glauber-Model.

  13. Prominent transverse flow of clusters in stopped Au(150AMeV)+Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, J.P.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; Cerruti, C.; Crochet, P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Rami, F.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Konopka, J.; Stoecker, H.

    1995-01-01

    Stopped Au(150AMeV)+Au collisions have been measured with the FOPI-Detector at GSI by imposing an upper limit on the ratio of the global longitudinal momentum to the collected charge within an event. The ejectiles, in particular those with Z>3, have a rapidity close to mid-rapidity and exhibit angular distributions in the centre-of-mass strongly peaking around 90 thus suggesting an enhancement of the flow in the transverse direction. Fits to the data and comparisons with QMD calculations indicate an averaged collective velocity in the transverse direction equal to 0.12c. Significance of the determined velocity and temperature values is discussed. ((orig.))

  14. Investigation of Au/Au(100) film growth with energetic deposition by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingyu; Ma Tengcai; Pan Zhengying; Tang Jiayong

    2000-01-01

    The Au/Au(100) epitaxial growth with energetic deposition was simulated by using kinetic Monte Carlo method. The influences of energetic atoms on morphology and atomistic processes in the early stage of film growth were investigated. The reentrant layer-by-layer growth was observed in the temperature range of 450 K to 100 K. The authors found the energetic atoms can promote the nucleation and island growth in the early stages of film growth and enhance the smoothness of film surface at temperatures of film growth in 3-dimensional mode and in quasi-two-dimensional mode. The atomistic mechanism that promotes the nucleation and island growth and enhances the smoothness of film surface is discussed

  15. On Productions of Net-Baryons in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net-baryons (baryons minus antibaryons produced in central gold-gold (Au-Au collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is described by the Tsallis statistics to extract the effective temperature and entropy index from the transverse momentum distribution. The two parameters are used as input to describe the rapidity distribution and to extract the rapidity shift and contribution ratio. Then, the four types of parameters are used to structure some scatter plots of the considered particles in some three-dimensional (3D spaces at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, which are expected to show different characteristics for different particles and processes. The related methodology can be used in the analyses of particle production and event holography, which are useful for us to better understand the interacting mechanisms.

  16. Relação entre plano de saúde e a realização do exame Papanicolaou: uma aplicação de escore de propensão usando um inquérito amostral complexo Relationship between health care insurance and Papanicolaou exam: a propensity score application using a complex sample inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo de Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo de útero é a segunda doença mais comum entre mulheres em todo o mundo. O esfregaço de Papanicolaou é um teste simples que pode detectar a doença em um estágio precoce e curável. Embora indicado para todas as mulheres adultas, a cobertura do teste é inferior a 70% das mulheres brasileiras. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a posse de plano de saúde privado está associada à realização do exame de Papanicolaou. Foram analisados dados de 6.299 mulheres com 35 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Rio de Janeiro, entrevistadas na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD em 2003. A fim de minimizar a ocorrência de vieses, utilizamos o escore de propensão com a técnica de pareamento, levando em consideração todas as informações do desenho amostral na estimação dos escores (pesos amostrais, estratos e unidades primárias de amostragem. Uma subamostra de 2.348 mulheres foi então obtida, com covariáveis socioeconômicas e biológicas distribuídas igualmente entre os grupos com e sem cobertura de plano de saúde privado (1.174 pares. Os resultados com utilização de modelo de regressão logística mostraram que a chance de realizar o exame Papanicolaou é 26,1% maior (OR=1,261; p=0,096; IC 95%=[0,96; 1,66] para mulheres com plano de saúde quando comparadas às mulheres sem cobertura de plano de saúde, no nível de significância de 10%. Os resultados indicam a necessidade da extensão do rastreio periódico do câncer de colo de útero para todas as mulheres, reduzindo as desigualdades ainda presentes nos dias atuais.Cervical uterine cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. Papanicolaou smear is a simple screening test that can detect the disease at an early and curable stage. Although indicated to every adult woman, Pap smear screening covers less than 70% of Brazilian women. This study aimed to evaluate if private health care insurance coverage was associated

  17. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... KITUI, Kenya (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Le gadam, une variété de sorgho à croissance rapide résistante à la sécheresse, a été introduit au Kenya comme solution d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Or, il se trouve que le gadam comporte un inconvénient imprévu : les oiseaux sauvages ...

  18. Autopistas: AU-1 25 de Mayo y AU-6 Perito Moreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Highways AU-1 and AU-6, approximately 17 km. long, were constructed for the purpose of solving the serious traffic problems in Buenos Aires, a city of nine million inhabitants and an evergrowing number of cars. A computer program was created for the design based on the geometric shape of the highway and the position of the supports. Using this, all elements composing the structure were calculated and the framework was sized. This programme made it possible to complete a stretch of 150 metres per week. The very rapid construction was carried out through self-supporting arches made of metallic beams held in place by brackets. The brackets were fitted in specially designed grooves in the major supports of the highway.

    Las autopistas AU-1 y AU-6, con una longitud aproximada de 17 km, se realizaron con objeto de resolver el grave problema de infraestructura vial del Municipio de Buenos Aires, ciudad de nueve millones de habitantes y con un parque de vehículos en rápido crecimiento. Para el proyecto se creó un programa de ordenador con el que, partiendo de la definición geométrica de la autopista y de la posición de las pilas, se calculan todos los elementos que componen la estructura y se dimensionan las armaduras. Este programa permitió proyectar un tramo (150 m por semana. La construcción, a un ritmo muy rápido, se llevó a cabo mediante cimbras autoportantes compuestas por vigas metálicas apoyadas sobre ménsulas, las cuales a su vez apoyan en unos nichos dejados en las pilas.

  19. Devenir De l'azote de L'engrais enrichi au n applique au tournesol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de I' azote de I' engrais par la culture de toumesol a ete appreciee par Ia determination du coefficient d'utilisation apparent (CUA) estime par Ia methode de difference et du coefficient d'utilisation reel (CUR) estime par Ia methode isotopique. 80 kg N ha-1 a 4.87% d'atomes en exces de 15N ont ete appliques au ...

  20. Associação entre ácido úrico e variáveis de risco cardiovascular em uma população não hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Campos Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A associação entre ácido úrico (AU e as variáveis de risco cardiovascular permanece controversa em estudos epidemiológicos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre o AU, pressão arterial (PA, índices antropométricos e variáveis metabólicas em população não hospitalar estratificada por quintis de AU. MÉTODOS: Em estudo observacional transversal, foram avaliados 756 indivíduos (369M, com idade de 50,3 ± 16,12 anos, divididos em quintis de AU. Foram obtidos PA, índice de massa corporal (IMC, circunferência abdominal (CA, AU, glicose, insulina, HOMA-IR, colesterol (CT, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglicerídeos (TG, creatinina (C. Foi calculada a taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGE e considerada hipertensão arterial (HA quando a PA > 140x90 mmHg, sobrepeso/obesidade (S/O quando IMC > 25 kg/m² e síndrome metabólica (SM de acordo com a I Diretriz Brasileira de SM. RESULTADOS: 1 Não houve diferença entre os grupos na distribuição por sexo e faixa etária; 2 Os maiores quintis de AU apresentaram maiores médias de idade (p < 0,01, IMC, CA (p < 0,01, PAS, PAD (p < 0,001, CT, LDL-c, TG (p < 0,01, C e TFGE (p < 0,001 e menor média de HDL-c (p < 0,001; 3 O grupo com maior quintil de AU mostrou maiores prevalências de HA, S/O e SM (p < 0,001; 4 Maiores percentuais dos menores quintis de insulina (p < 0,02 e de HOMA-IR (p < 0,01 foram encontrados nos menores quintis de AU; 5 Em análise de regressão logística, o AU e as variáveis que compõem a SM apresentaram-se associados à ocorrência de SM (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Maiores quintis de ácido úrico associaram-se a pior perfil de risco cardiovascular e a pior perfil de função renal na amostra populacional não hospitalar estudada.

  1. Entre la Venadita y la Medusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcárcel, Amelia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Feminism has made in the last decades relevant advances towards equity between men and women in western societies. However, both mysogyny and gynophobia are still at work, giving as a result a «deflation of expectations» among women who enter the worlds of politics, information, corporations, economic power, knowledge, religion or art, and find a glass ceiling in full operation. The paper focuses on women artists, examines the anger expressed in feminist art as an answer to exclusion, and argues for feminist strategies of analysis and correction of inequalities.

    El feminismo ha conseguido en los últimos años importantes avances hacia la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres en las sociedades occidentales. Y, sin embargo, tanto la misoginia como la ginofobia siguen vigentes, provocando una «deflación de expectativas » entre las mujeres que se incorporan a los mundos de la política, la información, las organizaciones empresariales, el poder económico, el saber, la religión o la creatividad, y se topan con el techo de cristal a pleno funcionamiento. El artículo se centra en las mujeres creadoras para examinar la cólera expresada en el arte feminista como respuesta a la exclusión y defender estrategias feministas de análisis y corrección de desigualdades.

  2. Diferencias en comportamientos prosociales entre adolescentes colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Redondo Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se evidencia la influencia de variables socio-ambientales, como la cultura, el sexo, la edad o la nacionalidad, en la adquisición, desarrollo y mantenimiento de las conductas prosociales. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias en conductas prosociales entre estudiantes de educación secundaria de las ciudades de Pasto y Bucaramanga (Colombia, a quienes se administró la escala de Conducta Prosocial del TeenageInventory of Social Skills (TISS.Participaron 2.694 estudiantes con edades comprendidas entre 11 y 17 años (1878 de Pasto y 816 de Bucaramanga. De acuerdo con los resultados,los adolescentes de la ciudad de Pasto presentaron niveles significativamente más altos de conducta prosocial que los adolescentes de Bucaramanga. Este patrón de resultados fue similar por género y edad. Abstract This paper focuses on the analysis of pro-social behavior in high school students from Pasto and Bucaramanga (Colombia. 2,694 students between 11 and 17 years old (1878 from Pasto y 816 from Bucaramanga were sampled and a Pro-social Behavior Scale of Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS was administered. As a result, this research shows teenagers from Pasto showed higher levels of pro-social behavior than those from Bucaramanga. Socio-environmental variables, such as culture, sex, age or nationality influence students´ pro-social behavior development and maintenance.

  3. Measurements of mass-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in central p + Au, d + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bagoly, A.; Bai, M.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bumazhnov, V.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Chujo, T.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukuda, Y.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hodges, A.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kanda, S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapukchyan, D.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, M. H.; Kimelman, B.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Komkov, B.; Kotov, D.; Kudo, S.; Kurgyis, B.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lökös, S.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagai, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Radzevich, P. V.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Runchey, J.; Safonov, A. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skoby, M. J.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stepanov, M.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takeda, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnai, G.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; White, A. S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements of the transverse-momentum dependence of elliptic flow v2 for identified pions and (anti)protons at midrapidity (|η |<0.35 ), in 0%-5% central p +Au and 3He+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV. When taken together with previously published measurements in d +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV, the results cover a broad range of small-collision-system multiplicities and intrinsic initial geometries. We observe a clear mass-dependent splitting of v2(pT) in d +Au and 3He+Au collisions, just as in large nucleus-nucleus (A +A ) collisions, and a smaller splitting in p +Au collisions. Both hydrodynamic and transport model calculations successfully describe the data at low pT (<1.5 GeV /c ), but fail to describe various features at higher pT. In all systems, the v2 values follow an approximate quark-number scaling as a function of the hadron transverse kinetic energy per constituent quark (K ET/nq ), which was also seen previously in A +A collisions.

  4. Cross section of the 197Au(n,2n196Au reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamara A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 197Au(n,2n196Au reaction cross section has been measured at two energies, namely at 17.1 MeV and 20.9 MeV, by means of the activation technique, relative to the 27Al(n,α24Na reference reaction cross section. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 accelerator laboratory of NCSR “Demokritos”, by means of the 3H(d,n4He reaction, implementing a new Ti-tritiated target of ∼ 400 GBq activity. The induced γ-ray activity at the targets and reference foils has been measured with HPGe detectors. The cross section for the population of the second isomeric (12− state m2 of 196Au was independently determined. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP code. The present results are in agreement with previous experimental data and with theoretical calculations of the measured reaction cross sections, which were carried out with the use of the EMPIRE code.

  5. Stream dynamics between 1 AU and 2 AU: a detailed comparison of observations and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.; Pizzo, V.; Lazarus, A.; Gazis, P.

    1984-04-01

    A radial alignment of three solar wind stream structures observed by IMP-7 and -8 (at 1.0 AU) and Voyager 1 and 2 (in the range 1.4 to 1.8 AU) in late 1977 is presented. It is demonstrated that several important aspects of the observed dynamical evolution can be both qualitatively and quantitatively described with a single-fluid 2-D MHD numerical model of quasi-steady corotating flow, including accurate prediction of: (1) the formation of a corotating shock pair at 1.75 AU in the case of a simple, quasi-steady stream; (2) the coalescence of the thermodynamic and magnetic structures associated with the compression regions of two neighboring, interacting, corotating streams; and (3) the dynamical destruction of a small (i.e., low velocity-amplitude, short spatial-scale) stream by its overtaking of a slower moving, high-density region associated with a preceding transient flow. The evolution of these flow systems is discussed in terms of the concepts of filtering and entrainment

  6. Promotion of Phenol Photodecomposition over TiO2 Using Au, Pd, and AuPd Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; He, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pd, AuPd alloys) with a narrow size distribution supported on nanocrystalline TiO2 (M/TiO2) have been synthesized via a sol-immobilization route. The effect of metal identity and size on the photocatalytic performance of M/TiO2 has been systematically investigated u...

  7. Two particle correlations at mid-rapidity in Si+A and Au+Au from E859/E866

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Two particle correlation measurements for Si-A and Au- Au collisions from Brookhaven E859 and E866 are discussed. These measurements allow us, with some interpretation, to deduce the size of the participant region in a heavy ion collision. We show that various source parameterizations yield consistent results and we explore the dependence of the apparent source size on the pion yield

  8. {phi} meson production in Au + Au and p + p collisions at {radical}s{sub NN}=200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, S.M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravstov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; et al.

    2004-06-01

    We report the STAR measurement of {psi} meson production in Au + Au and p + p collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Using the event mixing technique, the {psi} spectra and yields are obtained at midrapidity for five centrality bins in Au+Au collisions and for non-singly-diffractive p+p collisions. It is found that the {psi} transverse momentum distributions from Au+Au collisions are better fitted with a single-exponential while the p+p spectrum is better described by a double-exponential distribution. The measured nuclear modification factors indicate that {psi} production in central Au+Au collisions is suppressed relative to peripheral collisions when scaled by the number of binary collisions (). The systematics of versus centrality and the constant {psi}/K{sup -} ratio versus beam species, centrality, and collision energy rule out kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for {psi} production.

  9. Direct virtual photon production in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV STAR Collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 770, JUL (2017), s. 451-458 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * transverse mementum * Au Au collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  10. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method...

  11. Measurements of higher order flow harmonics in Au + Au collisions at √ sNN=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Mikeš, P.; Růžička, Pavel; Tomášek, Lukáš; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 25 (2011), "252301-1"-"252301-7" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : PHENIX detector * Au + Au collisions * nuclear collisions * flow harmonics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  12. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |η| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate η bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  13. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\\, {\\rm GeV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate eegr bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  14. Les représentations sociales liées au lieu de résidence au sein du parc de Bercy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Arrif

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Notre recherche se propose d’analyser les représentations et les pratiques spatiales des usagers du parc de Bercy situé dans le 12ème arrondissement de Paris. La littérature nous a conduit à poser l’hypothèse d’un lien fort entre ces représentations et pratiques d’une part, et la proximité résidentielle. L’enquête menée auprès des usagers du parc de Bercy a confirmé au moins partiellement notre hypothèse. Elle a permis également de pointer l’importance de l’accessibilité au parc notamment pour les usagers résidant hors de l’arrondissement. Enfin, elle confirme la nécessité de prendre en compte les pratiques et les représentations des habitants dans l’aménagement des parcs publics parisiens.Our research aims to analyze performances and practice space users Parc de Bercy in the 12th arrondissement of Paris. The literature has led us to ask the assumption of a strong link between these representations and practices on the one hand, and the nearby residential. The survey of users of the Parc de Bercy confirmed at least partially our hypothesis. It has also point to the importance of accessibility to the park especially for users outside the borough. Finally, it confirms the need to take into account the practices and representations of residents in the management of public parks in Paris.

  15. Estudo das interações entre o complexo polieletrolítico trimetilquitosana/carboximetilcelulose e Cu+2, ácido húmico e atrazina em solução aquosa Study of the interactions between the polyelectrolyte complex trimethylchitosan/carboxymethylcellulose and Cu+2, humic acid and atrazine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio P. Campana-Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyelectrolyte complex (PEC resulting from the reaction of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan hydrochloride (TMQ was prepared and then characterized by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X rays analysis. The interactions involving the PEC and Cu2+ ions, humic acid and atrazine in aqueous medium were studied. From the adsorption isotherms the maximum amount adsorbed (Xmax was determined as 61 mg Cu2+/g PEC, 171 mg humic acid/g PEC and 5 mg atrazine/g PEC. The results show that the CMC/TMQ complex has a high affinity for the studied species, indicating its potential application to remove them from aqueous media.

  16. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong [School of Science, Honghe University (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharamaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Pan, Haibo [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei4728@126.com [School of Science, Honghe University (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharamaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The formation of B-doped graphene (BG) with high content of a total B species use hydrothermal method with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reducing agent and boron source. • BG was exfoliated into monolayer nanosheet impregnated by Au@AuPt NPs because B atom creates a net positive charge to facilitate NPs adsorption. • The dispersed carboxyl units of BG can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making more rutin participate in reaction. • Au@AuPt NPs can form charge accumulation or valence change on prominent part of the surface, improving the catalytic effect to rutin. • More electroactive sites were generated by doping B atoms into graphene structures, which act as multidimensional electron transport pathways. - Abstract: A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively

  17. Ordered arrays of Au catalysts by FIB assisted heterogeneous dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkouider, A; Ronda, A; David, T; Favre, L; Abbarchi, M; Naffouti, M; Osmond, J; Delobbe, A; Sudraud, P; Berbezier, I

    2015-12-18

    Synthesizing Au0.8Si0.2 nanocatalysts that are homogeneous in size and have controlled position is becoming a challenging and crucial prequisite for the fabrication of ordered semiconductor nanowires. In this study, Au0.8Si0.2 nanocatalysts are synthesized via dewetting of Au layers on Si(111) during thermal annealing in an ultra-high vacuum. In the first part of the paper, the mechanism of homogeneous dewetting is analyzed as a function of the Au-deposited thickness (h Au). We distinguish three different dewetting regimes: (I) for a low thickness ([Formula: see text]), a submonolyer coverage of Au is stabilized and there is no dewetting. (II) For an intermediate thickness ([Formula: see text]), there is both dewetting and Au0.8Si0.2 phase formation. The size and density of the Au0.8Si0.2 clusters are directly related to h Au. When cooling down to room temperature, the clusters decompose and reject the Si at the Au/Si substrate interface. (III) For a large thickness ([Formula: see text]), only dewetting takes place, without forming AuSi clusters. In this regime, the dewetting is kinetically controlled by the self-diffusion of Au (activation energy ∼0.43 eV) without evidence of an Si-alloying effect. As a practical consequence, when relying solely on the homogeneous dewetting of Au/Si(111) to form the Au0.8Si0.2 catalysts (without a supply of Si atoms from vapor), regime II should be used to obtain good size and density control. In the second part of the paper, a process for ordering the catalysts using focused ion beam-(FIB) assisted dewetting (heterogeneous dewetting) is developed. We show that no matter what the FIB milling conditions and the Au nominal thickness are, dewetting is promoted by ion beam irradiation and is accompanied by the formation of Au0.8Si0.2 droplets. The droplets preferentially form on the patterned areas, while in similar annealing conditions, they do not form on the unpatterned areas. This behavior is attributed to the larger Au

  18. Être contre et/ou tout contre en textotant. L’expression du consensus et du dissensus dans les SMS, entre rupture et continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Détrie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La notion même de désaccord implique l’intersubjectivité, puisqu’on ne peut être en désaccord qu’avec au moins quelqu’un et sur un thème particulier en partage. Pour qu’il y ait désaccord, il faut de la sorte au départ un accord minimum. Je pars de ce constat pour réfléchir à quelques « drôles de cas » où le dissensus s’exprime par des marqueurs de complicité ou d’accord et où, inversement, la connivence empathique entre coénonciateurs prend la forme d’un désaccord : ces cas invitent à envisager l’accord et le désaccord non plus en rupture, mais plutôt en continuité. Ma ligne directrice sera celle d’un continuum allant des bises aux bisbilles (et inversement, au sein duquel des modulations et des positions intermédiaires variées (désaccords pour rire, demi-désaccords, dissensus adoucis en consensus, etc. peuvent être observées. Pour ce faire, je travaillerai prioritairement sur le corpus 88milSMS (http://88milsms.huma-num.fr/, corpus qui pose problème au regard de la notion de désaccord : le consensus, la synchronisation font en effet partie des attendus des SMS, l’autre étant toujours envisagé comme un même. Dans ce cadre, peut-on être en désaccord avec quelqu’un appartenant au même réseau relationnel, et avec qui on est en empathie(le mot désaccord ne figure d’ailleurs pas une seule fois dans les 88522 SMS constituant le corpus ? Dans un premier mouvement, je réfléchirai aux mots accord et désaccord eux-mêmes, puis je proposerai l’idée d’un continuum entre les deux pôles, avant d’aborder les rares cas où la guerre semble apparemment déclarée. Cependant le dissensus, même s’il est explicitement signifié, est souvent tempéré, envisagé sur fond de territoire en partage, observation qu’il faut rattacher au fait que les scripteurs cultivent l’entre-soi et la complicité avec leurs mêmes.

  19. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111......) surface appear apparently adsorbate free, indicated by the presence of a (4×4) structure and the herringbone surface reconstruction, respectively. Upon potential increase, phosphate anions adsorb on both surfaces and for Cu(111) the formation of a (√3×√3)R30° structure is found, whereas on Au(111) a "(√3......×√7)" structure is formed. For a Cu-submonolayer on Au(111), coadsorption of phosphate anions leads to the formation of a (2×2) vacancy structure within an assumed pseudomorphic structure of the Cu-submonolayer with the phosphate anions occupying the vacancies. When desorbing the phosphate anions at low...

  20. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.