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Sample records for au br cu

  1. The Amounts of As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in Normal and Uraemic Human whole Blood. A. Comparison by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Samsahl, K [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wester, P O [Dept. of Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Serafimerlasarettet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1964-01-15

    Quantitative determination of the elements As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn have been performed in normal and uraemic human whole blood by means of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - H-O- digestion, distillation and ion exchange, combined with gamma-spectrometric analysis. The uraemic blood was found to contain about 10 times as much As and twice as much Mo as did the normal blood. As regards Fe, the uraemic blood contained slightly less than the normal blood. For the other elements there were no detectable difference.

  2. Le CRDI au Brésil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les recherches subventionnées par le CRDI au Brésil ont permis d'éclairer les débats sur nombre de questions, dont la démocratie, la croissance économique, la santé, les services sociaux, l'innovation, la foresterie et l'eau. Pendant la dictature militaire, qui a pris fin en 1985, le CRDI s'est employé à assurer la survie de la ...

  3. Computer simulation of the structure of liquid metal halides RbBr, CuCl, CuBr, CuI, and AgBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashchenko, D.K.; Ostrovskij, O.I.

    2003-01-01

    The computerized models of the RbBr, AgBr, CuCl, CuBr and CuI liquid ion systems of 498 ions dimension are simulated at the temperatures of 753-960 K on the basis of the known diffraction data through the BELION algorithm. Good agreement of diffraction and model partial pair correlation functions (PPCF), excluding the PPCF first peaks heights, is obtained in all the cases. The simulation is carried out by the varied ion charges (the atomization energy values, close to the real ones, are obtained by ion charges ±1.00 for the RbBr, ±1.15 for AgBr, ±1.20 for CuCl, ±1.48 for CuBr and ±1.367 for CuI). The noncoulomb contributions in the interparticle potentials are calculated [ru

  4. Surface chemistry of 2-butanol and furfural on Cu, Au and Cu/Au single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Megginson, Rory

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of 2-butanol and furfural was investigated on Au (111), Cu (111) and Cu/Au (111) surfaces. It was hoped that by studying how these species adsorbed on these surfaces , insight would be provided into the roles of Cu and Au in the “hydrogen free” hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. This is a valuable process as currently furfuryl alcohol is derived from crude oil but it is possible to derive furfural from corn husk making it a greener process...

  5. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  6. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.

  7. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  8. UV-Induced Anisotropy In CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Naggar A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have found an occurrence of anisotropy in the nanostructure CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu nanocrystalline films. The film thickness was varied from 4 nm up to 80 nm. The films were prepared by successive deposition of the novel layers onto the basic nanocrystals. The detection of anisotropy was performed by occurrence of anisotropy in the polarized light at 633 nm He-Ne laser wavelength. The occurrence of anisotropy was substantially dependent on the film thickness and the photoinduced power density. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  9. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys Au x Cu 1-x and Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in Au x Cu 1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in Au x Cu 1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for Au x Cu 1-x clusters of 10 5 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data

  10. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111......) surface appear apparently adsorbate free, indicated by the presence of a (4×4) structure and the herringbone surface reconstruction, respectively. Upon potential increase, phosphate anions adsorb on both surfaces and for Cu(111) the formation of a (√3×√3)R30° structure is found, whereas on Au(111) a "(√3......×√7)" structure is formed. For a Cu-submonolayer on Au(111), coadsorption of phosphate anions leads to the formation of a (2×2) vacancy structure within an assumed pseudomorphic structure of the Cu-submonolayer with the phosphate anions occupying the vacancies. When desorbing the phosphate anions at low...

  11. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by the shape of the seeds used. Exposure of Cu2O{111} and Cu2O{001} favored when the overgrowth happened on Au{111} and Au{001} surface, respectively. The size of the product can also be tuned by the amount of the seeds. The results reported here provide a thinking clue to modulate the shape and size of core-shell nanocrystals, which is useful in developing new materials with desired performance.

  12. Nucleon shadowing effects in Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions at RHIC within the HIJING code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Waged, Khaled; Felemban, Nuha

    2018-02-01

    The centrality dependence of pseudorapidity density of charged particles ({{{d}}{N}}{{ch}}/{{d}}η ) in Cu + Cu (Au + Au) collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy of \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}}=22.4, 62.4 and 200 (19.6, 62.4 and 200) GeV, is investigated within an improved HIJING code. The standard HIJING model is enhanced by a prescription for collective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions and more modern parton distribution functions. The collective NN-interactions are used to induce both cascade and nucleon shadowing effects. We find collective cascade broadens the pseudorapidity distributions in the tails (at | η | > {y}{beam}) above 25%-30% collision centrality to be consistent with the {{{d}}{N}}{{ch}}/{{d}}η data at \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}} =19.6,22.4,62.4 {GeV}. The overall contribution of nucleon shadowing is shown to depress the whole shape of {{{d}}{N}}{{ch}}/{{d}}η in the primary interaction region (at | η | data.

  13. Ultrasonic friction power during thermosonic Au and Cu ball bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A; Mayer, M; Zhou, Y; Qin, I; Huynh, C; Meyer, M

    2010-01-01

    The ultrasonic friction power during thermosonic ball bonding with Au and Cu wires, both 25 μm in diameter, is derived with an improved method from experimental measurements during the bonding process. Experimental data include the current delivered to the ultrasonic transducer and the tangential force measured using piezoresistive microsensors integrated close to the Al bonding pad. The improvement results from a new, more accurate method to derive the mechanical compliance of the ultrasonic system. The method employs a bond process modification in which the ultrasonic current is ramped up sequentially in three steps. In the first two steps, the ultrasonic current is set to levels that are too low to cause sliding. The bonding takes place during the third step, when the current is ramped up to the optimum value required for making good quality bonds. The ultrasonic compliance values are derived from the first two steps and are 8.2 ± 0.5 μm N -1 and 7.7 ± 0.5 μm N -1 for the Au and Cu processes, respectively. These values are determined within an average error estimate of ±6%, substantially lower than the ±10% estimated with a previously reported method. The ultrasonic compliance in the case of Au is 6% higher due to the lower elastic modulus of Au compared with that of Cu. Typical maximum values of relative sliding amplitude of ultrasonic friction at the interface are 655 nm and 766 nm for the Au and Cu processes. These values are 81% of the free-air vibration amplitude of the bonding capillary tip for the respective ultrasonic current settings. Due to bond growth, which damps relative motion between the ball and the pad, the final relative amplitude at the bond interface is reduced to 4% of the equivalent free-air amplitude. Even though the maximum value of relative amplitude is 17% higher in the Cu process compared with the Au process, the average total interfacial sliding is 519 μm in the Cu process, which is 31% lower than that in the Au process (759

  14. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jie; Lu, Na; Chen, Wei; Kong, Lina; Yang, Yun; Ma, Dekun; Huang, Shaoming

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by ...

  15. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Busson, Bertrand; De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro; Mele, Claudio; Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN - stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface

  16. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, Benedetto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetto.bozzini@unile.it; Busson, Bertrand [CLIO-LCP, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Mele, Claudio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane [UDIL-CNRS, Bat. 201, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-01-16

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN{sup -} stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface.

  17. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben; Zhu, Zhiyong; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations

  18. Energy and system size dependence of phi meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2008-10-28

    We study the beam-energy and system-size dependence of {phi} meson production (using the hadronic decay mode {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) by comparing the new results from Cu + Cu collisions and previously reported Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Data presented are from midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for 0.4 < p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c. At a given beam energy, the transverse momentum distributions for {phi} mesons are observed to be similar in yield and shape for Cu + Cu and Au + Au colliding systems with similar average numbers of participating nucleons. The {phi} meson yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions, normalized by the average number of participating nucleons, are found to be enhanced relative to those from p + p collisions with a different trend compared to strange baryons. The enhancement for {phi} mesons is observed to be higher at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV compared to 62.4 GeV. These observations for the produced {phi}(s{bar s}) mesons clearly suggest that, at these collision energies, the source of enhancement of strange hadrons is related to the formation of a dense partonic medium in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and cannot be alone due to canonical suppression of their production in smaller systems.

  19. Surface structure and morphology of Cu-free and Cu-covered Au(100) and Au(111) electrodes in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaup, Christian [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Fysikvey, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Friebel, Daniel [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wandelt, Klaus [University of Bonn, Institute for Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Wegelerstr. 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For both Cu-free Au-electrodes three different phases were observed as a function of the applied electrode potential. While at low potentials the onset of surface reconstruction points towards an apparently adsorbate free surface and, thus, a weak interaction with species from the electrolyte, a Au-hydroxide and a Au-oxide phase are formed subsequently during potential increase. A similar phase behavior was also found for Cu-covered Au-electrodes, while at low potentials an apparently adsorbate free Cu layer is observed, a Cu-hydroxide coadsorbate phase and a Cu-oxide phase are formed under increased potential conditions. In addition the apparently adsorbate free Cu-film tends to form a Cu-Au alloy phase while keeping the electrode for a sufficient long time at low potential conditions.

  20. EPR Study of [Cu(Him)4]·2Br Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldırım, İ; Karabulut, B

    2016-01-01

    The single crystal of [Cu(Him) 4 ]·2Br (Him: C 3 H 4 N 2 , imidazole) complex has been investigated at ambient temperature in three mutually perpendicular planes by EPR technique. The magnetic environments of [Cu(Him) 4 ]·2Br complex have been identified by EPR technique. The study reveals the existence of two magnetically inequivalent Cu 2+ sites. The principal values of g tensors were obtained. The EPR parameters show that the paramagnetic centers have rhombic symmetry. (paper)

  1. Modeling of Output Characteristics of a UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines experiment data for a Ne-CuBr UV copper ion laser excited by longitudinal pulsed discharge emitting in multiline regime. The flexible multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSs method has been used to develop nonparametric regression models describing the laser output power and service life of the devices. The models have been constructed as explicit functions of 9 basic input laser characteristics. The obtained models account for local nonlinearities of the relationships within the various multivariate subregions. The built best MARS models account for over 98% of data. The models are used to estimate the investigated output laser characteristics of existing UV lasers. The capabilities for using the models in predicting existing and future experiments have been demonstrated. Specific analyses have been presented comparing the models with actual experiments. The obtained results are applicable for guiding and planning the engineering experiment. The modeling methodology can be applied for a wide range of similar lasers and laser devices.

  2. Approaching the limit of Cu(II)/Cu(I) mixed valency in a Cu(I)Br2-N-methylquinoxalinium hybrid compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Nicolas; Sproules, Stephen; Pasquier, Claude; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Raffy, Helene; Powell, Annie K

    2015-08-18

    A novel 1D hybrid salt (MQ)[CuBr2]∞ (MQ = N-methylquinoxalinium) is reported. Structural, spectroscopic and magnetic investigations reveal a minimal Cu(II) doping of less than 0.1%. However it is not possible to distinguish Cu(I) and Cu(II). The unusually close packing of the organic moieties and the dark brown colour of the crystals suggest a defect electronic structure.

  3. Effects of CuBr addition to CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) perovskite photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Ohishi, Yuya; Tanaka, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    Effects of CuBr addition to perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) precursor solutions on photovoltaic properties were investigated. The CH3NH3Pb(Cu)I3(Cl,Br)-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating technique, and the microstructures of the devices were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Current density-voltage characteristics were improved by a small amount of CuBr addition, which resulted in improvement of the conversion efficiencies of the devices. The structure analysis showed decrease of unit cell volume and increase of Cu/Br composition by the CuBr addition, which would indicate the Cu/Br substitution at the Pb/I sites in the perovskite crystal, respectively.

  4. J /ψ production at low pT in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at √sNN =200 GeV with the STAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Powell, C. B.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The J /ψ pT spectrum and nuclear modification factor (RAA) are reported for pT<5GeV /c and |y|<1 from 0% to 60% central Au +Au and Cu +Cu collisions at √sNN =200GeV at STAR. A significant suppression of pT-integrated J /ψ production is observed in central Au +Au events. The Cu +Cu data are consistent with no suppression, although the precision is limited by the available statistics. RAA in Au +Au collisions exhibits a strong suppression at low transverse momentum and gradually increases with pT. The data are compared to high-pT STAR results and previously published BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low pT are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

  5. Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of GdCu4Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Aiman K; Tchokonté, Moise B Tchoula; Britz, Douglas; Sondezi, B M; Strydom, André M

    2015-01-01

    The results of magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), magnetization, σ(μ 0 H), and specific heat, C P (T), for GdCu 4 Au are presented. The room temperature powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate a cubic MgCu 4 Sn – type crystal structure with space group F4-bar 3m (No.216). The low field dc χ(T) data shows an antiferromagnetic – like (AFM) anomaly associated with a Néel temperature T N = 10.8 K for GdCu 4 Au. In the paramagnetic region above T N , χ(T) data follows the Curies – Weiss law with an effective magnetic moment μ eff = 7.444(1) μ B and paramagnetic Weiss temperature θ P = -15.01(2) K. The experimental value of is close to the calculated value of 7.94 μ B expected for the free Gd 3+ -ion. The field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) χ(T) data provide evidence for the formation of spin-glass state with a freezing temperature T f = 15 K. σ(μ 0 H) measured in the ordering region (below TN) shows that GdCu 4 Au undergoes metamagnetic transition above 0.7 T, characterized by a slight upward curvature above this field. Measurement of σ(μ 0 H) in the paramagnetic regions show a linear behaviour up to 0.7 T and a downward curvature at high fields. C P (T) data shows an AFM – like phase transition at T N = 10.4 K close to the phase transition observed in χ(T) results. The 4f-electron entropy reaches the value of Rln2 close to T N at 9.02 K and reaches the value of Rln(2J + 1) at T = 180 K

  6. New insight on the local structure of Cu2+ ion in the solution of CuBr2 by EXAFS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meijuan; Chu Wangsheng; Chen Xing; Wu Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    CuBr 2 solutions at different concentrations were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Cu K edge. In the saturated solution Cu 2+ ions have chemical bonds with 3.0 oxygen atoms and 0.9 Br ion at about 1.96 A and 2.42 A, respectively. It indicates that the CuBr 4 -2 configuration exists with a ratio of 25% under this condition. In the dilute solutions no evidence of Br ions contributions in the first shell around Cu 2+ ions occurs. The almost identical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS characters address similar local environments around Cu 2+ in agreement with results of the EXAFS fit taking into account only the contributions of Cu-O bonds.

  7. New insight on the local structure of Cu{sup 2+} ion in the solution of CuBr{sub 2} by EXAFS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Meijuan; Chu Wangsheng; Chen Xing; Wu Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2009-11-15

    CuBr{sub 2} solutions at different concentrations were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Cu K edge. In the saturated solution Cu{sup 2+} ions have chemical bonds with 3.0 oxygen atoms and 0.9 Br ion at about 1.96 A and 2.42 A, respectively. It indicates that the CuBr{sub 4}{sup -2} configuration exists with a ratio of 25% under this condition. In the dilute solutions no evidence of Br ions contributions in the first shell around Cu{sup 2+} ions occurs. The almost identical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS characters address similar local environments around Cu{sup 2+} in agreement with results of the EXAFS fit taking into account only the contributions of Cu-O bonds.

  8. Inter ionic pair potentials for molten copper halides CuX (X=Br, I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canan, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the inter-ionic pair interactions of molten CuBr and Cu I are described with three different form of the rigid ion model potentials (RIM) using i) the functional form originally proposed by Vasishta and Rahman ii) the form used Madden and coworkers which is include the polarization contributions iii) the form parameterizied by Tatlipinar et al. The capability of these potentials have been discussed with each other by calculating the static liquid structure. We present the results of the partial pair distributions for molten CuBr at 810K and for molten Cul at 940K comparing with experimental data. The structural calculations are performed by solving the numerically the hypemetted chain approximate theory of liquids

  9. Enhanced catalyst activity by decorating of Au on Ag@Cu2O nanoshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Maomao; Zhao, Yue; Kou, Qiangwei; Wang, Yaxin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Jinghai; Jung, Young Mee

    2018-03-01

    We successfully synthesized Au-decorated Ag@Cu2O heterostructures via a simple galvanic replacement method. As the Au precursor concentration increased, the density of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the Ag@Cu2O surface increased, which changed the catalytic activity of the Ag@Cu2O-Au structure. The combination of Au, Ag, and Cu2O exhibited excellent catalytic properties, which can further effect on the catalyst activity of the Ag@Cu2O-Au structure. In addition, the proposed Ag@Cu2O-Au nanocomposite was used to transform the organic, toxic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), into its nontoxic and medicinally important amino derivative via a catalytic reduction to optimize the material performance. The proposed Au-decorated Ag@Cu2O exhibited excellent catalytic activity, and the catalytic reduction time greatly decreased (5 min). Thus, three novel properties of Ag@Cu2O-Au, i.e., charge redistribution and transfer, adsorption, and catalytic reduction of organic pollutants, were ascertained for water remediation. The proposed catalytic properties have potential applications for photocatalysis and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)- and peroxidase-like catalysis.

  10. Laser ablation of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposite in water for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Abdul-Hamed, Ryam S.

    2017-12-01

    Core-shell gold-copper oxide Au-CuO nanocomposites were synthesized using laser ablation of CuO target in colloidal solution of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The effect of laser fluence on the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of Au-CuO nanocomposites was investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Hall measurement, and UV-vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results confirm the formation of polycrystalline Au-CuO NPs with monoclinic structure. The optical energy gap for CuO was 4 eV and for the Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 3.4-3.7 eV. SEM and TEM investigations revealed that the structure and morphology of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites were strongly depending on the laser fluence. A formation of Au-CuO nanospheres and platelets structures was observed. The photoluminescence data showed an emission of broad visible peaks between 407 and 420 nm. The effect of laser fluence on the dark and illuminated I-V characteristics of Au-CuO/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors was investigated and analyzed. The experimental data demonstrated that the photodetector prepared at optimum laser fluence exhibited photosensitivity of 0.6 AW-1 at 800 nm.

  11. Microstructural evaluation of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Mi Ri; Choe, Si Hyun; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangshik; Han, Seung Zeon; Kim, Won Yong; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the difference in interfacial behavior of thermally aged Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. During high-temperature lifetime testing of Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads at 175 °C for up to 2000 h, different growth rates and growth characteristics were investigated in the Cu–Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), including CuAl 2 , CuAl and Cu 9 Al 4 , and in the Cu–Au IMCs, including (Au,Cu), Cu 3 Au and (Cu,Au). Because of the lower growth rates and greater ductility of Cu–Au IMCs compared to those of Cu–Al IMCs, the Cu wire bonding with the Au pad showed relatively better thermal aging properties of bond pull strength and ball shear strength than those with the Al pad counterpart. In this study, the coherent interfaces were found to retard the growth of IMCs, and a variety of orientation relationships between wire, pad and interfacial IMCs were identified

  12. Crystal Structural Effect of AuCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Catalytic CO Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Wangcheng; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Liu, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the physical and chemical properties of alloy nanoparticles (NPs) is an important approach to optimize NP catalysis. Unlike other tuning knobs, such as size, shape, and composition, crystal structure has received limited attention and not been well understood for its role in catalysis. This deficiency is mainly due to the difficulty in synthesis and fine-tuning of the NPs’ crystal structure. Here, Exemplifying by AuCu alloy NPs with face centered cubic (fcc) and face centered tetragonal (fct) structure, we demonstrate a remarkable difference in phase segregation and catalytic performance depending on the crystal structure. During the thermal treatment in air, the Cu component in fcc-AuCu alloy NPs segregates more easily onto the alloy surface as compared to that in fct-AuCu alloy NPs. As a result, after annealing at 250 °C in air for 1 h, the fcc- and fct-AuCu alloy NPs are phase transferred into Au/CuO and AuCu/CuO core/shell structures, respectively. More importantly, this variation in heterostructures introduces a significant difference in CO adsorption on two catalysts, leading to a largely enhanced catalytic activity of AuCu/CuO NP catalyst for CO oxidation. Furthermore, the same concept can be extended to other alloy NPs, making it possible to fine-tune NP catalysis for many different chemical reactions.

  13. Crystal Structural Effect of AuCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Catalytic CO Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Wangcheng [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jinglin [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Haifeng [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Jinshui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaofei [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Pengfei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chi, Miaofang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Yanglong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Guo, Yun [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Lu, Guanzhong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Sun, Shouheng [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhu, Huiyuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Controlling the physical and chemical properties of alloy nanoparticles (NPs) is an important approach to optimize NP catalysis. Unlike other tuning knobs, such as size, shape, and composition, crystal structure has received limited attention and not been well understood for its role in catalysis. This deficiency is mainly due to the difficulty in synthesis and fine-tuning of the NPs’ crystal structure. Here, Exemplifying by AuCu alloy NPs with face centered cubic (fcc) and face centered tetragonal (fct) structure, we demonstrate a remarkable difference in phase segregation and catalytic performance depending on the crystal structure. During the thermal treatment in air, the Cu component in fcc-AuCu alloy NPs segregates more easily onto the alloy surface as compared to that in fct-AuCu alloy NPs. As a result, after annealing at 250 °C in air for 1 h, the fcc- and fct-AuCu alloy NPs are phase transferred into Au/CuO and AuCu/CuO core/shell structures, respectively. More importantly, this variation in heterostructures introduces a significant difference in CO adsorption on two catalysts, leading to a largely enhanced catalytic activity of AuCu/CuO NP catalyst for CO oxidation. Furthermore, the same concept can be extended to other alloy NPs, making it possible to fine-tune NP catalysis for many different chemical reactions.

  14. Charged hadron multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions from √s.sub.NN./sub. = 22.5 to 200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adare, A.; Adler, S. S.; Afanasiev, S.; Kubart, J.; Mašek, L.; Mikeš, P.; Tomášek, Lukáš; Vrba, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2008), 044902/1-044902/15 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk 1P04LA211; GA ČR GA202/05/0653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : charged hadron * multiplicity fluctuations * Au+Au * Cu+Cu Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2008

  15. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  16. Charge transfer and relativistic effects in the low-lying electronic states of CuCl, CuBr and CuI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, C; de Jong, W.A.; Broer, R.; Nieuwpoort, WC

    1997-01-01

    The spectral transitions and the character of the low-lying excited states of the copper halides, CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) are studied by means of two different relativistic computational approaches. One is based on the CASSCF/CASPT2 approach with operators accounting for scalar relativistic effects

  17. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  18. Freely migrating defects in ion-irradiated Cu3Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.C.; Lang, E.; Flynn, C.P.; Averback, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of producing freely migrating vacancy defects in irradiated Cu 3 Au was examined using electrical resistivity measurements of radiation-induced ordering on highly perfect single-crystal films. Relative efficiencies for He, Ne, and Ar bombardments at different ion energy and specimen temperature were obtained. The ratio of the efficiencies of 0.6 MeV Ne to He increased with temperature from ∼0.25 at 340 K to a saturation value of ∼0.40 at 520 K. For Ar and He, the ratio increased from ∼0.11 at 360 K to ∼0.18 at 540 K. Estimates indicate that about half of all defects created in cascades are freely migrating. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. First-principles theory of short-range order in size-mismatched metal alloys: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, and Ni-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; Ozolins, V.; Zunger, A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a first-principles technique for calculating the short-range order (SRO) in disordered alloys, even in the presence of large anharmonic atomic relaxations. The technique is applied to several alloys possessing large size mismatch: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, Ni-Au, and Cu-Pd. We find the following: (i) The calculated SRO in Cu-Au alloys peaks at (or near) the left-angle 100 right-angle point for all compositions studied, in agreement with diffuse scattering measurements. (ii) A fourfold splitting of the X-point SRO exists in both Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 and Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 , although qualitative differences in the calculated energetics for these two alloys demonstrate that the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 may be accounted for by T=0 K energetics while T≠0 K configurational entropy is necessary to account for the splitting in Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 . Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 shows a significant temperature dependence of the splitting, in agreement with recent in situ measurements, while the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 is predicted to have a much smaller temperature dependence. (iii) Although no measurements exist, the SRO of Cu-Ag alloys is predicted to be of clustering type with peaks at the left-angle 000 right-angle point. Streaking of the SRO peaks in the left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 1 (1) /(2) 0 right-angle directions for Ag- and Cu-rich compositions, respectively, is correlated with the elastically soft directions for these compositions. (iv) Even though Ni-Au phase separates at low temperatures, the calculated SRO pattern in Ni 0.4 Au 0.6 , like the measured data, shows a peak along the left-angle ζ00 right-angle direction, away from the typical clustering-type left-angle 000 right-angle point. (v) The explicit effect of atomic relaxation on SRO is investigated and it is found that atomic relaxation can produce significant qualitative changes in the SRO pattern, changing the pattern from ordering to clustering type, as in the case of Cu-Ag. copyright 1998 The American

  20. Coordination variation of hydrated Cu2+/Br1− ions traversing the interfacial water in mesopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of the atomistic and electronic details about the coordination structure variation of hydrated ions in the interfacial water is still a tough challenge, which is, however, essentially important for the understanding of ion adsorption, permeation and other similar processes in aqueous solutions. Here we report the tracing of coordination structure variation for hydrated Cu2+/Br1- ions traversing the interfacial water in Vycor mesopores (ϕ = 7.6 nm by employing both X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies. By controlled desorption/adsorption of water, the filling fraction of the mesopores, thus the water layer thickness, can be adjusted, which in turn effects the variation of coordination structure of the ions therein. It is found that both Cu2+ and Br1- ions prefer staying exclusively in the core water, and in this circumstance no ion pairs have been detected in the solution of concentrations up to 1.0 M. Following capillary decondensation occurring at a filling fraction of ∼35% which corresponds to a water layer of about three monolayers, Br1- ions begin immediately to reconstruct their first coordination shell, characterized by ionic dehydration, shrinkage of ion-water bond length, and formation of ion pairs. In contrast, Cu2+ ions can retain a bulk-like coordination structure till being driven to bond directly to the pore surface when the filling fraction is below 20%. At the final stage of dehydration via thermal vacuum treatment at 110°C, Cu2+ ions can be completely reduced to the Cu1+ state, and recover at room temperature only when the filling fraction is above 14%. These results may be inspirable for the investigation of similar problems concerning hydrated ions in water solution under different confining conditions.

  1. Dual structural transition in small nanoparticles of Cu-Au alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafner, Yuri; Gafner, Svetlana; Redel, Larisa; Zamulin, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Cu-Au alloy nanoparticles are known to be widely used in the catalysis of various chemical reactions as it was experimentally defined that in many cases the partial substitution of copper with gold increases catalytic activity. However, providing the reaction capacity of alloy nanoparticles the surface electronic structure strongly depends on their atomic ordering. Therefore, to theoretically determine catalytic properties, one needs to use a most real structural model complying with Cu-Au nanoparticles under various external influences. So, thermal stability limits were studied for the initial L12 phase in Cu3Au nanoalloy clusters up to 8.0 nm and Cu-Au clusters up to 3.0 nm at various degrees of Au atom concentration, with molecular dynamics method using a modified tight-binding TB-SMA potential. Dual structural transition L12 → FCC and further FCC → Ih is shown to be possible under the thermal factor in Cu3Au and Cu-Au clusters with the diameter up to 3.0 nm. The temperature of the structural transition FCC → Ih is established to decrease for small particles of Cu-Au alloy under the increase of Au atom concentration. For clusters with this structural transition, the melting point is found to be a linear increasing function of concentration, and for clusters without FCC → Ih structural transition, the melting point is a linear decreasing function of Au content. Thus, the article shows that doping Cu nanoclusters with Au atoms allows to control the forming structure as well as the melting point.

  2. Positron emission intensities in the decay of 64Cu, 76Br and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Bisinger, T.; Hilgers, K.; Nayak, D.; Coenen, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively long-lived positron emitters 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.7 h), 76 Br (t 1/2 = 16.2 h) and 124 I (t 1/2 = 4.18 d) are finding increasing applications in positron emission tomography (PET). For precise determination of their positron emission intensities, each radionuclide was prepared via a charged particle induced reaction in a ''no-carrier-added'' form and with high radionuclidic purity. It was then subjected to γ-ray and X-ray spectroscopy as well as to anticoincidence beta and γγ-coincidence counting. The positron emission intensities measured were: 64 Cu (17.8 ± 0.4)%, 76 Br (58.2 ± 1.9)% and 124 I (22.0 ± 0.5)%. The intensity of the weak 1346 keV γ-ray emitted in the decay of 64 Cu was determined as (0.54 ± 0.03)%. Some implications of the precisely determined nuclear data are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Lead-Free MA2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Dewi, Herlina Arianita; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Chen, Shi; Baikie, Tom; Boix, Pablo P; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan

    2016-02-01

    Despite their extremely good performance in solar cells with efficiencies approaching 20% and the emerging application for light-emitting devices, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites suffer from high content of toxic, polluting, and bioaccumulative Pb, which may eventually hamper their commercialization. Here, we present the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) Cu-based hybrid perovskites and study their optoelectronic properties to investigate their potential application in solar cells and light-emitting devices, providing a new environmental-friendly alternative to Pb. The series (CH3NH3)2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) was studied in detail, with the role of Cl found to be essential for stabilization. By exploiting the additional Cu d-d transitions and appropriately tuning the Br/Cl ratio, which affects ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions, the optical absorption in this series of compounds can be extended to the near-infrared for optimal spectral overlap with the solar irradiance. In situ formation of Cu(+) ions was found to be responsible for the green photoluminescence of this material set. Processing conditions for integrating Cu-based perovskites into photovoltaic device architectures, as well as the factors currently limiting photovoltaic performance, are discussed: among them, we identified the combination of low absorption coefficient and heavy mass of the holes as main limitations for the solar cell efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of 2D copper perovskite as light harvesters and lays the foundation for further development of perovskite based on transition metals as alternative lead-free materials. Appropriate molecular design will be necessary to improve the material's properties and solar cell performance filling the gap with the state-of-the-art Pb-based perovskite devices.

  4. Dealloying of Cu{sub x}Au studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput, Parasmani, E-mail: parasmani.rajput@northwestern.edu [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Detlefs, Blanka [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Kolb, Dieter M. [Institute for Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Potdar, Satish [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Zegenhagen, Jörg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The shift in binding energy of Cu and Au lines in CuAu alloys is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements. ► The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines in CuAu alloys is strongly influenced by finite size effects and disorder. ► Cu 3s and/or Au 4f cross-sections are not well described by theory (Scofield). The Cu 3s photoabsorption cross-section seems to be strongly overestimated. ► We find/confirm that (CuAu) dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition. -- Abstract: We studied pristine and leached ultra-thin Cu{sub x}Au (x ≈ 4) films by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Au 4f and Cu 3s core levels show a shift in binding energy which is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements, which is explained by charge transfer involving differently screening s and d valence levels of the elements [W. Eberhardt, S.C. Wu, R. Garrett, D. Sondericker, F. Jona, Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 8285]. The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines is strongly influenced by the finite size and disorder of the films. Angular dependent photoelectron emission allowed to assess the alloy composition as a function of depth larger than 5 nm. The potential controlled dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition with Cu going into solution and the remaining Au accumulating in the surface region. The compositional gradient did not lead to a significant broadening of the metal photoelectron lines suggesting a non-local screening mechanism.

  5. Radiation-induced segregation in Cu-Au alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in a Cu-lat.% Au alloy was investigated using in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Irradiation with 1.8-MeV helium produced nonequilibrium gold atom depletion in the near surface region. The amount of segregation was measured as a function of dose, dose rate, and temperature. Segregation was observed in the temperature range between about 300 and 500 0 C. For a calculated dose rate of 3.9 x 10/sup -5/ dpa/s, the radiation-induced segregation rate peaked near 400 0 C. Theoretical analysis based on the Johnson-Lam model predicted that the amount of segregation would be directly proportional to dose at the early stage of irradiation, would deviate from linearity with a continuously decreasing slope of intermediate doses, and finally approach a constant value after high doses. The analysis also predicted that the segregation rate would vary as the - 1/4th power of the dose rate at constant dose in the low temperature region. These predictions were all verified experimentally. A procedure for extracting relative defect production efficiencies from similar measurements is discussed

  6. Adsorption Behavior of TBPS in the Process of Cu Electrodeposition on an Au Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Huei; Liu, Yung-Fang; Krug, Klaus; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2018-05-15

    The adsorption behavior of an Cu electroplating additive, 3,3 thiobis-(1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt) (TBPS) in a process of Cu deposition onto a single crystalline Au(111) surface is studied by an in-situ Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (SEIRAS). The SEIRAS spectra of the TBPS adlayer on a Cu film is investigated first and compared to that on an Au film. These results are utilized to evaluate the characteristics of TBPS adlayer on the electrode surface during the Cu deposition and stripping processes. The results show that the SEIRAS spectra of TBPS adsorbed on the Cu film resembles closely to that on the Au film, and the most pronounced peaks are symmetric S-O (ss-SO) and asymmetric S-O (as-SO) stretching modes. However, the as-SO band is sharper with a higher intensity on the Cu film. Since the ss-SO and as-SO peaks correspond to the molecular with upright and lie-down orientations, respectively, it implies that the TBPS molecules have higher ratio of lie-down orientation on the Cu film. In the Cu electrodeposition process, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) result shows that the presence of the TBPS in the HClO 4 solution can decrease the inhibition effect of HClO 4 to the Cu deposition. For the spectra measured at various potential during cathodic and anodic sweeping, an obvious change of the spectra occurs at ca. 0.6 V, the initiation of Cu underpotential deposition (Cu-UPD). For potentials higher and lower than 0.6 V, the spectra are similar, respectively, to those measured for the Au and Cu films. This result indicates that the TBPS molecules originally adsorbing on the Au film transfer to the surface of deposited Cu layer. This inference is also confirmed by the variation in wavenumber and peak intensity of ss-SO and as-SO peaks during the potential sweeping.

  7. Formation and Schottky barrier height of Au contacts to CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Gebhard, S.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Colavita, E.; Engelhardt, M.; Hoechst, H.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the Au/CuInSe 2 interface. Au overlayers were deposited in steps on single-crystal p and n-type CuInSe 2 at ambient temperature. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction analysis before and during growth of the Au overlayers indicated that the Au overlayer was amorphous. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Se 3d core lines. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at these interfaces and to directly determine the Au/CuInSe 2 Schottky barrier height

  8. Cu2O-directed in situ growth of Au nanoparticles inside HKUST-1 nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxin; Liu, Ting; Tian, Long; Zhang, Linlin; Yao, Lili; Tan, Taixing; Xu, Jin; Han, Xiaohui; Liu, Dan; Wang, Cheng

    2016-12-07

    Controllable integration of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is attracting considerable attention as the obtained composite materials always show synergistic effects in applications of catalysis, delivery, as well as sensing. Herein, a Cu 2 O-directed in situ growth strategy was developed to integrate Au nanoparticles and HKUST-1. In this strategy, Cu 2 O@HKUST-1 core-shell heterostructures, HKUST-1 nanocages, Cu 2 O@Au@HKUST-1 sandwich core-shell heterostructures and Au@HKUST-1 balls-in-cage heterostructures were successfully synthesized. Cu 2 O@HKUST-1 core-shell heterostructures were synthesized by soaking Cu 2 O nanocrystals in benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid solution. The well-defined Cu 2 O@HKUST-1 core-shell heterostructures were demonstrated to be dominated by the ratio of Cu 2+ cations to btc 3- ligands in solution during the period of HKUST-1 formation. Cu 2 O@Au@HKUST-1 sandwich core-shell or Au@HKUST-1 balls-in-cage heterostructures were obtained by impregnating HAuCl 4 into Cu 2 O@HKUST-1 core-shell heterostructures. Due to the porosity of HKUST-1 and reducibility of Cu 2 O, HAuCl 4 could pass through the HKUST-1 shell and be reduced by the Cu 2 O core in situ forming Au nanoparticles. Finally, CO oxidation reaction at high temperatures was carried out to assess the catalytic functionality of the obtained composite heterostructures. This strategy can circumvent some drawbacks of the existing approaches for integrating MNPs and MOFs, such as nonselective deposition of MNPs at the outer surface of the MOF matrices, extreme treatment conditions and additional surface modifications.

  9. Interacting spin-1/2 tetrahedral system Cu2Te2O5X2 (X = Cl, Br)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic ordering and excitations of Cu2Te2O5Cl2 are analyzed in terms of a tetramerized spin model for the tetrahedral Cu clusters of spin 1/2. The mean-field model is able to account for the main properties of the incommensurable magnetic structure observed by Zaharko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 73......-dimensional fashion. Preliminary model calculations for the Cu2Te2O5Br2 system lead to the same conclusion. Udgivelsesdato: 7. Januar...

  10. AuCu@Pt Nanoalloys for Catalytic Application in Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst ability for nitrophenol (4-NP reduction reaction we look beyond Au-metal nanoparticles and describe a new class of Au nanoalloys with controlled composition for core of AuCu-metals and Pt-metal shell. The reduction of 4-NP was investigated in aqueous media spectroscopically on 7.8 nm Au nanospheres (AuNSs, 8.3 nm AuCuNSs, and 9.1 nm AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs in diameter. The rate constants of the catalyzed reaction at room temperature, activation energies, and entropies of activation of reactions catalyzed by the AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs are found to have different values to those of the pure metal NSs. The results strongly support the proposal that catalysis by nanoparticles is taking place efficiently on the surface of NSs. These core-shell nanocatalysts exhibited stability throughout the reduction reaction and proved that heterogonous type mechanisms are most likely to be dominant in nanoalloy based catalysis if the surface of the NSs is not defected upon shell incorporation.

  11. NMR evidence of charge fluctuations in multiferroic CuBr2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Qi; Zheng, Jia-Cheng; Chen, Tao; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Cui, Yi; Wang, Chao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Feng; Yu, Wei-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    We report combined magnetic susceptibility, dielectric constant, nuclear quadruple resonance (NQR), and zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on single crystals of multiferroics CuBr2. High quality of the sample is demonstrated by the sharp magnetic and magnetic-driven ferroelectric transition at {T}{{N}}={T}{{C}}≈ 74 K. The zero-field 79Br and 81Br NMR are resolved below T N. The spin-lattice relaxation rates reveal charge fluctuations when cooled below 60 K. Evidences of an increase of NMR linewidth, a reduction of dielectric constant, and an increase of magnetic susceptibility are also seen at low temperatures. These data suggest an emergent instability which competes with the spiral magnetic ordering and the ferroelectricity. Candidate mechanisms are discussed based on the quasi-one-dimensional nature of the magnetic system. Project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0300504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374364), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China, and the Research Funds of Renmin University, China (Grant No. 14XNLF08).

  12. Geografia do trabalho no Brasil Géographie du travail au Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2009-06-01

    ídos do país. A área mais contígua de municípios mais desenvolvidos ocorre próxima aos dois principais estados brasileiros, São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, além de importantes bolsões de desenvolvimento próximos à faixa litorânea. Os municípios rurais menos desenvolvidos, por sua vez, predominam nas áreas do semi-áridas do país, na floresta amazônica e na tríplice fronteira com os países do Mercosul.L'article traite de la configuration territoriale du travail au Brésil par l'analyse des structures d'activité et des rémunérations à l'échelle des municipes: la combinaison entre les catégories socio-professionnelles et les classes de salaire informe sur les niveaux de développement socio-économique des municipes et sur les inégalités du territoire brésilien. La profession est plus ou moins favorable en termes de revenus, mais elle a aussi des conséquences en termes de prestige social et de pouvoir politique. Compte tenu de l'extrême inégalité des salaires au Brésil, même dans des catégories professionnelles relativement homogènes, l'article prend le montant de salaire de l'activité principale comme second critère de classification. L'analyse statistique multivariée à partir des informations du recensement démographique de 2000 donne matière à une carte qui donne à voir une hiérarchie socio-économique des municipes brésiliens. La plupart des municipes pauvres  présentent des activités agricoles dominantes et  comptent beaucoup de travailleurs à bas salaire. Les municipes urbains les plus développés  concentrent une bonne partie de la population brésilienne et comptent à la fois beaucoup de personnes dans les strates de revenus élevées et beaucoup d'exclus. Les zones contiguës à ces municipes se trouvent à proximité des Etats de Sao Paulo et de Rio de Janeiro, ainsi que près du littoral. Les municipes ruraux les moins développés se trouvent, eux, dans la zone semi-aride, dans la forêt amazonienne et près de la

  13. Centrality, Rapidity And Transverse-Momentum Dependence of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/Psi Production in D Au, Cu Cu And Au Au Collisions at S(NN)**(1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-11

    We have carried out a wide study of Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects on J/{Psi} = production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parameterizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/{Psi} is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2 {yields} 2 process, namely g + g {yields} J/{psi} + g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its anti-shadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parameterization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of a 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of RCP in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  14. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  15. First-principles study of Cu adsorption on vacancy-defected/Au-doped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; An, Libao; Gong, Liang

    2018-04-01

    To enhance the interaction between Cu and graphene in graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites, the first principles calculation was carried out to study the adsorption of Cu atoms on graphene. P-type doping and n-type doping were formed, respectively, on vacancy-defected and Au-doped graphene based on band structure analysis, and this was verified by subsequent investigation on density of states. A computation on charge transfer confirmed that p-type doping could promote the electron transport between Cu and graphene, while n-type doping would prevent it. In addition, adsorption energy and Mulliken population analysis revealed that both vacancy defects and Au doping could improve the stability of the Cu-graphene system. The research conducted in this paper provides useful guidance for the preparation of Cu/graphene composites.

  16. Synthesis of Au and Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangari, Vijaya K.; Dey, Sanchita; Jeelani, Shaik

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles and gold-copper alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl_4.xH_2O) and co-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl_4.xH_2O) and Copper(II) acetate [(CH_3COO)_2Cu.H_2O] by ethylene glycol through microwave irradiation technique. In this reaction ethylene glycol used as a solvent and also reducing agent. The cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) used as surfactant. Au nanoparticles and Au-Cu nanoparticles on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotube also produced by using same procedure. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of Au and Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes(CNTs). The morphology and size of the particles were examined by the transmission electron microscopy. The EDS analysis on individual particles confirmed that the presence of two metals in a particle in case of alloy nanoparticle. The results presented here show that a variety of well defined metal and metal alloy nanoparticles can be produced by using the microwave polyol process with in a short period of time. (author)

  17. Rapidity densities and their fluctuations in central 200 A GeV 32S interactions with Au and Ag, Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Ameeva, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnicov, I.Y.; Eremenko, L.E.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Shakhova, T.I.; Azimov, S.A.; Chernova, L.P.; Gadzhieva, S.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Bhasin, A.; Kachroo, S.; Kaul, G.L.; Mangotra, L.K.; Rao, N.K.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cai, X.; Liu, L.S.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.; Dressel, B.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Hackel, S.; Kallies, H.; Mueller, C.; Rhee, J.T.; Schultz, W.; Garpman, S.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soderstrom, K.; Stenlund, E.; Judek, B.; Storey, R.S.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhang, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The pseudo-rapidity density distributions of shower particles (n s ) are measured in central inelastic S+Au and S+Ag, Br interactions. The extracted maximum energy densities, while being higher for Au than for Ag,Br interactions, were found to be similar to those obtained for oxygen emulsion interactions. The correlation between rapidity density and shower particle multiplicity shows a small deviation from the Lund Model Fritiof for the highest energy densities in S+Au interactions, whereas the bulk of the data yields satisfactory agreement. (orig.)

  18. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles design and development for the selective determination of Vitamin B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deivasigamani Ranjith; Manoj, Devaraj; Santhanalakshmi, Jayadevan; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seed mediated growth of Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle. • Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle provided good peak current for pyridoxine. • Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC exhibited excellent vitamin B 6 peak separation with other vitamin. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of gold (core)-copper oxide (shell) nanoparticles using a simple seed mediated growth method. Pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles were used as seed materials for copper oxide shell growth, which were shown to be effective for Au-CuO core-shell formation. The novelty of this assembly strategy is that the exploitation of the Cu-ligand, which is thermolyzed on the Au nanoseed surface, results in the formation of CuO. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as prepared Au-CuO was used to fabricate a Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode, which was applied to Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) determination by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The MWCNTs enhance the pyridoxine oxidation rate by increasing the peak current with Au-CuO, hence pyridoxine oxidized lower operating potentials. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards pyridoxine (PY) in the presence of other typical vitamins, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The linear calibration graph was obtained over the PY concentration range of 0.79 μM–18.4 μM and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.15 μM. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed good stability, repeatability and recovery of real sample analysis

  19. AuBr3-catalyzed azidation of per-O-acetylated and per-O-benzoylated sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jayashree; Hotha, Srinivas; Vangala, Madhuri

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report, for the first time, the successful anomeric azidation of per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars by catalytic amounts of oxophilic AuBr 3 in good to excellent yields. The method is applicable to a wide range of easily accessible per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars. While reaction with per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated monosaccharides was complete within 1-3 h at room temperature, the per- O -benzoylated disaccharides needed 2-3 h of heating at 55 °C.

  20. Determination of Au, Sb, As, Br, Na, K, Cd, Mn and Cl in rice from Vietnam by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Gold, antimony, arsenic, bromine, sodium, potassium, cadmium, manganese and chlorine were determined by neutron activation analysis in various rice seed, brand layer and husk samples from Vietnam. The following concentration values were found: Au 0.05-0.28 ppm, Sb 0.05-1.08 ppm, As 0.08-0.94 ppm, Br 0.82-6.72 ppm, Na 16.71-25.71 ppm, K 2582-5163 ppm, Mn 19.26-33.43 ppm, Cd 0.51-2.42 ppm and Cl 205.20-828.61 ppm in rice seed. Statistically significant differences in Au, Sb, Cd contents were detected in rice seed and husk, as well as brand layer and husk. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Impact of ambient environment on the electronic structure of CuPc/Au sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumona; Mukherjee, M.

    2018-02-01

    The performances of organic devices are crucially connected with their stability in the ambient environment. The impact of 24 h. Ambient environment exposure to the electronic structures of about 12 nm thick CuPc thin film on clean Au substrate have been studied employing UV photoemission spectroscopy technique. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to find out the origin of the change of the electronic structures in the sample with the exposure. The XPS study suggests that the oxidation occurs at the CuPc thin film. Due to the adsorption of oxygen in the CuPc film from the ambient air, charge carriers are formed within the CuPc film. Moreover, the XPS results imply that the CuPc film is sufficiently thinner for diffusing oxygen molecules through it and gets physically absorbed on Au substrate during the ambient exposure. Consequently, the hole injection barrier height of pristine CuPc film, grown on Au substrate, is reduced by about 0.50 eV and work-function of the pristine CuPc sample is enhanced by around 0.25 eV in the exposure. The findings will help to understand the mechanism that governs the degradation of performance of CuPc based devices in ambient environment.

  2. Preparation and use of Cu nanoclusters as fluorescent probes to determine Au(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Wang, Bin; Xu, Meijiao; Wang, Lizhen; Zhou, Zihan

    2017-05-15

    Polyethyleneimine-capped Cu nanoclusters (PEI-CuNCs) with a mean diameter of 2.5 nm and that emitted blue light at 485 nm were synthesized. The fluorescence of PEI-CuNCs was strongly quenched when Au(III) ions were present. Because of this specific response, a PEI-CuNC-based fluorescent turn-off sensor was developed. Under optimum conditions, a good linear relationship (R{sup 2}=0.993) was found between the relative fluorescence intensity (F{sub 0}/F) and the Au(III) ion concentration between 0.5 and 15 µM. The detection limit for Au(III) ions was 0.06 µM. The quenching mechanism was assessed by performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra studies. The fluorescence quenching was ascribed to photo-induced electron transfer from the PEI-CuNCs to the AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} occur. Using The method described is a new way of quantifying Au(III) ions.

  3. Microstructures and coherent phase diagram for the pseudobinary system (AuCu)1-xPd x with x ≤ 0.10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, Rhodora H.; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Udoh, Koh-ichi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2005-01-01

    A coherent phase diagram for the pseudobinary system (AuCu) 1-x Pd x with x ≤ 0.10 was constructed based on phase identification and microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the addition of palladium exceeding 1.0 at.% to the equiatomic AuCu eliminated the AuCu II long-period superstructure from the phase equilibria and stabilized the AuCu I superstructure. The AuCu-0.5 at.% Pd and AuCu-1.0 at.% Pd alloys isothermally aged for long time at temperatures ranging from 380 to 420 deg. C exhibited seven distinguishable regions; a single-phase region of disordered solid solution (α); a single-phase region of AuCu I ordered phase; a single-phase region of AuCu II ordered phase; a region of the coexisting AuCu I and AuCu II ordered phases; a region of the coexisting AuCu I ordered and α phases; a region of the coexisting AuCu II ordered and α phases; and a region of the coexisting AuCu I and AuCu II ordered and α phases

  4. Field-controlled magnetic order in the quantum spin-ladder system (Hpip)2CuBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Kiefer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is used to investigate the field-induced, antiferromagnetically ordered state in the two-leg spin-ladder material (Hpip)(2)CuBr4. This "classical" phase, a consequence of weak interladder coupling, is nevertheless highly unconventional: its properties are influenced strongly...

  5. Order-disorder phase transitions in Au-Cu nanocubes: from nano-thermodynamics to synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cruz, R; Bazán-Diaz, L; Velázquez-Salazar, J J; Samaniego-Benitez, J E; Ascencio-Aguirre, F M; Herrera-Becerra, R; José-Yacamán, M; Guisbiers, G

    2017-07-13

    Catalysts have been widely used in industries and can be optimized by tuning the composition and chemical ordering of the elements involved in the nano-alloy. Among bi-metallic alloys, the Au-Cu system is of particular interest because it exhibits ordered phases at low temperatures. Nevertheless, the temperature at which these ordered structures are formed is totally unknown at the nanoscale. Consequently, to speed up the development of these catalysts, this paper theoretically predicts the structural phase transitions between ordered and disordered phases for the Au-Cu system by using nano-thermodynamics. Following the predictions, the suggested annealing temperatures have been carefully chosen and consequently, Au-Cu ordered nanocubes have been successfully synthesized through a solventless protocol. The results are fully supported by electron microscopy observations.

  6. Mixed Cu(i)/Au(i) coordination polymers as reversible turn-on vapoluminescent sensors for volatile thioethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varju, Bryton R; Ovens, Jeffrey S; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2017-06-13

    Vapour-phase thioethers play an important role in a wide number of fields, including plant biology, chemical weapon disposal, and brewing but few sensor materials are known. The emissive coordination polymer Cu 1/2 Au 1/2 CN does not react with vapour phase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) or diethyl sulphide (DES) despite the independent synthesis of emissive [Cu 1/2 Au 1/2 CN] 2 (DMS) and [Cu 1/2 Au 1/2 CN] 2 (DES) from their constituent components in solution. However, the doped Cu 2/3 Au 1/3 CN rapidly reacts in the solid state with both of these vapour phase thioethers reversibly, with a change in emission from 380/560 nm to 460 nm (DMS) or 420 nm (DES), illustrating that doping the inactive parent Cu 1/2 Au 1/2 CN with Cu(i) generates an active sensor material. This response can be thermally cycled with little to no loss in functionality. [Cu 1/2 Au 1/2 CN] 2 (DMS), [Cu 2/3 Au 1/3 CN] 2 (DMS), and [Cu 2/3 Au 1/3 CN] 2 (DES) were structurally characterized as 3-D network structures supported by aurophilic interactions.

  7. Cross-sections of 197Au(n,α)198Au and 63Cu(n,α)64Cu induced by 252Cf neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Ranjita; Sengupta, D.; Roy, Malobika; Naik, Mamta; Bhoraskar, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical work, employing nuclear techniques, is normally carried out through (n,α) reaction because of the availability of neutrons either from reactors or laboratory sources such as Sb-Be, Am-Be, Ra-Be, Po-Be, 252 Cf, etc. The laboratory neutron sources are though portable and adaptable to a particular experimental arrangement, suffer from the disadvantage of slow neutron yield (except 252 Cf). In this set up since the neutrons available are monoenergetic, it was thought appropriate to initiate a program to measure cross-sections of a few nuclear reactions which have practical applications. Earlier studies on cross-section measurement of the reaction 197 Au(n,α) 198 Au and 63 Cu(n,α) 64 Cu has been carried out using different sources, monitors and techniques

  8. Molecular oxygen adsorption and dissociation on Au12M clusters with M = Cu, Ag or Ir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, Laura M.; Pérez, Luis A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present a density functional theory study of the structural and electronic properties of isolated neutral clusters of the type Au12M, with M = Cu, Ag, or Ir. On the other hand, there is experimental evidence that gold-silver, gold-copper and gold-iridium nanoparticles have an enhanced catalytic activity for the CO oxidation reaction. In order to address these phenomena, we also performed density functional calculations of the adsorption and dissociation of O2 on these nanoparticles. Moreover, to understand the effects of Cu, Ag, and Ir impurity atoms on the dissociation of O2, we also analyze this reaction in the corresponding pure gold cluster. The results indicate that the substitution of one gold atom in a Au13 cluster by Ag, Cu or Ir diminishes the activation energy barrier for the O2 dissociation by nearly 1 eV. This energy barrier is similar for Au12Ag and Au12Cu, whereas for Au12Ir is even lower. These results suggest that the addition of other transition metal atoms to gold nanoclusters can enhance their catalytic activity towards the CO oxidation reaction, independently of the effect that the substrate could have on supported nanoclusters.

  9. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new Cu3Au-type ternary phase in the Au-In-Pd system: distribution of atoms over crystallographic positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptashkina, Evgeniya A; Kabanova, Elizaveta G; Tursina, Anna I; Yatsenko, Alexandr V; Kuznetsov, Victor N

    2018-03-01

    A new Cu 3 Au-type ternary phase (τ phase) is found in the AuPd-rich part of the Au-In-Pd system. It has a broad homogeneity range based on extensive (Pd,Au) and (In,Au) replacement, with the composition varying between Au 17.7 In 25.3 Pd 57.0 and Au 50.8 In 16.2 Pd 33.0 . The occupancies of the crystallographic positions were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three samples of different composition. The sites with m-3m symmetry are occupied by atoms with a smaller scattering power than the atoms located on 4/mmm sites. Two extreme structure models were refined. Within the first, the occupation type changes from (Au,In,Pd) 3 (Pd,In) to (Au,Pd) 3 (In,Pd,Au) with an increase in the Au gross content. For the second model, the occupation type (Au,In,Pd) 3 (Pd,Au) remains essentially unchanged for all Au concentrations. Although the diffraction data do not allow the choice of one of these models, the latter model, where Au substitutes In on 4/mmm sites, seems to be preferable, since it agrees with the fact that the homogeneity range of the τ phase is inclined to the Au corner and provides the same occupation type for all the studied samples of different compositions.

  10. Temperature dependence of residual electrical resistivity of Cu-Au in pseudopotential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.; Ahmed, I.; Shaukat, A.

    1986-08-01

    The problem of temperature dependence of residual electrical resistivity of Cu-Au system is re-examined in the light of static distortion and thermal vibration of the lattice along with the short-range-order of atoms above critical temperature. The extended version of Ziman's formula for resistivity obtained yields a unified version for the calculation of resistivity in pseudopotential approximation. The temperature dependence of the quantity Δρ/ρ in this framework for Cu-Au system is found to be in better agreement with the experimental data as compared to previous calculation. (author)

  11. Topological description of mechanical behavior of Cu, Ag and Au: A first-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saghayezhian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Mechanical properties and stress-strain curves of Cu, Ag and Au single crystals are calculated using ab initio methods. Elastic and Plastic regions are scrutinized. Yield stress and slope of these curves can shed light on brittlenesss and ductility of these metals that prove Cu, despite its high ultimate tensile strength, is less ductile than Au and Ag. Analysis of topology of charge density along with stress-strain curves shows that the elastic-plastic transition accompanies topological transition and for these metals, both transitions occur in the same strain. Some charactristics of critical point, especially bond points, are inspected.

  12. Diffusion-induced grain boundary migration during ion beam mixing of Au/Cu bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.E.; Baldo, P.M.; Rehn, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of 1.5 MeV Kr irradiation on diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM) in Au/Cu bilayers in the temperature range of 300≤T≤050K. The experimental results were consistent with DIGM occurring in bilayers both during irradiation and during annealing treatments. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed a nearly uniform distribution of Cu present through the entire thickness of appropriately prepared polycrystalline Au films irradiated or annealed at temperatures ≥400K. No parallel effect was seen in similarly treated single-crystal films. In each polycrystalline sample studied, irradiation resulted in greater amounts of Cu present uniformly in the Au compared to annealing-only. The magnitudes of measured Cu compositions were substantially greater than that expected solely from grain boundary diffusion. A simple analysis of the process indicated that ion irradiation affects DIGM by increasing the composition of Cu present in alloyed zones and/or by increasing the grain boundary velocity in the Au

  13. Age-hardening and related phase transformation in an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung; Lee, Doung-Hun; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2006-01-01

    The age-hardening behaviour, phase transformation and related microstructural changes of an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy were examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The specimen alloy showed apparent age-hardenability at the aging temperatures of 350 deg. C and 400 deg. C. By aging the solution-treated specimen at 400 deg. C, two phases of the Ag-rich α 1 phase and the Pd-containing Cu-rich α 2 phase were transformed into four phases of the Ag-rich α 1 ' phase, the Cu-rich α 2 ' phase, the CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase. Microstructure of the solution-treated specimen consisted of the Ag-rich α 1 matrix, Cu-rich α 2 particle-like structures of various sizes and the lamellar structure of the α 1 and α 2 phases. When the peak hardness was obtained, the very fine lamellar structure consisting of the Ag-rich α 1 ' and Cu-rich α 2 ' phases was newly formed in the matrix. By further aging, the very fine lamellar structure grew and coarsened apparently, and the matrix was covered with the coarsened lamellar structure. The hardness increase was considered to be caused mainly by the diffusion and precipitation of Cu from the Ag-rich α 1 matrix, and the hardness decrease in the latter stage of age-hardening process was caused by the coarsening of the very fine lamellar structure. The CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase did not contribute to the hardness increase

  14. Age-hardening and related phase transformation in an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doung-Hun [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Kyung [Department of Dental Technology, Daegu Health College, San 7 Taejeon-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-722 (Korea, Republic of); Takada, Yukyo [Division of Dental Biomaterials, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Okuno, Osamu [Division of Dental Biomaterials, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kwon, Yong Hoon [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hilkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-01-05

    The age-hardening behaviour, phase transformation and related microstructural changes of an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy were examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The specimen alloy showed apparent age-hardenability at the aging temperatures of 350 deg. C and 400 deg. C. By aging the solution-treated specimen at 400 deg. C, two phases of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase and the Pd-containing Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2} phase were transformed into four phases of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1}{sup '} phase, the Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2}{sup '} phase, the CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase. Microstructure of the solution-treated specimen consisted of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} matrix, Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2} particle-like structures of various sizes and the lamellar structure of the {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases. When the peak hardness was obtained, the very fine lamellar structure consisting of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1}{sup '} and Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2}{sup '} phases was newly formed in the matrix. By further aging, the very fine lamellar structure grew and coarsened apparently, and the matrix was covered with the coarsened lamellar structure. The hardness increase was considered to be caused mainly by the diffusion and precipitation of Cu from the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} matrix, and the hardness decrease in the latter stage of age-hardening process was caused by the coarsening of the very fine lamellar structure. The CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase did not contribute to the hardness increase.

  15. Les politiques d’appui à l’agriculture familiale au Brésil : quelques éléments de comparaison avec le Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bonnal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Au Brésil comme au Maroc, le secteur agricole est marqué par des différences extrêmes en termes de taille d’exploitation, ainsi que de niveaux d’équipement, de capitalisation et de techniques. L’article présente la politique brésilienne d’appui à l’agriculture familiale, et quelques éléments de comparaison avec les choix faits au Maroc. Les politiques agricoles brésiliennes proposent depuis une vingtaine d’années un appui spécifique aux exploitations familiales, avec notamment la constitution d’un ministère spécifique. De nombreux dispositifs d’appui à l’agriculture familiale ont été mis en place, dont notamment des crédits à taux préférentiel et des programmes d’achat de denrées agricoles pour les institutions publiques (écoles, hôpitaux, etc.. Dans les zones rurales particulièrement fragiles, des dispositifs permettent une coordination entre l’ensemble des politiques publiques concernant ces zones. Enfin, la conception et la mise en oeuvre de ces politiques publiques se font avec une forte implication des syndicats agricoles. Les politiques publiques brésiliennes et marocaines reconnaissent la dualité du monde agricole, mais cette dualité est définie par zone au Maroc, tandis qu’elle est fondée sur des caractéristiques explicites des exploitations au Brésil. Dans les deux pays, le coeur des politiques publiques d’appui aux exploitations familiales porte sur l’aide à l’investissement. Au-delà de ce coeur commun, les politiques brésiliennes ont plus spécifiquement développé des approches au niveau des territoires locaux et associent plus fortement qu’au Maroc les organisations professionnelles agricoles représentant l’agriculture familiale dans la conception de l’action publique. La comparaison des politiques agricoles au Maroc et au Brésil sur quelques éléments permet de souligner la forte étendue des choix qu’il est possible de considérer, pour définir des

  16. Induced Rashba splitting of electronic states in monolayers of Au, Cu on a W(110) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikin, A M; Rybkina, A A; Rybkin, A G; Marchenko, D; Korshunov, A S; Kudasov, Yu B; Frolova, N V; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Varykhalov, A; Rader, O

    2013-01-01

    The paper sums up a theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of the spin–orbit coupling in W(110) on the spin structure of electronic states in deposited Au and Cu monolayers. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals that in the case of monolayers of Au and Cu spin–orbit split bands are formed in a surface-projected gap of W(110). Spin resolution shows that these states are spin polarized and that, therefore, the spin–orbit splitting is of Rashba type. The states evolve from hybridization of W 5d, 6p-derived states with the s, p states of the deposited metal. Interaction with Au and Cu shifts the original W 5d-derived states from the edges toward the center of the surface-projected gap. The size of the spin–orbit splitting of the formed states does not correlate with the atomic number of the deposited metal and is even higher for Cu than for Au. These states can be described as W-derived surface resonances modified by hybridization with the p, d states of the adsorbed metal. Our electronic structure calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory correlate well with the experiment and demonstrate the crucial role of the W top layer for the spin–orbit splitting. It is shown that the contributions of the spin–orbit interaction from W and Au act in opposite directions which leads to a decrease of the resulting spin–orbit splitting in the Au monolayer on W(110). For the Cu monolayer with lower spin–orbit interaction the resulting spin splitting is higher and mainly determined by the W. (paper)

  17. On forge des partenariats au Brésil | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... En Amérique latine, bien des choses peuvent commencer par des contacts personnels, dit Ulisses Confalonieri, professeur à l'école nationale de santé publique à la FIOCRUZ. Les membres du consortium brésilien s'intéressent tous à la médecine de la conservation, ajoute-t-il. En gros, puisque les trois ...

  18. Band Structure and Optical Properties of Ordered AuCu3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Lengkeek, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    The optical spectra of ordered AuCu3 have been measured at low temperatures by a direct ellipsometric technique. We find several structural elements above the absorption edge as well as in the infrared. The measured spectra are interpreted in terms of the interband absorption calculated from an ab...

  19. Diffusion limited Cu and Au nanocrystal formation in thin film SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, B.; Kluth, P.; Glover, C.J.; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental Cu and Au nanocrystals (NCs) were produced by high-energy ion-implantations into amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) and subsequent thermal annealing. By a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) we confirm both NC species to have the bulk face-centered cubic phase and estimate their average diameter. We concentrate on the investigation of the concentration and size-dependent coordination number (China) of these matrix embedded NCs utilising extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The CN is found to be suppressed compared to that of a bulk standard. The CN in Au NCs is found to be lower than that of Cu NCs in agreement with smaller average Au NC sizes. We explain this difference by the difference in diffusivity for the two atomic species in SiO 2

  20. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered...

  1. Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    A 5 nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup −8}]exp[−(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT] cm{sup 2}/s.

  2. Josephson edge junctions on YBa2Cu3O7 thin films prepared with Br-ethanol etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faley, M.I.; Poppe, U.; Daehne, U.; Goncharov, Yu.G.; Klein, N.; Urban, K.; Soltner, H.

    1993-01-01

    To produce damage-free edges is one of the main problems in the preparation of the Josephson edge-type junctions and interconnects in multilayer structures including high temperature superconductors. The commonly used ion beam etching has the disadvantages of the risk of contamination by redeposited material and structural damage to the surface of the edge. Vasquez et al and Gurvitch et al introduced a nonaqueous Br-ethanol etching for the preparation of clean surfaces of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals and thin films. We have developed a procedure of deep-UV-photolithography combined with nonaqueous Br-ethanol etching for the preparation of the Josephson edge-type junctions. Here we present the improvement of this method and report further results on the study of the electron transport properties of Josephson junctions with the edges of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films produced by this technique. (orig.)

  3. Covellite CuS as a matrix for "invisible" gold: X-ray spectroscopic study of the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagirov, Boris R.; Trigub, Alexander L.; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Shiryaev, Andrey A.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Nickolsky, Maximilian S.; Abramova, Vera D.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2016-10-01

    Geological processes leading to formation of sulfide ores often result in precipitation of gold-bearing sulfides which can contain high concentrations of this metal in ;invisible; (or ;refractory;) state. Covellite (CuS) is ubiquitous mineral in many types of the ore deposits, and numerous studies of the natural ores show that covellite can contain high concentrations of Au. At the same time, Au-bearing covellite withstands cooling in contrast to other minerals of the Cu-Fe-S system (chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite), where Au exsolves at low temperatures. This makes covellite a convenient model system for investigation of the chemical state (local environment and valence) of the ;invisible; Au in copper-sulfide ores (copper-porphyry, epithermal, volcanogenic massive sulfide, SEDEX deposits). Therefore, it is necessary to determine the location of Au in the covellite matrix as it will have important implications for the methods employed by mineral processing industry to extract Au from sulfide ores. Here we investigate the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic covellite containing up to 0.3 wt.% of Au in the ;invisible; state. The covellite crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal and salt flux methods. Formation of the chemically bound Au is indicated by strong dependence of the concentration of Au in covellite on the sulfur fugacity in the experimental system (d(log C(Au))/d(log f(S2)) ∼ 0.65). The Au concentration of covellite grows with increasing temperature from 400 to 450 °C, whereas further temperature increase to 500 °C has only minor effect. The synthesized minerals were studied using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode. Ab initio simulations of Cu K edge XANES spectra show that the Cu oxidation state in two structural positions in covellite (tetrahedral and triangular coordination with S atoms) is identical: the total loss of electronic charge for the 3d shell is ∼0

  4. Interdiffusion and grain-boundary migration in Au-Cu bilayers during ion-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.E.; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.M.

    1991-11-01

    Ion irradiation and annealing experiments have been conducted on Au/Cu bilayer films to evaluate the effect of irradiation on diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The Au films were prepared with a large-grained microstructure with grain boundaries perpendicular to the film surface and extending through the film thickness. Irradiations were conducted with 1.5 MeV Kr at 228 degree C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of the samples revealed that interdiffusion was substantially enhanced in the irradiated area relative to the unirradiated area. Both irradiated and annealed-only areas were characterized by a nearly uniform composition of 14 at.% and 7 at.% Cu respectively through the entire thickness of the underlying Au film. Small probe X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy showed significant lateral compositional homogeneities in both irradiated and annealed areas. These two results are consistent with previous observations of DIGM in the Au/Cu system, suggesting that this previously unexamined mechanism contributes to ion beam mixing

  5. Bifunctional Interface of Au and Cu for Improved CO2 Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung

    2016-09-07

    Gold is known currently as the most active single-element electrocatalyst for CO2 electroreduction reaction to CO. In this work, we combine Au with a second metal element, Cu, to reduce the amount of precious metal content by increasing the surface-to-mass ratio and to achieve comparable activity to Au-based catalysts. In particular, we demonstrate that the introduction of a Au-Cu bifunctional "interface" is more beneficial than a simple and conventional homogeneous alloying of Au and Cu in stabilizing the key intermediate species, *COOH. The main advantages of the proposed metal-metal bifunctional interfacial catalyst over the bimetallic alloys include that (1) utilization of active materials is improved, and (2) intrinsic properties of metals are less affected in bifunctional catalysts than in alloys, which can then facilitate a rational bifunctional design. These results demonstrate for the first time the importance of metal-metal interfaces and morphology, rather than the simple mixing of the two metals homogeneously, for enhanced catalytic synergies.

  6. Status report on developing I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radioisotopes at KIRAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. K.; Han, S. J.; Oh, T. H.; Kim, K. K.; Park, H.; Lee, J. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The decay characteristics of their radioisotopes such as I-124, Pd-103, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64 radionuclides produced by cyclotron have considered useful agents for diagnostic imaging or therapy. In order to increase the availability of the radionuclides, the investigation for the high capacity target design and simple procedures yielding high activities is being carried. Therefore, KIRAMS will lead researchers in nuclear medicine to access the feasibility of reliable production for enough quantities of several research radioisotopes using (p,xn) reactions. The quality and yield of products are evaluated theoretically from the excitation functions as a function of proton energies, target thickness, bombarding time, and growth time. Radionuclidic impurities are determined by gamma-spectrometer with high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and the yields are read by ion chamber. Multi-millicuries of radioisotope I-124 (23% positron emission, half-life 4.2 days) is produced by 125-TeO2(p,2n)124-I reaction at the incident proton energy of 22 MeV. The production of carrier-free Pd-103 by the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction with the 18 MeV proton beam. The electroplating method of Rh to Cu plate and recovery of rhodium from irradiated target fragments will be discussed. The thermal stability of Rh films on Cu plate will be tested for the mass production by increasing beam current up to 220uA with high-current cyclotron. For Cu-64, Tc-94m and Br-76 radionuclides, the target preparation and separating techniques are under developing. Our research project emphasis is in the development of routine methods for the production of Pd-103 radionuclide for brachytherapy seed and PET radionuclides, which include I-124, Tc-94m, Br-76 and Cu-64. In addition to the production of these radionuclides, we are developing novel radiopharmaceuticals utilizing these isotopes for both imaging and therapy.

  7. Atomistic modelling of friction of Cu and Au nanoparticles adsorbed on graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khomenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present classical molecular dynamics calculations of the behavior of copper and gold nanoparticles on a graphene sheet, sheared with a constant applied force Fa. The force Fs acting on the particle from the substrate depends on the material of the nanoparticles (Au or Cu, and exhibits a sawtooth dependency on time, which we attribute to local commensurability between the metal nanoparticle surface atomic positions with the graphene lattice. The time-averaged value of Fs (the friction force acting on Au nanoparticles increases linearly with the contact area, having slopes close to the experimentally observable ones. A qualitative model is proposed to explain the observed results.

  8. Are Corporate Universities (CU possible in emerging countries? Arcor University (AU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Viltard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores CU implementation and whether it is applicable and effective in emerging countries like Argentina (where there are no studies on the subject. Through an in-depth review of Arcor University (AU, Arcor’s Group CU, located in Argentina, the feasibility of the CU is shown, under certain conditions. This analysis is complemented with specialists´ interviews to deepen our insights and investigation’s results. Our conclusion is that the CU complements Corporate Training’s traditional offering, as its programs are directed towards practical contents and performance/organizational improvement. In this way, it is possible to enhance the actual corporate educational paradigm and talent employability. The research design is not experimental and is transversal as it relates to a specific moment in time.

  9. Copper isotopic zonation in the Northparkes porphyry Cu-Au deposit, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Jackson, Simon E.; Pearson, Norman J.; Graham, Stuart

    2010-07-01

    Significant, systematic Cu isotopic variations have been found in the Northparkes porphyry Cu-Au deposit, NSW, Australia, which is an orthomagmatic porphyry Cu deposit. Copper isotope ratios have been measured in sulfide minerals (chalcopyrite and bornite) by both solution and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The results from both methods show a variation in δ 65Cu of hypogene sulfide minerals of greater than 1‰ (relative to NIST976). Significantly, the results from four drill holes through two separate ore bodies show strikingly similar patterns of Cu isotope variation. The patterns are characterized by a sharp down-hole decrease from up to 0.8‰ (0.29 ± 0.56‰, 1 σ, n = 20) in the low-grade peripheral alteration zones (phyllic-propylitic alteration zone) to a low of ˜-0.4‰ (-0.25 ± 0.36‰, 1 σ, n = 30) at the margins of the most mineralized zones (Cu grade >1 wt%). In the high-grade cores of the systems, the compositions are more consistent at around 0.2‰ (0.19 ± 0.14‰, 1 σ, n = 40). The Cu isotopic zonation may be explained by isotope fractionation of Cu between vapor, solution and sulfides at high temperature, during boiling and sulfide precipitation processes. Sulfur isotopes also show an isotopically light shell at the margins of the high-grade ore zones, but these are displaced from the low δ 65Cu shells, such that there is no correlation between the Cu and S isotope signatures. Fe isotope data do not show any discernable variation along the drill core. This work demonstrates that Cu isotopes show a large response to high-temperature porphyry mineralizing processes, and that they may act as a vector to buried mineralization.

  10. Bonding in d9 complexes derived from EPR: Application to CuCl2-4, CuBr2-4, and CdCl2:Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    1985-12-01

    In this work are reported the theoretical expressions for the [g], hyperfine, and superhyperfine (shf) tensors of a d9 square-planar complex within a molecular orbital (MO) scheme. These expressions include contributions arising from crystal field and charge transfer excitations calculated up to third and second order perturbations, respectively. This makes the present framework more general than those previously used. Through those expressions we have derived from the experimental EPR and optical data the MO coefficients corresponding to the valence b1g(x2-y2), b2g(xy), and eg(xz,yz) levels and also the core polarization contribution K to the hyperfine tensor for the systems CuCl2-4, CuBr2-4, and CdCl2:Cu2+. The 3d charge obtained for CuCl2-4 is equal to 0.61, 0.83, and 0.85 for the antibonding 3b1g, 2b2g, and 2eg levels, respectively. These figures are much closer to the Xα results by Bencini and Gatteschi [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 5535 (1983)] than to those by Desjardins et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 4590 (1983)]. The σ and π covalency for CuBr2-4 are both higher than for CuCl2-4 in accord to the lower electronegativity for bromine. However, only for the antibonding 3b1g level of CuBr2-4 have we obtained an electronic charge lying mainly on ligands. The covalency of CdCl2:Cu2+ is smaller than that found for CuCl2-4, a fact associated to a higher metal-ligand distance for the former. Evidence of this statement are also given from the analysis of crystal-field spectra and isotropic shf constant. The values of K derived for CuCl2-4 (128.1×10-4 cm-1), CuBr2-4 (103.6×10-4 cm-1), and CdCl2:Cu2+ (123.9×10-4 cm-1) point out the dependence of K on the equatorial covalency but also on the existence of axial ligands. The [g] tensor of CuBr2-4 is dominated by the charge transfer contribution while the crystal field one is negative. Finally an analysis of the importance of each one of the involved contributions to the spin-Hamiltonian parameters is reported for the

  11. Hardening mechanism of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au dental casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Gi-Chul; Son, Kuk-Hyeon; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2005-01-01

    Age-hardening behaviour and the related microstructural changes were studied to elucidate the hardening mechanism of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au dental casting alloy by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). By considering hardness test and XRD results together, it was revealed that the hardness increased during the early stage of phase transformation of α into α 1 . In the SEM photographs, two phases of matrix and particle-like structures were observed, and the precipitation of element from the matrix progressed during isothermal aging. By SEM observations and EPMA analysis, it could be supposed that the increase in hardness was caused by the diffusion and aggregation of Cu atoms from the Ag-rich α matrix containing Au and Cu in the early stage of age-hardening process, and that the decrease in hardness was caused by the progress of coarsening of Cu-rich lamellar precipitates in the later stage of the age-hardening process. The changes in the Ag-rich matrix caused both the increase and decrease in hardness, and the CuPd phase containing small amounts of Zn and Sn did not contribute to the hardness changes

  12. Cu underpotential deposition on Au controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato, Mirko; Cavalleri, Ornella; Mattera, Lorenzo; Canepa, Maurizio [Department of Physics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); CNISM, Genova (Italy); Gussoni, Antonio [IMEM/CNR, Genova (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Panizza, Marco [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    We have studied Cu electrodeposition on well defined Au films using real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). SE allows to discriminate the under-potential (UP) and over-potential (OP) regimes. In the UP regime, tiny yet reproducible variations of {psi} and {delta} parameters indicate the formation of two phases with slightly different optical behavior. The phase at the largest coverage is assigned to a Cu monolayer. The SE response in the OP regime shows a marked dependence on the potential scan rate. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2012-10-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations are based on the Müller-Schottky equation, which is modified to include different atomic neighborhoods and their characteristic bonds. The local environment is considered up to the fifth next nearest neighbors. To compare the experimental with simulated APT data, the AtomVicinity algorithm, which provides statistical information about the positions of the neighboring atoms, is applied. The quality of this information is influenced by the field evaporation behavior of the different species, which is connected to the bonding energies. © Microscopy Society of America 2012.

  14. A DFT-based genetic algorithm search for AuCu nanoalloy electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Steen; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2015-01-01

    Using a DFT-based genetic algorithm (GA) approach, we have determined the most stable structure and stoichiometry of a 309-atom icosahedral AuCu nanoalloy, for potential use as an electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction. The identified core–shell nano-particle consists of a copper core interspersed....... This shows that the mixed Cu135@Au174 core–shell nanoalloy has a similar adsorption energy, for the most favorable site, as a pure gold nano-particle. Cu, however, has the effect of stabilizing the icosahedral structure because Au particles are easily distorted when adding adsorbates....... that it is possible to use the LCAO mode to obtain a realistic estimate of the molecular chemisorption energy for systems where the computation in normal grid mode is not computationally feasible. These corrections are employed when calculating adsorption energies on the Cu, Au and most stable mixed particles...

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qibin; Peng, Xianghe; Peng, Tiefeng; Tang, Qizhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qibin, E-mail: qibinli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Xianghe [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Tiefeng, E-mail: pengtiefeng@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tang, Qizhong [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  17. Reconstructed Jet Results in p + p, d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at 200 GeV from PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelitsa, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Jet reconstruction in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC is becoming a popular tool to explore medium effects including the energy loss and modified fragmentation of hard-scattered partons. In p + A and d + A collisions, reconstructed jets are important for evaluating cold nuclear matter effects such as the impact parameter dependence of nuclear parton distribution functions and initial state energy loss. We present current PHENIX results from p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at 200 GeV using the Gaussian filter and anti-k T algorithms. The systematic study of direct jet reconstruction across a variety of collisions systems at PHENIX will help to tell a coherent story of jet physics at RHIC

  18. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Mašek, L.; Mikeš, P.; Růžička, Pavel; Tomášek, Lukáš; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2011), "024909-1"-"024909-10" ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : PHENIX experiment * d+AU collisions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2011

  19. Collinear Order in Frustrated Quantum Antiferromagnet on Square Lattice (CuBr)LaNb2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Noriaki; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kitano, Taro; Yasuda, Jun; Baba, Yoichi; Nishi, Masakazu; Hirota, Kazuma; Narumi, Yasuo; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kindo, Koichi; Saito, Takashi; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2006-11-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, high-field magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements have been performed on a two-dimensional S = 1/2 square-lattice system (CuBr)LaNb2O7, prepared by a topotactic ion-exchange reaction of a nonmagnetic double-layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7. (CuBr)LaNb2O7 exhibits a second-order magnetic transition at 32 K, in marked contrast to a spin-singlet nature for its Cl-based counterpart (CuCl)LaNb2O7, despite nearly identical structural parameters. The magnetic structure is a novel collinear antiferromagnetic (CAF) ordering characterized by a modulation vector q = (π, 0, π) with a reduced moment of 0.6μB. Mixed ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor (J1) and antiferromagnetic second-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions are of comparable strength (J1/kB = -35.6 K and J2/kB = 41.3 K), placing the system in a more frustrated region of the CAF phase than ever reported.

  20. Collinear order in frustrated quantum antiferromagnet on square lattice (CuBr)LaNb2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Noriaki; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kitano, Taro

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, high-field magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements have been performed on a two-dimensional s=1/2 square-lattice system (CuBr)LaNb 2 O 7 , prepared by a topotactic ion-exchange reaction of a nonmagnetic double-layered perovskite RbLaNb 2 O 7 . (CuBr)LaNb 2 O 7 exhibits a second-order magnetic transition at 32K, in marked contrast to a spin-singlet nature for its Cl-based counterpart (CuCl)LaNb 2 O 7 , despite nearly identical structural parameters. The magnetic structure is a novel collinear antiferromagnetic (CAF) ordering characterized by a modulation vector q=(π, 0, π) with a reduced moment of 0.6μ B . Mixed ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor (J 1 ) and antiferromagnetic second-nearest-neighbor (J 2 ) interactions are of comparable strength (J 1 /k B =-35.6K and J 2 /k B =41.3K), placing the system in a more frustrated region of the CAF phase than ever reported. (author)

  1. SERS study of surface plasmon resonance induced carrier movement in Au@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Deng, Xin-Yu; Xue, Xiangxin; Wang, Li; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jing-Dong; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Yaxin; Jung, Young Mee

    2018-01-01

    A plasmon induced carrier movement enhanced mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated using a charge-transfer (CT) enhancement mechanism. Here, we designed a strategy to study SERS in Au@Cu2O nanoshell nanoparticles with different shell thicknesses. Among the plasmonically coupled nanostructures, Au spheres with Cu2O shells have been of special interest due to their ultrastrong electromagnetic fields and controllable carrier transfer properties, which are useful for SERS. Au@Cu2O nanoshell nanoparticles (NPs) with shell thicknesses of 48-56 nm are synthesized that exhibit high SERS activity. This high activity originates from plasmonic-induced carrier transfer from Au@Cu2O to 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). The CT transition from the valence band (VB) of Cu2O to the second excited π-π* transition of MBA, and is of b2 electronic symmetry, which was enhanced significantly. The Herzberg-Teller selection rules were employed to predict the observed enhanced b2 symmetry modes. The system constructed in this study combines the long-range electromagnetic effect of Au NPs, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Au@Cu2O nanoshell, and the CT contribution to assist in understanding the SERS mechanism based on LSPR-induced carrier movement in metal/semiconductor nanocomposites.

  2. Precipitation hardening of a Cu-free Au-Ag-Pd-In dental alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry and Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kuk-Hyeon [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry and Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Chin-Ho [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry and Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong Hoon [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry and Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry and Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hilkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2005-10-27

    The hardening mechanism and related microstructural changes of the Cu-free dental casting alloy composed of Au-Ag-Pd-In was examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The Au-Ag-Pd-In alloy showed apparent age-hardenability. In the SEM photograph, three phases were observed in the solution-treated specimen, that is, the Au-Ag based phase with small amounts of In and Pd as matrix, the InPd phase as particle-like structures, and the Pd-rich phase as lamellar precipitates. By aging the specimen, the very fine Pd-rich inter-granular precipitates grew toward the grain interior as lamellar structure, and finally the coarsened Pd-rich precipitates covered a large part of the Au-Ag based matrix. The hardness increase in the early stage of the age-hardening process was assumed to be caused by the diffusion and aggregation of Pd atoms from the Au-Ag based matrix. The hardness decrease in the later stage of age-hardening process was caused by coarsening of the lamellar precipitates composed of the Pd-rich phase.

  3. Precipitation hardening of a Cu-free Au-Ag-Pd-In dental alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung; Son, Kuk-Hyeon; Yu, Chin-Ho; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2005-01-01

    The hardening mechanism and related microstructural changes of the Cu-free dental casting alloy composed of Au-Ag-Pd-In was examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The Au-Ag-Pd-In alloy showed apparent age-hardenability. In the SEM photograph, three phases were observed in the solution-treated specimen, that is, the Au-Ag based phase with small amounts of In and Pd as matrix, the InPd phase as particle-like structures, and the Pd-rich phase as lamellar precipitates. By aging the specimen, the very fine Pd-rich inter-granular precipitates grew toward the grain interior as lamellar structure, and finally the coarsened Pd-rich precipitates covered a large part of the Au-Ag based matrix. The hardness increase in the early stage of the age-hardening process was assumed to be caused by the diffusion and aggregation of Pd atoms from the Au-Ag based matrix. The hardness decrease in the later stage of age-hardening process was caused by coarsening of the lamellar precipitates composed of the Pd-rich phase

  4. Magma Fertility is the First-Order Factor for the Formation of Porphyry Cu±Au Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Campbell, I. H.; Malaviarachchi, S. P. K.; Cocker, H.; Nakamura, E.; Kay, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magma fertility, the metal abundance in magma, has been considered to be one of the key factors for the formation of porphyry Cu±Au deposits. In this study we provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis that the platinum group element (PGE) can be used to distinguish barren from ore-bearing Cu±Au felsic suites. We determined the PGE contents of three barren volcanic and subvolcanic suites from Argentina and Japan, and compare the results with two porphyry Cu-bearing subvolcanic suites from Chile and two porphyry Cu-Au-bearing suites from Australia. The barren suites are significantly depleted in PGE abundances by the time of fluid exsolution, which is attributed to early sulfide saturation at mid to lower crust depths or assimilation of chalcophile element-poor crustal materials. Barren magma, produced by melting continental crust, may have been initially deficient in chalcophile elements. In contrast, the Cu±Au ore-bearing suites contain at least an order of magnitude higher PGE contents than those of the barren suites by the time of fluid saturation. They are characterized by late sulfide saturation in a shallow magma chamber, which allows the chalcophile elements to concentrate in the fractionating magma from which they are sequestered by ore-forming fluids. We suggest the Pd/MgO and Pd/Pt ratios of igneous rocks can be used as magma fertility indicators, and to distinguish between barren, porphyry Cu and porphyry Cu-Au magmatic systems.

  5. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  6. Au and AuCu Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 Ordered Mesoporous Titania-Silica as Catalysts for Methylene Blue Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Barroso-Martín

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB dye has been performed under UV irradiation in aqueous suspension, employing photocatalysts based on Au (1.5 wt % and AuCu (Au/Cu = 1, 2.0 wt %, and supported on SBA-15-ordered mesoporous silica, with and without titania (Si/Ti = 3, in order to evaluate the versatility of this mesoporous support in this type of reaction of great impact from the environmental point of view. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196 °C, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, so as to study their structural, optical, and chemical properties. All the prepared catalysts were found to be active in the test reaction. The bimetallic AuCu-based catalysts attained very high MB degradation values, in particular AuCu/SBA-15 titania-silica sample reached 100% of dye oxidation after the monitored reaction period (120 min.

  7. Interlayer transport in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, F.; Su, X.; Alexandrakis, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Interlayer magnetoresistance as a function of field and temperature with fields parallel and perpendicular to current direction in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Br was measured. For H parallel I, the isothermal magnetoresistance R(H) displays a peak effect as a function of field. For H perpendicular I, R(H) increases monotonically with field. Comparison of the peak field with the H c2 (T) data suggests that the peak in R(H) occurs in the mixed state. We analyze the data in terms of the resistively shunted Josephson junction model and the density of states fluctuation model

  8. Experimental investigation of the effect of HBr additions on the lasing characteristics of a CuBr laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyanov, D V; Sukhanov, V B; Andrienko, Oleg S; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2004-01-01

    It was experimentally determined that introducing small additions of HBr into the active elements of a CuBr laser is similar to the addition of hydrogen and significantly improves the output laser parameters. The effect of additions to small-volume active elements is most pronounced (up to a five-fold increase in output power) and is less pronounced in large-volume active elements (up to a twofold increase). A special-purpose HBr generator was elaborated, making it possible to promptly provide the requisite concentration of the active addition in a sealed-off active element. (lasers, active media)

  9. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A.T.; Souza, S.R.B.; Silva, C.M.G

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  10. Effect of cascade remnants on freely migrating defects in Cu-1% Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, A; Rehn, L E; Baldo, P M; Funk, L [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of cascade remnants on Freely Migrating Defects (FMD) were studied by measuring Radiation-Induced Segregation (RIS) in Cu-1%Au at 400degC during simultaneous irradiation with 1.5-MeV He and (400-800)-keV heavy ions (Ne, Ar or Cu). The large RIS observed during 1.5-MeV He-only irradiation was dramatically suppressed under simultaneous heavy ion irradiation. For Cu simultaneous irradiation, the suppression disappeared immediately after the Cu irradiation ceased, while for simultaneous inert gas (Ne or Ar) irradiation, the suppression persisted after the ion beam was turned off. These results demonstrate that the displacement cascades created by heavy ions introduce additional annihilation sites, which reduce the steady-state FMD concentrations. As the cascade remnants produced by Cu ions are thermally unstable at 400degC, the RIS suppression occurs only during simultaneous irradiation. On the other hand, the inert gas atoms which accumulate in the specimen apparently stabilize the cascade remnants, allowing the suppression to persist. (author)

  11. Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks-A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Causey, J.D.; Eppinger, R.G.; Gray, J.E.; Johnson, C.A.; Lund, K.I.; Schulz, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    A compilation of data on global Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks refines previous descriptive models for their occurrence and provides important information for mineral resource assessments and exploration programs. This compilation forms the basis for a new classification of such deposits, which is speculative at this early stage of research. As defined herein, the Co-Cu-Au deposits contain 0.1 percent or more by weight of Co in ore or mineralized rock, comprising disseminated to semi-massive Co-bearing sulfide minerals with associated Fe- and Cu-bearing sulfides, and local gold, concentrated predominantly within rift-related, siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Some deposits have appreciable Ag ? Bi ? W ? Ni ? Y ? rare earth elements ? U. Deposit geometry includes stratabound and stratiform layers, lenses, and veins, and (or) discordant veins and breccias. The geometry of most deposits is controlled by stratigraphic layering, folds, axial-plane cleavage, shear zones, breccias, or faults. Ore minerals are mainly cobaltite, skutterudite, glaucodot, and chalcopyrite, with minor gold, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, bismuthinite, and bismuth; some deposits have appreciable tetrahedrite, uraninite, monazite, allanite, xenotime, apatite, scheelite, or molybdenite. Magnetite can be abundant in breccias, veins, or stratabound lenses within ore or surrounding country rocks. Common gangue minerals include quartz, biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar, albite, chlorite, and scapolite; many deposits contain minor to major amounts of tourmaline. Altered wall rocks generally have abundant biotite or albite. Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary successions constitute the predominant geologic setting. Felsic and (or) mafic plutons are spatially associated with many deposits and at some localities may be contemporaneous with, and involved in, ore formation. Geoenvironmental data for the Blackbird mining district in central Idaho indicate that weathering of

  12. Optical Property Characterization of Novel Graphene-X (X=Ag, Au and Cu Nanoparticle Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Ranjan Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports new results on optical properties of graphene-metal nanocomposites. These composites were prepared by a solution-based chemical approach. Graphene has been prepared by thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO at 90°C by hydrazine hydrate in an ammoniacal medium. This ammoniacal solution acts as a solvent as well as a basic medium where agglomeration of graphene can be prevented. This graphene solution has further been used for functionalization with Ag, Au, and Cu nanoparticles (NPs. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM to reveal the nature and type of interaction of metal nanoparticles with graphene. The results indicate distinct shift of graphene bands both in Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies due to the presence of the metal nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates blue shift of D and G bands in Raman spectra of graphene due to the presence of metal nanoparticles except for the G band of Cu-G, which undergoes red shift, reflecting the charge transfer interaction between graphene sheets and metal nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis also indicates blue shift of graphene absorption peak in the hybrids. The plasmon peak position undergoes blue shift in Ag-G, whereas red shift is observed in Au-G and Cu-G.

  13. Electrode quenching control for highly efficient CsPbBr3 perovskite light-emitting diodes via surface plasmon resonance and enhanced hole injection by Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Ziyang; Lin, Chunyan; Xiong, Zuhong; Blount, Ethan; Chen, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Compared to organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, all-inorganic cesium lead halides (e.g, CsPbBr3) hold greater promise in being emissive materials for light-emitting diodes owing to their superior optoelectronic properties as well as their higher stabilities. However, there is still considerable potential for breakthroughs in the current efficiency of CsPbBr3 perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Electrode quenching is one of the main problems limiting the current efficiency of PeLEDs when poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the hole injection layer. In this work, electrode quenching control was realized via incorporating Au NPs into PEDOT:PSS. As a result, the CsPbBr3 PeLEDs realized an improvement in maximum luminescence ranging from ˜2348 to ˜7660 cd m-2 (˜226% enhancement) and current efficiency from 1.65 to 3.08 cd A-1 (˜86% enhancement). Such substantial enhancement of the electroluminescent performance can be attributed to effective electrode quenching control at the PEDOT:PSS/CsPbBr3 perovskite interface via the combined effects of local surface plasma resonance coupling and enhanced hole transportation in the PEDOT:PSS layer by Au nanoparticles.

  14. Near-side azimuthal and pseudorapidity correlations using neutral strange baryons and mesons in d +Au , Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Barnby, L. S.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bombara, M.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, F.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, J.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the near side of triggered di-hadron correlations using neutral strange baryons (Λ ,Λ ¯) and mesons (KS0) at intermediate transverse momentum (3 < pT <6 GeV /c ) to look for possible flavor and baryon-meson dependence. This study is performed in d +Au , Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The near-side di-hadron correlation contains two structures, a peak which is narrow in azimuth and pseudorapidity consistent with correlations from jet fragmentation, and a correlation in azimuth which is broad in pseudorapidity. The particle composition of the jet-like correlation is determined using identified associated particles. The dependence of the conditional yield of the jet-like correlation on the trigger particle momentum, associated particle momentum, and centrality for correlations with unidentified trigger particles are presented. The neutral strange particle composition in jet-like correlations with unidentified charged particle triggers is not well described by PYTHIA. However, the yield of unidentified particles in jet-like correlations with neutral strange particle triggers is described reasonably well by the same model.

  15. Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kotuła, J.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2011-02-01

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions over a wide energy range have been measured using the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of both the charged particle distributions and the multiplicity at midrapidity were measured. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted with |η|<5.4, which account for between 95% and 99% of the total charged-particle emission associated with collision participants, are presented for different collision centralities. Both the midrapidity density dNch/dη and the total charged-particle multiplicity Nch are found to factorize into a product of independent functions of collision energy, sNN, and centrality given in terms of the number of nucleons participating in the collision, Npart. The total charged particle multiplicity, observed in these experiments and those at lower energies, assumes a linear dependence of (lnsNN)2 over the full range of collision energy of sNN=2.7-200 GeV.

  16. Tensile Creep Properties of the 50Au-50Cu Braze Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The 50Au-50CU (wt.%) alloy is a solid-solution strengthened braze alloy used extensively in conventional, hermetic metal/ceramic brazing applications where low vapor pressure is a requirement. Typical metal/ceramic base materials would be Kovar TM alloy and metallized and Ni-plated 94% alumina ceramic. The elevated temperature mechanical properties are important for permitting FEA evaluation of residual stresses in metal/ceramic brazes given specific geometries and braze cooldown profiles. For material with an atomic composition of 76.084 at.% CL 23.916 Au (i.e., on the Cu-rich side of Cu 3 Au) that was annealed for 2 hr. at 750 ampersand deg;C and water quenched a Garofalo sinh equation was found to adequately characterize the minimum strain rate data over the temperature mnge 450-850 ampersand deg;C. At lower temperatures (250 arid 350 ampersand deg;C), a conventional power law equation was found to characterize the data. For samples held long periods of time at 375 ampersand deg;C (96 hrs.) and slowly cooled to room temperature, a slight strengthening reaction was observed: with the stress necessary to reach the same strain rate increasing by about 15% above the baseline annealed and quenched data. X-ray diffiction indicates that the 96 hr at 375 ampersand deg;C + slow cool condition does indeed order. The microhardness of the ordered samples indicates a value of 94.5 VHN, compared to 93.7 VHN for the baseline annealed and quenched (disordered FCC) samples. From a brazing perspective, the relative sluggishness of this ordering reaction does not appear to pose a problem for braze joints cooled at reasonable rates following brazing

  17. Iron and chlorine as guides to stratiform Cu-Co-Au deposits, Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Cu-Co-Au deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt are in lithostratigraphic zones of the Middle Proterozoic Yellowjacket Formation characterized by distinctive chemical and mineralogical compositions including high concentrations of Fe (15- > 30 wt. percent Fe2O3), Cl (0.1-1.10 wt. percent), and magnetite or biotite (> 50 vol. percent). The Cu-Co-Au deposits of the Blackbird mine are stratabound in Fe-silicate facies rocks that are rich in biotite, Fe, and Cl, but stratigraphically equivalent rocks farther than 10 km from ore deposits have similar compositions. A lower lithostratigraphic zone containing magnetite and small Cu-Co-Au deposits extends for more than 40 km. The Fe-rich strata are probably exhalative units related to mafic volcanism and submarine hot springs, but the origin of the high Cl concentrations is less clear. Former chlorine-rich pore fluids are suggested by the presence of supersaline fluid inclusions, by Cl-rich biotite and scapolite (as much as 1.87 percent Cl in Fe-rich biotite), and by high Cl concentrations in rock samples. Chlorine is enriched in specific strata and in zones characterized by soft-sediment deformation, thus probably was introduced during sedimentation or diagenesis. Unlike some metasedimentary rocks containing scapolite and high Cl, the Yellowjacket Formation lacks evidence for evaporitic strata that could have been a source of Cl. More likely, the Cl reflects a submarine brine that carried Fe, K, and base metals. Strata containing anomalous Fe-K-Cl are considered to be a guide to sub-basins favorable for the occurrence of stratiform base-metal deposits. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Phase transformation and microstructural changes during ageing process of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chin-Ho; Park, Mi-Gyoung; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Seol, Hyo-Joung [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hilkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2008-07-28

    Age-hardening behaviour and the related phase transformation and microstructural changes during isothermal ageing process were studied to elucidate the age-hardening mechanism of an Ag-based dental casting alloy composed of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-Zn, Ir and In by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and energy dispersive spectroscopic microanalysis (EDS). In the hardness test at 350 and 400 deg. C, the hardness of the solution-treated specimen began to increase and reached a maximum value with increasing ageing time, and subsequently the hardness decreased gradually. By considering XRD results and SEM observations together, the solution-treated specimen consisted of three phases, the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase as a matrix, the Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} phase and the CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type as particle-like structures. By ageing the solution-treated specimen, the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} and Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} phases were transformed into the Ag-rich {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1} and Cu{sub 3}Pd {alpha}{sup '}{sub 2} phases, respectively. The CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type was not changed apparently during the ageing process. From the results of the hardness test, XRD study, SEM observations and EDS analysis, it could be derived that the hardness increased by the diffusion and precipitation of the Cu-rich phase from the Ag-rich matrix during the early stage of phase transformation of {alpha}{sub 1} into {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1} and that the progress of coarsening of the Cu-rich precipitates with an entanglement structure caused the hardness decrease during the later stage of phase transformation of {alpha}{sub 1} into {alpha}{sup '}{sub 1}. The particle-like structures composed of the Cu-Pd {alpha}{sub 2} and the CuPd {beta} phase with a CsCl-type contributed little to the hardness increase which occurred in the early stage of aging process.

  19. X-ray fluorescence holography studies for a Cu{sub 3}Au crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dąbrowski, K.M., E-mail: karol.dabrowski@uj.edu.pl; Dul, D.T.; Jaworska-Gołąb, T.; Rysz, J.; Korecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we show that performing a numerical correction for beam attenuation and indirect excitation allows one to fully restore element sensitivity in the three-dimensional reconstruction of the atomic structure. This is exemplified by a comparison of atomic images reconstructed from holograms measured for ordered and disordered phases of a Cu{sub 3}Au crystal that clearly show sensitivity to changes in occupancy of the atomic sites. Moreover, the numerical correction, which is based on quantitative methods of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, was extended to take into account the influence of a disturbed overlayer in the sample.

  20. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yan; Wu, Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuelei; Manchon, Aurelien; Xiao, John Q.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.

  1. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yan

    2017-03-07

    We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography studies for a Cu3Au crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Jaworska-Gołąb, T.; Rysz, J.; Korecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we show that performing a numerical correction for beam attenuation and indirect excitation allows one to fully restore element sensitivity in the three-dimensional reconstruction of the atomic structure. This is exemplified by a comparison of atomic images reconstructed from holograms measured for ordered and disordered phases of a Cu3Au crystal that clearly show sensitivity to changes in occupancy of the atomic sites. Moreover, the numerical correction, which is based on quantitative methods of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, was extended to take into account the influence of a disturbed overlayer in the sample.

  3. Ammonia synthesis on Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Ole; Waltenburg, Hanne Neergaard; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate any influence of steps and possible positive effects of making surface alloys the ammonia synthesis has been investigated over Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) single crystals in the temperature range 603-773 K, using a system combining ultra-high vacuum...... and a high-pressure cell. Ammonia was synthesized from a stoichiometric (N-2:3H(2)) gas mixture at a pressure of 2 bar. By deposition of small amounts of An, the ammonia production activity of the Fe(1 1 1) surface can be enhanced. More important, for the gold modified surface, the reaction order in ammonia...

  4. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmiller, Jochen; Spolenak, Ralph; Gruber, Patric A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility

  5. Nanocrystalline growth and grain-size effects in Au-Cu electrodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Saw, Cheng K.; Harper, Jennifer F.; Vallier, Bobby F.; Ferreira, James L.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    The processing-structure-property relationship is investigated for electrodeposited foils of the gold-copper alloy system. A model is presented that relates the deposition process parameters to the nanocrystalline grain size. An activation energy of 1.52 eV atom -1 for growth is determined for a long-pulse (> 10 msec) mode, and is 0.16 eV atom -1 for short pulses ( 6 nm) is observed for Au-Cu samples with 1-12 wt.% Cu as tested in cross-section. The hardness increases three-fold from a rule-of-mixtures value < 1 GPa to a maximum of 2.9 GPa

  6. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  7. A Study of the Influence of Percentage of Copper on the Structural and Optical Properties of Au-Cu Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Mashayekhi Shams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present our experimental results in synthesizing Au-Cu nano-particles with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance frequency through wet-chemical at temperature room. The reaction is performed in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as capping agent via four different procedures: (1 mixture of 90% HAuCl4 and 10% CuSO4.5H2O precursors, (2 mixture of 75% HAuCl4 and 25% CuSO4.5H2O precursors, (3 mixture of 50% HAuCl4 and 50% CuSO4.5H2O precursors (4 mixture of 25% HAuCl4 and 75% CuSO4.5H2O precursors. Effect of different percentages of Cu on Au nanoparticles has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDAX analysis, DRS UV-Vis, and Fourier transform IR spectra (FTIR analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are of cubic structure without an impure phase. The successful doping of the Cu into the Au host was evident by XRD line shiftings. The increasing percentage of copper leads to the decreasing grain size. With the increase of Cu2+ to Au3+ ratio in the Cu2+/Au3+ mixed solution (> 50% Cu, XRD lines show no shifting. The average crystal sizes of the particles at room temperature were less than 9.9 nm. The surface plasmon resonance peak shifts from 380 to 340 nm, party due to the change in particle size. SEM images show a spherical shape and the size of nanoparticles becomes smaller with increasing the percentage of copper. Moreover, in the molar ratio of Cu2+/Au3+ = 75/25 (>50% Cu, mixture of spherical and trigonal nanoparticles were prepared. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR showed the coordination and conjugation nanoparticles with N and O atoms of C-N and C=O bonds.

  8. Au-Cu core-shell nanocube-catalyzed click reactions for efficient synthesis of diverse triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madasu, Mahesh; Hsia, Chi-Fu; Huang, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Au-Cu core-shell nanocubes and octahedra synthesized in aqueous solution were employed to catalyze a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between phenylacetylene and benzyl azide in water at 50 °C for 3 h. Interestingly, the nanocubes were far more efficient in catalyzing this reaction, giving 91% yield of a regioselective 1,4-triazole product, while octahedra only recorded 46% yield. The Au-Cu nanocubes were subsequently employed to catalyze the click reaction between benzyl azide and a broad range of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes. The product yields ranged from 78 to 99%. Clearly the Au-Cu cubes exposing {100} surfaces are an excellent and green catalyst for click reactions.

  9. Corrosion of Dental Au-Ag-Cu-Pd Alloys in 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Atsushi; Kusayanagi, Yukiharu

    2005-01-01

    Two Au-Ag-Cu-Pd dental casting alloys (Au:12% and 20%) used. The test solutions used 0.9 % NaCl solution (isotonic sodium chloride solution), 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid, and 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The surface of two samples in three sample solutions was not natural discoloration during one year. The alloy containing 12 % gold was easily alloyed and the composition was uniform comparing with the alloy containing 20 % gold. The rest potentials have not a little effect after three months. The kinds of metals could not definitely from the oxidation and reduction waves of metal on the cyclic voltammograms. The dissolutions of gold and palladium were 12 % Au sample in the 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The pH of solution had an affect on dissolution of copper, and sulfur ion had an affect on dissolution of silver. The copper dissolved amount from 20 % gold sample was about 26 times comparing with that of 12 % gold sample in the 0.9 % solution containing 1 % lactic acid. Corrosion products were silver chloride and copper chloride in NaCl solution, and silver sulfide and copper sulfide in NaCl solution containing Na 2 S

  10. Vortex pinning in layered organic superconductors: κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khizroev, S.; Zuo, F.; Alexandrakis, G.C.; Schlueter, J.A.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetization studies on organic single-crystal superconductors of κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Br with the field H parallel to the b axis (perpendicular to the conducting plane) show anomalous field and temperature dependence of vortex pinning in the mixed state. At high temperatures, the magnetization M decays with increasing field with a power-law dependence. The normalized relaxation rate S=d(lnM)/d(lnt) decreases monotonically with H. At low temperatures (T rev shows a universal power-law dependence of H rev on (1-T/T c ) in the temperature range investigated. We suggest that the magnetic anomaly observed is due to a dimensional crossover in the nature of vortex pinning. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Tin-phthalocyanine adsorption and diffusion on Cu and Au (111) surfaces: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dan; Ge, Xu-Jin; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2018-05-01

    Through density functional theory based calculations, we study the adsorption and diffusion of tin phthalocyanine (SnPc) molecule on Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces. SnPc has two conformers with Sn pointing to the vacuum (Sn-up) and substrate (Sn-down), respectively. The binding energies of the two conformers with different adsorption sites on the two surfaces, including top, bridge, fcc, hcp, are calculated and compared. It is found that the SnPc molecule binds stronger on Cu(111) surface, with binding energy about 1 eV larger than that on Au(111). Only the bridge and top adsorption sites are stable on Cu(111), while all the four adsorption sites are stable on Au(111), with small diffusion barriers between them. Moreover, the flipping barrier from Sn-up to Sn-down conformer is of the same magnitude on the two metal surfaces. These results are consistent with a recent experiment [Zhang, et al., Angew. Chem., 56, 11769 (2017)], which shows that conformation change from Sn-up to Sn-down on Cu(111) surface can be induced by a C60-functionalized STM tip, while similar change is difficult to realize on Au(111), due to smaller diffusion barrier on Au(111).

  12. Phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn and Au-Fe) alloys at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Kayali, Fawaz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The spin glass of: (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn, Au-Fe) alloys has been extensively studied. The availability of published and assured experimental data on the susceptibility x(T) of this alloys has enabled the design and application of phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of these interesting alloys. The use of and advanced (S.P.S.S) computer software has resulted revealing some important features of the spin glass in these alloys, the most important of which is that the spin glass state do not represent as phase change

  13. Magnetically separable CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composite photocatalysts: Preparation, characterization, photocatalytic activity and photocatalytic mechanism under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yalei; Lin, Cuiping; Bi, Huijie; Liu, Yonggang; Yan, Qishe, E-mail: Qisheyanzzu@163.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method. • Visible-light response and high photocatalytic performance. • Excellent magnetic properties. • Different reactive species had different effects on degradation different pollutants. - Abstract: The CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites with different CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} contents were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method, respectively. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis DRS). Their magnetic properties, photocatalytic degradation activities on methyl orange (MO) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) solution and photocatalytic mechanism were investigated in detail. The results revealed that the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the matched band structure of two components and more effective charge transportation and separations. In addition, the quenching investigation of different scavengers demonstrated that h{sup +}, ·OH, ·O{sub 2}{sup −} reactive species played different roles in the decolorization of MO and degradation of TC.

  14. Dielectric Study of the Phase Transitions in [P(CH3)4]2CuY4 (Y = Cl, Br)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesi, Kazuo

    2002-05-01

    Phase transitions in [P(CH3)4]2CuY4 (Y = Cl, Br) have been studied by dielectric measurements. In [P(CH3)4]2CuCl4, a slight break and a discontinuous jump on the dielectric constant vs. temperature curve are seen at the normal-incommensurate and the incommensurate-commensurate phase transitions, respectively. A small peak of dielectric constant along the b-direction exists just above the incommensurate-to-commensurate transition temperature. The anisotropic dielectric anomalies of [P(CH3)4]2CuBr4 at phase transitions were measured along the three crystallographic axes. The pressure-temperature phase diagram of [P(CH3)4]2CuCl4 was determined. The initial pressure coefficients of the normal-to-incommensurate and the incommensurate-to-commensurate transition temperatures are 0.19 K/MPa and 0.27 K/MPa, respectively. The incommensurate phase in [P(CH3)4]2CuCl4 disappears at a triple point which exists at 335 MPa and 443 K. The stability and the pressure effects of the incommensurate phases are much different among the four [Z(CH3)4]2CuY4 crystals (Z = N, P; Y = Cl, Br).

  15. Moderniser la démarche visant la qualité de l'eau au Brésil | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 sept. 2017 ... Après la rupture d'un grand barrage au sud-est du Brésil, des déchets métalliques et de boue contaminèrent l'eau et causèrent la pire catastrophe écologique de l'histoire de la nation. La recherche d'Adalto Bianchini aide son pays à réviser sa règlementation relative à une de ses ressources les plus ...

  16. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales: aspects épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafik, Amine; Chabak, Hakim; Diouri, Mounia; Bahechar, Naïma; Chlihi, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales représentent une entité fréquente des séquelles de brûlure, elles affectent la fonction, l'esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur 5 ans de Mars 2009 au Octobre2014, réalisée au centre national des brûlés et de chirurgie plastique au CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca. Nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiqueset cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 300 patients présentant des rétractions cervicales post-brûlure, suivis dans notre formation. Les jeunes femmes étaient le plus souvent touchées (56%). la brûlure thermique par flamme de butane dans le cadre d'accident domestique était l’étiologie la plus fréquente (91%).75% des patients ont été pris en charge dans un délai de 18 mois après avoir présenté une incapacité fonctionnelle. Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 60% et 16% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67%des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24%des cas et aux lambeaux dans 24% des cas, les résultats sont jugés bons dans 75%des cas et moyens dans 18% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (7%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Le traitement des brides cervicales doit être associé à un programme de rééducation adapté, afin d'assurer la pérennité des résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques. PMID:26301017

  17. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered epitaxial growth mode (i.e., Frank-van der Merwe mechanism) contributes to the enlargement of the core, while, the random attachment of Au nanoclusters onto the cores accounts for the formation of the branches. Both of them are indispensable for the formation of the nanostars. The LSPR properties of the Au nanoparticles have been well investigated with morphology control via precursor amount and growth temperature. The Au nanostars showed improved surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) performance for rhodamine 6G due to their sharp edges and tips, which were therefore confirmed as good SERS substrate to detect trace amount of molecules.

  18. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir

    2015-03-19

    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  19. Integral enthalpy of mixing of the liquid ternary Au-Cu-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, S.; Li, Z.; Mikula, A.

    2008-01-01

    The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn has been determined with a Calvet type calorimeter at 6 different cross sections at 1273 K. The substitutional solution model of Redlich-Kister-Muggianu was used for a least square fit of the experimental data in order to get an analytical expression for the integral enthalpy of mixing. The ternary extrapolation models of Kohler, Muggianu and Toop were used to calculate the integral enthalpy of mixing and to compare measured and extrapolated values. Additional calculations of the integral enthalpy of mixing using the Chou model have been performed. With the calculated data, the iso-enthalpy lines have been determined using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model. A comparison of the data has been made

  20. A synchrotron radiation study of nonlinear diffusion in Cu-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, E.S.K.; Huang, P.; Kraitchman, M.; deFontaine, D.; Hoyt, J.J.; Chow, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study in which alternate layers of pure copper and gold were vapor deposited on a sodium chloride substrate, the average concentration of the films being Cu-16 at% Au and the layering periodicity (modulation wavelength) being 3.31 nm. The composition modulation gives rise to satellite diffraction peaks around the (200) Bragg reelections. Synchrotron radiation at SSRL was able to detect u to third order satellite intensity the evolution of which was measured as a function of annealing time at 515 K. although the first order satellite intensity decayed as expected exponentially with time, intensities of both second and third order satellites decreased very rapidly at first, then increased before decaying exponentially. These results are in conformity with theoretical models of satellite evolution during annealing in a one-dimensional modulated system governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation

  1. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghion, S.; Consolati, G.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Demetrio, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Cabaret, L.; Comparat, D.; Caccia, M.; Castelli, F.; Caravita, R.; Noto, L. Di; Cerchiari, G.; Doser, M.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  2. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Rienaecker, B.; RØhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Vamosi, S.; Vladymyrov, M.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2017-04-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  3. Cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion in Cu3Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.A.; Funk, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    By using the ordering alloy Cu 3 Au and measuring resistivity changes during and following fast-neutron irradiations at IPNS, we have studied cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion between 10 and 460 0 K. Ordering and disordering rates were measured as functions of irradiation temperature, neutron dose, neutron dose rate, time following cessation of flux, and step annealing. Free and clustered vacancy production was observed. The temperature dependence of the production of total migrating vacancy concentrations was determined. Vacancy sink production was linear with neutron dose and is compared with recent transmission electron microscopy experiments on the production of dislocation loops in this alloy. Time dependent and quasi-steady state vacancy concentrations were measured and compared with solutions of reaction rate equations for irradiation enhanced diffusion. The influence of recombination of vacancies with interstitials is observed at low sink concentrations (low neutron doses)

  4. Geology, mineralization, geochemistry and petrology of intrusions in the Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit, Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Roohbakhsh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kuh Zar Au-Cu deposit is located in the central part of the Torud-Chah Shirin Volcanic-Plutonic Belt, 100 km southeast of the city of Damghan. Mineralization including quartz-base metal veins are common throughout this Cenozoic volcano-plutonic belt (Liaghat et al., 2008; Mehrabi and Ghasemi Siani, 2010. The major part of the study area is covered with Cenozoic pyroclastic and volcanic rocks that are intruded by subvolcanic rocks. This paper aims to study the geological, geochemical and petrogenesis of the area using exploration keys for new mineral deposits in the Torud-Chah Shirin zone. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units and identify the alteration zones of the area, 200 rock samples were collected from the field and 132 thin sections with 15 polished thin sections were prepared for petrography and mineralization studies. Ten samples of intrusions with the least alteration were analyzed using the XRF at the East Amethyst Laboratory in Mashhad, Iran. These samples were also analyzed for trace and rare earth elements using ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion in the Acme Analytical Laboratories Ltd, Vancouver, Canada. 137 geochemistry samples were prepared by the chip composite method of alteration and mineralization zones and were analyzed in the Acme laboratory by Aqua Regia AQ250. Results The geology of the area consists of pyroclastic (crystal tuff and volcanic rocks with andesite and latite composition, which were intruded by subvolcanic intrusive rocks with porphyritic texture and monzonitic composition. Monzonite rocks were intruded by younger subvolcanic units with dioritic composition. The intrusion of monzonitic pluton and stocks led to the formation of QSP, propylitic, carbonate and silicification-tourmaline broad alteration zones in the area. Monzonite rocks accompanied with disseminated mineralization of about 1 to 10% of pyrite and these sulfides have been converted to

  5. Neutron multiplicity in deep inelastic collisions: 400 MeV Cu + Au system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.; Chechik, R.; Ruchs, H.; Hanappe, F.; Morjean, M.; Ngo, C.; Peter, J.; Dakowski, M.; Lucas, B.; Mazur, C.; Ribrag, M.; Signarbieux, C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have detected in nine different positions of space the neutrons associated with the collision of 63 Cu on 197 Au at 400 MeV bombarding energy. The deep inelastic products were detected at two different angles: close to the gazing angle and 30 0 forwards of it. Their measses were measured using a time-of-flight technique. The neutrons were detected in coincidence with the fragments - the efficiency of the neutron detectors was measured relatively to a 252 Cf source during beam time. The neutron threshold was set at 300 keV. Within an accuracy of 10% all the emitted neutrons are evaporated by the fully accelerated deep inelastic fragments. It is shown that the excitation energy is shared between the fragments in proportion to their masses and that the relaxation time for internal equilibration of the composite system is very short (approximately 10 -22 s). (Auth.)

  6. Measurements of directed, elliptic, and triangular flow in Cu + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients (vn) for inclusive charged particles and identified hadrons π±, K±, p , and p ¯ produced at midrapidity in Cu +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV are presented. The data were collected in 2012 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The particle azimuthal distributions with respect to different-order symmetry planes Ψn, for n =1 , 2, and 3 are studied as a function of transverse momentum pT over a broad range of collision centralities. Mass ordering, as expected from hydrodynamic flow, is observed for all three harmonics. The charged-particle results are compared with hydrodynamical and transport model calculations. We also compare these Cu +Au results with those in Cu +Cu and Au +Au collisions at the same √{sNN} and find that the v2 and v3, as a function of transverse momentum, follow a common scaling with 1 /(ɛnNpart1 /3) .

  7. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Ye; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  8. Ion scattering studies of ordered alloy surfaces: CuAu(1 0 0) and NiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of alloy surfaces can differ from the corresponding bulk properties due to segregation and relaxation effects. We studied the (1 0 0) surface of the ordered alloy CuAu and amorphous Ni and Al by low-energy Ne + and Na + ion scattering. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code. In the CuAu system a certain geometry was found to be very sensitive to Au presence in the 2nd layer. Comparison with MARLOWE results also allows to study variations in the ion yields arising from neutralization effects. By trajectory analysis ion survival probabilities are estimated for Ni and Al

  9. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2016-09-12

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  10. Crystal and electronic structure study of AgAu and AgCu bimetallic alloy thin films by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkendir, O. Murat, E-mail: ozkendir@gmail.com [Mersin University, Faculty of Technology, Energy Systems Engineering, Tarsus (Turkey); Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Cengiz, E. [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Yalaz, E. [Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Söğüt, Ö.; Ayas, D.H. [Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Physics, Kahramanmaraş (Turkey); Thammajak, B. Nirawat [Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organisation), 111 University Avenue, T. Suranaree, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic properties of bimetallic AgCu and AgAu alloy thin films were studied. • Both AgCu and AgAu bimetallic samples were determined to have cubic crystal geometry. • Strong influence of Cu and Au atoms on the electronic structure of the Ag atoms were determined. - Abstract: Crystal and electronic structure properties of bimetallic AgAu and AgCu alloy thin films were investigated by X-ray spectroscopic techniques. The aim of this study is to probe the influence of Au or Cu atoms on the electronic behaviors of Ag ions in bimetallic alloy materials that yields different crystal properties. To identify the mechanisms causing crystal phase transitions, study were supported by the collected EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) data. Crystal structures of both Cu and Au doped bimetallic Ag samples were determined mainly in cubic geometry with “Fm3m” space group. Through the Ag–Au and Ag–Cu molecular interactions during bimetallic alloy formations, highly overlapped electronic levels that supports large molecular band formations were observed with different ionization states. Besides, traces of the d–d interactions in Au rich samples were determined as the main interplay in the broad molecular bond formations. The exact atomic locations and types in the samples were determined by EXAFS studies and supported by the performed calculations with FEFF scientific code.

  11. In-Plane Angular Effect of Magnetoresistance of Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic Metals, (DMET) 2AuBr 2 and (TMTSF) 2ClO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Harukazu; Saito, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Koichi; Kobayashi, Keiji; Ikemoto, Isao

    1997-08-01

    Comparative study is presented for the in-plane angular effect of magnetoresistance of quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors, (DMET)2AuBr2 and (TMTSF)2ClO4. The magnetoresistance for the magnetic and electrical fields parallel and perpendicular to the most conducting plane, respectively, was measured at 4.2 K and up to 7.0 T. (DMET)2AuBr2 shows an anomalous hump in the field-orientation dependence of the magnetoresistance for the magnetic field nearly parallel to the most conducting axis and this is very similar to what previously reported for (DMET)2I3. Weak anomaly was detected for the magnetoresistance of (TMTSF)2ClO4 in the Relaxed state, while no anomaly was observed in the SDW phase in the Quenched state. By comparing the numerical angular derivatives of the magnetoresistance, it is shown that the anomaly in the in-plane angular effect continuously develops from zero magnetic field and is closely related to the quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surface. A simple method is proposed to estimate the anisotropy of the transfer integral from the width of the hump anomaly.

  12. Brazing of zirconia to titanium using Ag-Cu and Au-Ni filler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean S. Pimenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic is usually joined to metal by the well-known direct brazing process, where costly active filler alloys can be considered a limitation. Brazing using active-metal-free filler alloy as insert between the joint components is an attempt to overcome it. The active metal diffusion from the titanium member through the bulk of molten filler to the ceramic was responsible to produce an active filler alloy in loco and promote reduction of the zirconium oxide to improve wetting on the ceramic surface. Unalloyed titanium was joined in a high-vacuum furnace (<3x10-5 mbar to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycristals (Y-TZP and zirconia partially stabilized with magnesia (Mg-PSZ, where commercial fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni with respective thermal cycles were evaluated. Helium gas leak detection test was performed at the ceramic/metal interface at room temperature; samples from reliable vacuum tight joints were examined by microstructural analysis techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the joint cross-section. Tight joints were produced with eutectic Ag-Cu filler, revealing an intermetallic layer and a dark reaction layer near the ceramic surface; titanium diffusion was efficient for superficial chemical interactions between individual components. Brazing joints were also tested using three-point flexure testing.

  13. A model of disordered zone formation in Cu3Au under cascade-producing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapinos, V.G.; Bacon, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A model to describe the disordering of ordered Cu 3 Au under irradiation is proposed. For the thermal spike phase of a displacement cascade, the processes of heat evolution and conduction in the cascade region are modelled by solving the thermal conduction equation by a discretization method for a medium that can melt and solidify under appropriate conditions. The model considers disordering to result from cascade core melting, with the final disordered zone corresponding to the largest molten zone achieved. The initial conditions for this treatment are obtained by simulation of cascades by the MARLOWE code. The contrast of disordered zones imaged in a superlattice dark-field reflection and projected on the plane parallel to the surface of a thin foil was calculated. The average size of images from hundreds of cascades created by incident Cu + ions were calculated for different ion energies and compared with experimental transmission electron microscopy data. The model is in reasonable quantitative agreement with the experimentally observed trends. (author)

  14. Le candomblé au Brésil, ou l'Afrique réinventée

    OpenAIRE

    Capone , Stefania

    2005-01-01

    Le Brésil est historiquement associé à l'idée d'un métissage – culturel et « racial » – qui aurait donné naissance à une société dépourvue de tensions raciales. La « démocratie raciale » brésilienne est ainsi devenue, dans les années 1950, un modèle à suivre pour le reste du monde. Depuis la fin des années 1970, les leaders du mouvement noir brésilien et certains représentants des maisons de culte de candomblé ont commencé à miner en profondeur ce modèle, en mettant en avant un discours « eth...

  15. Zinc-doping enhanced cadmium sulfide electrochemiluminescence behavior based on Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals quenching for insulin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Chao; Li, Xiaojian; Khan, Malik Saddam; Sun, Xu; Ma, Hongmin; Fan, Dawei; Wei, Qin

    2017-11-15

    Novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated for insulin detection. Au-ZnCd 14 S combined nitrogen doping mesoporous carbons (Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs) acted as sensing platform and Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed as labels to quench the ECL of Au-ZnCd 14 S/NH 2 -NMCs. Zinc-doping promoted the ECL behavior of CdS nanocrystals, with the best ECL emission obtained when the molar ratio of Zn/Cd was 1:14. Simultaneously, the modification of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and combination with NH 2 -NMC further enhanced the ECL emission of ZnCd 14 S due to its excellent conductivity and large specific surface area, which is desirable for the immunosensor construction. Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals were employed in the ECL system of ZnCd 14 S/K 2 S 2 O 8 triggering ECL quenching effects. The ECL spectra of ZnCd 14 S, acting as the energy donor, exhibited well overlaps with the absorption band of Au-Cu alloy nanocrystals which acted as the energy acceptor, leading to an effective ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET). On the basis of the ECL quenching effects, a sensitive ECL immunosensor for insulin detection was successfully constructed with a linear response range of insulin concentration from 0.1pg/mL to 30ng/mL and the limit of detection was calculated to be 0.03pg/mL (S/N = 3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Au/Cu2O-TiO2 system for photo-catalytic hydrogen production. A pn-junction effect or a simple case of in situ reduction?

    KAUST Repository

    Sinatra, Lutfan; LaGrow, Alec P.; Peng, Wei; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram; Idriss, Hicham; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Photo-catalytic H2 production from water has been studied over Au-Cu2O nanoparticle deposited on TiO2 (anatase) in order to probe into both the plasmon resonance effect (Au nanoparticles) and the pn-junction at the Cu2O-TiO2 interface. The Au-Cu2O

  17. Magnetism of coherent Co and Ni thin films on Cu(111) and Au(111) substrates: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelený, Martin, E-mail: zeleny@fme.vutbr.cz; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2017-02-15

    We present an ab initio study of structural and magnetic properties of coherent Co and Ni thin films on Cu(111) and Au(111) substrates with thicknesses of up to 6 monolayers. All studied films on Cu(111) substrates prefer structures close their ground state (hcp for Co and fcc for Ni), whereas only the hcp stacking sequence has been found for both films on Au(111) substrates. All studied films exhibit instability of the first monolayer with respect to decomposition into 2-monolayer- or 3-monolayer-high islands, which is in agreement with experimental findings. All studied films are also ferromagnetic, nevertheless the Ni/Cu(111) films reduce their magnetic moments in the layer adjacent to the substrate due to a stronger Cu–Ni interaction at the interface. The magnetic anisotropy of a Co film does not depend on the film thickness: all the studied Co/Au(111) films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, whereas all the Co/Cu(111) films prefer in-plane magnetization. On the other hand, both Ni films change their preference for in-plane orientation of their easy axis to out-of-plane orientation at a critical thickness of 2 monolayers, however, the magnetic anisotropy energies for films thicker than 1 monolayer are smaller than 1 meV/Ni atom. These behaviors of magnetic anisotropy do not depend on the structure of the studied films. - Highlights: • All films exhibit instability of the first monolayer and prefer grow in islands. • The Cu–Ni interaction is responsible for reduced Ni magnetic moments in Ni/Cu(111) films. • The Co/Au(111) and Co/Cu(111) films show different orientations of magnetic anisotropy. • The Ni films exhibit in-plane magnetization only for single monolayer. • Behaviors of magnetic anisotropy do not depend on the structure of the studied films.

  18. Thermodynamic investigations of the quasi-2d triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 2}Br{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutsch, Ulrich; Postulka, Lars; Wolf, Bernd; Lang, Michael; Well, Natalija van; Ritter, Franz; Krellner, Cornelius; Assmus, Wolf [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The system Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4-x}Br{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) is a quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a triangular in-plane arrangement of the spin-spin couplings. The ratio J{sup '}/J of the corresponding coupling constants determines the degree of frustration in the system and has been found to be 0.34 (x = 0) and 0.74 (x = 4) for the border compounds. One may ask whether for some intermediate Br concentration an even higher degree of frustration can be reached. Indeed, some indications have been reported by Ono et al. Here, we present specific heat C and susceptibility χ measurements below 1 K in magnetic fields B up to 13.5 T for the intermediate compound Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, which, due to site-selective substitution, shows a well-ordered halide sublattice. Indications for an antiferromagnetic transition are observed around 90 mK for B = 0. A small field of B = 0.14 T is sufficient to fully suppress this anomaly. Taking into account the high saturation field of about 20 T, extrapolated from χ(T = const, B) scans at low temperatures, this small ordered region in the B-T plane clearly indicates a high degree of frustration in Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 2}Br{sub 2}.

  19. Origin of selenium–gold interaction in F2CSe⋯AuY (Y = CN, F, Cl, Br, OH, and CH3): Synergistic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xin; Yang, Yu-Ping; Li, Qing-Zhong; Li, Hai-Bei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium–gold interaction plays an important role in crystal materials, molecular self-assembly, and pharmacochemistry involving gold. In this paper, we unveiled the mechanism and nature of selenium–gold interaction by studying complexes F 2 CSe⋯AuY (Y = CN, F, Cl, Br, OH, and CH 3 ). The results showed that the formation of selenium–gold interaction is mainly attributed to the charge transfer from the lone pair of Se atom to the Au—Y anti-bonding orbital. Energy decomposition analysis indicated that the polarization energy is nearly equivalent to or exceeds the electrostatic term in the selenium–gold interaction. Interestingly, the chalcogen–gold interaction becomes stronger with the increase of chalcogen atomic mass in F 2 CX⋯AuCN (X = O, S, Se, and Te). The cyclic ternary complexes are formed with the introduction of NH 3 into F 2 CSe⋯AuY, in which selenium–gold interaction is weakened and selenium–nitrogen interaction is strengthened due to the synergistic effects.

  20. Fabrication of a Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} composite film for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous solution of methanol and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi; Dong, Haitai; Hu, Zhe; Qi, Zhong; Li, Laisheng, E-mail: llsh@scnu.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} film was synthesized successfully. • Hydrogen production of Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} film improved significantly. • The highest hydrogen production rate of the film was 125.3 mmol/h/m{sup 2}. • A Z-scheme charge transfer pathway was proposed. - Abstract: A novel Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst composite film was fabricated on a copper substrate for photocatalytic hydrogen production. The composite films, Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2}, were stepwise synthesized by using electrochemical deposition, photodeposition, and coating methods. First, a Cu{sub 2}O film was synthesized using the electrochemical deposition method, after which Au was deposited onto the Cu{sub 2}O film through in-site photodeposition. Finally, TiO{sub 2} was coated on the surface of the Cu{sub 2}O/Au film. Its morphology and surface chemical composition was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and XPS. The optical characteristics (UV–Vis DRS, PL spectrum) of the films were also examined. The photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} composite film from a 20% vol. methanol solution increased to125.3 mmol/h/m{sup 2} under 300 W xenon lamp light irradiation. Compared to the TiO{sub 2} (13.5 mmol/h/m{sup 2}) film and Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} film (83.2 mmol/h/m{sup 2}), the Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} film showed excellent photocatalytic performance for hydrogen generation. The Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2} film has highly effective photocatalytic properties, which are attributed to the Z-scheme system and can not only enhance the absorption of solar light but also suppress the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. It is worth noting that by introducing Au into the interface of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2}, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-induced local electric field formed at the Au site induces a Z-scheme charge transfer pathway inside the composite film (Cu{sub 2}O/Au/TiO{sub 2}), which promotes both the charge of the

  1. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  2. Geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann; Lentz, David; Azimzadeh, Amir-Mortaza; Pourkaseb, Hooshang

    2015-11-01

    The Miocene Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc is the first reported Au-rich porphyry Cu deposit in the Zagros orogenic belt. The Cu-Au mineralization is mainly hosted in diorite and quartz diorite intrusions, presenting as numerous veinlets in the altered wall rocks, with potassic, phyllic, and propylitic alteration developed. Based on the mineral assemblages and crosscutting relations of veinlets, hydrothermal mineralization-alteration occurred in at least three stages, characterized by veinlets of (1) Qtz + Kfs + Mag ± Ccp, (2) Qtz + Py + Ccp ± Bn ± Cv ± Cc and, (3) Qtz + Chl + Bt. The ore-bearing intrusions exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas, including LREE fractionated pattern, strong enrichment in LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U), and depletion of HFSE, with marked negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The adakite-like ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are characterized by a systematic gradual decreasing and increasing of Y and Eu/Eu∗ with increasing SiO2 content, respectively. Moreover, they exhibit a significant increasing trend of Sr/Y with decreasing of Y, which indicates progressive hornblende fractionation and suppression of plagioclase fractionation during the evolution toward high water content of parental magma. A relatively flat HREE pattern with low Dyn/Ybn and Nb/Ta values may represent that amphibole played a more important role than garnet in the generation of the adakitic melts in the thickened lower crust. Based on the phase assemblages confirmed by detailed laser Raman spectroscopy analyses and proportion of solid, liquid, and gaseous components, five types of fluid inclusions were recognized, which are categorized as; (1) liquid-rich two phase (liquidH2O + vaporH2O) (IIA), (2) vapor-rich two phase (vaporH2O/CO2 + liquidH2O) (IIB), (3) high saline simple fluids (IIIA; liquidH2O + vaporH2O + Hl), (4) high saline opaque mineral-bearing fluids (IIIB; liquidH2O + vaporH2O

  3. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porobova, Svetlana, E-mail: porobova.sveta@yandex.ru; Loskutov, Oleg, E-mail: lom58@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Markova, Tat’jana, E-mail: patriot-rf@mail.ru [Siberian State Industrial University. 42 Kirov St., Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Vladimir, E-mail: vdklopotov@mail.ru [Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Anatoliy, E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: vik@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen’s law.

  4. Electronic structures of PtCu, PtAg, and PtAu molecules: a Dirac four-component relativistic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Minori; Mori, Sayaka; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2005-01-01

    Relativistic four-component calculations at several correlated levels have been performed for diatomic PtCu, PtAg, and PtAu molecules. The ground state spectroscopic constants of PtCu were calculated using the four-component MP2 method, and show good agreement with experiment. We also performed calculations on the experimentally unknown species, PtAg and PtAu, and the mono-cationic systems, PtCu + , PtAg + , and PtAu + . The low-lying excited states of these diatomic molecules were also investigated using the four-component multi-reference CI method

  5. Magnetic fluctuations near a quantum phase transition in CeCu5.9Au0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, A.; Aeppli, G.; Bucher, E.

    1998-01-01

    We present inelastic cold neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of the heavy-fermion compound CeCu5.9Au0.1, where non-Fermi-liquid behavior near a quantum phase transition was found in the specific heat and resistivity. This compound shows strongly correlated magnetic fluctuations......, most intense at wave vectors Q(1), near(1,0,0), close to the magnetic ordering vector found at higher Au-concentration. The energy dependence can be best described by a modified quasielastic Lorentzian with power alpha = 0.7. Down to the lowest temperature of 0.07 K the relaxation rate Gamma remains...

  6. Entrée des jeunes dans l'arène politique au Brésil | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2010 ... ... et qu'ont menée des chercheurs de l'Ibase, l'institut brésilien d'analyse sociale et économique. Ces chercheurs ont réalisé quelque 8 000 entrevues et organisé 40 groupes de discussion qui ont permis aux jeunes de s'exprimer avec franchise et grâce auxquels les constatations émanant de l'étude sont ...

  7. System size and energy dependence of jet-induced hadron pair correlation shapes in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at square root sNN=200 and 62.4 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A; Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Cussonneau, J P; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Deák, F; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Hansen, A G; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y-S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qualls, J M; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; Vale, C; Valle, H; vanHecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vertesi, R; Veszprémi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Volkov, M A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X

    2007-06-08

    We present azimuthal angle correlations of intermediate transverse momentum (1-4 GeV/c) hadrons from dijets in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at square root sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. The away-side dijet induced azimuthal correlation is broadened, non-Gaussian, and peaked away from Delta phi=pi in central and semicentral collisions in all the systems. The broadening and peak location are found to depend upon the number of participants in the collision, but not on the collision energy or beam nuclei. These results are consistent with sound or shock wave models, but pose challenges to Cherenkov gluon radiation models.

  8. 40Ar-39Ar dating of Archean iron oxide Cu-Au and Paleoproterozoic granite-related Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter J.; Taylor, Roger G.; Peters, Lisa; Matos, Fernando; Freitas, Cantidiano; Saboia, Lineu; Huhn, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    40Ar-39Ar dating of biotite from IOCG and granite-related Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province provides evidence for the timing of mineralization and constraints on genetic models of ore formation. Ages of biotite from greisen and quartz-rich vein and breccia deposits, Alvo 118—1885 ± 4 Ma, Breves—1886 ± 5 Ma, Estrela—1896 ± 7 Ma, and Gameleira—1908 ± 7 Ma, demonstrate the close temporal relationship between Cu-Au mineralization and subjacent A-type granites. Mineralization is hosted within granite cupolas (Breves) or in vein/breccia systems emanating from the cupolas (Estrela and Gameleira), consistent with a genetic relationship of mineralization to the B-Li-F-rich granites. Plateau and minimum ages of biotite from IOCG deposits, including Igarapé Bahia, Cristalino, Corta Goela, and GT34, range from 2537 ± 6 Ma to 2193 ± 4 Ma. The 40Ar-39Ar age of biotite from Igarapé Bahia (2537 ± 6 Ma) is similar to a previous SHRIMP 207Pb-206Pb age for monazite of 2575 ± 12 Ma when the uncertainties in the respective analyses and standards are taken into account. The age spectrum for biotite from Cristalino shows increasing ages for successive steps, consistent with post-crystallization Ar loss, and the age of 2388 ± 5 Ma for the last three steps is considered a minimum age for Cu-Au mineralization. The age of biotite from the GT34 prospect (2512 ± 7 Ma) coincides with a previously identified period of basement reactivation and may indicate the formation of Cu-Au mineralization at this time or resetting of biotite from an older mineralization event at this time. At Corta Goela, within the Canaã Shear Zone, the biotite age of 2193 ± 4 Ma lies between the ages of IOCG (2.57-2.76 Ga) and granite-related Cu-Au ( 1.88 Ga) deposits elsewhere in the Carajás district but is similar to previously reported 40Ar-39Ar ages for amphibole from Sossego, possibly indicating that mineralization at both Sossego and Corta Goela was affected by a thermal event at

  9. Investigation of Au9+ swift heavy ion irradiation on CdS/CuInSe2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Rajesh A.; Taur, Vidya S.; Singh, Fouran; Sharma, Ramphal

    2013-01-01

    In the present manuscript we report about the preparation of CdS/CuInSe 2 heterojunction thin films by chemical ion exchange method and investigation of 120 MeV Au 9+ swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation effect on its physicochemical as well as optoelectronic properties. These pristine (as grown) samples are irradiated with 120 MeV Au 9+ SHI of 5×10 11 and 5×10 12 ions/cm 2 fluencies and later on characterized for structural, compositional, morphological, optical and I–V characteristics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern obtained from pristine and irradiated films shows considerable modifications in peak intensity as well as rising of some new peaks, corresponding to In 2 Se 3 , Cu 3 Se 2 and CuIn 2 Se 3 materials. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show decrease in grain size upon increase in irradiation ion fluencies, which is also supported from the observation of random and uneven distribution of nano-grains as confirmed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Presence of Cd, Cu, In, S and Se in energy dispersive X-ray spectrum analysis (EDAX) confirms the expected and observed elemental composition in thin films, the absorbance peaks are related to band to band transitions and spin orbit splitting while energy band gap is observed to increase from 1.36 for pristine to 1.53 eV for SHI irradiated thin films and I–V characteristics under illumination to 100 mW/cm 2 light source shows enhancement in conversion efficiency from 0.26 to 1.59% upon irradiation. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CdS/CuInSe 2 can be grown by chemical ion exchange method. • Physicochemical and optoelectronic properties can be modified by 120 MeV Au 9+ SHI Irradiation. • Solar energy conversion efficiency improved from 0.26 to 1.59% in CdS/CuInSe 2 upon irradiation

  10. Diffraction by one and two direction periodic antiphase of the AuCu{sub 3} type; Diffraction par les antiphases periodiques a une et deux directions du type AuCu{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perio, P.; Tournarie, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    A theory is presented describing the diffraction by periodic antiphase structure in ordered AuCu{sub 3} type alloys. The treatment is rigorous and allows for non-integer periods. The general shape of the amplitude distribution in any 00ι reciprocal plane can be determined without any computation and is given for the six possible configurations of two direction antiphase structures. Reprint of a paper published in Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 12, Part 12, 1959, p. 1032-1038.

  11. Spontaneous piezoelectric effect as order parameter in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CuBr{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczyński, Z., E-mail: zbigtyl@amu.edu.pl; Wiesner, M.; Trzaskowska, A.

    2016-11-01

    Temperature change of piezoelectric properties of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CuBr{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O crystal in the low-temperature ferroelastoelectric phase is studied. The macroscopic order parameter is proved to be the h{sub 36} component of the spontaneous piezoelectric tensor. The critical exponent related with the phase transition is α=0.60±0.05.

  12. Microstructure processes induced by phase transitions in a CuAu alloy as studied by acoustic emission and optical cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, P.; Chmelik, F.; Sima, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Metal Physics; Brinck, A.; Neuhaeuser, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallphysik und Nukleare Festkoerperphysik

    1999-01-15

    Combined acoustic emission measurements and surface cinematography observations have been applied to determine the structure evolution during thermal loading of the CuAu alloy. Thermal history and the fashion of thermal loading have been shown to affect considerably the structure response of the CuAu alloy on temperature changes. On thermal loading, intense plastic deformation occurs in certain temperature intervals due to the relaxation of internal stresses induced by phase transitions and structure anisotropy. The main mechanism is twinning taking place most probably in (110) planes. Dislocation glide and grain-boundary sliding have also been observed as minor mechanisms. A shape-restoration effect associated with the order-disorder transition is revealed. Thermal cycling with upper temperatures over 500 C may also result in structural damage.

  13. Transmission electron microscopy and image simulation study of CuAu domains in CuInS{sub 2} epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcones, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Arbiol, J.; Alvarez-Garcia, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Scheer, R

    2003-05-01

    In this work the occurrence of two polytypic structures, chalcopyrite (CH) and cationic fcc CuAu-ordering (CA), in epitaxial CuInS{sub 2} samples on Si (1 1 1) oriented substrates has been studied. Samples with different Cu-to-In ratios and grown at 500 and 575 deg. C, respectively, have been analysed. Cross-section Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples have been prepared and studied in two directions normal to the growth direction [2 2 1]{sub CH}, namely, [1-1 0]{sub CH}, which is parallel to [1 0 0]{sub CA}, and [1 1-1]{sub CH} that is parallel to [0 1-1]{sub CA}. Electron diffraction and high resolution TEM images corroborate the existence of both polytypes and give the orientation relationship between them, namely, [1-1 0]{sub CH} parallel [1 0 0]{sub CA} and (1 1 2){sub CH} parallel (0 1 1){sub CA}. Cu-rich samples have good crystalline quality with large grains and sharp interfaces between both polytypes, the most important being between the (1 1 2){sub CH} and (0 1 1){sub CA} planes. On the contrary, the crystalline quality of Cu-poor samples is minor, no clear interfaces can be observed, and a high density of twins in the (0 1-1){sub CA} planes can be observed. The results on the crystalline quality are in agreement with previous results on polycrystalline CuInS{sub 2} films.

  14. Formation of Cu, Ag and Au nanofiims under the influence of hydrogen atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhavzharov E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their electrical properties, thin metallic films are widely used in modern micro- and nanoelectronics. These properties allow solving fundamental problems of surface and solid state physics. Up-to-date methods of producing thin films involve high vacuum or multi-stage processes, which calls for complicated equipment. The authors propose an alternative method of producing thin metallic films using atomic hydrogen. Exothermal reaction of atoms recombination in a molecule (about 4.5 eV / recombination act initiated on the solid surface by atomic hydrogen may stimulate local heating, spraying and surface atoms transfer. We investigated the process of atomic hydrogen treatment of Cu, Ag and Au metal films, obtained by thermal vacuum evaporation. There are two methods of obtaining nanofilms using atomic hydrogen treatment: sputtering and vapor-phase epitaxy. In the first method, a film is formed by reducing the thickness of the starting film. This method allows obtaining a film as thick as the monolayer. In the second method, a nanofilm is formed by deposition of metal atoms from the vapor phase. This method allows obtaining a film thickness from monolayer to ~10 nm. These methods allow creating nanofilms with controlled parameters and metal thickness. Such films would be technologically pure and have good adhesion.

  15. Fusion neutron irradiation induced ordering and defect production in Cu3Au at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Kirk, M.A.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-08-01

    We irradiate three Cu 3 Au alloys different degrees of initial long-range order at temperatures between 300K and 434K. The resistivity of samples is monitored during irradiation and related to the long-term order parameter by the Muto relation. The results show that the ordering rate, which is proportional to the concentration of freely migrating vacancies, increases at the beginning and then decreases later with fluence. The decrease is a result of the continuous production of sinks in the form of dislocation loops. The effect of sinks on vacancy annihilation in some cases causes a reversed temperature dependence of ordering rate. The free vacancy production rate and the rate of sink production are determined using an ordering kinetics theory. The results of the 14 MeV neutron irradiations are compared to those obtained in other neutron spectra and particle irradiations. The estimated free vacancy production rate is also compared to the primary defect production rate measured at 4.2K in disordered samples

  16. Stopping Power of Be, Al, Cu, Ag, Pt, and Au for 5-12-MeV Protons and Deuterons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    Recent measurements on stopping power of aluminum have been continued with the stopping materials Be, Cu, Ag, Pt, and Au. The method of measuring stopping powers utilizing a thermometric compensation technique working at liquid-helium temperature has been used. Results are obtained with a standard...... deviation of 0.3%, and agree with other published experimental results and with Bichsel's tabulated values within their stated errors....

  17. Preparation and electric and photoelectric properties of thin deposits of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Albano, E.V.; Asensio, M.C.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    The physics chemical properties of desordered metallic thin films of Fe, Co, Ni, Pd, Ag, Cu and Au are of great interest for its catalitic activity and for its application in radiation absorption of solar cells and micro electronic devices. This work has the purpose of reporting the experimental results obtained by evaporated films of these metals, which present desordered characteristics, small crystal size and high surface-volume rate. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 and 22.4 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Spectator fragments resulting from relativistic heavy ion collisions, consisting of single protons and neutrons along with groups of stable nuclear fragments up to nitrogen (Z =7 ), are measured in PHOBOS. These fragments are observed in Au+Au (√{sNN}=19.6 GeV ) and Cu+Cu (22.4 GeV) collisions at high pseudorapidity (η ). The dominant multiply-charged fragment is the tightly bound helium (α ), with lithium, beryllium, and boron all clearly seen as a function of collision centrality and pseudorapidity. We observe that in Cu+Cu collisions, it becomes much more favorable for the α fragments to be released than lithium. The yields of fragments approximately scale with the number of spectator nucleons, independent of the colliding ion. The shapes of the pseudorapidity distributions of fragments indicate that the average deflection of the fragments away from the beam direction increases for more central collisions. A detailed comparison of the shapes for α and lithium fragments indicates that the centrality dependence of the deflections favors a scaling with the number of participants in the collision.

  19. Neyshabour turquoise mine: the first Iron Oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Karimpour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyshabour turquoise mine is located in northwest of Neyshabour, southern Quchan volcanic belt. Eocene andesite and dacite forming as lava and pyroclastic rocks cover most of the area. Subvolcanic diorite to syenite porphyry (granitoids of magnetite series intruded the volcanic rocks. Both volcanic and subvolcanic rocks are highly altered. Four types of alteration are recognized including: silicification, argillic, calcification and propylitic. Silicification is dominant followed by argillic alteration. Mineralization is present as stockwork, disseminated and hydrothermal breccia. Hypogene minerals are pyrite, magnetite, specularite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. Secondary minerals are turquoise, chalcocite, covellite, and iron oxides. A broad zone of gossan has developed in the area. Oxidized zone has a thickness of about 80 m. Mineralized samples show high anomalies of Cu, Au, Zn, As, Mo, Co, U, LREE, Nb, and Th. Both aeromagnetic and radiometric (U and Th maps show very strong anomalies (10 × 5km within the mineralized area. Based on geology, alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, and geophysics, Neyshabour turquoise mine is a large Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system. In comparison with other IOCG deposits, it has some similarities with Olympic Dam (Australia and Candelaria (Chile. In comparison with Qaleh Zari and Kuh Zar mines, Neyshabour turquoise mine is the first Iron oxide Cu-Au-U-LREE (IOCG mineralized system discovered in Iran.

  20. Neutron scattering near the order-disorder transition in Cu3Au: evidence for a lower spinodal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, R.B.; Gaulin, B.D.; Svensson, E.C.; Hallman, E.D.; Wei, W.

    1995-01-01

    The binary alloy Cu 3 Au undergoes a first-order phase transition at 667 ± 3 K Within the context of the Landau theory of phase transitions, there exist, in addition to the order-disorder temperature, T c , upper and lower spinodal temperatures, T su and T si . These mark the first temperatures, upon approaching the phase transition from above and below, respectively, at which metastable droplets of the second phase can fluctuate out of the first phase. Until recently, there has, however, been little physical evidence supporting the existence of the spinodal temperatures. Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering measurements have been carried out on Cu 3 Au over an extended temperature range with particular emphasis on temperatures near T c . The lattice constant data, order-parameter data, and phonon data provided by these measurements all indicate that there are two temperature regimes just below T c with a crossover between these regimes in the range of (T c - 35) to (T c - 25) K. This crossover temperature is interpreted as the lower spinodal temperature of Cu 3 Au. (author)

  1. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  2. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-09-22

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and the complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcsok, Denes; Kovacs, Attila; Szecsenyi, Katalin Meszaros; Leovac, Vukadin M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and its complexes Co 2 L 2 Cl 4 , Cu 2 L 2 Cl 4 and Cu 2 L 2 Br 2 . DFT computations were used to model the structural and bonding properties of the title compounds as well as to derive a reliable force field for the normal coordinate analysis of L. The computations indicated the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilising the global minimum structures on the potential energy surfaces. In contrast to the S-bridged binuclear Cu 2 L 2 Br 2 complex found in the crystal, our computations predicted the formation of (CuLBr) 2 dimers in the isolated state stabilized by very strong (53 kJ/mol) N-H...Br hydrogen bonding interactions. On the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman experiments and the DFT-derived scaled quantum mechanical force field we carried out a complete normal coordinate analysis of L. The FT-IR spectra of the three complexes were interpreted using the present assignment of L, literature data and computed results

  4. Electron emission during interactions of multicharged N and Ar ions with Au(110) and Cu(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.; Overbury, S.H.; Havener, C.C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Zehner, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    We report measurements of energy distributions of electrons emitted during interactions 10q-keV N 6+ , and Ar q+ (q=7,8,9) ions with Au(110) and Cu(001) surfaces at grazing angles. The electron energy distributions have been measured as a function of angle of incidence, observation angle, and target-crystal azimuth. For both Au and Cu targets, the projectile KLL Auger peak observed for the case of the N 6+ projectiles is seen to consist of two components whose intensities have strikingly different dependences on incident perpendicular velocity. The main component of the KLL peak is attributed to subsurface electron emission and is modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation of the projectile trajectories in the bulk. The second component, observed only for the smallest incident perpendicular velocities, is attributed to above-surface KLL Auger electron emission and is modeled using computer simulations of the resonance neutralization-autoionization cascade that occurs prior to projectile penetration of the surface. In the case of the Au target, NNV and NVV transitions, attributed to vacancy transfer from the projectile K shell to the N shell of Au, are also observed. The Monte Carlo simulation of the subsurface contribution to the electron emission is able to reproduce the observed angle-of-incidence dependence of both the projectile and the target Auger electron intensities. In addition, it shows reasonable agreement with the observed dependences of the projectile KLL intensity on observation angle and crystal azimuth

  5. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of two synthetic francisites Cu3La(SeO3)2O2X (X = Br and Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, M. M.; Zakharov, K. V.; Zvereva, E. A.; Denisov, R. S.; Berdonosov, P. S.; Dolgikh, V. A.; Kuznetsova, E. S.; Olenev, A. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    The formation of long-range magnetic order at low temperatures was established in francisite—type compounds Cu3La(SeO3)2O2X (X = Br and Cl) through measurements of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat and X-band electron spin resonance. The significantly enhanced critical index p = 1.0 ± 0.1 in Cu3La(SeO3)2Br and p = 0.8 ± 0.1 in Cu3La(SeO3)2Cl in the temperature dependence of the width of ESR signal evidence the reduced dimensionality of the kagome-type francisite's magnetic subsystem. Under action of external magnetic field, the presumably non-collinear six-sublattices antiferromagnetic structure of these compounds experiences the first-order metamagnetic transformation. The B- T magnetic phase diagrams were established from the positions of singularities in temperature and field dependences of thermodynamic properties. Contrary to pristine mineral Cu3Bi(SeO3)2Cl, no signature of structural phase transition was detected.

  6. Efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction hybrid solar cells with oxidized Ni/Au/Cu transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chih; Lin, Kun-Wei; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter; Liao, Yuan-Yu

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the performance of inverted CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-based solar cells (SCs) with a thermally oxidized nickel/gold/copper (Ni/Au/Cu) trilayer transparent electrode. Oxidized Ni/Au/Cu is a high transparent layer and has less resistance than the oxidized Ni/Au layer. Like the oxidized Ni/Au layer, oxidized Ni and Cu in oxidized Ni/Au/Cu could perform as a hole transport layer of the perovskite-based SCs. It leads to improved perovskite SC performance on an open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, a short circuit current density of 14.36 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 76.7%, and a power conversion efficiency (η%) of 11.1%. The η% of perovskite SCs with oxidized Ni (10 nm)/Au (6 nm)/Cu (1 nm) improved by approximately 10% compared with that of perovskite SCs with oxidized Ni/Au.

  7. [Reiner Nürnberg, Ekkehard Höxtermann, Martina Voigt. Elisabeth Schiemann 1881-1972. Vom AußBruch der Genetik und der Frauen in den UmBrüchen des 20. Jahrhunderts] / Monika von Hirschheydt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirschheydt, Monika von

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Nürnberg, Reiner, Höxtermann, Ekkehard, Voigt, Martina. Elisabeth Schiemann 1881-1972. Vom AußBruch der Genetik und der Frauen in den UmBrüchen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Beiträge eines Symposiums zum 200. Gründungsjubiläum der Humboldt-Universität Berlin. Rangsdorf: Basilisken-Presse 2014

  8. Femtosecond Laser Fabricated Ag@Au and Cu@Au Alloy Nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moram Sree Satya Bharati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present results from our detailed studies on the fabrication of Ag@Au and Cu@Au alloy nanoparticles (NPs using the femtosecond laser ablation in liquid technique. The NPs were obtained by ablating the pure Ag, Cu targets (bulk in HAuCl4 (5 mM solution. The absorption properties of the obtained NPs colloids were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectrometer and their size, shape, and crystallinity were investigated using the XRD, FESEM and TEM techniques. The fabricated NPs were utilized for sensing of explosive molecules such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (PA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT and a common dye methylene blue (MB using the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS technique. The detection limit in terms of weight was as low as few nano-grams in the case of nitroaromatic explosive compounds (PA, DNT and few picograms in the case of a common dye molecule (MB. Typical enhancement factors achieved were estimated to be ~104, ~105, and ~107, respectively, for PA, DNT, and MB. The significance of the present work lies in exploring the performance of the prepared NPs being used as SERS substrates for explosives detection using a portable Raman instrument. Such capability enables one to carry the spectrometer to the point of interest in the field and evaluate any hazardous samples within a short period of time.

  9. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: wangkd@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  10. Quantum tunneling in real space: Tautomerization of single porphycene molecules on the (111) surface of Cu, Ag, and Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takashi; Ladenthin, Janina N.; Litman, Yair; Rossi, Mariana; Grill, Leonhard; Gawinkowski, Sylwester; Waluk, Jacek; Persson, Mats

    2018-03-01

    Tautomerization in single porphycene molecules is investigated on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces by a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is revealed that the trans configuration is the thermodynamically stable form of porphycene on Cu(111) and Ag(111), whereas the cis configuration occurs as a meta-stable form. The trans → cis or cis → trans conversion on Cu(111) can be induced in an unidirectional fashion by injecting tunneling electrons from the STM tip or heating the surface, respectively. We find that the cis ↔ cis tautomerization on Cu(111) occurs spontaneously via tunneling, verified by the negligible temperature dependence of the tautomerization rate below ˜23 K. Van der Waals corrected DFT calculations are used to characterize the adsorption structures of porphycene and to map the potential energy surface of the tautomerization on Cu(111). The calculated barriers are too high to be thermally overcome at cryogenic temperatures used in the experiment and zero-point energy corrections do not change this picture, leaving tunneling as the most likely mechanism. On Ag(111), the reversible trans ↔ cis conversion occurs spontaneously at 5 K and the cis ↔ cis tautomerization rate is much higher than on Cu(111), indicating a significantly smaller tautomerization barrier on Ag(111) due to the weaker interaction between porphycene and the surface compared to Cu(111). Additionally, the STM experiments and DFT calculations reveal that tautomerization on Cu(111) and Ag(111) occurs with migration of porphycene along the surface; thus, the translational motion couples with the tautomerization coordinate. On the other hand, the trans and cis configurations are not discernible in the STM image and no tautomerization is observed for porphycene on Au(111). The weak interaction of porphycene with Au(111) is closest to the gas-phase limit and therefore the absence

  11. Sans-Terre au sud du Brésil Sem-terra no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Somain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Le livre de Susana Bleil, brésilienne et maître de conférences à l’Université du Havre, est la reprise pour un plus large public de sa thèse en sociologie soutenue en mai 2009 à Paris (EHESS. Elle est publiée par maison d’édition Karthala, qui a été fondée pour publier et diffuser des textes sur les questions internationales en rapport avec les pays du Sud.Pour l’essentiel, le livre retrace l’occupation d’une terre par seize familles de paysans Sans-Terre. Après avoir retracé – pour le publi...

  12. Magnetism of CuCl{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O and CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, and of CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Hampton, A.S.; Van Dongen, M.J.; Komatsu, C.H.; Benday, N.S.; Davis, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • CuCl{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is examined magnetically and compared with CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. • Slightly lower magnetic characteristic temperatures occur for deuterated dihydrate. • The new compound CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O is examined magnetically. • Unexpected relationships appears between magnetic behaviors of CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and CuBr{sub 2}. • Two alternative monoclinic unit cells can account for diffraction data on CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Abstract: The magnetic properties of little examined CuCl{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O are studied and compared with those of CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. New CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O is also examined. Susceptibility maxima appear for chlorides at 5.35 and 5.50 K, in the above order, with estimated antiferromagnetic ordering at 4.15 and 4.25 K. Curie-Weiss fits yield g of 2.210 and 2.205, and Weiss θ of −6.0 and −4.7 K, respectively, in χ{sub M} = C/(T − θ). One-dimensional Heisenberg model fits to susceptibilities, including interchain exchange in a mean-field approximation, are performed. Interchain exchange is significant but much weaker than intrachain. The bromide hexahydrate strongly differs magnetically from any chloride hydrate, but exhibits notable similarities and differences compared to previously studied CuBr{sub 2}. A broad susceptibility maximum occurs near 218 K, only 4% lower than for CuBr{sub 2}, but with almost twice the magnitude. Powder X-ray diffraction data for CuBr{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O may be best accounted for by a monoclinic unit cell that is metrically orthorhombic. The volume per formula unit is consistent with trends in metal ionic radii. However, an alternative monoclinic cell with 5% smaller volume more readily rationalizes the magnetism.

  13. Formation of the Vysoká-Zlatno Cu-Au skarn-porphyry deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Lexa, Jaroslav; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2010-12-01

    The central zone of the Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano hosts several occurrences of Cu-Au skarn-porphyry mineralisation, related to granodiorite/quartz-diorite porphyry dyke clusters and stocks. Vysoká-Zlatno is the largest deposit (13.4 Mt at 0.52% Cu), with mineralised Mg-Ca exo- and endoskarns, developed at the prevolcanic basement level. The alteration pattern includes an internal K- and Na-Ca silicate zone, surrounded by phyllic and argillic zones, laterally grading into a propylitic zone. Fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets in the internal zone contain mostly saline brines with 31-70 wt.% NaCl eq. and temperatures of liquid-vapour homogenization (Th) of 186-575°C, indicating fluid heterogenisation. Garnet contains inclusions of variable salinity with 1-31 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 320-360°C. Quartz-chalcopyrite veinlets host mostly low-salinity fluid inclusions with 0-3 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 323-364°C. Data from sphalerite from the margin of the system indicate mixing with dilute and cooler fluids. The isotopic composition of fluids in equilibrium with K-alteration and most skarn minerals (both prograde and retrograde) indicates predominantly a magmatic origin (δ18Ofluid 2.5-12.3‰) with a minor meteoric component. Corresponding low δDfluid values are probably related to isotopic fractionation during exsolution of the fluid from crystallising magma in an open system. The data suggest the general pattern of a distant source of magmatic fluids that ascended above a zone of hydraulic fracturing below the temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The magma chamber at ˜5-6 km depth exsolved single-phase fluids, whose properties were controlled by changing PT conditions along their fluid paths. During early stages, ascending fluids display liquid-vapour immiscibility, followed by physical separation of both phases. Low-salinity liquid associated with ore veinlets probably represents a single-phase magmatic fluid/magmatic vapour which contracted into

  14. Geochronological framework of the early Paleozoic Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit, NE China, and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Ma, Xing-Hua; Che, He-Wei; Ou'yang, He-Gen; Gao, Xu

    2017-08-01

    The Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit of NE China is an important ore deposit in the middle section of the northern margin of the North China Craton. The early Paleozoic Bainaimiao Group is the main ore-hosting rock. The mineralization at the deposit shows features of porphyry alteration and late-stage orogenesis and transformation. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age data indicate that the ages of the Third and Fifth formations of the Bainaimiao Group are 492.7 ± 2.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.53) and 488.9 ± 3.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.92), respectively. The age of quartz diorite that intrudes the Bainaimiao Group is 459.3 ± 6.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.20). Molybdenite samples from massive Cu-Mo-bearing ores and quartz veins in the southern ore belt yield a Re-Os isochron age of 438.2 ± 2.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.16), which is consistent with the Re-Os isochron age of molybdenite in the northern ore belt, implying that the two ore belts belong to the same mineralization system. Muscovite from a post-magmatic Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-calcite vein yields an Ar-Ar isochron age of 422.5 ± 3.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.64) with an initial 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 286 ± 21. The well-defined plateau age of the muscovite is 422.4 ± 2.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.05), which represents the time of the post-magmatic orogenic transformation event. Based on our new age data and previous findings, we propose that the Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit formed in an active continental margin setting and experienced four stages of ore mineralization: (1) a Late Cambrian-Middle Ordovician volcanic-sedimentary stage; (2) a Late Ordovician porphyry mineralization stage; (3) a Late Silurian regional metamorphism stage; and (4) an orogenic transformation stage. Subhedral and euhedral Paleoproterozoic (2402-1810 Ma) inherited zircons indicate that the Bainaimiao Group has a tectonic affinity with the North China Craton. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is closely related to the complex closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, is favorable for prospecting for Paleozoic porphyry Cu

  15. Geology, geochemistry and fluid inclusion of Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au quartz veins, northeast of Kharvana, East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Asiay Soufiani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au occurrence is located in the Arasbaran ore zone (AZ, NW Iran, some 70 km north of Tabriz. The AZ is characterized by occurrence of different types of mineralization and hosts many Cu-Mo porphyry (PCD, Cu skarn, and epithermal Au deposits (Jamali et al., 2010; Jamali and Mehrabi, 2015. The main rock unit exposed in the area is Qaradagh batholith (QDB. A variety of porphyry and vein-type Cu–Mo–Au mineralization are associated with QDB. The most pronounced occurrences are in Qarachilar, Qara-Dareh, Zarli-Dareh, Aniq and Pirbolagh. This type of mineralization can be followed in other parts of northwest Iran, such as Masjed-Daghi porphyry Cu–Au deposit and Mivehrood vein-type Au mineralization in the southwest of the QDB, the Sungun PCD and the related skarn in its southeast, and Astamal Fe skarn deposit in the south of the QDB. To date, no detailed study has been undertaken to understand the characteristics of the Qarachilar occurrence and its mineralization type is controversial. The recent work by Simmonds and Moazzen (2015 also did not present relevant information for an understanding of the Qarachilar occurrence. The Re–Os age data obtained in their work were compared with similar events along the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA and southern Lesser Caucasus in order to elucidate the temporal pattern of mineralization across the whole QDB and the UDMA. The present paper provides an overview of the geological framework, the mineralization characteristics, and the results of geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies of the Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au occurrence with an application to the ore genesis. Materials and methods More than 37 polished thin sections from Qarachilar host rocks and mineralized and altered zones were studied by conventional petrographic and mineralogic methods at the University of Zanjan. In addition, 9 samples from non-altered and altered host rocks and mineralized veins were analyzed by

  16. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  17. Efficient Carbon-Based CsPbBr3 Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells by Using Cu-Phthalocyanine as Hole Transport Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Ye, Haibo; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2018-06-01

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted extensive research interest for next-generation solution-processed photovoltaic devices because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication cost. Although the world's best PSC successfully achieves a considerable PCE of over 20% within a very limited timeframe after intensive efforts, the stability, high cost, and up-scaling of PSCs still remain issues. Recently, inorganic perovskite material, CsPbBr3, is emerging as a promising photo-sensitizer with excellent durability and thermal stability, but the efficiency is still embarrassing. In this work, we intend to address these issues by exploiting CsPbBr3 as light absorber, accompanied by using Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) as hole transport material (HTM) and carbon as counter electrode. The optimal device acquires a decent PCE of 6.21%, over 60% higher than those of the HTM-free devices. The systematic characterization and analysis reveal a more effective charge transfer process and a suppressed charge recombination in PSCs after introducing CuPc as hole transfer layer. More importantly, our devices exhibit an outstanding durability and a promising thermal stability, making it rather meaningful in future fabrication and application of PSCs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Highly selective and sensitive method for Cu2 + detection based on chiroptical activity of L-Cysteine mediated Au nanorod assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hamzeh

    2017-11-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a simple and efficient method to detect Cu2 + based on amplified optical activity in the chiral nanoassemblies of gold nanorods (Au NRs). L-Cysteine can induce side-by-side or end-to-end assembly of Au NRs with an evident plasmonic circular dichroism (PCD) response due to coupling between surface plasmon resonances (SPR) of Au NRs and the chiral signal of L-Cys. Because of the obvious stronger plasmonic circular dichrosim (CD) response of the side-by-side assembly compared with the end-to-end assemblies, SS assembled Au NRs was selected as a sensitive platform and used for Cu2 + detection. In the presence of Cu2 +, Cu2 + can catalyze O2 oxidation of cysteine to cystine. With an increase in Cu2 + concentration, the L-Cysteine-mediated assembly of Au NRs decreased because of decrease in the free cysteine thiol groups, and the PCD signal decreased. Taking advantage of this method, Cu2 + could be detected in the concentration range of 20 pM-5 nM. Under optimal conditions, the calculated detection limit was found to be 7 pM.

  19. New insights into the mixing of gold and copper in a nanoparticle from a structural study of Au-Cu nanoalloys synthesized via a wet chemistry method and pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Hélène; Nelayah, Jaysen; Ricolleau, Christian; Wang, Guillaume; Nowak, Sophie; Lamic-Humblot, Anne-Félicie; Alloyeau, Damien

    2015-11-14

    Gold-copper nanoparticles (Au-Cu NPs) were elaborated by both chemical (polyol reduction method) and physical (laser deposition) routes. The size, composition and crystal structure of these bimetallic nanoalloys were then characterized by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using a one-pot polyol method, Au-Cu nanocubes (NCs) with nominal compositions Au3Cu and AuCu3 were synthesized. The size and composition of the NCs were tuned by varying the amount and the ratio of Au(iii) and Cu(ii) ions used as metallic precursors in the reaction. While the particle shape and size were well-controlled, single particle X-ray spectroscopy showed that, irrespective of the targeted compositions, the Cu content in all NCs was about 11-12 at%, i.e. in both samples, the real composition was different from the nominal one. This was ascribed to an incomplete alloying of the two constituent metals of the alloy in the cubes due to different reduction kinetics of the two metallic precursors. To shed light on the alloying of gold and copper at the nanoscale, Au-Cu NPs with targeted compositions Au3Cu and AuCu3 were deposited on amorphous carbon by laser ablation of two monometallic sources, and their structural properties were studied by TEM. These studies show that Au-Cu nanoalloys were synthesized in both samples and that the complete mixing of Au and Cu atoms achieved with this synthesis technique led to the production of Au-Cu NPs with well-controlled compositions. These results constitute a first but major step towards a complete understanding of the details of kinetics and thermodynamics determining the mixing of gold and copper atoms at the nanoscale. Such an understanding is essential for producing Au-Cu bimetallic nanoalloys with well-defined structural properties via wet chemical synthesis.

  20. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: bis-carbene metal adatom bonding scheme of monolayer films on Au, Ag and Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Bodong; Médard, Guillaume; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Haag, Felix; Allegretti, Francesco; Reichert, Joachim; Kuster, Bernhard; Barth, Johannes V; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C

    2017-12-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), complementary density functional theory (DFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) we investigate the binding and self-assembly of a saturated molecular layer of model N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on Cu(111), Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. On all three surfaces, we resolve similar arrangements, which can be interpreted only in terms of mononuclear M(NHC) 2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes, reminiscent of the paired bonding of thiols to surface gold adatoms. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au(111) surface covered by Au(NHC) 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

  1. Plasmon resonance enhanced photocatalysis under visible light with Au/Cu-TiO2 nanoparticles: Removal Cr (VI) from water as a case of study

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, Mohamed Abdulkader; Rashid, Shama G.; Zubair, Syed M.; Ali, Mohammada A.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Lienhard V, John H.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2013-01-01

    Gold modified copper doped titania (Au/Cu:TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified sol gel method and characterized using XRD, optical and TEM based techniques. The as-prepared material contained anatase phase particles with quasi-spherical morphology, showing enhanced absorption in the visible region and low photoluminescence emission intensity. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) in aqueous suspension with the Au/Cu:TiO2catalyst under 532 nm laser radiation and a visible broad band lamp source yielded 96% and 45% removal, respectively, without any additives. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the improved plasmonic effect due to gold modification and the expanded visible absorption due to copper doping. Moreover a comparative study of the material properties and catalytic activity of TiO2, Cu-TiO2and Au/Cu-TiO2 was carried out. © 2013 by American Scientific Publishers.

  2. Plasmon resonance enhanced photocatalysis under visible light with Au/Cu-TiO2 nanoparticles: Removal Cr (VI) from water as a case of study

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Gold modified copper doped titania (Au/Cu:TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified sol gel method and characterized using XRD, optical and TEM based techniques. The as-prepared material contained anatase phase particles with quasi-spherical morphology, showing enhanced absorption in the visible region and low photoluminescence emission intensity. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) in aqueous suspension with the Au/Cu:TiO2catalyst under 532 nm laser radiation and a visible broad band lamp source yielded 96% and 45% removal, respectively, without any additives. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the improved plasmonic effect due to gold modification and the expanded visible absorption due to copper doping. Moreover a comparative study of the material properties and catalytic activity of TiO2, Cu-TiO2and Au/Cu-TiO2 was carried out. © 2013 by American Scientific Publishers.

  3. Catalysis by Nanostructures: Methane, Ethylene Oxide, and Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag, Cu or Au Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-07

    22 nm) were prepared by reducing a Au salt, and encapsulating the Au nanoparticles formed in a polymer33 . A variety of high area oxides (TiO 2, ZnO ...Morphologies Utilizing a Combinatorial Electrochemistry Methodology. Ph. D. dissertation, Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (2004

  4. Theoretical study of the superhyperfine parameters for Cu{sup 2+} in K{sub 2}PdX{sub 4} (X = Cl, Br)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, L. H.; Wu, S. Y., E-mail: shaoyi_wu@163.com; Zhang, Z. H.; Wang, X. F.; Hu, Y. X. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Department of Applied Physics (China)

    2008-01-15

    The superhyperfine parameters T{sub j} (j = x, y, z) for Cu{sup 2+} in the square-planar K{sub 2}PdX{sub 4} (X = Cl, Br) are theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for an octahedral 3d{sup 9} cluster, by considering both the contributions from the crystal-field and charge-transfer mechanisms. The related molecular orbital coefficients are determined from the cluster approach in a uniform way. Based on one adjustable proportional factor {rho} for the orbital admixture coefficients, the calculated results of present work show reasonable agreement with the observed values.

  5. Theoretical study of PTCDA adsorbed on the coinage metal surfaces, Ag(111), Au(111) and Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaner, L; Nabok, D; Puschnig, P; Ambrosch-Draxl, C; Zojer, E

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the adsorption of molecules on metallic surfaces is a crucial prerequisite for the development and improvement of functionalized materials. A prominent representative within the class of π-conjugated molecules is 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) which, adsorbed on the Ag(111), Au(111) or Cu(111) surfaces, shows characteristic trends for work-function modification, alignment of molecular levels with the substrate Fermi energy and binding distances. We carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate to what extent these trends can be rationalized on a theoretical basis. We used different density functionals (DF) including a fully non-local van der Waals (vdW) DF capable of describing dispersion interactions. We show that, rather independent of the DF, the calculations yield level alignments and work-function modifications consistent with ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy when the monolayer is placed onto the surfaces at the experimental distances (as determined from x-ray standing wave experiments). The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is occupied on the Ag and Cu surfaces, whereas it remains unoccupied on the Au surface. Simultaneously, the work function increases for Ag but decreases for Cu and Au. Adsorption distances and energies, on the other hand, depend very sensitively on the choice of the DF. While calculations in the local density approximation bind the monolayer consistently with the experimental trends, the generalized gradient approximation in several flavors fails to reproduce realistic distances and energies. Calculations employing the vdW-DF reveal that substantial bonding contributions arise from dispersive interactions. They yield reasonable binding energies but larger binding distances than the experiments.

  6. Energy Reflection Coefficients for 5-10 keV He Ions Incident on Au, Ag, and Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Littmark, U.

    1978-01-01

    The calorimetric deuterium-film method was used for measurements of the energy reflection coefficient γ for normal incidence of 5-10 keV He ions on Cu, Ag and Au. A theoretical calculation of γ by means of transport theory gives fair agreement with the experimental results. The experimental data...... the experimental and theoretical results for the He ions are in acceptable agreement with other experimental and theoretical results. For He ions, the experimental γ-values are 20-30% above the values for hydrogen ions for the same value of ε...

  7. Mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, C.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Enescu, S.E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S.

    2001-01-01

    The average charge states of 0.1 - 1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K α , β X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula. (authors)

  8. Isotope effects in the diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in ferromagnetic binary alloys of the Cu3Au type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirscher, M.; Maier, C.U.; Schwendemann, B.; Kronmueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen and deuterium at low temperatures was investigated in ordered and disordered alloys of Ni 3 Fe, Ni 3 Mn, and Fe 3 Pt by means of magnetic after-effect (MAE) measurements. After hydrogen charging all specimens show characteristic MAE relaxation spectra, which can be described taking into account the different octahedral positions of the hydrogen atoms in the Cu 3 Au structure. The observed isotope effect can qualitatively be explained by a thermally activated tunnelling process of the hydrogen isotopes. (orig.)

  9. Two different one-dimensional structural motifs in [catena-{Cu(tacn)}2Pd(CN)4]Br2.[catena-Cu(tacn)Pd(CN)4]2.H2O (tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchár, Juraj; Cernák, Juraj

    2009-07-01

    The title compound, catena-poly[[bis[(triazacyclononane-kappa(3)N,N',N'')copper(II)]-di-mu-cyanido-kappa(4)N:C-palladate(II)-di-mu-cyanido-kappa(4)C:N] dibromide bis[[(triazacyclononane-kappa(3)N,N',N'')copper(II)]-mu-cyanido-kappa(2)N:C-[dicyanidopalladate(II)]-mu-cyanido-kappa(2)C:N] monohydrate], {[Cu(2)Pd(CN)(4)(C(6)H(15)N(3))(2)]Br(2).[Cu(2)Pd(2)(CN)(8)(C(6)H(15)N(3))(2)].H(2)O}(n), (I), was isolated from an aqueous solution containing tacn.3HBr (tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane), Cu(2+) and tetracyanidopalladate(2-) anions. The crystal structure of (I) is essentially ionic and built up of 2,2-electroneutral chains, viz. [Cu(tacn)(NC)-Pd(CN)(2)-(CN)-], positively charged 2,4-ribbons exhibiting the composition {[Cu(tacn)(NC)(2)-Pd(CN)(2)-Cu(tacn)](2n+)}(n), bromide anions and one disordered water molecule of crystallization. The O atom of the water molecule occupies two unique crystallographic positions, one on a centre of symmetry, which is half occupied, and the other in a general position with one-quarter occupancy. One of the tacn ligands also exhibits disorder. The formation of two different types of one-dimensional structural motif within the same structure is a unique feature of this compound.

  10. Magnetoresistance peak in the mixed state of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this letter, the authors report transport measurements with field and current parallel to the b axis (perpendicular to the conducting plane) in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Br. The isothermal magnetoresistance R(H) displays a peak effect as a function of field. The peak resistance is substantially larger than that in large fields. The results are in sharp contrast to the conventional dissipation mechanisms in the mixed state of anisotropic superconductors, as in the case of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . Comparison with H c2 (T) obtained from magnetic measurements shows that the peak effect in R(H) occurs in the mixed state. Analysis of the data suggests a much larger Josephson junction resistance in the mixed state than that in the normal state, indicative of a new charge transport scattering mechanism in the presence of vortices

  11. How does the composition of quasi-stoichiometric titanium diboride affect its wetting by molten Cu and Au?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizenshtein, M.; Froumin, N.; Barth, P.; Shapiro-Tsoref, E.; Dariel, M.P.; Frage, N.

    2007-01-01

    The poor wetting in non-oxide ceramic/metal (M = Au or Cu) systems is usually attributed to the lack of chemical interaction at the solid/liquid interface. In contrast, sessile drop experiments on two non-stoichiometric titanium diboride substrates (TiB 1.9 and TiB 1.95 ) displayed a surprisingly good wetting. The experimental results are well accounted for by the thermodynamic analysis of the Me-Ti-B systems. According to this analysis, some limited boride dissolution and altering of the substrate composition takes place at the TiB x /Me interface. These changes are more substantial, the stronger the departure from stoichiometry of the initial substrate composition. Minor composition changes are sufficient for improving wetting. Based on the results of the thermodynamic analysis and the wetting experiments, a novel method for the fabrication of Cu infiltrated composites is put forward

  12. Differences in the neutralization of 2.4--10 keV Ne+ scattered from the Cu and Au atoms of an alloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, T.M.; Wallace, W.E.; Baragiola, R.A.; Wheatley, G.H.; Rothman, J.B.; Gorte, R.J.; Tittensor, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The neutralization behavior of low-energy Ne + ions scattered from a compositionally ordered Cu 3 Au(100) surface has been studied over a range of incident energy E 0 from 2.4 to 10 keV. Ion fractions of Ne scattered from Cu atoms in the first, or first two, atom layers exhibited a sharp increase setting in at an E 0 of 4--5 keV, reaching 70% at 10 keV for first-layer scattering. Inelastic energy losses, up to 130 eV, and Auger electron emission from Ne scattered from Cu, were also observed at incident energies above 4 keV. Ne scattered from the Au atoms on the same Cu 3 Au(100) surface showed only the usual velocity-dependent Auger and resonance neutralization. An explanation of the Cu results is given in terms of Ne 2s vacancy creation during the close collision of Ne, which is neutralized on the inward path, followed by autoionization on the outward path after scattering into the vacuum. Conversely, Ne cannot approach Au closely enough to form an appropriate inner-shell vacancy. This is due to the higher Coulombic repulsion created by the greater charge of the Au nucleus

  13. Structural determination of stable MoOx monolayers on O/Cu3Au(1 0 0): DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadares, George C.S.; Mendes, F.M.T.; Dionízio Moreira, M.; Leitão, A.A.; Niehus, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Molybdenum oxide is widely used in catalysis in the chemical industry. ► Recently, ultra-thin (monolayer) films of MoO x have been produced on top of O-Cu 3 Au substrates. ► XPS measurements suggest an unusual +5 charge state of the Mo cation. ► Seeking for a low-energy structure with good match to the experimental STM and XPS. ► Bader charges indicate indeed an intermediate charge state as compared to the more common Mo +4 O 2 and Mo +6 O 3 bulk oxides. -- Abstract: Using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we propose a geometrical structure for MoO x monolayers recently grown on O/Cu 3 Au(1 0 0) substrates. The proposed structure reproduces the p(2 × 2) symmetry found by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), as well as the intermediate oxidation state between Mo(IV) and Mo(VI) identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Simulated STM images assign the bright spots in the experimental images to oxygen 2p states.

  14. Retrieval of Au, Ag, Cu precious metals coupled with electric energy production via an unconventional coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Wu, Zu-Cheng

    2017-09-15

    The recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions or e-wastes is of upmost importance. Retrieval of Au, Ag, and Cu with electricity generation through building an ethanol-metal coupled redox fuel cells (CRFCs) is demonstrated. The cell was uniquely assembled on PdNi/C anode the electro-oxidation of ethanol takes place to give electrons and then go through the external circuit reducing metal ions to metallic on the cathode, metals are recovered. Taking an example of removal of 100mgL -1 gold in 0.5M HAc-NaAc buffer solution as the catholyte, 2.0M ethanol in 1.0M alkaline solution as the anolyte, an open circuit voltage of 1.4V, more than 96% of gold removal efficiency in 20h, and equivalent energy production of 2.0kWhkg -1 of gold can be readily achieved in this system. When gold and copper ions coexist, it was confirmed that metallic Cu is formed on the cathodic electrode later than metallic Au formation by XPS analysis. Thus, this system can achieve step by step electrodeposition of gold and copper while the two metal ions coexisting. This work develops a new approach to retrieve valuable metals from aqueous solution or e-wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure and thermodynamic properties of (C5H12N)CuBr3: a new weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain complex lying in the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingying; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Shiyan

    2014-04-07

    Single crystals of a metal organic complex (C5H12N)CuBr3 (C5H12N = piperidinium, pipH for short) have been synthesized, and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (pipH)CuBr3 crystallizes in the monoclinic group C2/c. Edging-sharing CuBr5 units link to form zigzag chains along the c axis, and the neighboring Cu(II) ions with spin-1/2 are bridged by bibromide ions. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted by the Bonner-Fisher formula for the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, giving the intrachain magnetic coupling constant J ≈ -17 K. At zero field, (pipH)CuBr3 shows three-dimensional (3D) order below TN = 1.68 K. Calculated by the mean-field theory, the interchain coupling constant J' = -0.91 K is obtained and the ordered magnetic moment m0 is about 0.23 μB. This value of m0 makes (pipH)CuBr3 a rare compound suitable to study the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over problem in magnetism, since both 3D order and one-dimensional (1D) quantum fluctuations are prominent. In addition, specific heat measurements reveal two successive magnetic transitions with lowering temperature when external field μ0H ≥ 3 T is applied along the a' axis. The μ0H-T phase diagram of (pipH)CuBr3 is roughly constructed.

  16. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  17. Nanoscale Study of Clausthalite-Bearing Symplectites in Cu-Au-(U Ores: Implications for Ore Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Owen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Symplectites comprising clausthalite (PbSe and host Cu-(Fe-sulphides (chalcocite, bornite, and chalcopyrite are instructive for constraining the genesis of Cu-Au-(U ores if adequately addressed at the nanoscale. The present study is carried out on samples representative of all three Cu-(Fe-sulphides displaying clausthalite inclusions that vary in size, from a few µm down to the nm-scale (<5 nm, as well as in morphology and inclusion density. A Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study was undertaken on foils prepared by Focussed Ion Beam and included atom-scale High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM imaging. Emphasis is placed on phase relationships and their changes in speciation during cooling, as well as on boundaries between inclusions and host sulphide. Three species from the chalcocite group (Cu2–xS are identified as 6a digenite superstructure, monoclinic chalcocite, and djurleite. Bornite is represented by superstructures, of which 2a and 4a are discussed here, placing constraints for ore formation at T > 265 °C. A minimum temperature of 165 °C is considered for clausthalite-bearing symplectites from the relationships with antiphase boundaries in 6a digenite. The results show that alongside rods, blebs, and needle-like grains of clausthalite within the chalcocite that likely formed via exsolution, a second, overprinting set of replacement textures, extending down to the nanoscale, occurs and affects the primary symplectites. In addition, other reactions between pre-existing Se, present in solid solution within the Cu-(Fe-sulphides, and Pb, transported within a fluid phase, account for the formation of composite, commonly pore-attached PbSe and Bi-bearing nanoparticles within the chalcopyrite. The inferred reorganisation of PbSe nanoparticles into larger tetragonal superlattices represents a link between the solid solution and the symplectite formation and represents the first such example in natural materials

  18. B -meson production at forward and backward rapidity in p +p and Cu + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Ayuso, C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bagoly, A.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butler, C.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dumancic, M.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Elder, T.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ito, Y.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapukchyan, D.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kudo, S.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lallow, E. O.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, B.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lökös, S.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malaev, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Metzger, W. J.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I. M.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagai, K.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Novotny, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Radzevich, P. V.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Runchey, J.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skoby, M. J.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, K. L.; Snowball, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Syed, S.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Takeda, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnai, G.; Tennant, E.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; Wolin, S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The fraction of J /ψ mesons which come from B -meson decay, FB →J /ψ, is measured for J /ψ rapidity 1.2 0 in p +p and Cu+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV with the PHENIX detector. The extracted fraction is FB →J /ψ=0.025 ±0.006 (stat) ± 0.010(syst) for p +p collisions. For Cu+Au collisions, FB →J /ψ is 0.094 ± 0.028(stat) ± 0.037(syst) in the Au-going direction (-2.2 Cu-going direction (1.2 Au, of B mesons in Cu+Au collisions is consistent with binary scaling of measured yields in p +p at both forward and backward rapidity.

  19. Development of bonding techniques between W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components by HIP method (3). Bonding tests with Au-foil insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma a facing components (PFC), like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, like OFHC-Cu or DS-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. It is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to fabricate PFC. JAERI has developed the hot isostatic press (HIP) bonding process to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, bonding tests with Au-foil insert were performed. We could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and Cu-alloys with Au-foil as 1123K x 2hours x 147MPa. It was shown that the HIP temperature was 150K lower than that of without Au-foil. Furthermore, the tensile strength was similar to that of with without Au-foil. (author)

  20. Tunable thermodynamic stability of Au-CuPt core-shell trimetallic nanoparticles by controlling the alloy composition: insights from atomistic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-11-07

    A microscopic understanding of the thermal stability of metallic core-shell nanoparticles is of importance for their synthesis and ultimately application in catalysis. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of Au-CuPt core-shell trimetallic nanoparticles with various Cu/Pt ratios during heating processes. Our results show that the thermodynamic stability of these nanoparticles is remarkably enhanced upon rising Pt compositions in the CuPt shell. The melting of all the nanoparticles initiates at surface and gradually spreads into the core. Due to the lattice mismatch among Au, Cu and Pt, stacking faults have been observed in the shell and their numbers are associated with the Cu/Pt ratios. With the increasing temperature, they have reduced continuously for the Cu-dominated shell while more stacking faults have been produced for the Pt-dominated shell because of the significantly different thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals. Beyond the overall melting, all nanoparticles transform into a trimetallic mixing alloy coated by an Au-dominated surface. This work provides a fundamental perspective on the thermodynamic behaviors of trimetallic, even multimetallic, nanoparticles at the atomistic level, indicating that controlling the alloy composition is an effective strategy to realize tunable thermal stability of metallic nanocatalysts.

  1. Transverse Momentum Spectra of KS0 and K*0 at Midrapidity in d + Au, Cu + Cu, and p+p Collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guo-Xing; Li, Bao-Chun; Guo, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze transverse momentum spectra of K S 0 and K *0 at midrapidity in d + Au, Cu + Cu, and p+p collisions at √(s NN )=200 GeV in the formworks of Tsallis statistics and Boltzmann statistics, respectively. Both of them can describe the transverse momentum spectra and extract the thermodynamics parameters of matter evolution in the collisions. The parameters are helpful for us to understand the thermodynamics factors of the particle production

  2. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-02-15

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  3. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.

    2009-02-01

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  4. Structural disorder and its effect on the superconducting transition temperature in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, X.; Zuo, F.; Schlueter, J.A.; Kelly, M.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report direct evidence of a structural transition in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Br near 80 K and the effect of disorder on the superconducting transition temperature. By cooling the sample from above 80 K, the interlayer magnetoresistance displays a bumplike feature, which increases sharply with increasing cooling rate. The rapidly cooled sample has a much larger resistivity and a lower transition temperature, which decreases linearly with increasing resistivity near the transition temperature. We propose that rapid cooling quenches the sample into a disordered state. Localized moments in the disordered state reduce the superconducting transition temperature. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of (C6D11ND3)CuBr3 and (Zn1-xMnx)3As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, G.C. de.

    1989-08-01

    The investigations described concern the crystallographic and magnetic properties of the quasi one-dimensional (1d) ferromagnetic system (C 6 D 11 ND 3 )CuBr 3 (or CHAB) and the II-V type diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn 1 - x Mn x ) 3 As 2 (or ZMA). Both compounds have been studied with various neutron scattering techniques. The crystallographic properties of CHAB and ZMA have been investigated by neutron diffraction. These diffraction experiments were carried out at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten, Netherlands. For the investigation of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of CHAB neutron scattering experiments were performed in Petten as well as other European reactor institutes. These investigations comprise a study of the 3d long-rate order and the 1d correlations of the magnetic moments, and a study of the behaviour of the linear spin-wave excitations

  6. Extensive disordering in long-range-ordered Cu3Au induced by severe plastic deformation studied by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline materials can be made by severe plastic deformation. In L1 2 long-range-ordered alloys, this leads to extensive disordering which influences the highly improved properties of these nanocrystalline alloys. Transmission electron microscopy methods were applied to Cu 3 Au; both diffraction contrast images and diffraction patterns reveal that disordering takes place locally. It is concluded that in addition to disordering by the refinement of the grown-in antiphase boundary domains, the formation of antiphase boundary tubes is a prominent process of disordering. The latter is facilitated by the fact that, unlike dislocations, antiphase boundary tubes can be stored at a very high density without causing long-range stresses. The local disordering indicates that the nanocrystalline structure nucleates inhomogeneously in the highly strained disordered regions

  7. Ground-state properties of ordered, partially ordered, and random Cu-Au and Ni-Pt alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of ordered, partially ordered, and random Cu-Au and Ni-Pt alloys at the stoichiometric 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 compositions in the framework of the multisublattice single-site (SS) coherent potential approximation (CPA). Charge-transfer effects in the random ...... for the ordered alloys are in good agreement with experimental data. For all the alloys the calculated ordering energy and the equilibrium lattices parameters are found to be almost exact quadratic functions of the long-range-order parameter....... and the partially ordered alloys are included in the screened impurity model. The prefactor in the Madelung energy is determined by the requirement that the total energy obtained in direct SS CPA calculations should equal the total energy given by the Connolly-Williams expansion based on Green’s function...

  8. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu +Au Collisions at √{sN N } =200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, T.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, F.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, N.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu +Au collisions at √{sN N }=200 GeV . The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1 fm /c .

  9. Spin and orbital magnetism of coinage metal trimers (Cu3, Ag3, Au3: A relativistic density functional theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Afshar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu3, Ag3 and Au3 trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21μB was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.

  10. Importance of halogen···halogen contacts for the structural and magnetic properties of CuX2(pyrazine-N,N′-dioxide)(H2O)2 (X = Cl and Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, John A; Park, Hyunsoo; Halder, Gregory J; Armand, William R; Dunmars, Cortney; Chapman, Karena W; Manson, Jamie L; Singleton, John; McDonald, Ross; Plonczak, Alex; Kang, Jinhee; Lee, Chaghoon; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Lancaster, Tom; Steele, Andrew J; Franke, Isabel; Wright, Jack D; Blundell, Stephen J; Pratt, Francis L; deGeorge, Joseph; Turnbull, Mark M; Landee, Christopher P

    2012-02-20

    The structural and magnetic properties of the newly crystallized CuX(2)(pyzO)(H(2)O)(2) (X = Cl, Br; pyzO = pyrazine-N,N'-dioxide) coordination polymers are reported. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with, at 150 K, a = 17.0515(7) Å, b = 5.5560(2) Å, c = 10.4254(5) Å, β = 115.400(2)°, and V = 892.21(7) Å(3) for X = Cl and a = 17.3457(8) Å, b = 5.6766(3) Å, c = 10.6979(5) Å, β = 115.593(2)°, and V = 950.01(8) Å(3) for X = Br. Their crystal structure is characterized by one-dimensional chains of Cu(2+) ions linked through bidentate pyzO ligands. These chains are joined together through OH···O hydrogen bonds between the water ligands and pyzO oxygen atoms and Cu-X···X-Cu contacts. Bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements at ambient pressure show a broad maximum at 7 (Cl) and 28 K (Br) that is indicative of short-range magnetic correlations. The dominant spin exchange is the Cu-X···X-Cu supersuperexchange because the magnetic orbital of the Cu(2+) ion is contained in the CuX(2)(H(2)O)(2) plane and the X···X contact distances are short. The magnetic data were fitted to a Heisenberg 1D uniform antiferromagnetic chain model with J(1D)/k(B) = -11.1(1) (Cl) and -45.9(1) K (Br). Magnetization saturates at fields of 16.1(3) (Cl) and 66.7(5) T (Br), from which J(1D) is determined to be -11.5(2) (Cl) and -46.4(5) K (Br). For the Br analog the pressure dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicates a gradual increase in the magnitude of J(1D)/k(B) up to -51.2 K at 0.84 GPa, suggesting a shortening of the Br···Br contact distance under pressure. At higher pressure X-ray powder diffraction data indicates a structural phase transition at ∼3.5 GPa. Muon-spin relaxation measurements indicate that CuCl(2)(pyzO)(H(2)O)(2) is magnetically ordered with T(N) = 1.06(1) K, while the signature for long-range magnetic order in CuBr(2)(pyzO)(H(2)O)(2) was much less definitive down to 0.26 K. The results for the Cu

  11. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/poly(vinyl alcohol) sensitizing system for solution photogeneration of small Ag, Au, and Cu crystallites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchev, A S; Shulyak, T S; Slaten, B L; Gale, W F; Mills, G

    2005-04-28

    Illumination of air-free aqueous solutions containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(vinyl alcohol) with 350 nm light results in benzophenone ketyl radicals of the polyketone. The polymer radicals form with a quantum yield 0.02 and decay with a second-order rate constant 6 orders of magnitude lower than that of typical alpha-hydroxy radicals. Evidence is presented that the polymeric benzophenone ketyl radicals reduce Ag+, Cu2+, and AuCl4- to metal particles of nanometer dimensions. Decreases in the reduction rates with increasing Ag(I), Cu(II), and Au(III) concentrations are explained using a kinetic model in which the metal ions quench the excited state of the polymeric benzophenone groups, which forms the macromolecular radicals. Quenching is fastest for Ag+, whereas Cu2+ and AuCl4- exhibit similar rate constants. Particle formation becomes more complex as the number of equivalents needed to reduce the metal ions increases; the Au(III) system is an extreme case where the radical reactions operate in parallel with secondary light-initiated and thermal reduction channels. For each metal ion, the polymer-initiated photoreactions produce crystallites possessing distinct properties, such as a very strong plasmon in the Ag case or the narrow size distribution exhibited by Au particles.

  12. Typomorphic Characteristics of Molybdenite from the Bystrinsky Cu-Au Porphyry-Skarn Deposit, Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenker, V. A.; Trubkin, N. V.; Abramova, V. D.; Plotinskaya, O. Yu.; Kiseleva, G. D.; Borisovskii, S. E.; Yazykova, Yu. I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents pioneering data on the composition, texture, and crystal structure of molybdenite from various types of molybdenum mineralization at the Bystrinsky Cu-Au-Fe porphyry-skarn deposit in the eastern Transbaikal region, Russia. The data were obtained using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Molybdenite found at the deposit in skarn, sulfide-poor quartz veins, and quartz-feldspar alteration markedly differs in the concentrations of trace elements determined by their species in the mineral, as well as in its structural features. Molybdenite-2H from skarn associated with phyllosilicates occurs as ultrafine crystals with uniform shape and texture; no dislocations or inclusions were found but amorphous silica was. The molybdenite composition is highly contrasting in the content and distribution of both structure-related (Re, W, and Se) and other (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sb, Te, Ag, Pd, Au, Hg, Pb, and Bi) metals. In the sulfide-poor quartz veins, highly structurally heterogeneous (2H + 3R) molybdenite microcrystals with abundant defects (dislocations and volumetrically distributed inclusions) are associated with illite, goethite, and barite. Some single crystals are unique three-phase (2H + 3R polytypes + amorphous MoS2). The mineral has a low concentration of all trace elements, which are uniformly distributed. However, individual domains with uniquely high Pd, Te, Ni, Hg, and W concentrations caused by mineral inclusions are found in some grains. Molybdenite from quartz-feldspar alteration is characterized by low concentrations of all trace elements except for Re and Se, which enrich some domains of the grains. Our data indicate that the compositional and structural heterogeneity of molybdenite from the Bystrinsky deposit are its crucial features, which obviously correlate with the types of Mo mineralization.

  13. Mass and velocity of fragments from the reaction 17-115 MeV/u 40Ar + Cu, Ag and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Guinet, D.; Stern, M.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements are reported for fragment masses and velocities from the reactions 17-115 MeV/u 40 Ar + Cu, Ag and Au. High momentum and energy deposition are reported for selected events, even for higher incident energy. Further study is needed to understand their origin. (authors)

  14. Interfacial Microstructure and Shear Strength of Brazed Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy Cylinder and Cylindrical Hole by Au Based Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaihua Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Au-Ge-Ni solder was chosen for brazing of the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy cylinder and a part with a cylindrical hole (sleeve below 550 °C. The Au based solder was first sintered on the surface of the cylinder and then brazed to the inner surface of the sleeve. The effects of the heating process, the temperature and the holding time at the temperature on the microstructure of the sintered layer on the surface of the cylinder, the brazed interfacial microstructure, and the brazed shear strength between the cylinder and the sleeve were investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and tensile shear tests. By approach of side solder melt feeding and brazing under proper parameters, the voids and micro cracks due to a lack of enough solder melt feeding are greatly lessened and the brazed shear strength of 100 MPa is ensured even with large clearances around 0.01 mm.

  15. Diethylenetriamine/diamines/copper (II complexes [Cu(dien(NN]Br2: Synthesis, solvatochromism, thermal, electrochemistry, single crystal, Hirshfeld surface analysis and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Abu Saleemh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two dicationic water soluble mixed triamine/diamine copper (II complexes, of general formula [Cu(dienNN]Br2 (1–2 [dien = diethelenetriamine and NN is en = ethylenediamine or Me4en = N,N′,N,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine] were prepared under ultrasonic mode with a relatively high yield. These complexes were characterized by elemental microanalysis, UV visible IR spectroscopy, and thermal and electrochemical techniques. In addition, complex 2 structure was solved by X-ray single crystal and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The complex exhibits a distorted square pyramidal coordination environment around Cu(II centre. The solvatochromism of the desired complexes was investigated in water and other suitable organic solvents. The results show that the Guttmann’s DN parameter values of the solvents have mainly contributed to the shift of the d–d absorption band towards the linear increase in the wavelength of the absorption maxima of the complexes. The complex 1 showed higher antibacterial activity against the studied microorganisms compared to complex 2. Both complexes revealed promising antibacterial activities.

  16. Platinum-group element geochemistry used to determine Cu and Au fertility in the Northparkes igneous suites, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongda; Campbell, Ian H.; Park, Jung-Woo; Cooke, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that platinum-group elements (PGE) can be used to constrain the timing of sulfide saturation in evolving felsic systems. In this study, we report trace-element, PGE, Re and Au data for the barren and ore-associated suites of intermediate to felsic rocks from the Northparkes Cu-Au porphyry region, emphasizing the timing of sulfide saturation and its influence on the tenor of the associated hydrothermal mineralization. Two barren suites, the Goonumbla and Wombin Volcanics and associate intrusive rocks, are found in the region. Geochemical modelling shows that the barren suites are dominated by plagioclase-pyroxene fractionation, whereas the ore-associated Northparkes Cu-Au porphyry suite is characterized by plagioclase-amphibole fractionation, which requires the ore-bearing suite to have crystallized from a wetter magma than barren suites. The concentrations of PGE, Re and Au in the barren suites decrease continuously during fractional crystallization. This is attributed to early sulfide saturation with the fraction of immiscible sulfide precipitation required to produce the observed trend, being 0.13 and 0.16 wt.% for the Goonumbla and Wombin suites, respectively. The calculated partition coefficients for Au and Pd required to model the observed change in these elements with MgO are well below published values, indicating that R, the mass ratio of silicate to sulfide melt, played a significant role in controlling the rate of decline of these elements with fractionation. Palladium in the ore-associated suite, in contrast, first increases with fractionation then decreases abruptly at 1.2 wt.% MgO. The sharp decrease is attributed to the onset of sulfide precipitation. Platinum on the other hand shows a moderate decrease, starting from the highest MgO sample analysed, but then decreasing strongly from 1.2 wt.% MgO. The initial Pt decrease is attributed to precipitation of a platinum-group mineral (PGM), probably a Pt-Fe alloy, and the sharp

  17. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  18. A Au/Cu2O-TiO2 system for photo-catalytic hydrogen production. A pn-junction effect or a simple case of in situ reduction?

    KAUST Repository

    Sinatra, Lutfan

    2015-02-01

    Photo-catalytic H2 production from water has been studied over Au-Cu2O nanoparticle deposited on TiO2 (anatase) in order to probe into both the plasmon resonance effect (Au nanoparticles) and the pn-junction at the Cu2O-TiO2 interface. The Au-Cu2O composite is in the form of ∼10 nm Au nanoparticles grown on ∼475 nm Cu2O octahedral nanocrystals with (111) facets by partial galvanic replacement. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Cu2p and Auger L3M4,5M4,5 lines indicate that the surface of Cu2O is mainly composed of Cu+. The rate for H2 production (from 95 water/5 ethylene glycol; vol.%) over 2 wt.% (Au/Cu2O)-TiO2 is found to be ∼10 times faster than that on 2 wt.% Au-TiO2 alone. Raman spectroscopy before and after reaction showed the disappearance of Cu+ lines (2Eu) at 220 cm-1. These observations coupled with the induction time observed for the reaction rate suggest that in situ reduction from Cu+ to Cu0 occurs upon photo-excitation. The reduction requires the presence of TiO2 (electron transfer). The prolonged activity of the reaction (with no signs of deactivation) despite the reduction to Cu0 indicates that the latter takes part in the reaction by providing additional sites for the reaction, most likely as recombination centers for hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. This phenomenon provides an additional route for enhancing the efficiency and lifetime of Cu2O-TiO2 photocatalytic systems, beyond the usually ascribed pn-junction effect.

  19. Anisotropic magnetic interactions and spin dynamics in the spin-chain compound Cu (py) 2Br2 : An experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisner, J.; Brockmann, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Weiße, A.; Thede, M.; Ressouche, E.; Povarov, K. Yu.; Zheludev, A.; Klümper, A.; Büchner, B.; Kataev, V.; Göhmann, F.

    2017-07-01

    We compare theoretical results for electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of the Heisenberg-Ising Hamiltonian with ESR experiments on the quasi-one-dimensional magnet Cu (py) 2Br2 (CPB). Our measurements were performed over a wide frequency and temperature range giving insight into the spin dynamics, spin structure, and magnetic anisotropy of this compound. By analyzing the angular dependence of ESR parameters (resonance shift and linewidth) at room temperature, we show that the two weakly coupled inequivalent spin-chain types inside the compound are well described by Heisenberg-Ising chains with their magnetic anisotropy axes perpendicular to the chain direction and almost perpendicular to each other. We further determine the full g tensor from these data. In addition, the angular dependence of the linewidth at high temperatures gives us access to the exponent of the algebraic decay of a dynamical correlation function of the isotropic Heisenberg chain. From the temperature dependence of static susceptibilities, we extract the strength of the exchange coupling (J /kB=52.0 K ) and the anisotropy parameter (δ ≈-0.02 ) of the model Hamiltonian. An independent compatible value of δ is obtained by comparing the exact prediction for the resonance shift at low temperatures with high-frequency ESR data recorded at 4 K . The spin structure in the ordered state implied by the two (almost) perpendicular anisotropy axes is in accordance with the propagation vector determined from neutron scattering experiments. In addition to undoped samples, we study the impact of partial substitution of Br by Cl ions on spin dynamics. From the dependence of the ESR linewidth on the doping level, we infer an effective decoupling of the anisotropic component J δ from the isotropic exchange J in these systems.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan, E-mail: g.j.kroes@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Pavanello, Michele [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blanco-Rey, María [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, Maite [Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Auerbach, Daniel J. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction (“EF”) model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated “post” (“p”) the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy

  1. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the

  2. The association between content of the elements S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue from Danes and Greenlandic Inuit examined by dual hierarchical clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jens; Milman, Nils; Pind, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis of previous studies evaluating associations between content of elements sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and bromine (Br) in normal and cirrhotic autopsy liver tissue samples. Normal liver samples from 45 Greenlandic Inuit, median age 60 years and from 71 Danes, median age 61 years. Cirrhotic liver samples from 27 Danes, median age 71 years. Element content was measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Dual hierarchical clustering analysis, creating a dual dendrogram, one clustering element contents according to calculated similarities, one clustering elements according to correlation coefficients between the element contents, both using Euclidian distance and Ward Procedure. One dendrogram separated subjects in 7 clusters showing no differences in ethnicity, gender or age. The analysis discriminated between elements in normal and cirrhotic livers. The other dendrogram clustered elements in four clusters: sulphur and chlorine; copper and bromine; potassium and zinc; iron. There were significant correlations between the elements in normal liver samples: S was associated with Cl, K, Br and Zn; Cl with S and Br; K with S, Br and Zn; Cu with Br. Zn with S and K. Br with S, Cl, K and Cu. Fe did not show significant associations with any other element. In contrast to simple statistical methods, which analyses content of elements separately one by one, dual hierarchical clustering analysis incorporates all elements at the same time and can be used to examine the linkage and interplay between multiple elements in tissue samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid detection of Cu(2+) by a paper-based microfluidic device coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Au nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xueen; Zhao, Qianqian; Cao, Hongmei; Liu, Juan; Guan, Ming; Kong, Jilie

    2015-11-21

    In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Au nanoclusters were used to coat a paper-based microfluidic device. This device acted as a Cu(2+) biosensor that showed fluorescence quenching on detection of copper ions. The detection limit of this sensor could be adjusted by altering the water absorbing capacity of the device. Qualitative and semi-quantitative results could be obtained visually without the aid of any advanced instruments. This sensor could test Cu(2+) rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity, which would be useful for point-of-care testing (POCT).

  4. Inégalité sur le marché du travail au Brésil et en Inde - une étude ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CEBRAP), de São Paulo, et l'Institute for Human Development, de Delhi, qui mettront au point conjointement des ... Growth regime, labour market and inequality in Brazil and India : concepts and methods of analysis; project paper C (India).

  5. Computer simulation of displacement cascade structures in D-T neutron-irradiated Au, Ag, Cu, Ni and Al with the MARLOWE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Nishiguchi, R.; Shimomura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial distribution of point defects in displacement damage cascades at the early stage of their formation was simulated with the MARLOWE code for primary knock-on atoms which is relevant to D-T neutron irradiation. Calculations were carried out for Au, Ag, Cu, Ni and Al. Computer-simulated results were analyzed with complement of TEM observations of D-T neutron-irradiated metals at low temperature. The spatial configuration of displacement cascades, the size of small vacancy aggregates and the size of displacement damage cascade were examined. Results suggest that most of vacancy clusters which were formed in damage cascades may be as small as below 20 vacancies. The remarkable difference in defect yield of cascade damage in Ni and Cu is due to interstitial cluster formation and main contribution of cascade energy overlapping observed in cryotransfer TEM of D-T neutron-irradiated Au is due to ejected interstitials from cascade cores. (orig.)

  6. Microstructure of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) epitaxial thin films grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Akita, Yuta; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) were prepared on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 degree sign C by UHV molecular beam epitaxy. A complicated microstructure was realized for the epitaxial thin films. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation has shown that X atoms of the buffer layer segregated to the surface during Co layer deposition, and it yielded a unique epitaxial granular structure. The structure consists of small Co grains buried in the X buffer layer, where both the magnetic small Co grains and the nonmagnetic X layer are epitaxially grown on the single crystal substrate. The structure varied depending on the X element and the substrate temperature. The crystal structure of Co grains is influenced by the buffer layer material and determined to be hcp and fcc structures for the buffer layer materials of Au and Cu, respectively

  7. Inner-shell vacancy production and multiple ionization effects in 0.1-1.75 MeV/u Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu + Au, Bi collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciortea, C. E-mail: ciortea@tandem.nipne.ro; Piticu, I.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Fluerasu, D.; Enulescu, A.; Szilagyi, S.Z.; Enescu, S.E.; Gugiu, M.M.; Dumitrescu, T.A

    2003-05-01

    Vacancy production in 0.1-1.75 MeV/u Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu + Au, Bi collisions has been studied by measuring integral inner-shell ionization cross-sections and mean outer-shell ionization probabilities at the Tandem accelerator of NIPNE, Bucharest. X-ray spectra induced by ion beams of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu impinging on thin solid-foil targets of Au and Bi have been measured. Total ionization cross-sections for the K-shell of the projectile and L{sub 3}-subshell of the target, as well as vacancy sharing probabilities, corrected for the effect of multiple ionization, are reported. The experimental results are discussed in terms of two model calculations.

  8. Modeling of Disordered Binary Alloys Under Thermal Forcing: Effect of Nanocrystallite Dissociation on Thermal Expansion of AuCu3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. W.; Cress, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Disordered binary alloys are modeled as a randomly close-packed assembly of nanocrystallites intermixed with randomly positioned atoms, i.e., glassy-state matter. The nanocrystallite size distribution is measured in a simulated macroscopic medium in two dimensions. We have also defined, and measured, the degree of crystallinity as the probability of a particle being a member of nanocrystallites. Both the distribution function and the degree of crystallinity are found to be determined by alloy composition. When heated, the nanocrystallites become smaller in size due to increasing thermal fluctuation. We have modeled this phenomenon as a case of thermal dissociation by means of the law of mass action. The crystallite size distribution function is computed for AuCu3 as a function of temperature by solving some 12 000 coupled algebraic equations for the alloy. The results show that linear thermal expansion of the specimen has contributions from the temperature dependence of the degree of crystallinity, in addition to respective thermal expansions of the nanocrystallites and glassy-state matter.

  9. Effects of He implantation on radiation induced segregation in Cu-Au and Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, A.; Rehn, L. E.; Baldo, P. M.; Funk, L.

    Effects of He implantation on radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Cu-Au and Ni-Si alloys were investigated using in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry during simultaneous irradiation with 1.5-MeV He and low-energy (100 or 400-keV) He ions at elevated temperatures. RIS during single He ion irradiation, and the effects of pre-implantation with low-energy He ions, were also studied. RIS near the specimen surface, which was pronounced during 1.5-MeV He single-ion irradiation, was strongly reduced under low-energy He single-ion irradiation, and during simultaneous irradiation with 1.5-MeV He and low-energy He ions. A similar RIS reduction was also observed in the specimens pre-implanted with low-energy He ions. The experimental results indicate that the accumulated He atoms cause the formation of small bubbles, which provide additional recombination sites for freely migrating defects.

  10. Relativity-Induced Bonding Pattern Change in Coinage Metal Dimers M2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au, Rg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Lu, Jun-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun

    2018-05-07

    The periodic table provides a fundamental protocol for qualitatively classifying and predicting chemical properties based on periodicity. While the periodic law of chemical elements had already been rationalized within the framework of the nonrelativistic description of chemistry with quantum mechanics, this law was later known to be affected significantly by relativity. We here report a systematic theoretical study on the chemical bonding pattern change in the coinage metal dimers (Cu 2 , Ag 2 , Au 2 , Rg 2 ) due to the relativistic effect on the superheavy elements. Unlike the lighter congeners basically demonstrating ns- ns bonding character and a 0 g + ground state, Rg 2 shows unique 6d-6d bonding induced by strong relativity. Because of relativistic spin-orbit (SO) coupling effect in Rg 2 , two nearly degenerate SO states, 0 g + and 2 u , exist as candidate of the ground state. This relativity-induced change of bonding mechanism gives rise to various unique alteration of chemical properties compared with the lighter dimers, including higher intrinsic bond energy, force constant, and nuclear shielding. Our work thus provides a rather simple but clear-cut example, where the chemical bonding picture is significantly changed by relativistic effect, demonstrating the modified periodic law in heavy-element chemistry.

  11. Induced accumulation of Au, Ag and Cu in Brassica napus grown in a mine tailings with the inoculation of Aspergillus niger and the application of two chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valdez, Eduardo; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Maldonado-Vega, María; Salas-Luévano, Miguel Ángel; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba

    2018-06-15

    This study evaluated the ability of Brassica napus for extracting gold (Au), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) from a mine tailings, with the inoculation of two Aspergillus niger strains, and the application of ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN) or ammonium thiosulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 ]. After seven weeks of growth inoculated or non-inoculated plants were applied with 1 or 2 g kg -1 of either NH 4 SCN or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 , respectively. Eight days after the application of the chemical compounds, plants were harvested for determining the total dry biomass, and the content of Au, Ag, and Cu in plant organs. Application of (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 or NH 4 SCN resulted in enhanced Au-accumulation in stems (447% and 507%, respectively), while either (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 +Aspergillus, or NH 4 SCN increased the Au-accumulation in roots (198.5% and 404%, respectively) when compared to the control. Treatments with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 +Aspergillus significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) the accumulation of Ag in leaves (677% and 1376%, respectively), while NH 4 SCN + Aspergillus, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 enhanced the accumulation in stems (7153% and 6717.5%). The Ag-accumulation in roots was stimulated by NH 4 SCN+ Aspergillus, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 + Aspergillus (132.5% and 178%, respectively), when compared to the control. The combination of NH 4 SCN+Aspergillus significantly enhanced the Cu-accumulation in leaves (228%); whereas NH 4 SCN+ Aspergillus, or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 + Aspergillus resulted in greater accumulation of Cu in stems (1233.5% and 1580%, respectively) than the control. Results suggest that either NH 4 SCN or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 (with or without Aspergillus) improved the accumulation of Au and Ag by B. napus. Accumulation of Au and Ag in plant organs overpassed the hyperaccumulation criterion (> 1 mg kg -1 of plant biomass); whereas Cu-accumulation in stems and roots also overpassed such criterion (> 1000 mg kg -1 ) by applying

  12. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  13. Les facteurs territoriaux de la compétitivité de la filière soja au Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Jean-Pierre

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier discute les facteurs de progression du complexe soja dans les régions de Cerrados du Nord du Brésil, proches de la forêt amazonienne. Le Mato Grosso est déjà le premier État producteur de soja du Brésil, tandis que le Para entre dans le processus de production intensif. Les deux États obtiennent des rendements élevés ; mais ils risquent de connaître des problèmes environnementaux du fait d’un usage excessif des pesticides.

  14. Le Brésil au cœur des stratégies spatiales du recrutement des clubs européens de football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Piraudeau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin des années 1990, le nombre de footballeurs brésiliens évoluant dans les clubs professionnels internationaux augmente constamment. Les principaux championnats européens (Allemagne, Angleterre, Espagne, France, Italie et Portugal sont très courtisés par les joueurs brésiliens. L'histoire des relations entre les territoires et les stratégies spatiales du recrutement développées par les clubs de football européens font apparaître un système productif de joueurs brésiliens et des canaux migratoires très organisés entre l'Europe et le Brésil.Depuis la fin des années 1990, le nombre de footballeurs brésiliens évoluant dans les clubs professionnels internationaux augmente constamment. Les principaux championnats européens (Allemagne, Angleterre, Espagne, France, Italie et Portugal sont très courtisés par les joueurs brésiliens. L'histoire des relations entre les territoires et les stratégies spatiales du recrutement développées par les clubs de football européens font apparaître un système productif de joueurs brésiliens et des canaux migratoires très organisés entre l'Europe et le Brésil.Desde o fim dos anos 1990, o número de jogadores de futebol brasileiros que jogam nos clubes profissionais internacionais aumenta constantemente. Os principais campeonatos europeus (Alemanha, Inglaterra, Espanha, França, Itália e Portugal são  muito procurados pelos jogadores brasileiros. A história das relações entre os territórios e as estratégias espaciais de recrutamento desenvolvidas pelos clubes de futebol europeus indica um sistema produtivo de jogadores brasileiros e canais migratórios muito organizados entre a Europa e o Brasil.Since the end of the 1990s, the number of Brazilian footballers playing in the international professional clubs increases constantly. The principal European championships (Germany, England, Spain, France, Italy and Portugal are very courted by the Brazilian players. The history

  15. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the novel signal amplification system of AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles functionalized polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Yang, Yuying; Tan, Zhaoling; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Daopeng; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui

    2018-04-30

    A sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was designed using a novel signal amplification system for quantitative detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) supported surfactant-free AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles (AuPdCu/N-GQDs), which featured with good conductivity and excellent catalytic properties for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), was synthesized by a simple and benign hydrothermal procedure. At the same time, the electroactive polymer nanospheres (PS) was synthesized by infinite coordination polymers of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could play as carrier and electronic mediator to load AuPdCu/N-GQDs. The PS not only improved the ability to load antibodies because of the good biocompatibility, but also accelerated electron transport of the electrode interface attribute to plentiful ferrocene unit. Thus, the prepared AuPdCu/N-GQDs@PS has abilities of good biocompatibility, catalytic activity and electrical conductivity to be applied as transducing materials to amplify electrochemical signal in detection of HBsAg. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability in the detection of HBsAg. A linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBsAg was obtained in the range from 10fg/mL to 50ng/mL and the detection limit of HBsAg was 3.3fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples. Furthermore, this label-free electrochemical immunosensor has promising application in clinical diagnosis of HBsAg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  17. Gamma ray multiplicities in deep inelastic collisions for the Cu+Au 400 MeV system. Interpretation based on collective modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanger, M.; Borderie, B.; Chapoulard, D.

    1981-01-01

    For the Cu + Au 400 MeV system γ ray multiplicities have been measured. The mean value of the transferred angular momentum, the variances, the repartition of angular momentum between the fragments have been deduced. It is shown that, early in the reaction the building of angular momentum is a very fast process. For longer times, additional angular momentum is induced in the fragments due to the excitation of collective modes. The properties of such modes have been analysed

  18. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  19. On the separation of split diffuse intensity maxima from a disordered Cu-Au alloy by an X-ray counter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, K.I.; Harada, Jimpei; Moss, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray diffuse scattering from a disordered Au-24.4 at.% Cu alloy was measured at room temperature to reveal the split diffuse maxima due to short-range ordering (SRO) through the use of a higher-resolution counter method than heretofore employed. Twofold and fourfold splittings of SRO diffuse intensity could be clearly seen at 100, 110 and their equivalent positions in reciprocal space. (orig.)

  20. Thermal expansion of organic superconductor κ-(D4-BEDT-TTF)2Cu{N(CN)2}Br. Isotopic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin, A. V.; Khlistuck, M. V.; Eselson, V. B.; Gavrilko, V. G.; Vinnikov, N. A.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Konstantinov, V. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC) of single crystal κ-(D4-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br was studied across the crystal layers in the temperature range 2-290 K using the method of precise capacitive dilatometry. Below Tc = 11.6 K the LTEC of the sample had a small negative value, which is apparently due to the transition from the paramagnetic metal in the superconducting state. There was a bend of temperature dependence of the LTEC, which shows broad peak around 40 K and can be attributed to the elastic lattice anomaly around the end-point of Mott boundary. A sharp jump in the LTEC values and hysteresis was observed in the area of Tg ˜ 75-77 K, what is likely explained by the transition in a glass-like state. The isotope effect in the thermal expansion is discusses, which manifested itself in a shift of the phase transitions in comparison with fully deuterated BEDT-TTF sample.

  1. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br metamagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A.; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Zaharko, O.

    2016-05-01

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  2. Comparative Study on The Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Methanol over Cu-, Pd-, Co- and Au-Loaded TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani P.P.C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a methanol-water solution was investigated in a semi-continuous reactor over different metal-loaded TiO2 catalysts under UltraViolet (UV light irradiation. The catalysts were mainly prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method by varying the metal weight ratio in the range of 1-10 wt%. The effects of metal loading and H2 pre-treatment on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. In addition, the activity of the catalysts was also compared with a reference Au-TiO2 catalyst from the World Gold Council (WGC. The photocatalysts were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and N2 physisorption before and after the activity measurements. The photocatalytic activity decreased in the order of Pd > Au > Cu > Co in the comparative study of Cu-TiO2, Co-TiO2, Au-TiO2 and Pd-TiO2. Optimum hydrogen evolution was achieved with 5 wt% Pd-TiO2 and 5 wt% Cu-TiO2.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of the 1.1 adducts of copper(1) halides with bidentatate N,N-bis(benzophenone)-1,2-diiminoethane Schiff bases: Crystal structures of [Cu(bz2en)2][CuX2](X=Br,l) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kia, Reza; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Harkema, Sybolt; van Hummel, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    1:1 adducts of N,N′-bis(benzophenone)-1,2-diiminoethane (bz2en) with copper(I) chloride, bromide and iodide, [Cu(bz2en)2][CuX2] (X = Cl, Br, and I), have been synthesized and the structures of the solid bromide and iodide adducts were determined by X-ray crystallography from single-crystal data. The

  4. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit; using Amphibole and Plagioclas mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The formation of porphyry copper deposits is attributed to the shallow emplacement, and subsequent cooling of the hydrothermal system of porphyritic intrusive rocks (Titley and Bean, 1981. These deposits have usually been developed along the chain of subduction-related volcanic and calc-alkalin batholiths (Sillitoe, 2010. Nevertheless, it is now confirmed that porphyry copper systems can also form in collisional and post collisional settings (Zarasvandi et al., 2015b. Detailed studies on the geochemical features of ore-hosting porphyry Cu-Mo-Au intrusions indicate that they are generally adakitic, water and sulfur- riched, and oxidized (Wang et al., 2014. For example, high oxygen fugacity of magma has decisive role in transmission of copper and gold to the porphyry systems as revealed in (Wang et al., 2014. In this regard, the present work deals with the mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit. The data is used to achieve the physical and chemical conditions of magma and its impact on mineralization. Moreover, the results of previous studies on the hydrothermal system of the Dalli deposit such as Raman laser spectroscopy and fluid inclusion studies are included for determination of the evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal conditions. Materials and methods In order to correctly characterize the physical and chemical conditions affecting the trend of mineralization, 20 least altered and fractured samples of diorite and quartz-diorite intrusions were chosen from boreholes. Subsequently, 20 thin-polished sections were prepared in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Finally, mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase were determined using electron micro probe analyses (EMPA in the central lab of the Leoben University. Results Amphibole that is one of the the main rock-forming minerals can form in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Accordingly, amphibole chemistry can be

  5. Comparative study of post-growth annealing of Cu(hfac)2, Co2(CO)8 and Me2Au(acac) metal precursors deposited by FEBID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puydinger Dos Santos, Marcos Vinicius; Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rydosz, Artur; Guerra-Nuñez, Carlos; Béron, Fanny; Pirota, Kleber Roberto; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Diniz, José Alexandre; Utke, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Non-noble metals, such as Cu and Co, as well as noble metals, such as Au, can be used in a number modern technological applications, which include advanced scanning-probe systems, magnetic memory and storage, ferroelectric tunnel junction memristors, metal interconnects for high performance integrated circuits in microelectronics and nano-optics applications, especially in the areas of plasmonics and metamaterials. Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is a maskless direct-write tool capable of defining 3-dimensional metal deposits at nanometre scale for above applications. However, codeposition of organic ligands when using organometallic precursors is a typical problem that limits FEBID of pure metal nanostructures. In this work, we present a comparative study using a post-growth annealing protocol at 100, 200, and 300 °C under high vacuum on deposits obtained from Co 2 (CO) 8 , Cu(II)(hfac) 2 , and Me 2 Au(acac) to study improvements on composition and electrical conductivity. Although the as-deposited material was similar for all precursors, metal grains embedded in a carbonaceous matrix, the post-growth annealing results differed. Cu-containing deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit for temperatures above 100 °C, due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing carbon, oxygen, and fluorine atoms. The average size of the Cu crystals doubles between 100 and 300 °C of annealing temperature, while the composition remains constant. In contrast, for Co-containing deposits oxygen release was observed upon annealing, while the carbon content remained approximately constant; the cobalt atoms coalesced to form a metallic film. The as-deposited Au-containing material shows subnanometric grains that coalesce at 100 °C, maintaining the same average size at annealing temperatures up to 300 °C. Raman analysis suggests that the amorphous carbonaceous matrix of the as-written Co

  6. Pentacene on Au(1 1 1), Ag(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1): From physisorption to chemisorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chao; Wang, Rong-Bin; Yang, Ao; Duhm, Steffen

    2016-03-09

    We measured the electronic and the molecular surface structure of pentacene deposited on the (1 1 1)-surfaces of coinage metals by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Pentacene is almost flat-lying in monolayers on all three substrates and highly ordered on Au(1 1 1) and on Cu(1 1 1). On Ag(1 1 1), however, weak chemisorption leads to almost disordered monolayers, both, at room temperature and at 78 K. On Cu(1 1 1) pentacene is strongly chemisorbed and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital becomes observable in UPS by a charge transfer from the substrate. On Ag(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) multilayers adopt a tilted orientation and a high degree of crystallinity. On Au(1 1 1), most likely, also in multilayers the molecular short and long axes are parallel to the substrate, leading to a distinctively different electronic structure than on Ag(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1). Overall, it could be demonstrated that the substrate not only determines the geometric and electronic characteristics of molecular monolayer films but also plays a crucial role for multilayer film growth.

  7. Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to

  8. Melt recharge, f O2-T conditions, and metal fertility of felsic magmas: zircon trace element chemistry of Cu-Au porphyries in the Sanjiang orogenic belt, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuyang; Mao, Jingwen; Zhang, Changqing; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Huan

    2018-06-01

    The magmatic hydrothermal Pulang Cu deposit (Triassic) and the Beiya Au-Cu deposits (Eocene) are located in the Sanjiang copper porphyry belt, southwest China. Zircon chemistry was used to constrain the magmatic evolution and oxidation state of the porphyries. The results show that porphyries of the Beiya district formed from an early oxidized melt and a later relatively reduced and more evolved magma, whereas Pulang experienced a normal Cu porphyry evolutionary trend. The Pulang porphyries crystallized from more oxidized magma (ΔFMQ + 2.9-4.6, average = 4.0 ± 1.0, n = 3) with an average temperature of 709 ± 6 °C compared to the Beiya porphyries (ΔFMQ + 0.6-3.5, average = 1.9 ± 1.3, n = 5) with a mean magmatic temperature of 780 ± 22 °C. These data, combined with data from other Cu- and Au-rich porphyries in the Sanjiang belt (i.e., Machangjing Cu, Yao'an Au), are consistent with previous experimental work showing that elevated Cu and Au solubilities in magma require oxidizing conditions. A compilation of existing geochemical data for magmatic zircons from fertile and barren porphyry systems worldwide establishes an optimal diagnostic interval on CeIV/CeIII-TTi-in-zircon and (Eu/Eu*)N plots for generating magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au deposits.

  9. Geology and mineralogy of the Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb polymetallic deposit of Valiña-Azúmara (Lugo, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abad, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valiña-Azúmara is a polymetallic Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb deposit, located in the province of Lugo (NW Spain, that was mined for arsenic at the beginning of the 20th century. The mineralization is hosted in a Variscan thrust fault with a dip direction of N247-261ºE, and N-S and NE-SW Late-Variscan faults. These structures are hosted in black slates, Cambrian in age. To a lesser extent, the mineralization also occurs disseminated within narrow, weakly silicified and sericited selvages. Mineralization is divided into two hypogene stages. The first consists of quartz, calcite, rutile, sericite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. Two types of pyrite (Py-I and Py-II are defined according to their chemical and textural characteristics. Py-II occurs as overgrowth of previous Py-I crystals. Py-II is As-rich (≤1.7 wt.% and often contains traces of Te, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sb and Au. The mineralized drill core sections show a significant correlation between Au and As. This is due to Au occurring as invisible Au within the Py-II grains, with contents of up to 176 ppm. The Au/As ratios of Py-II indicate that Au was deposited as Au1+, as solid solution within the pyrite structure. The second stage of mineralization is enriched in Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb, replacing the first stage, and consists of quartz, calcite, chlorite, sphalerite, jamesonite, Ag-rich tetrahedrite, freibergite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena. Although jamesonite shows traces of Ag, the Cu-Ag sulfosalts are the main carriers of the Ag mineralization in the deposit, with contents that vary from 13.7 to 23.9 wt.% of Ag. In the most superficial levels of the area, secondary Fe oxide and hydroxide, scorodite and anglesite developed due to the oxidation of the ore.Valiña-Azúmara es un yacimiento filoniano de Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb situado en la provincia de Lugo (NO España, que fue explotado por arsénico a principios del siglo XX. La mineralización se encuentra encajada en un cabalgamiento Varisco de direcci

  10. The discovery and geophysical response of the Atlántida Cu-Au porphyry deposit, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Matthew; Andersson, Steve

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of the Atlántida Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, which is unconformably overlain by 25-80 m of gravels, is a recent example of exploration success under cover in a traditional mining jurisdiction. Early acquisition of geophysics was a key tool in the discovery, and in later guiding further exploration drilling throughout the life of the project. Detailed review of the geophysical response of the deposit, with respect to the distribution of lithologies and alteration, coupled with their petrophysical properties has allowed full characterisation, despite no exposure at the surface of host rock nor porphyry-style mineralisation. Data acquired over the project include induced polarisation, magnetotellurics, ground and airborne magnetics, ground-based gravimetry, and petrophysical sampling. The distribution of the key geological features of the deposit has been inferred via acquisition of petrophysical properties and interpretation of surface geophysical datasets. Magnetic susceptibility is influenced strongly by both alteration and primary lithology, whilst density variations are dominated by primary lithological control. Several studies have shown that electrical properties may map the footprint of the hydrothermal system and associated mineralisation, via a combination of chargeability and resistivity. These properties are observed in geophysical datasets acquired at surface and allow further targeting and sterilisation at the deposit and project scale. By understanding these geophysical characteristics in a geological context, these data can be used to infer distribution of lithological units, depth to exploration targets and the potential for high grade mineralisation. Future exploration will likely be increasingly reliant on the understanding of the surface manifestations of buried deposits in remotely acquired data. This review summarises the application and results of these principles at the Atlántida project of northern Chile. Geophysical data can be

  11. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb Dating and Trace Element Geochemistry of Allanite: Implications on the Different Skarn Metallogenesis between the Giant Beiya Au and Machangqing Cu-Mo-(Au Deposits in Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant Beiya Au skarn deposit and Machangqing porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au deposit are located in the middle part of the Jinshajiang–Ailaoshan alkaline porphyry metallogenic belt. The Beiya deposit is the largest Au skarn deposit in China, whilst the Machangqing deposit comprises a well-developed porphyry-skarn-epithermal Cu-Mo-(Au mineral system. In this paper, we present new allanite U-Th-Pb ages and trace element geochemical data from the two deposits and discuss their respective skarn metallogenesis. Based on the mineral assemblage, texture and Th/U ratio, the allanite from the Beiya and Machangqing deposits are likely hydrothermal rather than magmatic. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS allanite U-Th-Pb dating has yielded Th-Pb isochron ages of 33.4 ± 4.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.22 (Beiya and 35.4 ± 9.8 Ma (MSWD = 0.26 (Machangqing, representing the retrograde alteration and magnetite skarn mineralization age of the two deposits. The Beiya and Machangqing alkali porphyry-related mineralization are synchronous and genetically linked to the magmatic hydrothermal activities of the Himalayan orogenic event. Major and trace element compositions reveal that the Beiya allanite has higher Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+ ratios, U content and Th content than the Machangqing allanite, which indicate a higher oxygen fugacity and F content for the ore-forming fluids at Beiya. Such differences in the ore-forming fluids may have contributed to the different metallogenic scales and metal types in the Beiya and Machangqing deposit.

  12. On the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of BiTeBr and BiTeI single crystals and of BiTeI with the addition of BiI3 and CuI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulbachinskii, Vladimir A.; Kytin, Vladimir G.; Kudryashov, Alexey A.; Kuznetsov, Alexei N.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures were calculated for BiTeBr and BiTeI using the density-functional theory approach and accounting for the strong spin–orbital interaction. Qualitatively, the band structures for two compounds are similar, showing strong mixing of the p states of all elements in vicinity of the Fermi level, with the band gaps of 0.595 and 0.478 eV for BiTeBr and BiTeI, respectively. The optimized crystal structures show a tendency for the Bi–X (X=Br, I) bond elongation compared to the Bi–Te one. Both compounds are intrinsic n-type semiconductors but display a metallic-like conductivity coupled to rather large thermopower, which is rationalized within the frames of the acoustic phonons scattering model. Because of larger thermopower BiTeBr exhibits a twice higher thermoelectric figure-of-merit near room temperature, ZT=0.17, compared to BiTeI. The addition of 1 mass% of BiI 3 or CuI to BiTeI decreases the mobility of electrons by two orders of magnitude, leading to significantly lower electrical conductivity, but at the same time effectively reduces the thermal conductivity. The prospects of further enhancing the thermoelectric efficiency are briefly discussed. - Graphical abstract: View of the crystal structure of BiTeBr is shown in the figure The optimized crystal structures show a tendency for the Bi–X (X=Br, I) bond elongation compared to the Bi–Te one. The electronic structures were calculated for BiTeBr and BiTeI using the density-functional theory approach and accounting for the strong spin–orbital interaction. Qualitatively, the band structures for two compounds are similar, showing strong mixing of the p states of all elements in vicinity of the Fermi level, with the band gaps of 0.595 and 0.478 eV for BiTeBr and BiTeI, respectively. Both compounds are intrinsic n-type semiconductors but display a metallic-like conductivity coupled to rather large thermopower, which is rationalized within the frames of the acoustic phonons scattering

  13. Microstructural, electrical and frequency-dependent properties of Au/p-Cu2ZnSnS4/n-GaN heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal Reddy, V; Janardhanam, V; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2017-08-01

    An Au/Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS)/n-GaN heterojunction (HJ) is fabricated with a CZTS interlayer and probed its chemical states, structural, electrical and frequency-dependent characteristics by XPS, TEM, I-V and C-V measurements. XPS and TEM results confirmed that the CZTS films are formed on the n-GaN surface. The band gap of deposited CZTS film is found to be 1.55eV. The electrical properties of HJ correlated with the Au/n-GaN Schottky junction (SJ). The Au/CZTS/n-GaN HJ reveals a good rectification nature with high barrier height (0.82eV) compared to the Au/n-GaN SJ (0.69eV), which suggests the barrier height is influenced by the CZTS interlayer. The barrier height values assessed by I-V, Cheung's and Norde functions are closely matched with one other, thus the methods used here are reliable and valid. The extracted interface state density (N SS ) of Au/CZTS/n-GaN HJ is lower compared to the Au/n-GaN SJ that suggests the CZTS interlayer plays an important role in the reduction of N SS . Moreover, the capacitance-frequency (C-f) and conductance-frequency (G-f) characteristics of SJ and HJ are measured in the range of 1kHz-1MHz, and found that the capacitance and conductance strappingly dependent on frequency. It is found that the N SS estimated from C-f and G-f characteristics is lower compared to those estimated from I-V characteristics. Analysis confirmed that Poole-Frenkel emission dominates the reverse leakage current in both SJ and HJ, probably related to the structural defects and trap levels in the CZTS interlayer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, Taye B., E-mail: taye.b.demissie@uit.no; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jaszuński, Michał [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01 224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  15. Quantification of elemental area densities in multiple metal layers (Au/Ni/Cu) on a Cr-coated quartz glass substrate for certification of NMIJ CRM 5208-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Tomoko; Zhu, Yanbei; Ito, Mika; Takatsuka, Toshiko; Terauchi, Shinya; Kurokawa, Akira; Inagaki, Kazumi

    2018-04-01

    Area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers on a Cr-coated quartz substrate were characterized to certify a multiple-metal-layer certified reference material (NMIJ CRM5208-a) that is intended for use in the analysis of the layer area density and the thickness by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers were calculated from layer mass amounts and area. The layer mass amounts were determined by using wet chemical analyses, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after dissolving the layers with diluted mixture of HCl and HNO 3 (1:1, v/v). Analytical results of the layer mass amounts obtained by the methods agreed well with each another within their uncertainty ranges. The area of the layer was determined by using a high-resolution optical scanner calibrated by Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS) standard scales. The property values of area density were 1.84 ± 0.05 μg/mm 2 for Au, 8.69 ± 0.17 μg/mm 2 for Ni, and 8.80 ± 0.14 μg/mm 2 for Cu (mean ± expanded uncertainty, coverage factor k = 2). In order to assess the reliability of these values, the density of each metal layer calculated from the property values of the area density and layer thickness measured by using a scanning electron microscope were compared with available literature values and good agreement between the observed values and values obtained in previous studies.

  16. A comparative study of Cu, Ag and Au doped CeO{sub 2} in the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Skaf, Mira, E-mail: miraskaf@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Hany, Sara, E-mail: sarahani@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Cousin, Renaud, E-mail: Renaud.Cousin@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Aouad, Samer, E-mail: Samer.Aouad@balamand.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Labaki, Madona, E-mail: mlabaki@ul.edu.lb [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials (LCPM)/PR2N, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar, PO Box 90656, Jdeidet El Metn (Lebanon); Abi-Aad, Edmond, E-mail: abiaad@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France)

    2016-07-01

    Total oxidation of two Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), propylene and toluene, was investigated over M/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, where M is a metal from IB group (i.e. Au, Ag, Cu), prepared by two different methods: the conventional wet impregnation and the deposition-precipitation. The catalysts have been characterized by means of total surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV/Vis), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in order to explain the differences observed in their catalytic activity towards the studied reactions. By comparing the two different preparation methods, the presence of metal in high oxidation state for gold and silver, and the presence of clusters for copper were the main factors responsible for the high catalytic activity. This latter was also found to be related, when comparing the different IB metals, to the values of the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox couples of the different metals. - Highlights: • IB metals (Au, Ag and Cu) were supported on ceria (CeO{sub 2}) by two different methods. • The solids were tested as catalysts for total oxidation of propylene and toluene. • The deposition-precipitation is better for Au whereas for Ag and Cu it is the impregnation. • High oxidation states of gold and silver and clusters of copper enhanced catalytic behavior. • Catalytic activity is linked to the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox IB couples.

  17. A comparative study of Cu, Ag and Au doped CeO_2 in the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine; Skaf, Mira; Hany, Sara; Cousin, Renaud; Aouad, Samer; Labaki, Madona; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Total oxidation of two Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), propylene and toluene, was investigated over M/CeO_2 catalysts, where M is a metal from IB group (i.e. Au, Ag, Cu), prepared by two different methods: the conventional wet impregnation and the deposition-precipitation. The catalysts have been characterized by means of total surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV/Vis), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in order to explain the differences observed in their catalytic activity towards the studied reactions. By comparing the two different preparation methods, the presence of metal in high oxidation state for gold and silver, and the presence of clusters for copper were the main factors responsible for the high catalytic activity. This latter was also found to be related, when comparing the different IB metals, to the values of the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox couples of the different metals. - Highlights: • IB metals (Au, Ag and Cu) were supported on ceria (CeO_2) by two different methods. • The solids were tested as catalysts for total oxidation of propylene and toluene. • The deposition-precipitation is better for Au whereas for Ag and Cu it is the impregnation. • High oxidation states of gold and silver and clusters of copper enhanced catalytic behavior. • Catalytic activity is linked to the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox IB couples.

  18. Contrasting Cu-Au and Sn-W Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Geochemical and Isotopic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Hawkesworth, Chris; Robb, Laurence; Whitehouse, Martin; Roberts, Nick; Kirkland, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Magmatic genesis and evolution - mediated by geodynamic setting - exert a primary control on the propensity of granites to be metal fertile. A revolution in our understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been made through a range of mineral-based tools, most notably the common accessory mineral zircon. There is consequently considerable interest in whether the geochemical and isotopic compositions of zircon can be applied to metallogenic problems. The paired magmatic belts of Myanmar have broadly contrasting metallogenic affinities (Sn-W versus Cu-Au), and are interpreted to have formed on the accretionary margin of the subducting Neo-Tethys Ocean. They therefore present the opportunity to geochemically compare and contrast the zircon compositions in two end-member types of granite-hosted mineral deposits generated in collisional settings. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset that fingerprint: (a) source; (b) redox conditions; and (c) degree of fractionation. These variables all impact on magma fertility, and our key question to address is whether they can be reliably traced and calibrated within the Myanmar zircon record. Granitoid-hosted zircons from the I-type copper arc have juvenile ɛHf (+7 to +12) and mantle-like δ18O (5.3 ‰), whereas zircons from the S-type tin belt have low ɛHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ18O (6.2-7.7 ‰). Plotting Hf versus U/Yb reaffirms that the tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than the copper arc rocks. Links between whole rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlights that the latter can be used to monitor magma fractionation in systems that crystallize plagioclase (low Sr/Y). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* in zircon are thus sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and can be used to evaluate the sensitivity of zircons to the metallogenic affinity of their host rocks. Tin contents that exceed the solubility limit are required in order to make a magmatic

  19. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  20. Measurements of directed, elliptic, and triangular flow in Cu$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) for inclusive charged particles and identified hadrons $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$, and $\\bar{p}$ produced at midrapidity in Cu+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV are presented. The data were collected in 2012 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The particle azimuthal distributions with respect to different order symmetry planes $\\Psi_n$, for $n$~=~1, 2, and 3 are studied as a function o...

  1. Uranium-lead dating of hydrothermal zircon and monazite from the Sin Quyen Fe-Cu-REE-Au-(U) deposit, northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Wei Terry; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Tran, MyDung

    2018-03-01

    The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) mineralization (stage II), Cu-Au mineralization (stage III), and sulfide-(quartz-carbonate) veins (stage IV). The Sin Quyen deposit experienced an extensive post-ore metamorphic overprint, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the mineralization age. In this study, zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronometers and the Rb-Sr isochron method are used to constrain the timing of mineralization. Zircon grains in the ore are closely intergrown or texturally associated with hydrothermal minerals of stage II (e.g., garnet, allanite, and hedenbergite). They may contain primary fluid inclusions and display irregular zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. Zircon grains are rich in U (688 to 2902 ppm) and poor in Th (0.2 to 2.9 ppm). Their δ18OV-SMOW values range from 11.9 to 14.0‰, higher than those of typical magmatic zircon. These textural and compositional features imply that zircon precipitated from 18O- and U-rich hydrothermal fluids, coeval with the minerals of stage II. Monazite occurs in close association with stage II magnetite and allanite and has low contents of Th (<2700 ppm), indicative of a hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal zircon and monazite have indistinguishable U-Pb ages of 841 ± 12 and 836 ± 18 Ma, respectively, representing the timing of Fe-REE mineralization. There is no direct isotopic constraint on the timing of the Cu-Au mineralization, but geological observations suggest that the Cu-Au and Fe-REE ores most likely formed within a single evolved hydrothermal process. In the plot of 87Rb/86Sr vs. 87Sr/86Sr, the composition of bulk-ore and biotite separates from ore lie along a reference line for 30 Ma

  2. Inner-shell vacancy production and mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciortea, C. E-mail: ciortea@tandem.nipne.ro; Dumitriu, Dana; Enescu, Sanda E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, Daniela; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S

    2002-06-01

    The average charge states of 0.1-1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined, by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K{alpha}, {beta} X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula [Phys. Lett. 28A (1968) 277].

  3. Immobilization of [Cu(bpy)2]Br2 complex onto a glassy carbon electrode modified with alpha-SiMo12O40(4-) and single walled carbon nanotubes: application to nanomolar detection of hydrogen peroxide and bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Korani, Aazam; Hallaj, Rahman; Khoshnavazi, Roshan; Hadadzadeh, Hasan

    2009-03-02

    A simple procedure has been used for preparation of modified glassy carbon electrode with carbon nanotubes and copper complex. Copper complex [Cu(bpy)(2)]Br(2) was immobilized onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with silicomolybdate, alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Copper complex and silicomolybdate irreversibly and strongly adsorbed onto GC electrode modified with CNTs. Electrostatic interactions between polyoxometalates (POMs) anions and Cu-complex, cations mentioned as an effective method for fabrication of three-dimensional structures. The modified electrode shows three reversible redox couples for polyoxometalate and one redox couple for Cu-complex at wide range of pH values. The electrochemical behavior, stability and electron transfer kinetics of the adsorbed redox couples were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Due to electrostatic interaction, copper complex immobilized onto GC/CNTs/alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) electrode shows more stable voltammetric response compared to GC/CNTs/Cu-complex modified electrode. In comparison to GC/CNTs/Cu-complex the GC/CNTs/alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) modified electrodes shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction H(2)O(2) and BrO(3)(-) at more reduced overpotential. The catalytic rate constants for catalytic reduction hydrogen peroxide and bromate were 4.5(+/-0.2)x10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.0(+/-0.10)x10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The hydrodynamic amperommetry technique at 0.08 V was used for detection of nanomolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide and bromate. Detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range proposed sensor for bromate and hydrogen peroxide detection were 1.1 nM and 6.7 nA nM(-1), 10 nM-20 microM, 1 nM, 5.5 nA nM(-1) and 10 nM-18 microM, respectively.

  4. Study of K* meson production in PHENIX for d + Au and Cu + Cu systems at √sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sett, P.; Mishra, D.K.; Shukla, P.; Choudhury, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) predicts a phase transition from nuclear matter to quark gluon plasma (QGP) at energy density higher than >1 GeV/fm 3 achievable in high energy heavy ion collisions. Measurements of various mesons and baryons provide the information about the interaction dynamics in heavy ion collision. Lighter systems such as p+p are used as baseline for production mechanism and d+Au for the cold nuclear matter effects such as shadowing and Cronin effect. The K* transverse momentum spectra for d+Au system for different centralities has been measured in the pT range of 0.9 GeV/c within the uncertainties

  5. A GREENER SYNTHESIS OF CORE (FE, CU)-SHELL (AU, PT, PD AND AG) NANOCRYSTALS USING AQUEOUS VITAMIN C

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener method to fabricate the novel core (Fe and Cu)-shell (noble metals) metal nanocrystals using aqueous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is described. Transition metal salts such as Cu and Fe were reduced using ascorbic acid, a benign naturally available antioxidant, and then add...

  6. The Shear Strength and Fracture Behavior of Sn-Ag- xSb Solder Joints with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Hu, Shuen-Yuan; Hong, Ting-Fu; Chen, Yin-Fa

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of Sb addition on the shear strength and fracture behavior of Sn-Ag-based solders with Au/Ni-P/Cu underbump metallization (UBM) substrates. Sn-3Ag- xSb ternary alloy solder joints were prepared by adding 0 wt.% to 10 wt.% Sb to a Sn-3.5Ag alloy and joining them with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM substrates. The solder joints were isothermally stored at 150°C for up to 625 h to study their microstructure and interfacial reaction with the UBM. Single-lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties, thermal resistance, and failure behavior. The results show that UBM effectively suppressed intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth during isothermal storage. The Sb addition helped to refine the Ag3Sn compounds, further improving the shear strength and thermal resistance of the solders. The fracture behavior evolved from solder mode toward the mixed mode and finally to the IMC mode with increasing added Sb and isothermal storage time. However, SnSb compounds were found in the solder with 10 wt.% Sb; they may cause mechanical degradation of the solder after long-term isothermal storage.

  7. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  8. Structural determination of stable MoO{sub x} monolayers on O/Cu{sub 3}Au(1 0 0): DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valadares, George C.S., E-mail: georgevaladares@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Mendes, F.M.T. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (Inmetro), CEP 25250-020, Xerem, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Dionizio Moreira, M. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (Inmetro), CEP 25250-020, Xerem, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Naturais e Educacao, Av. Getulio Guarita, 159, Bairro Abadia, CEP.: 38025-180, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Leitao, A.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Niehus, H. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (Inmetro), CEP 25250-020, Xerem, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, Berlin 12489 (Germany); and others

    2012-10-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum oxide is widely used in catalysis in the chemical industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recently, ultra-thin (monolayer) films of MoO{sub x} have been produced on top of O-Cu{sub 3}Au substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS measurements suggest an unusual +5 charge state of the Mo cation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seeking for a low-energy structure with good match to the experimental STM and XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bader charges indicate indeed an intermediate charge state as compared to the more common Mo{sup +4}O{sub 2} and Mo{sup +6}O{sub 3} bulk oxides. -- Abstract: Using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we propose a geometrical structure for MoO{sub x} monolayers recently grown on O/Cu{sub 3}Au(1 0 0) substrates. The proposed structure reproduces the p(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) symmetry found by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), as well as the intermediate oxidation state between Mo(IV) and Mo(VI) identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Simulated STM images assign the bright spots in the experimental images to oxygen 2p states.

  9. Effects of spin orbital coupling on atomic and electronic structures in Al2Cu and Al2Au crystal and liquid phases via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Lu, Y.H.; Wang, X.D.; Cao, Q.P.; Zhang, D.X.; Jiang, J.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The SOC effect affects the cohesion energy of crystal phase. • The effect of SOC was reduced due to random local atomic structures in liquids. • The local geometrical structures also affect the melting points. • Both SOC effect and local atomic structures are important for melting point difference. - Abstract: The origin of different melting points between Al 2 Cu and Al 2 Au has been studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Cohesive energy, electronic structures and structure information of both crystal and liquid phases have been analyzed. It is found that spin orbital coupling (SOC) plays an important role on the cohesive energy of crystal phase, consistent with the different melting points of these two alloys. Whereas, it seems that SOC has no effect on the formation energy and structure of liquid phase. Possible mechanism of reduced SOC effect at liquid phase is proposed. Our results are helpful to understand the glass formation ability difference between Al 2 Cu and Al 2 Au

  10. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the last two decades much has been published on the behaviour of certain elements in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments, but the information is scattered throughout the literature. This situation prompted the present study on the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Sn, W and U has been studied experimentally in some depth. Ag has been moderately studied, but there is very little information about Co and Mo. Studies on the complexes formed by the elements within the hydrothermal and aqueous environment are often inconclusive and controversial, but conclusions are drawn as to the more likely complexes formed. A genetic classification of ore deposits is used as a framework for the discussion. The source of the elements is regarded as being the mantle, and therefore discussion on other possible sources is beyond the scope of this dissertation. The crystal chemistry and geochemistry of the elements are presented and the essay concludes with a discussion on the elements within their depositional environments

  11. The occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the mineralized breccias from Igarape Bahia (North region, Brazil) Au-Cu (± ETR-U) deposit, Carajas mineral Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazava, Edison; Gomes, Newton Souza; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de

    1999-01-01

    In the last years, several works report the presence of pyrosmalite mineral series [(Fe, Mn) 8 Si 6 O 15 (OH, Cl) 10 ] commonly associated with volcanic exhalative massive sulphide or Fe-Mn metamorphosed deposits. In this paper, we present the inedit occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the Au-Cu (± REE-U) of Igarape Bahia deposit, located in the Au-Cu district of the Carajas Mineral Province. We consider the Igarape Bahia mineralization as being related to the genesis of iron-oxide class deposit, like the Olympic Dam type. Ferropyrosmalite occurs in two different contexts: associated with carbonate veins; associated with heterolithic breccias, composed by BIF and mafic metavolcanic fragments immersed in a magnetic, chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, carbonates (calcite to siderite), uranium and REE minerals, and gold, - rich matrix. The growth of ferropyrosmalite is probably due to the substitution of iron rich minerals (chloride, magnetite and siderite), controlled by magmatic fluid influx rich in chlorine. The permeability of breccias and the discontinuity of veins favour fluid percolation. The mode of occurrence of ferropyrosmalite and its relation with amphibole (ferro-hornblende-actinolite) indicate metasomatic growth of the former under temperatures in the transition of greenschist/amphibolite facies. The ferropyrosmalite of the Igarape Bahia deposit represents an uncommon type of occurrence linked to hydrothermal/magmatic conditions. (author)

  12. Production of 68Ge, 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I positron emitting radionuclides through future laser-accelerated proton beams at ELI-Beamlines for innovative PET diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Italiano, Antonio; Amato, Ernesto; Minutoli, Fabio; Margarone, Daniele; Baldari, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The development of innovative production pathways for high-Z positron emitters is of great interest to enlarge the applicability of PET diagnostics, especially in view of the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals. We evaluated the theoretical yields of 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I PET isotopes, plus the 68Ge isotope, parent of the 68Ga positron emitter, in the hypothesis of production through laser-accelerated proton sources expected at the ELI-Beamlines facility. By mean...

  13. Synthesis and the crystal and molecular structures of (H3L . Cl)[CoCl4] and H2L[CuBr4] (L is 2,4,6-Tri(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchukova, O. V.; Stash, A. I.; Strashnova, S. B.; Romashkina, E. P.; Zaitsev, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    The complex compounds (H 3 L . Cl)[CoCl 4 ] (I) and H 2 L[CuBr 4 ] (II), where L is 2,4,6-tri(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenol, were isolated in the crystalline state and studied by X-ray diffraction. The organic cations were found to be outer-sphere ligands. All three nitrogen atoms of the tertiary amino groups are protonated. In compound I, the H 3 L 3+ cation exists as the cis tautomer. In compound II, the H 2 L 2+ dication exists as the trans isomer. In the crystal structure, the dications are arranged in layers via hydrogen bonds.

  14. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  15. Que transmet l’école publique au Brésil ? What is transmitted in Brazilian public schools ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Brochier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’examiner certains aspects de la transmission de connaissances scolaires dans les écoles publiques brésiliennes. Depuis les années 1980, en effet, le système scolaire s’est largement ouvert aux couches les plus défavorisées des populations urbaines, ce qui a provoqué des changements dans les modes de fonctionnement. Face à ce nouveau public, les exigences en termes de discipline et de travail scolaires se sont considérablement affaiblies, de même que le suivi des programmes. Par ailleurs, les enseignants surmenés qui occupent souvent plusieurs emplois pour compenser leurs bas salaires, manifestent un découragement évident tandis que les élèves s’habituent à un monde institutionnel tolérant qui ne propose plus une vraie rupture avec leur univers social d’origine.This article studies certain aspects of how knowledge is transmitted in Brazilian state schools. Since the 1980s, the school system has opened its doors to the most underprivileged segments of the urban populations, bringing about considerable changes in day-to-day behavior patterns. Faced with this new public, requirements in terms of discipline and dedication to learning have considerably weakened, as has the observance of the official programs. Moreover, the teachers, exhausted since they often hold down several jobs to compensate for their low wages, are prone to depression. The pupils, in turn, get used to a tolerant institutional world which no longer represents a departure from their original social environment.

  16. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelo, T.E.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Maldonado, R.D.; Oliva, A.I.; Alonzo-Medina, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au 2 Cu 3 and Au 3 Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au 3 Cu and Au 2 Cu 3 phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation

  17. Contrasting fluids and reservoirs in the contiguous Marcona and Mina Justa iron oxide-Cu (-Ag-Au) deposits, south-central Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayong; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Clark, Alan H.

    2011-10-01

    The Marcona-Mina Justa deposit cluster, hosted by Lower Paleozoic metaclastic rocks and Middle Jurassic shallow marine andesites, incorporates the most important known magnetite mineralization in the Andes at Marcona (1.9 Gt at 55.4% Fe and 0.12% Cu) and one of the few major iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits with economic Cu grades (346.6 Mt at 0.71% Cu, 3.8 g/t Ag and 0.03 g/t Au) at Mina Justa. The Middle Jurassic Marcona deposit is centred in Ica Department, Perú, and the Lower Cretaceous Mina Justa Cu (Ag, Au) prospect is located 3-4 km to the northeast. New fluid inclusion studies, including laser ablation time-of-flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-ICPMS) analysis, integrated with sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope analyses of minerals with well-defined paragenetic relationships, clarify the nature and origin of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for these contiguous but genetically contrasted deposits. At Marcona, early, sulphide-free stage M-III magnetite-biotite-calcic amphibole assemblages are inferred to have crystallized from a 700-800°C Fe oxide melt with a δ18O value from +5.2‰ to +7.7‰. Stage M-IV magnetite-phlogopite-calcic amphibole-sulphide assemblages were subsequently precipitated from 430-600°C aqueous fluids with dominantly magmatic isotopic compositions (δ34S = +0.8‰ to +5.9‰; δ18O = +9.6‰ to +12.2‰; δD = -73‰ to -43‰; and δ13C = -3.3‰). Stages M-III and M-IV account for over 95% of the magnetite mineralization at Marcona. Subsequent non-economic, lower temperature sulphide-calcite-amphibole assemblages (stage M-V) were deposited from fluids with similar δ34S (+1.8‰ to +5.0‰), δ18O (+10.1‰ to +12.5‰) and δ13C (-3.4‰), but higher δD values (average -8‰). Several groups of lower (200°C) fluids can be recognized in the main polymetallic (Cu, Zn, Pb) sulphide stage M-V and may record the involvement of modified seawater. At Mina Justa, early magnetite

  18. Re-evaluation of microscopic and integral cross-section data for important dosimetry reactions. Re-evaluation of the excitation functions for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 32S(n,p)32P, 60Ni(n,p)60m+gCo, 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 65Cu(n,2n)64Cu, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu, 115In(n,2n)114mIn, 127I(n,2n)126I, 197Au(n,2n)196Au and 199Hg(n,n')199mHg reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.

    2008-08-01

    Re-evaluations of cross sections and their associated covariance matrices have been carried out for ten dosimetry reactions: - excitation functions for the 63 Cu(n,2n) 62 Cu, 65 Cu(n,2n) 64 Cu, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 115 In(n,2n) 114m In and 199 Hg(n,n') 199m Hg reactions were re-evaluated over the neutron energy range from threshold to 20 MeV; - excitation functions for the 24 Mg(n,p) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P and 60 Ni(n,p) 60m+g Co were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 21 MeV; - excitation functions for the 127 I(n,2n) 126 I and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au reactions were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 32 and 40 MeV, respectively. Benchmark calculations performed for 235 U thermal fission and 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that the integral cross sections derived from the newly evaluated excitation functions exhibit improved agreement with related experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. (author)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Pd@M(x)Cu(1-x) (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) nanocages with porous walls and a yolk-shell structure through galvanic replacement reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuifen; Jin, Mingshang; Tao, Jing; Wang, Yucai; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-19

    This paper describes the synthesis of Pd@M(x)Cu(1-x) (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) nanocages with a yolk-shell structure through galvanic replacement reactions that involve Pd@Cu core-shell nanocubes as sacrificial templates and ethylene glycol as the solvent. Compared with the most commonly used templates based on Ag, Cu offers a much lower reduction potential (0.34 versus 0.80 V), making the galvanic reaction more easily to conduct, even at room temperature. Our structural and compositional characterizations indicated that the products were hollow inside, and each one of them contained porous M-Cu alloy walls and a Pd cube in the interior. For the Pd@Au(x)Cu(1-x) yolk-shell nanocages, they displayed broad extinction peaks extending from the visible to the near-IR region. Our mechanistic study revealed that the dissolution of the Cu shell preferred to start from the slightly truncated corners and then progressed toward the interior, because the Cu {100} side faces were protected by a surface capping layer of hexadecylamine. This galvanic approach can also be extended to generating other hollow metal nanostructures by using different combinations of Cu nanostructures and salt precursors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Insight into the electronic structure of the supramolecular “rods-in-belt” Au{sup I}-Cu{sup I} and Au{sup I}-Ag{sup I} self-assembled complexes from X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, Anna A. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Grachova, Elena V.; Krupenya, Dmitry V. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, Oleg [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Fedorov, Alexander [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Usachov, Dmitry [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Generalov, Alexander [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Koshevoy, Igor O. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101 (Finland); Tunik, Sergey P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Rühl, Eckart [Physikalische Chemie, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie Freie Universität Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of rods-in-belt complexes was described via PES and NEXAFS. • With increasing size the molecule becomes more sensitive to X-ray damage effects. • The HOMO consists of a combination of the d-Cu/Ag and π-C≡C states. • HOMOs are positioned at about 2.2 eV for Au-Cu and 2.5 eV BE for Au-Ag complexes. • LUMOs are located on the C-skeleton including π*-C≡C and π*-C=C{sub aromatic} orbitals. - Abstract: The recently discovered “rods-in-belt” supramolecular complexes with Au-Cu or Au-Ag cluster cores exhibit self-assembly behavior, have a very unusual structural motif, and what is most important, show remarkable light emitting properties. The electronic and photophysical characteristics of these unique objects can be relatively easy tuned by modifying the ligand (alkynyl and phosphine) environment. Because of these properties the “rods-in-belt” supramolecules could serve as building blocks for next generation electronics, and in particular, for light-emitting devices and in bioimaging applications. Herein, we report a comprehensive characterization of the electronic structure of two families of alkynyl-diphosphine supramolecular complexes with the heterometallic Au-Cu and Au-Ag cores. Using X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopy we disentangled the structure of their occupied and unoccupied electronic states close to the Fermi level. The results obtained suggest that the major contribution to the highest occupied molecular orbitals is made by the triple bonded carbons hosted in the dialkynyl-gold “rods” and the copper (silver) atoms from the central cluster core of the heterometallic Au-Cu (Au-Ag) molecules. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are located on the carbon skeleton of the complexes and include π*-C≡C and π*-C=C{sub aromatic} orbitals. The onset of the valence band in the Au-Ag systems starts at about 0.3 eV lower than that in the Au-Cu complexes, implying a slightly larger energy

  1. Electrical characterization of chemically modified YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.D.; Foote, M.C.; Vasquez, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Results on electrical characterization of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film surfaces treated with a Br/ethanol chemical etch are presented. Electrical measurements of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /Au/Nb device structures fabricated using polycrystalline, post-annealed YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films with Br-etched surfaces, show improvements of approximately one or two orders of magnitude in current densities and resistivities (resistance-area products) relative to unetched devices. The existence of supercurrents in these structures has been confirmed by observation of the ac Josephson effect, and by magnetic field and temperature studies of the critical currents. The Br-etch process has produced 10x10 μm 2 devices with critical current densities greater than 400 A/cm 2 and resistivities as low as 4x10 -7 Ω cm 2

  2. Preliminary results from collisions between 3.2-TeV 16O and target nuclei of C, Cu, and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    We have presented preliminary WA80 data from interactions of 16 O with C, Cu, and Au at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon. These have included total charged-particle multiplicity distributions and transverse energy distributions. Ranges of transverse momentum per particle and of possible energy densities were discussed. Some of the unique features of WA80 were stressed. These are: complete coverage of the target rapidity region, complete coverage of charged-particle multiplicity measurement, and measurement of intrinsic photons. WA80 was the only experiment with no magnetic analysis and the only large-scale experiment to obtain production data during the 1986 run which did not involve, primarily, the reconfiguration of an existing SPS experiment

  3. Surface effects on the mechanical elongation of AuCu nanowires: De-alloying and the formation of mixed suspended atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, M. J.; Autreto, P. A. S.; Galvao, D. S.; Ugarte, D.; Bettini, J.; Sato, F.; Dantas, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    We report here an atomistic study of the mechanical deformation of Au x Cu (1−x) atomic-size wires (nanowires (NWs)) by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to obtain deeper insights on the dynamical properties of stretched NWs. The mechanical properties are significantly dependent on the chemical composition that evolves in time at the junction; some structures exhibit a remarkable de-alloying behavior. Also, our results represent the first experimental realization of mixed linear atomic chains (LACs) among transition and noble metals; in particular, surface energies induce chemical gradients on NW surfaces that can be exploited to control the relative LAC compositions (different number of gold and copper atoms). The implications of these results for nanocatalysis and spin transport of one-atom-thick metal wires are addressed

  4. Surface effects on the mechanical elongation of AuCu nanowires: De-alloying and the formation of mixed suspended atomic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, M. J. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, R. Sergio B. de Holanda 777, 13083-859 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia-LNNANO, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Autreto, P. A. S.; Galvao, D. S., E-mail: galvao@ifi.unicamp.br; Ugarte, D. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, R. Sergio B. de Holanda 777, 13083-859 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia-LNNANO, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sato, F.; Dantas, S. O. [Departamento de Física, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora-MG (Brazil)

    2015-03-07

    We report here an atomistic study of the mechanical deformation of Au{sub x}Cu{sub (1−x)} atomic-size wires (nanowires (NWs)) by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to obtain deeper insights on the dynamical properties of stretched NWs. The mechanical properties are significantly dependent on the chemical composition that evolves in time at the junction; some structures exhibit a remarkable de-alloying behavior. Also, our results represent the first experimental realization of mixed linear atomic chains (LACs) among transition and noble metals; in particular, surface energies induce chemical gradients on NW surfaces that can be exploited to control the relative LAC compositions (different number of gold and copper atoms). The implications of these results for nanocatalysis and spin transport of one-atom-thick metal wires are addressed.

  5. Fabrication and stability investigation of ultra-thin transparent and flexible Cu-Ag-Au tri-layer film on PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasarao, Ch Surya; D'souza, Slavia Deeksha; Hazarika, Pratim; Karthiselva N., S.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Kovendhan, M.; Kumar, R. Arockia; Joseph, D. Paul

    2018-04-01

    The need for transparent conducting electrodes with high transmittance, low sheet resistance and flexibility to replace Indium Tin Oxide is ever growing. We have deposited and studied the performance of ultra-thin Cu-Ag-Au tri-layer films over a flexible poly-ethylene terephthalate substrate. Scotch tape test showed good adhesion of the metallic film. Transmittance of the tri-layer was around 40 % in visible region. Optical profiler measurements were done to study the surface features. The XRD pattern revealed that film was amorphous. Sheet resistance measured by four probe technique was around 7.7 Ohm/Δ and was stable up to 423 K. The transport parameters by Hall effect showed high conductivity and carrier concentration with a mobility of 5.58 cm2/Vs. Tests performed in an indigenously designed bending unit indicated the films to be stable both mechanically and electrically even after 50,000 bending cycles.

  6. The spin-dependent electronic transport properties of M(dcdmp)2 (M = Cu, Au, Co, Ni) molecular devices based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongde; Wu, Di; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Zeng, Bowen; Li, Mingjun; Duan, Haiming; Yang, Bingchu; Long, Mengqiu

    2018-05-01

    The spin-dependent electronic transport properties of M(dcdmp)2 (M = Cu, Au, Co, Ni; dcdmp = 2,3-dicyano-5,6-dimercaptopyrazyne) molecular devices based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes were investigated by density functional theory combined nonequilibrium Green's function method (DFT-NEGF). Our results show that the spin-dependent transport properties of the M(dcdmp)2 molecular devices can be controlled by the spin configurations of the ZGNR electrodes, and the central 3d-transition metal atom can introduce a larger magnetism than that of the nonferrous metal one. Moreover, the perfect spin filtering effect, negative differential resistance, rectifying effect and magnetic resistance phenomena can be observed in our proposed M(dcdmp)2 molecular devices.

  7. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, D M; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Ashraf, M U; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jowzaee, S; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Luo, S; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Miller, Z W; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Nonaka, T; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Ray, R L; Reed, R; Rehbein, M J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roth, J D; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, A; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shi, Z; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sugiura, T; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Sun, X M; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, F; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, N; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2017-01-06

    We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1  fm/c.

  8. Stopping power measurements for 4-5MeV/nucleon 16O, 40Ar, 63Cu and 84Kr in C, Al, Ni, Ag and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Gardes, D.; Gauvin, H.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.

    1977-01-01

    The stopping powers for (4 and 5 MeV/nucleon) 16 O, 40 Ar, 63 Cu and 84 Kr have been measured in C, Al, Ni, Ag and Au media. The experimental technique consists in measuring accurately the energy of protons elastically scattered at zero degree by the incident and degraded beams. The experimental results have been compared with stopping powers calculated in different ways. Discrepancies as large as 30% have been observed for the heaviest ions in light media (C, Al), the experimental values being higher than the calculated ones. Moreover, this comparison indicates that, from these calculations, no agreement can be obtained in the whole range of incident ions and stopping media. On the contrary, a quantitative agreement was obtained by a new calculation mode which takes into account the variation of the moving ion effective charge with the atomic number of the stopping medium

  9. Mineralization and geophysical exploration by IP/RS and ground magnetic survey in MA-I and surrounding area, Maherabad porphyry Cu-Au prospect area, east of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi; Mohammad Reza Hidarian Shahri; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2009-01-01

    Maherabad prospect area, which is studied in detail, is the first porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the east of Iran. Based on relation of mineralization with subvolcanic intrusive bodies mostly monzonitic with porphyry texture, extent and types of alteration including potassic, sericitic- potassic, quartz- sericite- carbonate- pyrite, quartz- carbonate- pyrite, silicification- propylitic, propylitic, stockwork mineralization, assemblages hypogene mineralization including pyrite, chalcopyrite,...

  10. Extremely Re-Rich Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Prospects in Northeastern Greece: Mode of Occurrence, Causes of Enrichment, and Implications for Gold Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kartal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely Re-rich molybdenite occurs with pyrite in sodic–calcic, sodic–sericitic and sericitic-altered porphyritic stocks of granodioritic–tonalitic and granitic composition in the Sapes–Kirki–Esymi, Melitena and Maronia areas, northeastern Greece. Molybdenite in the Pagoni Rachi and Sapes deposits is spatially associated with rheniite, as well as with intermediate (Mo,ReS2 and (Re,MoS2 phases, with up to 46 wt % Re. Nanodomains and/or microinclusions of rheniite may produce the observed Re enrichment in the intermediate molybdenite–rheniite phases. The extreme Re content in molybdenite and the unique presence of rheniite in porphyry-type mineralization, combined with preliminary geochemical data (Cu/Mo ratio, Au grades may indicate that these deposits have affinities with Cu–Au deposits, and should be considered potential targets for gold mineralization in the porphyry environment. In the post-subduction tectonic regime of northern Greece, the extreme Re and Te enrichments in the magmatic-hydrothermal systems over a large areal extent are attributed to an anomalous source (e.g., chemical inhomogenities in the mantle-wedge triggered magmatism, although local scale processes cannot be underestimated.

  11. Experimental study of the A(e,e'π+) reaction on 1H, 2H, 12C, 27Al, 63Cu, and 197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Gao, H.; Kramer, K.; Horn, T.; Clasie, B.; Seely, J.; Arrington, J.; El Fassi, L.; Zheng, X.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cross sections for the 1 H(e,e ' π + )n process on 1 H, 2 H, 12 C, 27 Al, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets were measured at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) to extract nuclear transparencies. Data were taken from Q 2 =1.1-4.7 GeV 2 for a fixed center-of-mass energy of W=2.14 GeV. The ratio of σ L and σ T was extracted from the measured cross sections for 1 H, 2 H, 12 C, and 63 Cu targets at Q 2 =2.15 and 4.0 GeV 2 , allowing for additional studies of the reaction mechanism. In this article, we present the experimental setup and the analysis of the data in detail, including systematic uncertainty studies. Differential cross sections and nuclear transparencies as a function of the pion momentum at different values of Q 2 are presented. Our results are consistent with the predicted early onset of color transparency in mesons. Global features of the data are discussed and the data are compared with model calculations for the 1 H(e,e ' π + )n reaction from nuclear targets.

  12. An exploration hydrogeochemical study at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA, using high-resolution ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Smith, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical study using high resolution ICP-MS was undertaken at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding mineral occurrences. Surface water and groundwater samples from regional background and the deposit area were collected at 168 sites. Rigorous quality control reveals impressive results at low nanogram per litre (ng/l) levels. Sites with pH values below 5.1 are from ponds in the Pebble West area, where sulphide-bearing rubble crop is thinly covered. Relative to other study area waters, anomalous concentrations of Cu, Cd, K, Ni, Re, the REE, Tl, SO42− and F− are present in water samples from Pebble West. Samples from circum-neutral waters at Pebble East and parts of Pebble West, where cover is much thicker, have anomalous concentrations of Ag, As, In, Mn, Mo, Sb, Th, U, V, and W. Low-level anomalous concentrations for most of these elements were also found in waters surrounding nearby porphyry and skarn mineral occurrences. Many of these elements are present in low ng/l concentration ranges and would not have been detected using traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. Hydrogeochemical exploration paired with high resolution ICP-MS is a powerful new tool in the search for concealed deposits.

  13. Petrogenesis of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite - Quartz diorite from eastern Guangdong, SE China: Implications for tectono-magmatic evolution and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Mao, Jingwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive petrological, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopes, whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes data are presented for the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province, Southeast (SE) China, with an aim to constrain the petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution and evaluate the implication for porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. The Xinwei intrusion is composed of granodiorite and quartz diorite, whilst the Sanrao intrusion consists of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages show that both intrusions were emplaced at ca. 106-102 Ma. All rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and they are characterized by LREEs enrichment, depletion in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and strongly fractionated LREEs to HREEs. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7055 to 0.7059, and εNd(t) values range from -3.9 to -3.0. Together with the relatively high εHf(t) values (-3.2 to 3.3) and low δ18O values (4.9‰ to 6.6‰), these data suggest that the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions were derived from a mixed source: including the mantle-derived mafic magmas and lower continental crustal magmas. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the magmatic evolution of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions, as well as the high water content and oxidation state of their parental magmas, are similar to those of the ore-bearing granodiorites of the Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Fujian Province, neighbouring east to the Guangdong Province, indicating that the late Early Cretaceous granodioritic intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province may also have Cu-Au-Mo mineralization potential. The late Early Cretaceous magmatic event is firstly reported in eastern Guangdong, and represents a positive response of large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, triggered by the changing subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate from oblique subduction to

  14. The d-band of disordered Cu3Au as determined by constant initial state photoemission spectroscopy: a search for the origins of the disorder/order phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampfl, A.P.J.; Riley, J.D.; Leckey, R.C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Binary alloys must either order or phase separate as the temperature is lowered. Substitutionally disordered Cu 3 Au is known to order below a transition temperature of T c =390 deg C. The driving force (of ordering) is believed to be the lowering of free energy as a result of changes to the electronic and compositional structure. Details of the role that particular electronic levels play and the amount of coupling between the electronic and phonon structures, is as yet not fully understood. Gyorffy and Stocks have indeed suggested that instabilities in the electronic structure of the Fermi surface of Cu-Pd alloys may be the driving force for the disorder/order phase transition. It is expected, however, that the Fermi surfaces of ordered and disordered Cu 3 Au to be nearly similar. Our work on the Fermi surface of disordered Cu 3 Au supports this view. Large differences, however, are observed in the d-band region between the ordered and disordered phases and it has been suggested that these states may exhibit a type of electronic instability upon approaching T c . We present our initial study of the d-band region of disordered Cu 3 Au using a constant initial state spectroscopy technique which we previously developed to map the Fermi surface of Cu. Our technique allows the accurate k-space mapping of very flat bands such as d-levels. The k-space shape of the d-bands are compared to calculation and a discussion is given as to their likely role in the phase transition

  15. Production of 68Ge, 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I positron emitting radionuclides through future laser-accelerated proton beams at ELI-Beamlines for innovative PET diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Italiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of innovative production pathways for high-Z positron emitters is of great interest to enlarge the applicability of PET diagnostics, especially in view of the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals. We evaluated the theoretical yields of 64Cu, 86Y, 89Zr, 73Se, 77Br and 124I PET isotopes, plus the 68Ge isotope, parent of the 68Ga positron emitter, in the hypothesis of production through laser-accelerated proton sources expected at the ELI-Beamlines facility. By means of the TALYS software we simulated the nuclear reactions leading to the above radionuclides, hypothesizing three possible scenarios of broad proton spectra, with maximum energies of about 9, 40 and 100 MeV. The production yields of the studied radionuclides, within the expected fluences, appear to be suitable for pre-clinical applications.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Cu(II)-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agent targeting topoisomerase Iα: in vitro DNA binding, pBR322 cleavage, molecular docking studies and cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Zaki, Mehvash; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-03-03

    New metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates [Cu(phen)L](NO₃)₂ (1) and [Zn(phen)L](NO₃)₂ (2) were synthesized from ligand L (derived from pharmacophore scaffold barbituric acid and pyrazole). In vitro DNA binding studies of the L, 1 and 2 were carried out by various biophysical techniques revealing electrostatic mode. Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via oxidative pathway and recognizes major groove of DNA double helix. The molecular docking study was carried out to ascertain the mode of action towards the molecular target DNA and enzymes. The complex 1 exhibited remarkably good anticancer activity on a panel of human cancer cell lines (GI₅₀ values < 10 μg/ml), and to elucidate the mechanism of cancer inhibition, Topo-I enzymatic activity was carried out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between the critical current and the structural transformation near 80 K in the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirbiyine, A.; Senoussi, S.; Pesty, F.; Taoufik, A.; Ramzi, A.; Labrag, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically studied the critical current and the magnetic susceptibility as a function of the cooling rate through the order-disorder transformation near 80 K for the κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Br organic superconductor. Our results show that the magnetic properties of these compounds depend strongly on the cooling rate V c , and this disorder can influence very strongly the physics of the vortex lattice. The degree of ordering depends on the cooling rate through 80 K. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Improving the mechanical performance of Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder joints on Au/Ni/Cu pads during aging and electromigration through the addition of tungsten (W) nanoparticle reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: yili64-c@my.cityu.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Luo, Kaiming; Lim, Adeline B.Y.; Chen, Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Fengshun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan (China); Chan, Y.C. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2016-07-04

    Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder has been reinforced successfully through the addition of tungsten (W) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.5 wt%. With the addition of W nanoparticles, the solder matrix lamellar interphase spacing was reduced by 31.0%. Due to the dispersion of W nanoparticles and the consequently refined microstructure, the mechanical properties of the solder alloy were enhanced, as indicated by a 6.2% improvement in the microhardness. During the reflow of solder on Au/Ni/Cu pads, the entire Au layer dissolved into the molten solder rapidly and a large number of (Au,Ni)(Sn,Bi){sub 4} particles were formed. The fracture path of the as-reflowed joint was within the solder region, showing ductile characteristic, and the shear strength was reinforced by 8.2%, due to the enhanced mechanical properties of the solder. During the subsequent aging process, the Au migrated back towards the interface and a thick layer of interfacial (Au,Ni)(Sn,Bi){sub 4} IMC was formed, leading to the shift of the fracture path to the interfacial IMC region, the transformation to brittle fracture and the deterioration of the strength of the joint, due to Au embrittlement. By adding W nanoparticles, the migration of Au was mitigated and the thickness of the (Au,Ni)(Sn,Bi){sub 4} layer was reduced significantly, which reduced the Au embrittlement-induced deterioration of the strength of the joint. During electromigration, the segregation of the Bi-rich and Sn-rich phases and the accumulation of the (Au,Ni)(Sn,Bi){sub 4} layer at cathode interface were mitigated by the addition of W nanoparticles, which improved the electromigration resistance.

  19. Les dynamiques territoriales associées au soja et les changements fonctionnels en Amazonie. Le cas de la région de Santarém, Pará, Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La croissance progressive de la demande internationale de produits céréaliers et légumineux pour le fourrage animal et l´alimentation humaine a entraîné une expansion continue des terres cultivées au Brésil. L´intérêt des multinationales du secteur agroalimentaire (qui ont réalisé de grands investissements dans le pays et les facilités données par le gouvernement pour inciter et développer les activités agro-exportatrices, ont également favorisé l’expansion de ces cultures agricoles. La progression a gagné les régions de cerrado et plus récemment de l´Amazonie, provoquant de profondes transformations dans l´organisation du territoire en donnant de nouvelles fonctions aux différents lieux. Santarém, une ville historique de l´Amazonie brésilienne, qui a une localisation privilégié á la confluence des fleuves Tapajós et Amazones, et à l’extrémité Nord de la route BR-163, est sur le devant de la scène de toutes ces mutations récentes. C’est un centre urbain qui dirige un processus de changement régional défini par la reconversion et la spécialisation productive dans le milieu rural.The progressive increase in the international demand for cereals and leguminous plants for human and animal consumption has motivated a continuous expansion in the cultivated land in Brazil. This expansion is encouraged by the interest of multinationals of the agro-alimental sector that have made large investments in the country, and by the aid provided by the government to promote and reassert the agro-exporters activities. This progression has gone as far as the cerrado latitudes and, most recently, in the Amazonia, where it has generated profound transformations in the organization of the area and given new roles to different places. Santarém, a historical city in the Amazon which utilizes its privileged location where the Tapajós and Amazonas Rivers confluence, as well as the northern vertex of the BR-163 highway, is the

  20. Origin of dioritic magma and its contribution to porphyry Cu-Au mineralization at Pulang in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kang; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Xu, Ji-Feng; Fu, Bin; Li, Wei-Kai; Sun, Mao-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The giant Pulang porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the Yidun arc, eastern Tibet, formed due to westward subduction of the Garze-Litang oceanic plate in the Late Triassic. The deposit is hosted in an intrusive complex comprising primarily coarse-grained quartz diorite and cored quartz monzonite. Here, we investigate a suite of simultaneous (216.6 ± 1.9 Ma) diorite porphyries within the complex. The diorite porphyries are geochemically similar to mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) hosted in coarse-grained quartz diorite, and both are characterized by low SiO2 (59.4-63.0 wt%) and high total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.0-9.2 wt%), K2O (3.5-6.4 wt%), MgO (3.2-5.5 wt%), and compatible trace element (e.g., Cr = 72-149 ppm) concentrations. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile and light rare earth elements (LILE and LREE, respectively), but depleted in high field-strength and heavy rare earth elements (HFSE and HREE, respectively), and yield variably high (La/Yb)N ratios (17-126, average 65) with weak to negligible Eu anomalies. Furthermore, they yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7054-0.7067), weakly negative εNd(t) (-2.8 to -0.8) values, and variable zircon εHf(t) (-5.4 to +0.8) and δ18O (6.0‰-6.7‰) values. These geochemical features indicate that the diorite porphyry and MME formed through crustal assimilation of a magma produced during low-degree partial melting of metasomatized phlogopite-rich subcontinental lithospheric mantle. In contrast, the coarse-grained quartz diorite and quartz monzonite have relatively high concentrations of SiO2 (61.1-65.3 wt%), K2O (4.1-5.4 wt%), and total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.1-8.1 wt%), and low concentrations of MgO (generally Y ratios (50-63) that indicate an adakitic affinity, and are enriched in LILE, depleted in HFSE, and yield lower (La/Yb)N values (13-20, average 17) than the diorite porphyry and MME. They yield low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7046-0.7066), negative εNd(t) (-3.3 to -1.7) values, and zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values of -2.9 to

  1. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  2. Carboniferous-Permian tectonic transition envisaged in two magmatic episodes at the Kuruer Cu-Au deposit, Western Tianshan (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Nuo; Qi, Nan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jing

    2018-03-01

    The Western Tianshan in NW China is one of the most important gold provinces in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The recently discovered Kuruer Cu-Au deposit has been interpreted to represent a transition from high-sulfidation epithermal to porphyry mineralization system. In this study, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages for the many magmatic rock types at Kuruer, including the Dahalajunshan Formation andesitic tuff (333.2 ± 1.6 Ma), diorite porphyry (269.7 ± 2.0 Ma), slightly-altered (264.4 ± 2.6 Ma) and intensively-altered (270.5 ± 2.5 Ma) albite porphyry. These ages reveal two distinct magmatic episodes: The Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation (wall rocks) andesitic tuff samples contain narrow ranges of SiO2 (60.29-61.28 wt.%), TiO2 (0.96-0.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (16.55-16.57 wt.%) and Fe2O3T (5.36-5.57 wt.%). The tuff is characterized by LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as LREE/HREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 8.31-8.76) and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.64-0.76). Zircon εHf (t) values are 5.4-8.2, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) are 821-1016 Ma, indicating partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with Precambrian continental crustal input. The ore-forming Middle Permian diorite porphyry and (quartz) albite porphyry have variable major oxide compositions (e.g., SiO2 = 53.09-53.12 wt.% for the diorite porphyry, 70.84-78.03 wt.% for the albite porphyry, and 74.07-75.03 wt.% for the quartz albite porphyry) but similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns. These porphyries display LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as elevated LREE/HREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The positive zircon εHf(t) values (11.7-15.9 for the diorite porphyry, 8.9-14.9 for the albite porphyry) and young two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) (282-542 Ma for the diorite porphyry, 337-717 Ma for the albite porphyry) indicate a major juvenile continental crustal involvement. We propose that the

  3. Les territoires de l´agrobusiness au Brésil Os territórios do agronegócio no Brasil The territories of agrobusiness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Elias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Les transformations qui se sont produites dans l’activité agricole brésilienne lors de ces quatre dernières décennies, ont eu un impact profond sur la réorganisation du territoire brésilien, donnant lieu à de nouveaux arrangements territoriaux. L’objectif principal de ce texte est de soumettre au débat quelques aspects sur les nouvelles formes d’utilisation et d’organisation du territoire brésilien à partir des processus de diffusion de l’agrobusiness mondialisé. Dans la thèse défendue, on montre qu’au Brésil une partie significative des transformations à la campagne, dans les cinq dernières décennies, est due à la restructuration productive de l’agropastoral - comprise comme une exacerbation du mode capitaliste de produire dans le secteur - et à l’organisation des réseaux agroindustriels, des promoteurs de transformations dans les éléments techniques et sociaux de la structure agraire. En quelques décennies, le pays passe d’un pays éminemment agraire à une des dix économies mondiale. Les réflexes dans la production, dans la société et dans l’espace sont nombreux et complexes. De cette manière, les facteurs de localisation classiques sont redimensionnés, donnant de nouvelles possibilités à la production et, par conséquent, une vraie dispersion spatiale de la production et une réorganisation du territoire. Parmi les principaux vecteurs de cette réorganisation nous aurions la diffusion de l’agrobusiness mondialisé. Tout ceci engendre un attisement de la division territoriale du travail ; une nouvelle distribution des fonctions productives ; une nouvelle géographique économique qui culminent dans un remodelage du territoire et dans de nouveaux découpages spatiaux pour les études géographique. Un de ces découpages spatiaux est totalement pertinent pour analyser l’émergence de nouveaux arrangements territoriaux productifs résultant des dynamiques socio-spatiales inhérentes à la

  4. Deactivation of Pd particles supported on Nb 2O 5/Cu 3Au(1 0 0): SFG and TPD studies from UHV to 100 mbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höbel, Frank; Bandara, Athula; Rupprechter, Günther; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2006-02-01

    Structural changes that occur on Pd-Nb 2O 5/Cu 3Au(1 0 0) model catalysts upon thermal annealing were followed by sum frequency generation (SFG) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) using CO as probe molecule. SFG experiments were performed both under ultrahigh vacuum and mbar pressure. Heating the catalyst to temperatures above 300 K lead to an irreversible 50% decrease in the CO adsorption capacity and modified the remaining adsorption sites. Alterations of the phase between resonant and non-resonant SFG signals upon annealing indicate a change in the electronic structure of the surface, which excludes Pd sintering or migration of Nb 2O 5 over Pd particles to cause the observed effect and rather suggests the formation of "mixed Pd-NbO x" sites. The same changes in surface properties also occur during CO hydrogenation at 1 bar and high temperature, pointing to an involvement of "mixed Pd-NbO x" sites in catalytic reactions.

  5. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have δ13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The δ34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited

  6. Studying the Range of Incident Alpha Particles on Cu , Ge , Ag , Cd , Te and Au, With Energy (4-15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhim, R.O.; Jasim, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper theoretical calculation of the range for alpha particles with the energy range (4 – 15)MeV when passing in some metallic media (Cu , Ge , Ag , Cd , Te and Au).Semi empirical formula was used in addition to (SRIM-2012) program. The Semi empirical equation was programmed to calculate the range using Matlab Language.The results of the range in these media were compared with the results obtained from SRIM-2012 and )(2011)Andnet) results.There was good agreement among the semi empirical equation result , SRIM- 2012 results and with )(2011)Andnet) results in the low energy.The results showed exponential relation between the range of alpha particles in these media and the velocity of the particles.By recourse with SRIM- 2012 results and application them in Matlab program and by using Curve Fitting Tool we extraction equation with its constants to calculate the range of alpha particles in any element of these six elements with the energy range (4 – 15)MeV.The maximum deviation between the results from the semi empirical calculation and SRIM-2012 results was calculated the statistical test ( kstest2) in Matlab program

  7. Mineralization and geophysical exploration by IP/RS and ground magnetic survey in MA-I and surrounding area, Maherabad porphyry Cu-Au prospect area, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Maherabad prospect area, which is studied in detail, is the first porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the east of Iran. Based on relation of mineralization with subvolcanic intrusive bodies mostly monzonitic with porphyry texture, extent and types of alteration including potassic, sericitic- potassic, quartz- sericite- carbonate- pyrite, quartz- carbonate- pyrite, silicification- propylitic, propylitic, stockwork mineralization, assemblages hypogene mineralization including pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite and high anomalies of Cu and Au, Mineralization is porphyry Cu-Au-type. MA-I area, which is covered by regolith from its surrounding is the most important section of mineralization in the region because of intensive of quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration and very high dense quartz-sulfide veinlets. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys were conducted in the MA-I prospect area and its surrounding plain. Drilling on the IP suede section anomaly resulted to the recognition of sulfide mineralization in on extensive area under the regolith. Surface and underground detailed studies of geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry confirm the extension of covered mineralization to the south and west of the area. Based on the ground magnetic anomaly, the center of mineralization system, potassic zone, to the southwest of the area was recognized. Quartz0sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration zone, which is located around the potassic zone, has very low magnetic response. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys in a broader area than before are strongly recommended.

  8. Rare Earth Element Fluorocarbonate Minerals from the Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Schmandt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Olympic Dam is a world-class breccia-hosted iron-oxide copper-gold-uranium ore deposit located in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. It contains elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE which occur as the REE minerals bastnäsite, synchysite, florencite, monazite, and xenotime. This is the first study to focus on the mineralogy and composition of the most abundant REE mineral at Olympic Dam, bastnäsite, and subordinate synchysite. The sample suite extends across the deposit and represents different sulfide mineralization styles (chalcopyrite-bornite and bornite-chalcocite and breccias of various types, ranging from those dominated by clasts of granite, dykes, and hematite. The REE-fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite and synchysite typically occur as fine-grained (<50 μm disseminations in Cu-Fe-sulfides and gangue minerals, and also within breccia matrix. They are also locally concentrated within macroscopic REE-mineral-rich pockets at various locations across the deposit. Such coarse-grained samples formed the primary target of this study. Three general textural groups of bastnäsite are recognized: matrix (further divided into disseminated, fine-grained, and stubby types, irregular (sulfide-associated, and clast replacement. Textures are largely driven by the specific location and prevailing mineral assemblage, with morphology and grain size often controlled by the associated minerals (hematite, sulfides. Major element concentration data reveal limited compositional variation among the REE-fluorocarbonates; all are Ce-dominant. Subtle compositional differences among REE-fluorocarbonates define a spectrum from relatively La-enriched to (Ce + Nd-enriched phases. Granite-derived hydrothermal fluids were the likely source of F in the REE-fluorocarbonates, as well as some of the CO2, which may also have been contributed by associated mafic-ultramafic magmatism. However, transport of REE by Cl-ligands is the most likely scenario. Stubby bastn

  9. Investigations into the fast ionic conductors γ-CuBr, Li2S, Na2S, Ba2NH, NaTaN2 and Li3HoCl6 by means of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The main topic of this work was the investigation of ionic diffusion in solids by means of neutron scattering. Experiments were carried out on the antifluorites Li 2 S, Na 2 S and γ-CuBr (zinc-blende type) as well as on Barium-Nitride-Hydride Ba 2 NH, NaTaN 2 and Li 3 HoCl 6 which represent three-and two-dimensional ionic conductors, respectively. In the sulphur based antifluorites Li 2 S and Na 2 S the occupation of the interstitial empty cube site by cations occurs at elevated temperatures. The temperature-dependence of the diffusion process has been investigated by quasielastic, incoherent neutron scattering. The cations hop between their regular lattice sites and the interstitial empty cube site, whereas the sulphur ions vibrate in good approximation harmonically even at high temperatures. The jump vectors define a three-dimensional net of possible cation paths through the crystal. The analysis of quasielastic scattering experiments on a Li 2 S single crystal enabled us to determine the jump vectors and the jump rates 1/τ. The temperature dependence of the anharmonic contributions to the copper structure factor was the main point in our neutron diffraction experiments on γ-CuBr. It could be shown that the copper density function deviates strongly from the isotropic form with increasing temperature. Barium-Nitride-Hydride is one of the few documented H - -ionic conductors. The electronic part of the ds-conductivity is only 1/10000 of the ionic contribution. Since Ba 2 NH is a layer compound, where H - and N 3- layers alternate along the c-axis, the probability of jumps out of the plane is suppressed in favour of in plane jumps. This compound is therefore a model system in which two-dimensional diffusion can be studied and in fact the analysis of the quasielastic data proved that the H-diffusion is caused by jumps between regular H - lattice sites. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. Surface acidity scales: Experimental measurements of Brønsted acidities on anatase TiO2 and comparison with coinage metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbaugh, Trent L.; Boaventura, Jaime S.; Barteau, Mark A.

    2016-08-01

    The first quantitative surface acidity scale for Brønsted acids on a solid surface is presented through the use of titration-displacement and equilibrium experiments on anatase TiO2. Surface acidities of species on TiO2 correlated with gas phase acidities, as was previously observed in qualitative studies of Brønsted acid displacement on Ag(110), Cu(110) and Au(111). A 90% compression of the surface acidity scale relative to the gas phase was observed due to compensation from the covalent component of the conjugate base - surface bond. Adsorbed conjugate bases need not be completely anionic for correlations with gas phase acidities to hold. Positive and negative substituent effects, such as substituted fluorine and hydrocarbon sidechain dispersion interactions with the surface, may modify the surface acidity scale, in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical work on Au(111).

  11. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIII: ArAuPPh3, ArAu(CNR), (ArAu)n and Ar4Cu2Au2 compounds in which the aryl group contains 2-MeO, 2,6-(MeO)2, 2-Me2N, 2-Me2NCH2 and (S)- or (R)-2-Me2NCHMe substituents as potential ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Schaap, C.A.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization by }1{H NMR and }1{}9{}7{Au Mossbauer spectroscopy as well as by chiral labelling of the built-in ligands of three different types of arylgold(I) compounds is described.}1{}9{}7{Au Mossbauer data revealed that the benzyl- and arylgold(I)

  12. Observation of Au + AuAu + Au + ρ0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ0 with STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.

    2002-01-01

    First observation of the reactions Au + AuAu + Au + ρ 0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ 0 with the STAR detector are reported. The ρ are produced at small perpendicular momentum, as expected if they couple coherently to both nuclei. Models of vector meson production and the correlation with nuclear breakup are discussed, as well as a fundamental test of quantum mechanics that is possible with the system. (author)

  13. Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (NW Iran): Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies and Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2015-04-01

    The Qaradagh batholith is located in NW Iran, neighboring the Meghri-Ordubad granitoid in southern Armenia. This magmatic complex is emplaced in the northwestern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, which formed through north-eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the central Iranian domain in the late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic and hosts most of the porphyry copper deposits and prospects in Iran, such as Sarcheshmeh and Sungun. The Qaradagh batholith is comprised of Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks occurring as multi-episode stocks, where the dominant rock type is granodiorite. Hydrothermal alterations have also occurred in these rocks including potassic, phyllic-sericitic, argillic and propylitic alterations and silicification. These alterations are accompanied by vein-type and disseminated Cu, Mo and Au mineralization. The Qarachilar area is located in the central part of the Qaradagh batholith, which hosts mono-mineralic and quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets (several mm to <1 m thick and 50-700 m long) and silicic zones containing Cu-Mo-Au-Ag ore minerals (mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite). Microthermometric studies on the fluid inclusions of quartz-sulfide veins-veinlets show that the salinity ranges between 15-70 wt% NaCl, with the highest peak between 35-40 wt% NaCl. The homogenization temperature for primary 2-phase and multi-phase inclusions ranges between 220 and 540 °C. Two-phase inclusions homogenizing by vapor disappearance have TH values between 280 and 440 °C (mainly between 300 and 360 °C). A few of them homogenize into vapor state with TH values of 440-540 °C. Multi-phase inclusions show 3 types of homogenization. Most of them homogenize by simultaneous disappearance of vapor bubble and dissolution of halite daughter crystal, for which the TH value is 240-420 °C (mostly between 260 and 340 °C). Those homogenizing by halite dissolution show TH values about 220-360 °C and a few homogenizing by vapor

  14. Study of the reactions resulting in heavy fragment formation in the collisions 40Ar + Cu, Ag and Au at 8 to 115 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Eric Yves

    1998-01-01

    This work concerns the study of nuclear collisions showing a heavy fragment in 40 Ar + Cu, Ag and Au from 8 A MeV to 115 A MeV. The reactions are classified by centrality or collision violence via the multiplicity of charged particles detected in a 4π array. For the most peripheral reactions (low multiplicities) we always find a projectile-like fragment with velocity near to that of the beam and a heavy target-like fragment with very small velocity. For the more central collisions we find the well-known incomplete fusion reactions at 17 and 27 A MeV. Above 27 A MeV two groups of very dissipative reactions are observed, both with high charged particle multiplicities. The first reaction group forms several fragments with Z ≤ 10 and average longitudinal velocity near to that of c.m. These are very rare, and are found only for the highest 1% of multiplicities. They produce a heavy fragment and a forward spray (θ≤60 angle) of particles with charge going from 1 to ≅13. The momentum carried out by the spray is randomly spread over all the particles. In spite of the increase of momentum carried by this spray with increasing beam energy, a heavy emission source is formed with 1 - 2 GeV of excitation energy. After a phase of expansion, especially signaled by Z = 1 particles, this source then evaporates many particles. Finally we observed the remaining heavy residual nucleus. (author)

  15. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  16. Calibration setting numbers for dose calibrators for the PET isotopes "5"2Mn, "6"4Cu, "7"6Br, "8"6Y, "8"9Zr, "1"2"4I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, A. Lake; Lewis, Benjamin C.; Szatkowski, Daniel J.; Sultan, Deborah H.; Abdin, Kinda I.; Voller, Thomas F.; Liu, Yongjian; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    For PET radionuclides, the radioactivity of a sample can be conveniently measured by a dose calibrator. These devices depend on a “calibration setting number”, but many recommended settings from manuals were interpolated based on standard sources of other radionuclide(s). We conducted HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy, resulting in a reference for determining settings in two types of vessels containing one of several PET radionuclides. Our results reiterate the notion that in-house, experimental calibrations are recommended for different radionuclides and vessels. - Highlights: • Dose calibrators measure radioactivity by ionization of gas from emitted radiation. • Accuracy of dose calibrators depends on “calibration setting numbers” for isotopes. • Many manufacturer settings are interpolated from emissions of other radionuclides. • As a high-precision reference, HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy was conducted. • New calibrations were found for PET isotopes "5"2Mn, "6"4Cu, "7"6Br, "8"6Y, "8"9Zr, and "1"2"4I.

  17. The adsorption of Tl(I), Au(III), Cu(II) and the separation of 199Tl from alpha bombardment of gold target with PDB-18C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dehai; Zhou Jimeng

    1989-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of polymer of methyl aldehyde of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (PDB-18C6) in hydrochloric acid medium is studied and it is shown that the adsorption of T1(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) depends on the particle size of the crown ether resins, hydrochloric acid concentration and amount of the crown ether resins used. The difference in the adsorption behavior of different particle sizes of crown ether resins may be used for separating Tl(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) ions. The best eluant of Tl(I) and Au(III) is 0.4 mol/l perchloric acid and 2-ethoxy-ethanol. The recovery for Tl(I) is 82-98.8%. The gold target is bombarded in a 1.2 m cyclotron with 25-27 MeV α-particle with a cumulative beam intensities of 27μA·h, and 199 Tl is separated from the gold target with PDB-18C6. γ-spectrometry has shown that the Tl obtained is 199 Tl of high purity containing only about 0.50% 200 Tl

  18. Weak aurophilic interactions in a series of Au(III) double salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N; Chernysheva, Maria V; Hirva, Pipsa; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Haukka, Matti

    2015-08-28

    In this work, several new examples of rare Au(III)Au(III) aurophilic contacts are reported. A series of gold(iii) double salts and complexes, viz. [AuX2(L)][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ), [AuX3(biq)] (biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [LH][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [AuBr2(bpy)]2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , [AuCl2(bpm)][AuCl2] , (bpmH)2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , and (dpaH)[AuBr2] (, , and were reported earlier) was synthesized by coordination of a particular ligand to the Au(III) center and subsequent reduction of the formed product with acetone. Inspection of the X-ray structural data for , , and indicates that the Au(III) metal centers approach each other closer than the sum of their van der Waals radii, thus forming the aurophilic contacts, which were confirmed by topological charge density analysis according to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). In , , and , such contacts are located only between the metal centers of the ion pair, whereas in , the aurophilic interactions form the cation-anion-anion array, and in , the aurophilicity exists between the gold atoms of the cations. It was also demonstrated that the interatomic distance alone is not a reliable measure of the aurophilic interactions, at least at the weakest limit of the interaction strength, and it needs to be complemented with structural analysis of the whole molecule and computational results.

  19. High Ic, YBa2Cu3O7-x films grown at very high rates by liquid assisted growth incorporating lightly Au-doped SrTiO3 buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kursumovic, A; Durrell, J H; Harrington, S; Wimbush, S; MacManus-Driscoll, J L; Maiorov, B; Zhou, H; Stan, L; Holesinger, T G; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thick films were grown by hybrid liquid phase epitaxy (HLPE) on (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) substrates. In the presence of a 100 nm thick, 5 mol% Au-doped STO buffer, self-field critical current densities, J c sf , at 77 K of ∼2.4 MA cm -2 and critical currents, I c sf , up to 700 A (cm-width) -1 were achieved. The J c value is virtually independent of thickness and the growth rates are very high (∼1 μm min -1 ). From transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Y 2 O 3 nanocloud extended defects (∼100 nm in size) were identified as the pinning defects in the films. Enhanced random pinning was induced by the presence of Au in the buffer.

  20. Triple differential cross section for angle, atomic number and energy (or angular momentum transfer) calculated for the 280MeV 40Ar+58Ni (or 365 MeV 63Cu+197Au) system in a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanger, M.; Grange, P.; Richert, J.; Hofmann, H.; Ngo, C.

    1978-01-01

    A dynamical model including both dissipation and statistical fluctuations is applied to the computation of triple differential cross sections for deep inelastic reactions. It is seen that for different Z values the overall pattern of the cross section (calculated, for the 280 MeV 40 Ar+ 58 Ni system) as a function of E and theta is fairly well reproduced - the mean angular momentum transfer for the 365MeV 63 Cu+ 197 Au system is calculated and compared with γ-multiplicity measurements. In both applications, possible implications of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  1. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  2. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  3. Effects of spin orbital coupling on atomic and electronic structures in Al{sub 2}Cu and Al{sub 2}Au crystal and liquid phases via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Y.H., E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, X.D.; Cao, Q.P. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, D.X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The SOC effect affects the cohesion energy of crystal phase. • The effect of SOC was reduced due to random local atomic structures in liquids. • The local geometrical structures also affect the melting points. • Both SOC effect and local atomic structures are important for melting point difference. - Abstract: The origin of different melting points between Al{sub 2}Cu and Al{sub 2}Au has been studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Cohesive energy, electronic structures and structure information of both crystal and liquid phases have been analyzed. It is found that spin orbital coupling (SOC) plays an important role on the cohesive energy of crystal phase, consistent with the different melting points of these two alloys. Whereas, it seems that SOC has no effect on the formation energy and structure of liquid phase. Possible mechanism of reduced SOC effect at liquid phase is proposed. Our results are helpful to understand the glass formation ability difference between Al{sub 2}Cu and Al{sub 2}Au.

  4. Effects of MeV Si ions bombardment on the thermoelectric generator from SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Cu and SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Au nanolayered multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budak, S., E-mail: satilmis.budak@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Chacha, J., E-mail: chacha_john79@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Smith, C., E-mail: cydale@cim.aamu.edu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Pugh, M., E-mail: marcuspughp@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Colon, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Heidary, K., E-mail: kaveh.heidary@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Johnson, R.B., E-mail: barry@w4wb.com [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Ila, D., E-mail: ila@cim.aamu.edu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The defects and disorder in the thin films caused by MeV ions bombardment and the grain boundaries of these nanoscale clusters increase phonon scattering and increase the chance of an inelastic interaction and phonon annihilation. We prepared the thermoelectric generator devices from 100 alternating layers of SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Cu multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 382 nm and 50 alternating layers of SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Au multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 147 nm using the physical vapor deposition (PVD). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation have been used to determine the stoichiometry of the elements of SiO{sub 2}, Cu and Au in the multilayer films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films. The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed using the AAMU-Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum (nano) dots and/or quantum (quantum) clusters in the multilayered superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments we have measured Seebeck coefficient, cross-plane electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity in the cross-plane geometry for different fluences.

  5. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmas

  6. Double modèle agraire ou prédominance de l’agrobusiness brésilienne en Afrique ? Le cas de ProSavana au Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    WCusson, Gabrielle

    2018-01-01

    Dans un contexte de transformation du pouvoir mondial, les puissances émergentes n’hésitent pas à déployer des stratégies multidimensionnelles pour augmenter leur influence internationale. Dans le domaine de l’agriculture, le Brésil se présente comme une référence en termes de développement agraire et d’agriculture familiale. À travers des initiatives de coopération Sud-Sud (CSS), il exporte ainsi son double modèle agraire en Afrique afin de soutenir la révolution agraire...

  7. Study of the reactions resulting in heavy fragment formation in the collisions {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag and Au at 8 to 115 MeV/u; Etude des reactions avec formation d`un fragment lourd dans les collisions {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag et Au de 8 a 115 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Eric Yves [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-11-06

    This work concerns the study of nuclear collisions showing a heavy fragment in {sup 40}Ar + Cu, Ag and Au from 8 A MeV to 115 A MeV. The reactions are classified by centrality or collision violence via the multiplicity of charged particles detected in a 4{pi} array. For the most peripheral reactions (low multiplicities) we always find a projectile-like fragment with velocity near to that of the beam and a heavy target-like fragment with very small velocity. For the more central collisions we find the well-known incomplete fusion reactions at 17 and 27 A MeV. Above 27 A MeV two groups of very dissipative reactions are observed, both with high charged particle multiplicities. The first reaction group forms several fragments with Z {<=} 10 and average longitudinal velocity near to that of c.m. These are very rare, and are found only for the highest 1% of multiplicities. They produce a heavy fragment and a forward spray ({theta}{<=}60 angle) of particles with charge going from 1 to {approx_equal}13. The momentum carried out by the spray is randomly spread over all the particles. In spite of the increase of momentum carried by this spray with increasing beam energy, a heavy emission source is formed with 1 - 2 GeV of excitation energy. After a phase of expansion, especially signaled by Z = 1 particles, this source then evaporates many particles. Finally we observed the remaining heavy residual nucleus. (author) 117 refs., 85 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Comparing Ullmann Coupling on Noble Metal Surfaces: On-Surface Polymerization of 1,3,6,8-Tetrabromopyrene on Cu(111) and Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Song, Fei; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong

    2016-01-01

    to a dissociation of the C−Br bonds and the formation of disordered metal-coordinated molecular networks. Further annealing at 573 K resulted in the formation of covalently linked disordered networks. Importantly, we found that the chosen substrate not only plays an important role as catalyst for the Ullmann...

  9. Rate constant for the reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of the radical-radical reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br has been determined at 298 K in a discharge flow system near 1 torr pressure with detection of SO and BrO via collision-free sampling mass spectrometry. The rate constant was determined using two different methods: measuring the decay of SO radicals in the presence of an excess of BrO and measuring the decay of BrO radicals in excess SO. The results from the two methods are in reasonable agreement and the simple mean of the two values gives the recommended rate constant at 298 K, k = (5.7 + or - 2.0) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s. This represents the first determination of this rate constant and it is consistent with a previously derived lower limit based on SO2 formation. Comparison is made with other radical-radical reactions involving SO or BrO. The reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br is of interest for models of the upper atmosphere of the earth and provides a potential coupling between atmospheric sulfur and bromine chemistry.

  10. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  11. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  12. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  13. Schottky barrier height measurements of Cu/Si(001), Ag/Si(001), and Au/Si(001) interfaces utilizing ballistic electron emission microscopy and ballistic hole emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsano, Robert; Matsubayashi, Akitomo; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2013-01-01

    The Schottky barrier heights of both n and p doped Cu/Si(001), Ag/Si(001), and Au/Si(001) diodes were measured using ballistic electron emission microscopy and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM), respectively. Measurements using both forward and reverse ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and (BHEM) injection conditions were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were found by fitting to a linearization of the power law form of the Bell-Kaiser BEEM model. The sum of the n-type and p-type barrier heights are in good agreement with the band gap of silicon and independent of the metal utilized. The Schottky barrier heights are found to be below the region of best fit for the power law form of the BK model, demonstrating its region of validity

  14. Brûlure chez l’épileptique: brûlure pas comme les autres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukind, S.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’association brûlure et épilepsie est une constatation fréquente au Maroc. Ces brûlures, souvent itératives, touchent le plus souvent des femmes jeunes de milieu rural. L’accident survient habituellement au domicile, le plus souvent dans la cuisine à la suite d’une chute sur un moyen de cuisson posé au sol. Elles peuvent être inaugurales de la maladie mais surviennent plus souvent chez des patients connus mais au traitement mal suivi. Les conséquences de ces brûlures, toujours profondes, sont souvent dramatiques en termes de séquelles, chez des patients ayant déjà une insertion sociale rendue difficile par l’épilepsie. La prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et concerner à la fois la brûlures et l’épilepsie. Des mesures de prévention simples, visant à équilibrer l’épilepsie et éviter au patient de se trouver seul à proximité d’une source de chaleur, doivent être mises en place. PMID:27252613

  15. Effect of solder bump size on interfacial reactions during soldering between Pb-free solder and Cu and Ni/ Pd/ Au surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NorAkmal, F.; Ourdjini, A.; Azmah Hanim, M.A.; Siti Aisha, I.; Chin, Y.T.

    2007-01-01

    Flip chip technology provides the ultimate in high I/ O-density and count with superior electrical performance for interconnecting electronic components. Therefore, the study of the intermetallic compounds was conducted to investigate the effect of solder bumps sizes on several surface finishes which are copper and Electroless Nickel/ Electroless Palladium/ Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) which is widely used in electronics packaging as surface finish for flip-chip application nowadays. In this research, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was conducted to analyze the morphology and composition of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between the solder and UBM. The IMCs between the SAC lead-free solder with Cu surface finish after reflow were mainly (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and Cu 6 Sn 5 . While the main IMCs formed between lead-free solder on ENEPIG surface finish are (Ni, Cu) 3 Sn 4 and Ni 3 Sn 4 . The results from FESEM with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) have revealed that isothermal aging at 150 degree Celsius has caused the thickening and coarsening of IMCs as well as changing them into more spherical shape. The thickness of the intermetallic compounds in both finishes investigated was found to be higher in solders with smaller bump size. From the experimental results, it also appears that the growth rate of IMCs is higher when soldering on copper compared to ENEPIG finish. Besides that, the results also showed that the thickness of intermetallic compounds was found to be proportional to isothermal aging duration. (author)

  16. Energikravene i BR15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Aggerholm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Bygningsreglement 2015 – BR15 – gælder fra 1. januar 2016 med en overgangsfase frem til 1. juli 2016. Det bygger videre på BR10 og de tidligere udmeldte krav til nybyggeriet frem mod 2020. I denne kvikguide får du hurtigt overblik over, hvordan du sikrer, at de bygninger, du er med til at opføre...... eller renovere, lever op til BR15’s energikrav. Disse krav findes primært i reglementets kapitel 7 om energiforbrug og i kapitel 8 om installationer samt i kapitel 6 om indeklima....

  17. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  18. La connaissance du climat au Brésil : entre le vernaculaire et le scientifique O conhecimento do clima no Brasil : Entre o vernacular e o científico The knowledge of the climate in Brazil: Between the vernacular and scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La connaissance du climat au Brésil résulte du chevauchement entre le savoir vernaculaire et le savoir scientifique, même si dans le cadre académique la conception scientifique et technique est prédominante. Pour la plus grande partie de la population, le savoir vernaculaire (ou traditionnel sur le climat est plus important que le savoir scientifique. Toutefois, dans le cadre de la science, le développement et la consolidation de la climatologie brésilienne ne se font remarquer qu’autour des 70 dernières années. La diffusion du principe de la météorologie dynamique était un des aspects principaux au développement de l’étude des climats brésiliens. L’analyse rythmique des types de temps et les études du climat urbain sont deux exemples du progrès et de l’originalité de la climatologie brésilienne. La question environnementale, l’utilisation des images de satellite et le débat à propos des changements globaux sont les sujets principaux d’intérêt de la climatologie brésilienne dans le temps présent. Un courant d’études lié à la perception du climat a attribué plus d’importance à la connaissance vernaculaire du climat au Brésil, en inaugurant une nouvelle opportunité à la science, une approche plus ouverte, plurielle et donc plus riche que la science strictement moderne.O conhecimento acerca do clima do Brasil é resultado tanto do conhecimento científico quanto do conhecimento vernacular, mesmo se no âmbito da academia prevaleça a perspectiva cientifico-técnica. Para a maioria da população o saber vernacular (tradicional sobre o clima é mais importante que o saber científico. Todavia, do ponto de vista da ciência, o desenvolvimento e a consolidação da climatologia brasileira só veio a ocorrer nos últimos 70 anos. A difusão do príncipio da meteorologia dinâmica constituiu-se num dos principais aspectos para o desenvolvimento dos estudos dos climas do Brasil. Neste período a

  19. Museus de Ciência e a popularização do conhecimento no Brasil Science Museums and the Popularization of Science in Brazil Les musées des sciences et la popularisation de la science au Brésil Museos de ciencias y la popularización de la ciencia en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia C.B. Cavalcanti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role and importance of the popularization of science in science museums, and its perspectives in Brazil, from the experience we have developed over the years in the Espaço Ciência Viva; and our participation, observations and studies related to the popularization of science in other science museums and science centers in Brazil and abroad. From an analysis of the historical environment that started in the early 1980’s, to a new era of popularization of science in Brazil and abroad, we briefly evaluate its current state in Brazil and make some considerations on popularization of science, which we need to support for the future economic and social development of our country.Nous avons analysé le rôle, l'importance et l'avenir de la popularisation de la science à travers les musées des sciences au Brésil, en nous basant sur notre expérience acquise au fil des années au sein de Espaço Ciência Viva, ainsi que sur notre participation, nos observations et nos études sur la popularisation de la science dans d'autres musées ou centres dédiés, au Brésil et ailleurs. En partant du contexte historique au début des années 1980 jusqu'à sa situation actuelle, nous évaluons brièvement la popularisation de la science au Brésil, et commentons ce phénomène qu'il est nécessaire de soutenir pour le développement économique et social de notre pays.Analizamos el papel y la importancia de la popularización de la ciencia en los museos científicos, y sus expectativas en Brasil, basados en la experiencia que hemos obtenido a lo largo de los años en el Espaço Ciência Viva, y en nuestra participación, observaciones y estudios relacionados con la popularización de la ciencia en otros museos científicos y centros científicos en Brasil y en el extranjero. Desde un análisis del entorno histórico que empezó a principios de los años 80, a una nueva era de popularización de la ciencia en Brasil y en el mundo, evaluamos

  20. Science Museums and the Popularization of Science in Brazil Les musées des sciences et la popularisation de la science au Brésil Museos de ciencias y la popularización de la ciencia en Brasil Museus de Ciência e a popularização do conhecimento no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia C.B. Cavalcanti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role and importance of the popularization of science in science museums, and its perspectives in Brazil, from the experience we have developed over the years in the Espaço Ciência Viva ; and our participation, observations and studies related to the popularization of science in other science museums and science centers in Brazil and abroad. From an analysis of the historical environment that started in the early 1980’s, to a new era of popularization of science in Brazil and abroad, we briefly evaluate its current state in Brazil and make some considerations on popularization of science, which we need to support for the future economic and social development of our country.Nous avons analysé le rôle, l'importance et l'avenir de la popularisation de la science à travers les musées des sciences au Brésil, en nous basant sur notre expérience acquise au fil des années au sein de Espaço Ciência Viva, ainsi que sur notre participation, nos observations et nos études sur la popularisation de la science dans d'autres musées ou centres dédiés, au Brésil et ailleurs. En partant du contexte historique au début des années 1980 jusqu'à sa situation actuelle, nous évaluons brièvement la popularisation de la science au Brésil, et commentons ce phénomène qu'il est nécessaire de soutenir pour le développement économique et social de notre pays.Analizamos el papel y la importancia de la popularización de la ciencia en los museos científicos, y sus expectativas en Brasil, basados en la experiencia que hemos obtenido a lo largo de los años en el Espaço Ciência Viva, y en nuestra participación, observaciones y estudios relacionados con la popularización de la ciencia en otros museos científicos y centros científicos en Brasil y en el extranjero. Desde un análisis del entorno histórico que empezó a principios de los años 80, a una nueva era de popularización de la ciencia en Brasil y en el mundo, evaluamos

  1. Le gisement de sulfures à Ni-Cu-Au d'Älgliden, ceinture de Skellefte, en Suède : un gisement magmatique de Ni-Cu en zone de subduction

    OpenAIRE

    Coin , Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Most major sulfide Ni-Cu deposits originated from komatiitic or tholeiitic magmas that formed in association with mantle plumes. Their genesis involves the segregation of a immiscible sulfide liquid, reaction of the sulfide liquid with silicate melt to upgrade the sulfide in chalcophile elements, and the concentration of the sulfide liquid in economic amounts. Saturation in sulfide is commonly achieved by lowering the sulfide solubility via assimilation of siliceous wall rock or by increasing...

  2. Zn2(TeO3Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Johnsson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetrahedra, and [TeO3E] tetrahedra (E being the 5s2 lone pair of Te4+ joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3Cl2, CuZn(TeO32, Co2(TeO3Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3Cl2.

  3. La sous-traitance au Brésil : un phénomène à la fois ancien et nouveau Subcontracting in Brazil: a phenomenon both new and old La subcontratación en Brasil : un fenómeno antiguo y nuevo a la vez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Druck

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de l’article est de discuter la sous-traitance aujourd’hui au Brésil. Nous discutons dans l’article le processus de flexibilisation et de précarisation du travail au Brésil, en prenant comme objet d’étude la sous-traitance, en tant qu’une des principales politiques de gestion et d’organisation du travail dans le cadre de la restructuration productive. Nous présentons une synthèse du processus de sous-traitance observé ces dernières années dans le pays, sous ses anciennes et nouvelles modalités, et nous analysons les résultats empiriques récents sur la sous-traitance dans des entreprises industrielles à haut risque pour l’environnement et la santé des travailleurs, dans la Région Métropolitaine de Salvador/Bahia/Brésil, de même que nous indiquons les principales de formes de résistance et de contre-pouvoirs construits contre la précarisation du travail et la sous-traitance.The purpose of the article is to discuss current subcontracting in Brazil. Our study subject « subcontracting as one of the main work management and organization policies in the framework of productive restructurings » used to discuss the work flexilibization and precarization process in Brazil. We present a synthesis of the subcontracting process observed in recent years in this country, under its old and new conditions, and we analyze the recent empirical results on subcontracting in industrial enterprises at high risk to the environment and workers’ health, in the metropolitan region of Salvador/Bahia, Brazil. We also identify the main forms of resistance and the counterbalances developed against work precarization and subcontracting.El objetivo de este artículo es discutir la tercerización en el Brasil contemporáneo. Se discute el proceso de flexibilización y de precarización del trabajo en Brasil, tomando como objeto de estudio la subcontratación como una de las principales políticas de gestión y de organizaci

  4. Insights into electrochemical dealloying of Cu out of Au-doped Pt-alloy nanoparticles at the sub-nano-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gatalo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt alloy nanoparticles present the most probable candidate to be used as the cathode cathodic oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst for achieving commercialization targets of the low-temperature fuel cells. It is therefore very important to understand its activation and degradation processes. Besides the ones known from the pure Pt electrocatalysts, the dealloying phenomena possess a great threat since the leached less-noble metal can interact with the polymer membrane or even poison the electrocatalyst. In this study, we present a solution, supported by in-depth advance electrochemical characterization, on how to suppress the removal of Cu from the Pt alloy nanoparticles.

  5. Reversible modulation of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal/gold nanoparticle heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Lyu, Danya; Ling, Tao; Guo, Weiwei

    2018-04-19

    A facile strategy is illustrated to reversibly modulate CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal/Au nanoparticle heterostructures with the reversible formation and fragmentation of gold nanoparticles anchored to the corners and surface of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals. The modulation process was performed under ambient conditions and could be conducted for cycles.

  6. Transition from metal-ligand bonding to halogen bonding involving a metal as halogen acceptor a study of Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, and Hg complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vytor; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing all-electron Dirac-exact relativistic calculations with the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (NESC) method and the local vibrational mode approach, the transition from metal-halide to metal halogen bonding is determined for Au-complexes interacting with halogen-donors. The local stretching force constants of the metal-halogen interactions reveal a smooth transition from weak non-covalent halogen bonding to non-classical 3-center-4-electron bonding and finally covalent metal-halide bonding. The strongest halogen bonds are found for dialkylaurates interacting with Cl2 or FCl. Differing trends in the intrinsic halogen-metal bond strength, the binding energy, and the electrostatic potential are explained.

  7. c-Axis correlated extended defects and critical current in YBa2Cu3Ox films grown on Au and Ag-nano dot decorated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheenko, P.; Sarkar, A.; Dang, V.-S.; Tanner, J.L.; Abell, J.S.; Crisan, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of critical current in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films deposited on SrTiO 3 substrates decorated with silver and gold nanodots. An increase in critical current in these films, in comparison with the films deposited on non-decorated substrates, has been achieved. We argue that this increase comes from the c-axis correlated extended defects formed in the films and originated from the nanodots. Additionally to creating extended defects, the nanodots pin them and prevent their exit from the sample during the film growth, thus keeping a high density of defects and providing a lower rate of decrease of the critical current with the thickness of the films. The best pinning is achieved in the samples with silver nanodots by optimising their deposition temperature. The nanodots grown at a temperature of a few hundred deg. C have a small diameter of a few nanometres and a high surface density of 10 11 -10 12 particles/cm 2 . We give evidence of c-axis correlated extended defects in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films by planar and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and angle-dependent transport measurements of critical current.

  8. Reactor BR2: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. A safety audit was conduced by the IAEA, the conclusions of which demonstrated the excellent performance of the plant in terms of operational safety. In 1999, the CALLISTO facility was extensively used for various programmes involving LWR pressure vessel materials, IASCC of LWR structural materials, fusion reactor materials and martensic steels for use in ADS systems. In 1999, BR2's commercial programmes were further developed

  9. Superconducting materials at temperature higher than liquid nitrogen of the YBaCuO type. Materiaux supraconducteurs jusqu'a des temperatures superieures a celles de l'azote liquide, appartenant au systeme Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R; Gegnier, P; Truchot, P

    1990-02-09

    The invention concerns new superconducting materials with the formula Zr{sub x} Hf{sub y} Ti{sub z} Y{sub 1-x-y-z} Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} where 0

  10. The La Unión Au ± Cu prospect, Camagüey District, Cuba: fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Miriela María Ulloa; Moura, Márcia Abrahão; Olivo, Gema R.; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Bühn, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The Camagüey district, Cuba, is known for its epithermal precious metal deposits in a Cretaceous volcanic arc setting. Recently, the La Unión prospect was discovered in the southern part of the district, containing gold and minor copper mineralization interpreted as porphyry type. Mineralization is hosted in a 73.0 ± 1.5 Ma calc-alkaline I-type oxidized porphyry quartz diorite intrusive within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the early Cretaceous Guáimaro Formation. The porphyry is affected by propylitic alteration and crosscut by a network of quartz and carbonate veinlets and veins. Chlorite, epidote, sericite, quartz, and pyrite are the main minerals in the early veins which are cut by late carbonate and zeolite veins. Late barite pseudomorphously replaces pyrite. Gold is associated with pyrite as disseminations in the altered quartz diorite and in the veins, occurring as inclusions or filling fractures in pyrite with 4 g/t Au in bulk samples, and up to 900 ppm Au in in pyrite. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope data are consistent with a H2O-NaCl-(KCl) mineralizing fluid, derived from the quartz diorite magma, and trapped at least at 425°C and 1.2 kbar. This primary fluid unmixed into two fluid phases, a hypersaline aqueous fluid and a low-salinity vapor-rich fluid. Boiling during cooling may have played an important role in metal precipitation. Pyrite δ34S values for the La Unión prospect range between 0.71‰ and 1.31‰, consistent with a homogeneous magmatic sulfur source. The fluids in equilibrium with the mineralized rocks have estimated δ18O values from 8‰ to 11.8‰, calculated for a temperature range of 480-505°C. The tectonic environment of the La Unión prospect, its high gold and low copper contents, the physical-chemical characteristics of the mineralizing fluids and the isotopic signature of the alteration minerals and fluids indicate that the La Unión gold mineralization is similar to the porphyry gold type, even though the ore

  11. Contribution to the determination of Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn using 14 MeV neutron activation; Contribution au dosage de Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn par activation aux neutrons de 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crambes, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    By using, 14 MeV, neutron irradiation it is possible to extend the field of application of neutron radio-activation analysis, in particular to the case of light elements. For, many other elements it can replace in-pile irradiation thereby making it possible, thanks to portable 14 MeV neutron generators, to carry out radio-activation analyses away from nuclear-research c e n t r e s. With a view to applying this analytical technique to routine work, we have developed some rapid chemical separation methods in order to make possible the determination of several elements which after exposure to fast neutrons, produce {beta} emitting nuclides which cannot be differentiated by a simple instrumental study, the emitted radiation being of the same type and of similar half-life the two cases. (author) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par radioactivation neutronique, en particulier aux elements legers. Cependant pour de nombreux autres elements elle peut remplacer l'irradiation en reacteur nucleaire permettant ainsi grace aux ensembles portables producteurs de neutrons de 14 MeV, l'extension de l'analyse par radioactivation a l'exterieur des centres d'etudes nucleaires. Dans le but d'appliquer cette methode d'analyse a des travaux de routine, nous avons mis au point des separations chimiques rapides, afin de permettre le dosage de quelques elements qui par irradiation aux neutrons rapides, engendrent des nucleides emetteurs {beta} qu'une simple etude instrumentale ne peut differencier en raison de l'identite de leur rayonnement et de leurs periodes radioactives trop proches. (auteur)

  12. INAA of human and animal whole blood samples by short term reactor irradiation. [Au, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, P, Sc, Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudralwar, D L; Garg, A N

    1986-11-03

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution ..gamma..-spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet (H-9) is reported. 28 references, 4 tables.

  13. Les minéralisations Cu_(Ni_Bi_U_Au_Ag) d'Ifri (district du Haut Seksaoua, Maroc) : apport de l'étude texturale au débat syngenèse versus épigenèseThe Cu_(Ni_Bi_U_Au_Ag) mineralization of Ifri ('Haut Seksaoua' district, Morocco): contribution of a textural study to the discussion syngenetic versus epigenetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanson, Luc; Chauvet, Alain; Gaouzi, Aziz; Badra, Lakhifi; Mechiche, Mohamed; Touray, Jean Claude; Oukarou, Saı̈d

    2003-11-01

    The Cu ore of Ifri is a chalcopyrite stockwork hosted by Cambrian formations and was until now interpreted as a syngenetic massive sulphide deposit. Textural studies highlight two generations of pyrite early (Py I) and late (Py II) with respect to the regional deformation. The chalcopyrite stockwork overprinted Py II, outlining the epigenetic nature of the Cu mineralization. Regarding the origin of Cu-depositing fluids, the presence in the stockwork paragenesis of an U, W, Sn association and preliminary Pb/Pb dating of a brannerite belonging to this association suggest a contribution of the Tichka granite. To cite this article: L. Barbanson et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  14. Effects of 3.1-MeV proton and 1-GeV Au-ion irradiation on the magnetic flux noise and critical current of YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.J.; Clarke, J.; van Dover, R.B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; White, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a dc superconducting quantum interference device to measure the spectral density of magnetic flux noise, S Φ (f), generated by vortex motion in crystals of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) both before and after irradiation with 3.1-MeV protons and 1-GeV Au ions. In addition, we have studied the effects of irradiation on the critical current J c of the same samples. Both types of irradiation reduced S Φ (f) at most temperatures and magnetic fields and increased J c at all temperatures and magnetic fields. By measuring S Φ (f) versus temperature, we extract the distribution of vortex pinning energies, D(U 0 ). Both crystals have peaks in D(U 0 ) near 0.1 eV and 0.2 eV before irradiation, and a much reduced peak near 0.1 eV after irradiation. The noise level after either kind of irradiation was substantially higher than in an unirradiated YBCO film. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Rational design of organic superconductors through the use of the large, discrete molecular anions M(CF3)4-(M = Cu, Ag, Au) and SO3CF2CH2SF5-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, J.A.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to synthesis of organic superconductors has recently been pioneered which involves the use of large discrete molecular anions as the charge-compensating entities in these charge transfer salts. The organic electron-donor molecule bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET) has been electrocrystallized with the novel organometallic M(CF 3 ) 4 - (M=Cu, Ag, Au) anions in a variety of 1,1,2-trihaloethane solvents. Over 20 organic superconductors have been synthesized which can be described by (ET) 2 M(CF 3 ) 4 (1,1,2- trihaloethane). These solvated salts are shown to have highly anisotropic physical properties which can be tuned via modifications of each of their three molecular components: ET electron donor molecule, M(CF 3 ) 4 - anion, and neutral 1,1,2- trihaloethane solvent molecule. Superconductivity has also been observed in an ET salt containing the discrete SF 5 CH 2 CF 2 SO 3 - anion with onset temperature near 5.2 K

  16. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, Asit Kumar [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chan, Y.C. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: eeycchan@cityu.edu.hk; Yung, Winco K.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-05-25

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  17. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gain, Asit Kumar; Chan, Y.C.; Yung, Winco K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  18. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of heavy metal ions Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) with Br-PADPA in primary reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Yun, Jong-Il [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The performance with integrity of nuclear power plants is highly influenced by the presence of the corrosion products. The deposition of corrosion products in the steam generator is the one of the main concerns of power plants. The quantification of corrosion products is considered of importance. In this study, we applied the spectrophotometric method to detect metal ions such as iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc, which are major elements of structural material of the plant. In particular, the chemical complexation of those divalent metal ions with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP) provides high molar absorptivity. For the simultaneous determination of metal ions, a partial least square (PLS) regression method was applied. In the present work, the complexation of Br-PADAP with divalent metal ions (iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc) was studied. The PLS regression method was successfully applied for simultaneous elemental detection in multi-element systems. These results suggests that the method is very ample to detect corrosion products in nuclear power plants.

  19. Les TIC au service du microcrédit : le cas des correspondants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les TIC au service du microcrédit : le cas des correspondants bancaires au Brésil. Bien qu'il ait été prouvé que les programmes de microfinance constituaient un outil efficace pour lutter contre la pauvreté dans les pays en développement, ils tardent à prendre leur envol en Amérique latine, en particulier au Brésil.

  20. XeBr exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser emission from the recently discovered XeBr exciplex laser was investigated as a function of the partial pressures of Xe and Br 2 . An optical loss process appears to limit high-pressure operation

  1. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system

  2. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2001-01-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  3. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  4. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  5. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns in a calc-alkaline Cu- and Au-rich arid Andean basin: The Elqui River watershed, North Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzún, Jorge; Carvajal, María José; Maturana, Hugo; Núñez, Jorge; Kretschmer, Nicole; Amezaga, Jaime M.; Rötting, Tobias S.; Strauch, Gerhard; Thyne, Geoffrey; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Major ions are provided by rock weathering and NaCl recycling. ► Aridity and cal-alkaline lithology effects abate acid drainage. ► Factors affecting hydrochemistry in mineral rich zone are addressed. ► Stable isotopes confirm the meteoric origin of groundwaters. ► High sulfate contents are explained by widespread sulfide minerals. - Abstract: The geochemistry of surface water and groundwater from the Elqui River basin, North-Central Chile, was studied in spring 2007 and fall 2008 to obtain a general understanding of the factors and mechanisms controlling the water chemistry of steep rivers located in mineral-rich, arid to semi arid zones. Besides its uniform intermediate igneous lithology, this basin is known for acid drainage and high As contents in the El Indio Au–Cu–As district, in its Andean head. Abundant tailings deposits are present in the middle part of the basin, where agricultural activities are important. According to the results, the chemical and isotopic composition of the Elqui basin surface water and groundwater is related to uniform calc-alkaline lithology and the major polluting system of the chemically reactive, but closed El Indio mining district. The resulting compositional imprints in surface and ground-water are, (a) high SO 4 levels, reaching about 1000 mg/L in the Toro River water, directly draining the mining area; (b) a major depletion of Fe and pollutant metals in surface water after the confluence of the Toro and La Laguna rivers; (c) similar chemical composition of surface and ground-waters that differ in H and O isotopic composition, reflecting the effect of differential evaporation processes downstream of the Puclaro dam; and (d) seasonal variations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in surface water. In contrast, the groundwater chemistry exhibits moderate seasonal changes, mainly in HCO 3 - content. In spite of the acid drainage pollution, water quality is adequate for human consumption and irrigation. This is a

  6. Metal Halide Perovskite Supercrystals: Gold-Bromide Complex Triggered Assembly of CsPbBr3 Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun-Hua; Yang, Jun-Nan; Ni, Qian-Kun; Yao, Hong-Bin; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-01-16

    Using nanocrystals as "artificial atoms" to construct supercrystals is an interesting process to explore the stacking style of nanoscale building blocks and corresponding collective properties. Various types of semiconducting supercrystals have been constructed via the assembly of nanocrystals driven by the entropic, electrostatic, or van der Waals interactions. We report a new type of metal halide perovskite supercrystals via the gold-bromide complex triggered assembly of newly emerged attractive CsPbBr 3 nanocubes. Through introducing gold-bromide (Au-Br) complexes into CsPbBr 3 nanocubes suspension, the self-assembly process of CsPbBr 3 nanocubes to form supercrystals was investigated with the different amount of Au-Br complexes added to the suspensions, which indicates that the driven force of the formation of CsPbBr 3 supercrystals included the van der Waals interactions among carbon chains and electrostatic interactions between Au-Br complexes and surfactants. Accordingly, the optical properties change with the assembly of CsPbBr 3 nanocubes and the variation of mesoscale structures of supercrystals with heating treatment was revealed as well, demonstrating the ionic characteristics of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals. The fabricated CsPbBr 3 supercrystal presents a novel type of semiconducting supercrystals that will open an avenue for the assembly of ionic nanocrystals.

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electroconducting Properties of a 1D Mixed-Valence Cu(I–Cu(II Coordination Polymer with a Dicyclohexyl Dithiocarbamate Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakatani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new mixed-valence Cu(I–Cu(II 1D coordination polymer, [CuI4CuIIBr4(Cy2dtc2]n, with an infinite chain structure is synthesized by the reaction of Cu(Cy2dtc2 (Cy2dtc− = dicyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, C13H22NS2 with CuBr·S(CH32. The as-synthesized polymer consists of mononuclear copper(II units of CuII(Cy2dtc2 and tetranuclear copper(I cluster units, CuI4Br4. In the cluster unit, all the CuI ions have distorted trigonal pyramidal coordination geometries, and the CuI–CuI or CuI–CuII distances between the nearest copper ions are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii for Cu–Cu.

  8. Cu₂O-Au nanocomposites for enzyme-free glucose sensing with enhanced performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiyan; Wang, Fenyun; Fang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaowang

    2012-06-15

    A facile method for the synthesis of Cu(2)O-Au nanocomposites has been reported by injecting Cu(2)O nanocubes into Au precursor directly with the assistance of ultrasound radiation at room temperature. The ultrasound radiation is not a necessary requirement but can make the distribution of Au nanoparticles more homogenous. The formation of Cu(2)O-Au nanocomposites is attributed to following two reasons. The first one is the difference in the reduction potential between Cu(2+)/Cu(2)O and AuCl(4)(-)/Au, which can also be considered as the driving force for the redox reaction. The other one is the low lattice mismatch between (200) planes of Cu(2)O and (200) facets of Au, which is favorable for the formation of heterostructure. The electrochemical investigation demonstrates that the performances of Cu(2)O nanocubes in enzyme-free glucose sensing have been improved significantly after the decoration of Au nanoparticles which may be derived from the polarization effect provided by Au nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu(2)O-Au nanocomposites have great potential in enzyme-free glucose sensing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Operating Experience with the BR-5 Reactor; Experience acquise aupres du reacteur BR-5; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora BR-5; Experiencia practica con el reactor BR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A. I.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Pinkhasik, M. S.; Aristarkhov, N. N.; Karpov, A. V.; Larin, E. P.; Efimov, I. A.

    1963-10-15

    The paper discusses the carrying-out of repair and maintenance work on the radioactive liquid-metal circuit of the BR-5 fast neutron reactor. Attention is also given to problems of reactor operation after achievement of the planned 2% fuel burn-up with some disturbance of leak-tightness in individual fuel elements. An account is given of experience in discharging the active section, examining the condition and leak-tightness of the fuel elements, and decontaminating the equipment and piping of the first radioactive circuit after reaching 5% fuel burn-up. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire les auteurs decrivent l'execution des reparations et des travaux d'entretien dans le circuit radioactif liquide-metal du reacteur a neutrons rapides BR-5. Ils etudient egalement les problemes lies au fonctionnement du reacteur au taux de combustion de 2% prevu avec quelques defauts d'etancheite dans des elements combustibles particuliers. Ils decrivent le dechargementen zone active et examinent les conditions d'etancheite des elements combustibles. Ainsi que la decontamination de l'appareillage et des tuyauteries du premier circuit radioactif apres avoir atteint un taux de combustion de 5%. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examinan los problemas planteados por el mantenimiento del circuito radiactivo de metal liquido del reactor de neutrones rapidos BR-5. Se tratan cuestiones relacionadas con la explotacion del reactor una vez alcanzado el grado de combustion de 2%, previsto en el proyecto y luego de producirse ciertas alteraciones de la densidad de determinados elementos combustibles. Se describen la experiencia adquirida durante la descarga del cuerpo del reactor, las investigaciones del estado general y de la hermeticidad de los elementos combustibles y las operaciones de descontaminacion de la instalacion y de las tuberias del circuito radiactivo primario despues de alcanzado un grado de combustion de 5%. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivayutsya voprosy proizvodstva

  10. The sources and evolution of mineralising fluids in iron oxide-copper-gold systems, Norrbotten, Sweden: Constraints from Br/Cl ratios and stable Cl isotopes of fluid inclusion leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, S. A.; Smith, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    We have analysed the halogen concentrations and chlorine stable isotope composition of fluid inclusion leachates from three spatially associated Fe-oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralising systems in Norrbotten, Sweden. Fluid inclusions in late-stage veins in Fe-oxide-apatite deposits contain saline brines and have a wide range of Br/Cl molar ratios, from 0.2 to 1.1 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values from -3.1‰ to -1.0‰. Leachates from saline fluid inclusions from the Greenstone and Porphyry hosted Cu-Au prospects have Br/Cl ratios that range from 0.2 to 0.5 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values from -5.6‰ to -1.3‰. Finally, the Cu-Au deposits hosted by the Nautanen Deformation Zone (NDZ) have Br/Cl molar ratios from 0.4 to 1.1 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values that range from -2.4‰ to +0.5‰, although the bulk of the data fall within 0‰ ± 0.5‰. The Br/Cl ratios of leachates are consistent with the derivation of salinity from magmatic sources or from the dissolution of halite. Most of the isotopic data from the Fe-oxide-apatite and Greenstone deposits are consistent with a mantle derived source of the chlorine, with the exception of the four samples with the most negative values. The origin of the low δ 37Cl values in these samples is unknown but we suggest that there may have been some modification of the Cl-isotope signature due to fractionation between the mineralising fluids and Cl-rich silicate assemblages found in the alteration haloes around the deposits. If such a process has occurred then a modified crustal source of the chlorine for all the samples cannot be ruled out although the amount of fractionation necessary to generate the low δ 37Cl values would be significantly larger. The source of Cl in the NDZ deposits has a crustal signature, which suggests the Cl in this system may be derived from (meta-) evaporites or from input from crustal melts such as granitic pegmatites of the Lina Suite.

  11. Kinetics of the Br2-CH3CHO Photochemical Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Shackelford, C. J.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was employed in conjunction with laser flash photolysis of Br2 to study the kinetics of the two elementary steps in the photochemical chain reaction nBr2 + nCH3CHO + hv yields nCH3CBrO + nHBr. In the temperature range 255-400 K, the rate coefficient for the reaction Br((sup 2)P(sub 3/2)) + CH3CHO yields CH3CO + HBr is given by the Arrhenius expression k(sub 6)(T) = (1.51 +/- 0.20) x 10(exp -11) exp(-(364 +/- 41)/T)cu cm/(molecule.s). At 298 K, the reaction CH3CO + Br2 yields CH3CBrO + Br proceeds at a near gas kinetic rate, k(sub 7)(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.38) x 10(exp -10)cu cm/(molecule.s).

  12. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    2007-01-01

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3 He, 6 Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  13. Temperature dependent absorption spectra of Br(-), Br2(•-), and Br3(-) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingzhang; Archirel, Pierre; Van-Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Muroya, Yusa; Fu, Haiying; Yan, Yu; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Yuta; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2011-05-05

    The absorption spectra of Br(2)(•-) and Br(3)(-) in aqueous solutions are investigated by pulse radiolysis techniques from room temperature to 380 and 350 °C, respectively. Br(2)(•-) can be observed even in supercritical conditions, showing that this species could be used as a probe in pulse radiolysis at high temperature and even under supercritical conditions. The weak temperature effect on the absorption spectra of Br(2)(•-) and Br(3)(-) is because, in these two systems, the transition occurs between two valence states; for example, for Br(2)(-) we have (2)Σ(u) → (2)Σ(g) transition. These valence transitions involve no diffuse final state. However, the absorption band of Br(-) undergoes an important red shift to longer wavelengths. We performed classical dynamics of hydrated Br(-) system at 20 and 300 °C under pressure of 25 MPa. The radial distribution functions (rdf's) show that the strong temperature increase (from 20 to 300 °C) does not change the radius of the solvent first shell. On the other hand, it shifts dramatically (by 1 Å) the second maximum of the Br-O rdf and introduces much disorder. This shows that the first water shell is strongly bound to the anion whatever the temperature. The first two water shells form a cavity of a roughly spherical shape around the anion. By TDDFT method, we calculated the absorption spectra of hydrated Br(-) at two temperatures and we compared the results with the experimental data.

  14. La diffusion du semis direct au Brésil, diversité des pratiques et logiques territoriales : l’exemple de la région d’Itaipu au Paraná A difusão do plantio direto no Brasil, diversidade das práticas e lógicas territoriais : o exemplo da região de Itaipú, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mello

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le semis direct est un système de production fondé sur le non-travail du sol. Il intègre une série de pratiques agricoles qui permettent de protéger les sols cultivés de l’érosion, de réduire les consommations de carburants, voire d’augmenter les rendements. Le large succès du semis direct au Brésil, contribue à la compétitivité et à la forte croissance de ses productions tout en préservant les sols. Le système complet du semis direct sous couvert est fondé sur trois principes : le non-labour, la couverture permanente du sol et des rotations culturales. Sur le terrain, les pratiques sont variées et nombre d’agriculteurs n’appliquent pas les deux derniers principes. La technique est le plus souvent associée à l’emploi d’herbicides qui présentent des risques de pollution, encore peu appréhendés au Brésil. Le semis direct s’est implanté dans le Sud du pays dans les années 1970-1990. De là, le système, mis en œuvre par les gaúchos, s’est rapidement étendu dans d’autres régions, particulièrement dans le centre et le nord du pays. Dans ce travail, les pratiques du semis direct sont étudiées à deux échelles. La région du Paraná 3, située en bordure orientale du lac de barrage d’Itaipu, montre que la pratique du semis direct, adoptée par de nombreux agriculteurs intègre également la protection du barrage afin de limiter l’érosion et la pollution de l’eau. A l’échelle des exploitations, des entretiens avec trois producteurs du Paraná et du Rio Grande do Sul, réalisant du semis direct sous couvert, présentent les pratiques et les raisonnements qui leurs sont associés. Ces entretiens nous montrent que l’adoption d’un système d’agriculture de conservation repose sur une révision profonde du mode de production et sur l’appropriation des connaissances relatives aux processus naturels. Si le succès du semis direct s’appuie sur l’augmentation des gains économiques, ce

  15. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br.

  16. RESONANCE CARS IN BR2 MOLECULES AND BR-ATOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Levelt, P.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1991-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced CARS processes were studied in molecular bromine. On the basis of the known spectroscopic constants of the two electronic states involved, the features in the spectra could be identified. CARS signals from Br-atoms produced from dissociation of Br2 were obtained by tuning (omega-1

  17. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  18. Thermodynamic assessment of EuBr2 unary and LiBr-EuBr2 and NaBr-EuBr2 binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Weiping; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for the design and development of molten salt mixtures, thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties were carried out on the EuBr 2 unary and LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 binary systems over a wide temperature and composition range, respectively. The Gibbs energy of EuBr 2 was evaluated using an independent polynomial to fit the experimental heat capacity, the thermodynamic parameters for each phase in the LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 systems were optimized by using available experimental information on phase diagrams. A regular substitutional solution model for the liquid phase and Neumann-Kopp rule for the stoichiometric compound LiEu 2 Br 5 were adopted to reproduce the experimental data with reasonable excess Gibbs energy. Comparisons between the calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic quantities show that all reliable experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description. Some thermodynamic properties were predicted to check the suitability of the present calculation.

  19. Interaction of copper(II) halides with 4-(piperidyl-1)-2-phenylpyrido[2,3-a]anthraquinone-7,12 (L) in acidic media: Crystal structure and spectral characteristics of (HL)2[Cu2Cl6] and (HL)[CuBr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchukova, O. V.; Stash, A. I.; Strashnova, S. B.; Belsky, V. K.; Tung, Tran Than; Zaitsev, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    4-(Piperidyl-1)-2-phenylpyrido[2,3-a]anthraquinonium-7,12 hexachlorodicuprate(II) and 4-(piperidyl-1)-2-phenylpyrido[2,3-a]anthraquinonium-7,12 dibromocuprate(I) are isolated in the crystalline state and investigated using X-ray diffraction. It is established that the Cu(II) cation is reduced to the Cu(I) cation during the synthesis of anionic bromocuprate complexes in the presence of hydrobromic acid. The spectral characteristics of the prepared compounds are discussed.

  20. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  1. A spectrophotometric study of aqueous Au(III) halide-hydroxide complexes at 25-80 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Al; McPhail, D. C.; Brugger, Joël

    2009-06-01

    The mobility and transport of gold in low-temperature waters and brines is affected by the aqueous speciation of gold, which is sensitive in particular to pH, oxidation and halide concentrations. In this study, we use UV-Vis spectrophotometry to identify and measure the thermodynamic properties of Au(III) aqueous complexes with chloride, bromide and hydroxide. Au(III) forms stable square planar complexes with hydroxide and halide ligands. Based on systematic changes in the absorption spectra of solutions in three binary systems NaCl-NaBr, NaCl-NaOH and NaBr-NaOH at 25 °C, we derived log dissociation constants for the following mixed and end-member halide and hydroxide complexes: [AuCl 3Br] -, [AuCl 2Br 2] -, [AuBr 3Cl] - and [AuBr 4] -; [AuCl 3(OH)] -, [AuCl 2(OH) 2] -, [AuCl(OH) 3] - and [Au(OH) 4] -; and [AuBr 3(OH)] -, [AuBr 2(OH) 2] - and [AuBr(OH) 3] -. These are the first reported results for the mixed chloride-bromide complexes. Increasing temperature to 80 °C resulted in an increase in the stability of the mixed chloride-bromide complexes, relative to the end-member chloride and bromide complexes. For the [AuCl (4-n)(OH) n] - series of complexes ( n = 0-4), there is an excellent agreement between our spectrophotometric results and previous electrochemical results of Chateau et al. [Chateau et al. (1966)]. In other experiments, the iodide ion (I -) was found to be unstable in the presence of Au(III), oxidizing rapidly to I 2(g) and causing Au to precipitate. Predicted Au(III) speciation indicates that Au(III) chloride-bromide complexes can be important in transporting gold in brines with high bromide-chloride ratios (e.g., >0.05), under oxidizing (atmospheric), acidic (pH < 5) conditions. Native gold solubility under atmospheric oxygen conditions is predicted to increase with decreasing pH in acidic conditions, increasing pH in alkaline conditions, increasing chloride, especially at acid pH, and increasing bromide for bromide/chloride ratios greater than 0

  2. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  3. Cationic gemini surfactant-assisted synthesis of hollow Au nanostructures by stepwise reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Han, Yuchun; Tian, Maozhang; Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Yongqiang; Gao, Mingyuan; Wang, Yilin

    2013-06-26

    A novel synthetic approach was developed for creating versatile hollow Au nanostructures by stepwise reductions of Au(III) upon the use of cationic gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyl dimethylammonium bromide) (C12C6C12Br2) as a template agent. It was observed that the Au(I) ions obtained from the reduction of Au(III) by ascorbic acid can assist the gemini surfactant to form vesicles, capsule-like, and tube-like aggregates that subsequently act as soft templates for hollow Au nanostructures upon further reduction of Au(I) to Au(0) by NaBH4. It was demonstrated that the combination of C12C6C12Br2 and Au(I) plays a key role in regulating the structure of the hollow precursors not only because C12C6C12Br2 has a stronger aggregation ability in comparison with its single chain counterpart but also because the electrostatic repulsion between head groups of C12C6C12Br2 is greatly weakened after Au(III) is converted to Au(I), which is in favor of the construction of vesicles, capsule-like, and tube-like aggregates. Compared with solid Au nanospheres, the resultant hollow nanostructures exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activities in methanol oxidation, following the order of elongated nanocapsule > nanocapsule > nanosphere. Benefiting from balanced interactions between the gemini surfactant and Au(I), this soft-template method may present a facile and versatile approach for the controlled synthesis of Au nanostructures potentially useful for fuel cells and other Au nanodevices.

  4. Zn2(TeO3)Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Johnsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3)Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetra­hedra, and [TeO3 E] tetra­hedra (E being the 5s 2 lone pair of Te4+) joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3)Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3)Cl2, CuZn(TeO3)2, Co2(TeO3)Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3)Cl2. PMID:21202162

  5. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  6. Au-HKUST-1 Composite Nanocapsules: Synthesis with a Coordination Replication Strategy and Catalysis on CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxin; Zhang, Jiali; Song, Lingxiao; Xu, Wenyuan; Guo, Zanru; Yang, Xiaomin; Wu, Xiaoxin; Chen, Xi

    2016-09-07

    A novel coordination replication of Cu2O redox-template strategy is reported to efficiently fabricate Au-HKUST-1 composite nanocapsule, with a HKUST-1 sandwich shell and an embedded Au nanoparticles layer. The novel synthesis procedure involves forming Au nanoparticles on the surface of Cu2O, transforming partial Cu2O into HKUST-1 shell via coordination replication, and removing the residual Cu2O by acid. The as-prepared Au-HKUST-1 composite nanocapsules displayed high catalytic activity on CO oxidation.

  7. Evidence of significant covalent bonding in Au(CN)(2)(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Yi-Lei; Yang, Jie; Xing, Xiao-Peng; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2009-11-18

    The Au(CN)(2)(-) ion is the most stable Au compound known for centuries, yet a detailed understanding of its chemical bonding is still lacking. Here we report direct experimental evidence of significant covalent bonding character in the Au-C bonds in Au(CN)(2)(-) using photoelectron spectroscopy and comparisons with its lighter congeners, Ag(CN)(2)(-) and Cu(CN)(2)(-). Vibrational progressions in the Au-C stretching mode were observed for all detachment transitions for Au(CN)(2)(-), in contrast to the atomic-like transitions for Cu(CN)(2)(-), revealing the Au-C covalent bonding character. In addition, rich electronic structural information was obtained for Au(CN)(2)(-) by employing 118 nm detachment photons. Density functional theory and high-level ab initio calculations were carried out to understand the photoelectron spectra and obtain insight into the nature of the chemical bonding in the M(CN)(2)(-) complexes. Significant covalent character in the Au-C bonding due to the strong relativistic effects was revealed in Au(CN)(2)(-), consistent with its high stability.

  8. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Governador Valdares, Brésil : Le jardinage s ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... À Governador Valadares, au Brésil, un programme municipal d'agriculture urbaine contribue à garnir la table des citadins des quartiers à faible revenu. Les protagonistes vont et viennent, mais les jardiniers tiennent bon, grâce à l'appui bien coordonné de nombreux acteurs locaux.

  9. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  10. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BR2 mixed core management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.; Beeckmans, A.

    1997-01-01

    The BR2 fuel cycle management can be optimized by the fabrication and the irradiation of fuel elements with uranium recovered from the reprocessing of BR2 spent fuel. The VIn E fuel performances could be upgraded by increasing the amount of burnable poisons, the fuel mass, the fuel density, ... in order to obtain a higher reactivity effect at a burnup of about β=12% and a longer cycle duration. The preliminary results of the calculations need however to be confirmed by measurements on effective reactor loads. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic assessment of NdBr3 unary and LiBr-NdBr3 binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Weiping; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

    2006-01-01

    Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties calculations were carried out on the NdBr 3 unary and the LiBr-NdBr 3 binary systems over the entire temperature and composition range, respectively. The Gibbs energy of NdBr 3 was evaluated using an independent polynomial to fit the experimental thermodynamic properties. The liquid phase in the LiBr-NdBr 3 system was described by the two sub-lattice ionic solution model (Li + ) P : (Br - , NdBr 6 -3 , NdBr 3 ) Q . Comparisons between the calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities show that all reliable experimental information was satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description

  13. Origin of sulfur and crustal recycling of copper in polymetallic (Cu-Au-Co-Bi-U ± Ag) iron-oxide-dominated systems of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Góngora, P.; Gleeson, S. A.; Samson, I. M.; Corriveau, L.; Ootes, L.; Jackson, S. E.; Taylor, B. E.; Girard, I.

    2018-03-01

    The Great Bear Magmatic Zone, in northwest Canada, contains numerous polymetallic mineral occurrences, prospects, and deposits of the iron oxide copper-gold deposit (IOCG) family. The mineralization is hosted by the Treasure Lake Group and igneous rocks of the Great Bear arc and was deposited concomitantly with the arc magmatism (ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga). In situ δ 34S ( n = 48) and δ 65Cu ( n = 79) analyses were carried out on ore-related sulfides from a number of these systems. The δ 34S values mainly vary between 0 and +5‰, consistent with derivation of sulfur from the mantle. Lower δ 34S values (-7.7 to +1.4‰) from the Sue-Dianne breccia may indicate SO2 disproportionation of a magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The δ 65Cu values vary between -1.2 and -0.3‰, and are lower than the igneous δ 65Cu range of values (0.0 ± 0.27‰). The S and Cu isotopic data are decoupled, which suggests that Cu (and possibly some S) was dissolved and remobilized from supracrustal rocks during early stages of alteration (e.g., sodic alteration) and then precipitated by lower temperature, more oxidizing fluids (e.g., Ca-Fe-K alteration). A limited fluid inclusion dataset and δ 13C and δ 18O values are also presented. The δ 18Ofluid values are consistent with a magmatic origin or a host-rock equilibrated meteoric water source, whereas the δ 13Cfluid values support a marine carbonate source. Combined, the S and Cu isotopic data indicate that while the emplacement of the Great Bear magmatic bodies may have driven fluid convection and may be the source of fluids and sulfur, metals such as Cu could have been recycled from crustal sources.

  14. Chanel-brändin nuorentaminen Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kartoittaa Chanel-kosmetiikkabrändin imagoa ja asiakaskuntaa Suomessa sekä luoda saatujen tulosten pohjalta kehitysehdotuksia Chanel-brändin markkinointiin Suomessa brändin nuorentamisen näkökulmasta. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Chanel-brändin jakelija Oy Transmeri Ab. Teoriataustassa käsiteltiin laajasti erilaisia brändin nuorentamiseen liittyviä aihepiirejä; bränditeoriaa, brändien uudistamista, luksusbrändien erityispiirteitä sekä niiden asiakkaita, digitaal...

  15. Studies on the phase diagram of LiBr-SrBr2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendran, K.H.; Sujatha, K.; Sridharan, R.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2003-01-01

    Binary LiBr-SrBr 2 system was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the equilibrium phases at different compositions were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). This system has a compound LiSr 2 Br 5 , and exhibits a eutectic reaction between this compound and LiBr at 434 deg. C and the eutectic has a composition of 35 mol% SrBr 2 . The compound LiSr 2 Br 5 undergoes peritectic decomposition at 484 deg. C. From the DSC and XRD results, phase diagram of the LiBr-SrBr 2 system is constructed

  16. Eu9Cd4-xCM2+x-y□ySb9: Ca9Mn4Bi9-type structure stuffed with coinage metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) and the challenges with classical valence theory in describing these possible zintl phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Nasrin; Hurtado, Antonio; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphaël P; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2015-02-02

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties, and europium Mössbauer spectroscopy of the new members of the 9-4-9 Zintl family of Eu(9)Cd(4-x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb(9) (CM = coinage metal: Au, Ag, and Cu) are reported. These compounds crystallize in the Ca(9)Mn(4)Bi(9) structure type (9-4-9) with the 4g interstitial site almost half-occupied by coinage metals; these are the first members in the 9-4-9 family where the interstitial positions are occupied by a monovalent metal. All previously known compounds with this structure type include divalent interstitials where these interstitials are typically the same as the transition metals in the anionic framework. Single-crystal magnetic susceptibility data indicate paramagnetic behavior for all three compounds with antiferromagnetic ordering below 10 K (at 100 Oe) that shifts to lower temperature (x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb(9) at 50 and 6.5 K in order to evaluate the valence of Eu cations. Although the Zintl formalism states that the five crystallographically distinct Eu sites in Eu(9)Cd(4-x)CM(2+x-y)□(y)Sb9 should bear Eu(2+), the Mössbauer spectral isomer shifts are clearly indicative of both 2+ and 3+ valence of the Eu cations with the Cu- and Au-containing compounds showing higher amounts of Eu(3+). This electronic configuration leads to an excess of negative charge in these compounds that contradicts the expected valence-precise requirement of Zintl phases. The spectra obtained at 6.5 K reveal magnetic ordering for both Eu(2+) and Eu(3+). The field dependence of Eu(2+) indicates two distinct magnetic sublattices, with higher and lower fields, and of a small field for Eu(3+). The site symmetry of the five Eu sites is not distinguishable from the Mössbauer data.

  17. Shakespeare dans le Brésil du 19e siècle : un exemple de transfert culturel

    OpenAIRE

    Segurado, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Partant de l’Angleterre vers l’Europe continentale au 18ème siècle, les pièces de Shakespeare arrivent au Brésil au 19ème siècle via des modèles français. Ce transfert culturel se fait d’abord par la perception de la culture étrangère imposée au Brésil lors de sa colonisation, suivie d’une graduelle interaction avec elle, puis d’une réinvention adaptée à la couleur locale. L’acteur João Caetano débute en 1835 une approche plus nationaliste, mais c’est la littérature qui voit surgir un authent...

  18. Stig Brøgger's Artists' Books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Hvis Kromann, Thomas

    Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger......Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger...

  19. Contributions of BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O, and HOBr to regiospecific bromination rates of anisole and bromoanisoles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivey, John D; Bickley, Mark A; Victor, Daniel A

    2015-04-21

    When bromide-containing waters are chlorinated, conventional wisdom typically assumes HOBr is the only active brominating agent. Several additional and often-overlooked brominating agents (including BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O) can form in chlorinated waters, albeit at generally lower concentrations than HOBr. The extent to which these additional brominating agents influence bromination rates of disinfection byproduct precursors is, however, poorly understood. Herein, the influence of BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O, and HOBr toward rates of sequential bromination of anisole was quantified. Conditions affecting bromine speciation (e.g., pH, concentrations of chloride, bromide, and chlorine) were varied, and regiospecific second-order rate constants were calculated for reactions of each brominating agent with anisole, 2-bromoanisole, and 4-bromoanisole. The regioselectivity of anisole bromination changed with pH, consistent with the participation of more than one brominating agent. Under conditions representative of chlorinated drinking water, contributions to bromination rates decreased as BrCl > BrOCl > HOBr > Br2O (Br2 negligible). The second-order rate constant determined for net bromination of anisole by HOBr is up to 3000-times less than reported in previous studies (which assumed HOBr was the only active brominating agent). Accordingly, models that assume HOBr is the only kinetically relevant brominating agent in solutions of free bromine may be insufficient for reactions involving modestly nucleophilic organic compounds.

  20. Diastereoselective Au-Catalyzed Allene Cycloisomerizations to Highly Substituted Cyclopentenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ryan D; Phelps, Alicia M; Raimbach, William A T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-07-07

    Site- and regiocontrolled Au-catalyzed allene carbocyclizations furnish highly substituted cyclopentenes in >1:1 dr. Significant substitution on the substrate is tolerated, with potential to install five contiguous stereocenters after alkene functionalization. Major challenges include identifying a Au/Cu catalyst that controls both the relative rates of allene epimerization/cyclization and the facial selectivity in addition of a metal enolate to the allene. Experiments to achieve stereodivergent cyclizations and transform key cyclopentenes into useful synthetic building blocks are described.

  1. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  2. Core electron binding energy shifts of AlBr3 and Al2Br6 vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Astrid M.; Plenge, Juergen; Leone, Stephen R.; Canton, Sophie E.; Rude, Bruce S.; Bozek, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The Al 2p and Br 3d inner-shell photoelectron spectra of aluminum tribromide monomer and dimer vapor were measured at 90 and 95 eV photon energy, respectively, to determine the core electron binding energies of the atoms in the two molecular species. While AlBr 3 has three identical Br atoms, Al 2 Br 6 exhibits four terminal and two bridging Br atoms. The species are identified by their distinct valence photoelectron spectra. Comparison of the observed Al 2p 1/2 and Al 2p 3/2 electron binding energies of AlBr 3 with those of Al 2 Br 6 shows that there is a chemical shift of (0.15 ± 0.03) eV to lower energy in the dimer. In Al 2 Br 6 , an assignment is proposed in which the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of terminal Br atoms are (1.18 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms. This assignment assumes that both types of Br atoms have similar cross-sections for ionization. With this result, the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of Br atoms in AlBr 3 are (0.81 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms of the dimer but (0.37 ± 0.03) eV higher than those of terminal Br atoms of the dimer. The obtained chemical shifts are considered in terms of the binding relations and electron density distributions in both molecules. Chemical shifts that are larger than a few hundred millielectron volts, as observed in the Al 2 Br 6 /AlBr 3 system, offer potential to study the dissociation dynamics of the dimer in a femtosecond visible or ultraviolet-pump/XUV-probe experiment

  3. Photodissociation of C3H5Br and C4H7Br at 234 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Kook; Paul, Dababrata; Hong, Ki Ryong; Cho, Ha Na; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Seok

    2012-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropyl bromide (C-3H 5 Br) and cyclobutyl bromide (C 4 H 7 Br) at 234 nm was investigated. A two-dimensional photofragment ion-imaging technique coupled with a [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme was utilized to obtain speed and angular distributions of the nascent Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms. The recoil anisotropies for the Br and Br* channels were measured to be βBr = 0.92 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.52 ± 0.04 for C 3 H 5 Br and βBr = 1.10 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.49 ± 0.05 for C 4 H 7 Br. The relative quantum yield for Br was found to be ΦBr = 0.13 ± 0.03 and for C 3 H 5 Br and C 4 H 7 Br, respectively. The soft radical limit of the impulsive model adequately modeled the related energy partitioning. The nonadiabatic transition probability from the 3A' and 4A' potential energy surfaces was estimated and discussed

  4. Yrityksen brändin uudistaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimaa, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Brändin rakentaminen on tänä päivänä tärkeä osa yrityksen näkyvyyden ja kilpailukyvyn edistämisessä. Huolellisesti rakennetulla brändillä ja hyvällä markkinoinnilla yritys voi erottua kilpailijoistaan positiivisesti. Tie menestyvään brändiin on kuitenkin pitkä prosessi. Toimeksiantajana opinnäytetyössä toimi rakennusyritys Rakennus Vuoriot Oy. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yritykselle brändin uudistaminen luomalla kokonaan uusi perusta ja rakennusosat olemassa olevalle brändille...

  5. Architectural Growth of Cu Nanoparticles Through Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu particles with different architectures such as pyramid, cube, and multipod have been successfully fabricated on the surface of Au films, which is the polycrystalline Au substrate with (111 domains, using the electrodeposition technique in the presence of the surface-capping reagents of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and poly(vinylpyrrolidone. Further, the growth evolution of pyramidal Cu nanoparticles was observed for the first time. We believe that our method might open new possibilities for fabricating nanomaterials of non-noble transition metals with various novel architectures, which can then potentially be utilized in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and electronic nanodevices.

  6. Resistive switching of Cu/Cu2O junction fabricated using simple thermal oxidation at 423 K for memristor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, M. H.; Helmi, F.; Herman, S. H.; Noh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extensive researches have been done on memristor to replace current memory storage technologies. Study on active layer of memristor mostly involving n-type semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 and ZnO. This paper highlight a simple water vapour oxidation method at 423 K to form Cu/Cu2O electronic junction as a new type of memristor. Cu2O is a p-type semiconductor oxide, was used as the active layer of memristor. Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor was fabricated by thermal oxidation of copper foil, followed by sputtering of gold. Structural, morphological and memristive properties were characterized using XRD, FESEM, and current-voltage, I-V measurement respectively. Its memristivity was indentified by pinch hysteresis loop and measurement of high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) of the sample. The Cu/Cu2O/Au memristor demonstrates comparable performances to previous studies using other methods.

  7. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neve de Mevergnies, M.

    1977-01-01

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  8. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  9. Synthesis of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[76Br]bromophenyl)tropane ([76Br]β-CBT), a PET tracer for in vivo imaging of the dopamine uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loc'h, Christian; Ottaviani, Michele; Maziere, Bernard; Mueller, Lars; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    1995-01-01

    2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[ 76 Br]bromophenyl)tropane ([ 76 Br]β-CBT) was prepared either by electrophilic substitution from the tributyl-stannyl derivative and peracetic acid as oxidant or by nucleophilic substitution from the iodo analogue (β-CIT) and a Cu + assisted bromodeiodination exchange. After purification by solid phase extraction and reverse phase HPLC, the chemical and radiochemical purities of [ 76 Br]β-CBT were >98% and the specific radioactivity was 20 GBq/μmol. Using the two labelling techniques, the radiochemical yields were 80% and 60%, respectively. From the deshalogeno compound and different oxidizing conditions, the radiolabelling yields were <5%. (Author)

  10. An Upper Limit for $Br(Z^0 \\rightarrow ggg)$ from Symmetric 3-jet $Z^0$ Hadronic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    An upper limit for $BR(Z^0\\ rightarrow 3g)$ is obtained from a correlation method, which distinguishes statistically between quark and gluon jets by using the difference in their charged particle multiplicity distributions. From the sam020AU LW

  11. On the stability of copper overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence on CO and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian Georg; Horch, Sebastian; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the stability of Cu overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence of CO and CO2 by means of electrochemical STM (EC-STM). For preparation we utilized the well known underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper, which, depending...... on the electrolyte (HClO4 and H2SO4), leads to Cu coverages in the submonolayer to monolayer range. For a Cu submonolayer on Au(1 1 1) we found that independent from the actual gas coadsorbate its closed film-like structure collapses at low potentials due to the desorption of coadsorbed anions. In contrast we found...... for a full Cu monolayer on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) the formation of an alloy phase under low potential conditions, which also occurs independent from the presence of gas coadsorbates....

  12. Partial structures in molten AgBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: ueno@gemini.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Shuta [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The structure of molten AgBr has been studied by means of neutron and X-ray diffractions with the aid of structural modeling. It is confirmed that the Ag-Ag correlation has a small but well-defined first peak in the partial pair distribution function whose tail penetrates into the Ag-Br nearest neighbor distribution. This feature on the Ag-Ag correlation is intermediate between that of molten AgCl (non-superionic melt) and that of molten AgI (superionic melt). The analysis of Br-Ag-Br bond angle reveals that molten AgBr preserves a rocksalt type local ordering in the solid phase, suggesting that molten AgBr is clarified as non-superionic melt like molten AgCl.

  13. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... traités au service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale et chirurgie plastique de l'hôpital ... qui est la fracture simple isolée du corps, on a inclut ce type de fracture ... sion latérale au niveau de la queue du sourcil. La voie vestibulaire ...

  14. Surfactant-promoted reactions of Cl2 and Br2 with Br- in glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jennifer A; Dempsey, Logan P; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2013-10-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to explore reactions of gaseous Cl2 and Br2 with a 0.03 M solution of the surfactant tetrahexylammonium bromide (THABr) dissolved in glycerol. At thermal collision energies, 79 ± 2% of incident Cl2 molecules react with Br(-) to form Cl2Br(-) in the interfacial region. This reaction probability is three times greater than the reactivity of Cl2 with 3 M NaBr-glycerol, even though the interfacial Br(-) concentrations are similar in each solution. We attribute the high 79% uptake to the presence of surface THA(+) ions that stabilize the Cl2Br(-) intermediate as it is formed in the charged, hydrophobic pocket created by the hexyl chains. Cl2Br(-) generates the single exchange product BrCl in a 1% yield close to the surface, while the remaining 99% desorbs as the double exchange product Br2 over >0.1 s after diffusing deeply into the bulk. When NaCl is added to the surfactant solution in a 20:1 Cl(-)/Br(-) ratio, the Cl2 reaction probability drops from 79% to 46 ± 1%, indicating that Cl(-) in the interfacial region only partially blocks reaction with Br(-). In parallel, we observe that gaseous Br2 molecules dissolve in 0.03 M THABr for 10(4) times longer than in 3 M NaBr. We attribute this change to formation of stabilizing interfacial and bulk-phase THA(+)Br3(-) ion pairs, in analogy with the capture of Cl2 and formation of THA(+)Cl2Br(-) pairs. The THA(+) ion appears to be a powerful interfacial catalyst for promoting reaction of Cl2 and Br2 with Br(-) and for ferrying the resultant ions into solution.

  15. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  16. Potential Energy Surfaces for Reactions of X Metal Atoms (X = Cu, Zn, Cd, Ga, Al, Au, or Hg with YH4 Molecules (Y = C, Si, or Ge and Transition Probabilities at Avoided Crossings in Some Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Novaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review ab initio studies based on quantum mechanics on the most important mechanisms of reaction leading to the C–H, Si–H, and Ge–H bond breaking of methane, silane, and germane, respectively, by a metal atom in the lowest states in Cs symmetry: X(2nd excited state, 1st excited state and ground state + YH4→ H3XYH → H + XYH3 and XH + YH3. with X = Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Al, and G, and Y = C, Si, and Ge. Important issues considered here are (a the role that the occupation of the d-, s-, or p-shells of the metal atom plays in the interactions with a methane or silane or germane molecule, (b the role of either singlet or doublet excited states of metals on the reaction barriers, and (c the role of transition probabilities for different families of reacting metals with these gases, using the H–X–Y angle as a reaction coordinate. The breaking of the Y–H bond of YH4 is useful in the production of amorphous hydrogenated films, necessary in several fields of industry.

  17. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  18. Influence du comportement des accompagnants sur le vécu des patients admis pour hémorragies digestives hautes au CHU campus de Lomé (Togo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny, Aklesso; Dusabe, Angelique; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Lawson-ananisoh, Mawuli Late; Kaaga, Yeba Laconi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Soedje, Kokou Mensah; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'hémorragie digestive haute est une urgence, qui constitue souvent pour les patients un danger mortel suscitant inquiétude et agitation. Dans cet état, le patient dépend de ses accompagnants pour ses soins et pour honorer le traitement; mais souvent, il a été observé une discordance entre l'urgence et les comportements des accompagnants. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les facteurs socioéconomiques et psychologiques pouvant influencer les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH, estimer l'indice de relation entre ces comportements et les facteurs associés d'une part et le vécu des patients admis pour HDH d'autre part. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée de Septembre 2010 à Juin 2011 (soit 10 mois). Nous avions utilisé l'entretien semi-dirigé et l'observation directe pour collecter nos données, ces dernières avaient été traitées par les méthodes statistiques et d'analyse de contenu. Résultats Dans la présente étude, les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH sont en majorité marqués par l'abandon (84%) et le manque de sollicitude (80,2%). Ces comportements sont souvent stimulés par les facteurs socioéconomiques tels que les difficultés économiques (83,2%), des conflits intrafamiliaux (85,1%) et des représentations (maladie incurable ou envoûtement) de la maladie par les accompagnants (73,3%) des cas. Quant aux patients, ils vivent ces comportements comme étant des menaces de mort ou des rejets (77,20%) et comme étant une dévalorisation ou une humiliation de la part de leurs accompagnants (70,30%). Les résultats confirment l'existence de lien significatif entre les comportements des accompagnants et les facteurs socio économiques, entre les comportements des accompagnants et des facteurs psychologiques, et entre le vécu des patients admis pour l'HDH et les comportements des accompagnants. Conclusion Des études ultérieures devraient aborder les points

  19. A comparative ab initio study of Br2*- and Br2 water clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Mukherjee, T; Maity, D K

    2006-01-14

    The work presents ab initio results on structure and electronic properties of Br2*-.nH2O(n=1-10) and Br2.nH2O(n=1-8) hydrated clusters to study the effects of an excess electron on the microhydration of the halide dimer. A nonlocal density functional, namely, Becke's half-and-half hybrid exchange-correlation functional is found to perform well on the present systems with a split valence 6-31++G(d,p) basis function. Geometry optimizations for all the clusters are carried out with several initial guess structures and without imposing any symmetry restriction. Br2*-.nH2O clusters prefer to have symmetrical double hydrogen-bonding structures. Results on Br2.nH2O(n>or=2) cluster show that the O atom of one H2O is oriented towards one Br atom and the H atom of another H2O is directed to other Br atom making Br2 to exist as Br+-Br- entity in the cluster. The binding and solvation energies are calculated for the Br2*-.nH2O and Br2.nH2O clusters. Calculations of the vibrational frequencies show that the formation of Br2*- and Br2 water clusters induces significant shifts from the normal modes of isolated water. Excited-state calculations are carried out on Br2*-.nH2O clusters following configuration interaction with single electron excitation procedure and UV-VIS absorption profiles are simulated. There is an excellent agreement between the present theoretical UV-VIS spectra of Br2*-.10H2O cluster and the reported transient optical spectra for Br2*- in aqueous solution.

  20. New measurement of BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν) branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOCUS Collaboration; Link, J. M.; Yager, P. M.; Anjos, J. C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A. A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Pepe, I. M.; Polycarpo, E.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Uribe, C.; Vá, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J. P.; O'Reilly, B.; Segoni, I.; Stenson, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chiodini, G.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garren, L. A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P. H.; Kreymer, A. E.; Kutschke, R.; Wang, M.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Pacetti, S.; Zallo, A.; Reyes, M.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Kang, J. S.; Ko, B. R.; Kwak, J. W.; Lee, K. B.; Cho, K.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Barberis, S.; Boschini, M.; Cerutti, A.; D'Angelo, P.; Dicorato, M.; Dini, P.; Edera, L.; Erba, S.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport, T. F.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Merlo, M. M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Gö, C.; Otalora, J.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A. M.; Mendez, H.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Ramirez, J. E.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W. E.; Luiggi, E.; Moore, J. E.; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P. D.; Vaandering, E. W.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M.

    2006-06-01

    Using data collected by the FOCUS experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the charm semileptonic branching ratio BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν). From a sample of 320±44 and 11372±161D→ρμν and D→Kπμν events respectively, we find BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν)=0.041±0.006 (stat)±0.004 (syst).

  1. Cu(ll) mediated ATRP of MMA by using a novel tetradentate amine ligand with oligo(ethylene glycol) pendant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Founier, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    A novel tetradentate amine ligand namely N,N,N,N,N;,N;-hexaoligo(ethylene glycol) triethylenetetramine (HOEGTETA) was employed in the homogenous ATRP of MMA in anisole using CuBr and CuBr2 as the catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as an initiator. The effect of the polymerization

  2. Operations and Performance of RHIC as a Cu-Cu Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Bai, Mei; Barton, Donald; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Harvey, Margaret; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Sandberg, Jon; Satogata, Todd; Schultheiss, Carl; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Zaltsman, Alex; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Wu

    2005-01-01

    The 5th year of RHIC operations, started in November 2004 and expected to last till June 2005, consists of a physics run with Cu-Cu collisions at 100 GeV/u followed by one with polarized protons at 100 GeV. We will address here overall performance of the RHIC complex used for the first time as a Cu-Cu collider, and compare it with previous operational experience with Au, PP and asymmetric d-Au collisions. We will also discuss operational improvements, such as a ?* squeeze to 85cm in the high luminosity interaction regions from the design value of 1m, system improvements and machine performance limitations, such as vacuum pressure rise, intra-beam scattering, and beam beam interaction.

  3. Autopistas: AU-1 25 de Mayo y AU-6 Perito Moreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Highways AU-1 and AU-6, approximately 17 km. long, were constructed for the purpose of solving the serious traffic problems in Buenos Aires, a city of nine million inhabitants and an evergrowing number of cars. A computer program was created for the design based on the geometric shape of the highway and the position of the supports. Using this, all elements composing the structure were calculated and the framework was sized. This programme made it possible to complete a stretch of 150 metres per week. The very rapid construction was carried out through self-supporting arches made of metallic beams held in place by brackets. The brackets were fitted in specially designed grooves in the major supports of the highway.<br>>Las autopistas AU-1 y AU-6, con una longitud aproximada de 17 km, se realizaron con objeto de resolver el grave problema de infraestructura vial del Municipio de Buenos Aires, ciudad de nueve millones de habitantes y con un parque de vehículos en rápido crecimiento. Para el proyecto se creó un programa de ordenador con el que, partiendo de la definición geométrica de la autopista y de la posición de las pilas, se calculan todos los elementos que componen la estructura y se dimensionan las armaduras. Este programa permitió proyectar un tramo (150 m por semana. La construcción, a un ritmo muy rápido, se llevó a cabo mediante cimbras autoportantes compuestas por vigas metálicas apoyadas sobre ménsulas, las cuales a su vez apoyan en unos nichos dejados en las pilas.

  4. Dynamics of copper-phthalocyanine molecules on Au/Ge(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Heimbuch, Rene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved current-time scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with current-distance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the dynamic behavior of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules adsorbed on a Au-modified Ge(001) surface. The analyzed CuPc molecules are adsorbed in a “molecular

  5. Binary molecular layers of C-60 and copper phthalocyanine on Au(111) : Self-organized nanostructuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöhr, Meike; Wagner, Thorsten; Gabriel, Markus; Weyers, Bastian; Möller, Rolf

    The binary molecular system of C-60 and copper phthalocyanine(CuPc) molecules has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at room temperature and at 50 K. As substrate Au(111) was chosen. When C-60 and CuPc molecules are sequentially deposited, it is found that well-ordered domains

  6. Refurbishing the BR2 materials testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.M.; Dekeyser, J.; Gubel, P.

    1995-01-01

    SCK/CEN is refurbishing its BR2 reactor to allow its further operation during the next 15 years; in doing so, it chooses to keep BR2 available for future scientific and technological irradiation programs within an international context. (author) 2 figs

  7. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  8. Lead Telluride Doped with Au as a Very Promising Material for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelija M. Nikolic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PbTe single crystals doped with monovalent Au or Cu were grown using the Bridgman method. Far infrared reflectivity spectra were measured at room temperature for all samples and plasma minima were registered. These experimental spectra were numerically analyzed and optical parameters were calculated. All the samples of PbTe doped with Au or Cu were of the “n” type. The properties of these compositions were analyzed and compared with PbTe containing other dopants. The samples of PbTe doped with only 3.3 at% Au were the best among the PbTe + Au samples having the lowest plasma frequency and the highest mobility of free carriers-electrons, while PbTe doped with Cu was the opposite. Samples with the lowest Cu concentration of 0.23 at% Cu had the best properties. Thermal diffusivity and electronic transport properties of the same PbTe doped samples were also investigated using a photoacoustic (PA method with the transmission detection configuration. The results obtained with the far infrared and photoacoustic characterization of PbTe doped samples were compared and discussed. Both methods confirmed that when PbTe was doped with 3.3 at% Au, thermoelectric and electrical properties of this doped semiconductor were both significantly improved, so Au as a dopant in PbTe could be used as a new high quality thermoelectric material.

  9. Elastic properties of Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C{sub ij} , elastic compliances matrix S{sub ij}, and linear compressibility constants matrix K{sub ij} of orthorhombic Cs{sub 2}HgBr{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}CdBr{sub 4} crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia 16 refs., 1 tab. 8 figs. The URL for the electronic version of this article is http://www.publish.csiro.au/journals/ajp/electronic.html

  10. Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105 and Au-199 as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, D.E.; Schlemper, E.O.

    1990-01-01

    Since last year we have: continued the synthesis of pentadentate bifunctional chelating agents based on diethylene triamine; studied the chelation Rh-105, Au-198 (as model for Au-199) and Tc-99m with these agents as well as chelation of Pd-109, Cu-67, In-111, and Co-57 with some of them; synthesized a new class of potential bifunctional chelating agents based on phenylene diamine; investigated the behavior of Au-198 as a model for Au-199; begun synthesis of bifunctional chelating agents based on terpyridly and similar ligands; and continued attempts to produce tetradentate bifunctional chelates based on diaminopropane. Each of these will be addressed in this report

  11. Mechanical, electronic and thermal properties of Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Guohui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Xinyu, E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qin, Jiaqian, E-mail: jiaqianqin@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ning, Jinliang; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The mechanical and fundamental thermal data of Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf are determined. • The technologically important elastic anisotropy is obtained and discussed according to its industrial applications. • The brittle/ductile and bonding nature of Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf are analyzed in details. - Abstract: The structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf compounds are investigated by first-principles calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The calculated lattice parameters of cubic AuBe{sub 5}-type Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf agree well with available experimental and other theoretical results and the formation enthalpy calculations show that AuBe{sub 5}-type Cu{sub 5}Hf is more energetically stable than the competing hexagonal CaCu{sub 5}-type phase. The mechanical properties such as mechanical stabilities, anisotropy character, ductility (estimated from the value of B/G, Poisson’s ratio υ and Cauchy pressures C{sub 12}–C{sub 44}) and thermodynamic properties such as volume change under temperature and pressure (V/V{sub 0}), heat capacity (C{sub v}), Debye temperature (Θ), thermal expansion coefficient (α) of AuBe{sub 5}-type Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf are calculated together. Cu{sub 5}Hf has better performances than Cu{sub 5}Zr with higher hardness and better resistance to fracture which are rationalized from the calculated electronic structure (including density of states, charge density distributions, Mulliken’s population analysis) and we find that all ionic, covalent and metallic components exist in bonding of Cu{sub 5}Zr and Cu{sub 5}Hf but the covalent bonding in Cu{sub 5}Hf is stronger.

  12. Irradiation techniques at BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1963 the material testing reactor BR2 at Mol is operated for the realisation of numerous research programs and experiments on the behavior of materials under nuclear radiation and in particular under intensive neutron exposure. During this period special irradiation techniques and experimental devices were developed according to the desiderata of the different experiments and to the irradiation possibilities offered at BR2. The design and the operating characteristics of quite a number of those irradiation rigs of proven reliability may be used or can be made available for new irradiation experiments. A brief description is given of some typical irradiation devices designed and constructed by CEN/SCK, Technology and Energy Dpt. They are compiled according to their main use for the different research and development programs realized at BR2. Their eventual application however for different objectives could be possible. A final chapter summarizes the principal irradiation conditions offered by BR2 reactor. (author)

  13. Brændeovnes bidrag til luftforurening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Brændeovnenes bidrag til luftforurening er blevet kortlagt med en hidtil uset detaljeringsgrad. Det er forskere fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) på Aarhus Universitet som står bag kortlægningen. En omfattende målekampagne i Slagslunde viser at brændeovnene bidrager væsentligt til partikelfor......Brændeovnenes bidrag til luftforurening er blevet kortlagt med en hidtil uset detaljeringsgrad. Det er forskere fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) på Aarhus Universitet som står bag kortlægningen. En omfattende målekampagne i Slagslunde viser at brændeovnene bidrager væsentligt til...

  14. Die Interhalogenkationen [Br2F5]+ und [Br3F8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, Sergei; Karttunen, Antti; Buchner, Magnus; Conrad, Matthias; Kraus, Florian

    2018-05-02

    Wir berichten über die Synthese und Charakterisierung der bislang einzigen Polyhalogenkationen, in denen verbrückende Fluoratome vorliegen. Das [Br2F5]+-Kation enthält eine symmetrische [F2Br-µ-F-BrF2]-Brücke, das [Br3F8]+-Kation enthält unsymmetrische µ-F-Brücken. Die Fluoronium-Ionen wurden in Form ihrer [SbF6]--Salze erhalten und Raman-, und 19F-NMR-spektroskopisch, sowie durch Röntgenbeugung am Einkristall untersucht. Quantenchemische Rechnungen, sowohl für die isolierten Kationen in der Gasphase, als auch für die Festkörper selbst, wurden durchgeführt. Populationsanalysen zeigen, dass die µ-F-Atome die am stärksten negativ partialgeladenen Atome der Kationen sind. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preparation of 80Br or 82Br-biomolecules via excitation labelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Ache, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The direct decay-induced 82 Br (or 80 Br) labelling by exposing the solid substrate molecules, such as deoxyuridine, L-tyrosine, guanosine, deoxycytidine, phenylalanine, and acetic acid, to gaseous CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) was studied. The radiochemical yields of the brominated products are relatively small and range from 1 percent in the case of bromo deoxyuridine to 11 percent for bromoacetic acid. The modification of this technique by adding Cl 2 gas to the reaction mixture improves the yields in several cases drastically (up to 80 percent for bromo-guanosine and bromo-L-tyrosine). Similar improvement can be achieved by exposing crystalline KBrO 3 for some time to CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) and dissolving subsequently the KBrO 3 in an acidic solution of the substrate. (auth)

  16. L’impact environnemental de l’usine hydroélectrique de Porto Primavera (Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available L’implantation de l’usine hydroélectrique de Porto Primavera sur le cours du haut Paraná, au Centre-Sud du Brésil, a entraîné de grandes transformations de l’environnement et de l’organisation de l’espace. L’ampleur et la rapidité des modifications se prêtent à un suivi par télédétection. Les images Landsat™ démontrent que la construction du barrage a donné une nouvelle impulsion au développement économique régional.

  17. Solvation dynamics through Raman spectroscopy: hydration of Br2 and Br3(-), and solvation of Br2 in liquid bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Edward T; Halberstadt, N; Apkarian, V A

    2011-05-07

    Raman spectroscopy of bromine in the liquid phase and in water illustrates uncommon principles and yields insights regarding hydration. In liquid Br(2), resonant excitation over the B((3)Π(0u)(+)) ← X((1)Σ(g)(+)) valence transition at 532 nm produces a weak resonant Raman (RR) progression accompanied by a five-fold stronger non-resonant (NR) scattering. The latter is assigned to pre-resonance with the C-state, which in turn must be strongly mixed with inter-molecular charge transfer states. Despite the electronic resonance, RR of Br(2) in water is quenched. At 532 nm, the homogeneously broadened fundamental is observed, as in the NR case at 785 nm. The implications of the quenching of RR scattering are analyzed in a simple, semi-quantitative model, to conclude that the inertial evolution of the Raman packet in aqueous Br(2) occurs along multiple equivalent water-Br(2) coordinates. In distinct contrast with hydrophilic hydration in small clusters and hydrophobic hydration in clathrates, it is concluded that the hydration shell of bromine in water consists of dynamically equivalent fluxional water molecules. At 405 nm, the RR progression of Br(3)(-) is observed, accompanied by difference transitions between the breathing of the hydration shell and the symmetric stretch of the ion. The RR scattering process in this case can be regarded as the coherent photo-induced electron transfer to the solvent and its radiative back-transfer.

  18. 11 juillet 2014 - Y. Bréchet Haut-Commissaire à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) en France

    CERN Multimedia

    Barnard, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Monsieur Yves Bréchet en visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 5 ainsi que la caverne expérimentale de CMS avec T. Camporesi, Porte-parole de la Collaboration CMS. Signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie.

  19. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  20. Attempting to realize n-type BiCuSeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Feng, Dan; He, Jiaqing; Zhao, Li-Dong

    2018-02-01

    As an intrinsic p-type semiconductor, BiCuSeO has been widely researched in the thermoelectric community, however, n-type BiCuSeO has not been reported so far. In this work, we successfully realized n-type BiCuSeO through carrying out several successive efforts. Seebeck coefficient of BiCuSeO was increased through introducing extra Bi/Cu to fill the Bi/Cu vacancies that may produce holes, and the maximum Seebeck coefficient was increase from +447 μVK-1 for undoped BiCuSeO to +638 μVK-1 for Bi1.04Cu1.05SeO. The Seebeck coefficient of Bi1.04Cu1.05SeO was changed from p-type to n-type through electron doping through introducing Br/I in Se sites, the maximum negative Seebeck coefficient can reach ∼ -465 μVK-1 and -543 μVK-1 for Bi1.04Cu1.05Se1-xIxO and Bi1.04Cu1.05Se1-xBrxO, respectively. Then, after compositing Bi1.04Cu1.05Se0.99Br0.01O with Ag, n-type BiCuSeO can be absolutely obtained in the whole temperature range of 300-873 K, the maximum ZT 0.05 was achieved at 475 K in the Bi1.04Cu1.05Se0.99Br0.01O+15% Ag. Our report indicates that it is possible to realize n-type conducting behaviors in BiCuSeO system.

  1. Reaction of atomic bromine with acetylene and loss rate of atmospheric acetylene due to reaction with OH, Cl, O, and Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W. A.; Nava, D. F.; Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    The first-order, diffusion, and bimolecular rate constants for the reaction Br + C2H2 yields C2H3Br are evaluated. The rate constants are measured at 210, 248, 298, and 393 K and at pressures between 15-100 torr Ar using flash photolysis combined with time-resolved detection of atomic bromine via Br resonance radiation. It is observed that the reaction is not affected by pressure or temperature and the bimolecular constant = (4.0 + or - 0.8) x 10 to the -15th cu cm/sec with an error of two standard deviations. The C2H2 + Br reaction rates are compared with reactions of C2H2 with Cl, OH, NH2, and H. The loss rates for atmospheric C2H2 for reactions with OH, Cl, O, and Br are calculated as a function of altitude.

  2. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Blass, W.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    Methyl Bromide, CH 3 Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m 2 /ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C0 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Br. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C0 2 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH 3 Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH 4 , the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  3. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L Z; Yin, J P

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br2 precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br2 precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, ⟨cos(2) θ⟩, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br2 molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ~1 K, a ⟨cos(2) θ⟩ value of ~0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ~20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ~1 × 10(12) W/cm(2) for alignment.

  4. Macrocyclic effects upon isomeric Cu M and M Cu cores. Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    from the iminic site to the aminic site in the synthesis of 10 is explained by ... Our previous studies suggest that isomeric MIICuII ... Calcd. for C24H27Br2ClCuN4NiO8: C 35⋅28; H 3⋅33; N 6⋅86; Cu 7⋅78; Ni .... Electronic absorption spectra in .... 3. 1497(1). 1452. ⋅3(5). 2992(1). 1860(2). 3206(1). Z. 2. 2. 4. 2. 4. D calcd. /g.

  5. Bromine-rich Zinc Bromides: Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5, Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3, and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, David; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-06-20

    The bromine-rich zinc bromides Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1), Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2), and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) are prepared by reaction of ZnBr2, 18-crown-6, and elemental bromine in the ionic liquid [MeBu3N][N(Tf)2] (N(Tf)2 = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide). Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) is formed instantaneously by the reaction. Even at room temperature, compound 1 releases bromine, which was confirmed by thermogravimetry (TG) and mass spectrometry (MS). The release of Br2 can also be directly followed by the color and density of the title compounds. With controlled conditions (2 weeks, 25 °C, absence of excess Br2) Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) slowly releases bromine with conconcurrent generation of Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2) (in ionic liquid) and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) (in inert oil). All bromine-rich zinc bromides contain voluminous uncharged (e.g., Zn3Br6(18-crown-6), Zn2Br4(18-crown-6)) or ionic (e.g., [Zn2Br3(18-crown-6)](+), [(Zn2Br6)×(Br2)2](2-)) building units with dibromine molecules between the Zn oligomers and partially interconnecting the Zn-containing building units. Due to the structural similarity, the bromine release is possible via crystal-to-crystal transformation with retention of the crystal shape.

  6. Production of 77 Br for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, M.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-77 is produced with the variable energy cyclotron (CV-28) at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, via the 75 As. (α, 2 n) 77 Br reaction, by bombarding arsenic trioxide with 28 MeV alpha-particles. The thick target yield is 0.3 mCi/μAh. The target is dissolved in concentrated N H 4 OH and 77 Br, separated from arsenic, by an anionic exchange resin, is obtained carrier-free with a separation yield greater than 90%. All the process is remotely controlled using electric and pneumatic systems, manipulators and tongs. The quality control is made by atomic absorption and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The present production rate of Br-77 is 2.3 mCi per irradiation. (author)

  7. Institut brésilien pour la recherche écologique : L'enseignement et l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En faisant un retour sur son expérience au FIE 2008, la Dre Suzana Padua, présidente de l'Institut pour la recherche écologique (IPE) du Brésil a déclaré ce qui suit : « Quand on comprend plus l'interconnexion de tout ce qui vit sur la planète, on ne pas faire autrement que d'être touchée d'une certaine façon », a dit la Dre ...

  8. Effects of Au nanoparticle addition to hole transfer layer in organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine and fullerene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Nagata; Takeo Okun; Tsuyoshi Akiyaman; Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine (CuNc) and fullerene (C60) were fabricated, and their photovoltaic properties were investigated. C60 and CuNc were used as n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively. In addition, the effect of Au nanoparticle addition on a hole transfer layer was investigated, and the power conversion efficiency of the devices was improved after blending the Au nanoparticles into the hole transport layer. Nanostructures of Au nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Energy levels of molecules were calculated by molecular orbital calculations, and the nanostructure and electronic properties were discussed.

  9. The effect of copper and silver on the properties of Au-ZnO catalyst and its activity in glycerol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskow, Iveta; Decyk, Piotr; Sobczak, Izabela

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this work was to use ZnO as a support for gold and copper (Au-Cu system) or gold and silver (Au-Ag system) and comparison of the effect of copper and silver on the properties of gold and its activity in glycerol oxidation with oxygen in the liquid phase. The samples prepared were fully characterized by XRD, TEM techniques and UV-vis, XPS, ESR spectroscopic methods. It was found that the introduction of copper and silver changed the electronic state of gold loaded on ZnO by the electron transfer between metals. Three different metallic gold species were identified in calcined catalysts: (Au°)δ- (Au-ZnO), (Au°)η- (AuCu-ZnO) and (Au°)γ- (AuAg-ZnO), where δ-,η-,γ- indicate a different partial negative charge on metallic gold and γ > δ > η. The results showed that (Au°)η- centers (metallic gold with the lowest negative charge) formed on AuCu-ZnO were the most active in glycerol oxidation. The increase in the negative charge on metallic gold loaded on AuAg-ZnO reduced the gold activity in silver containing sample. The glyceric acid adsorption and desorption rate influenced the selectivity of the catalysts.

  10. Status of the BR2 refurbishment programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second beryllium matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995. A refurbishment programme has been established in order to allow for future operation during at least ten years. Recently a positive decision to effectively carry out this programme has been taken. The refurbishment action plan follows from a general assessment of the different systems of BR2, with respect to their actual status, the operational experience and the evolution of safety standards and criteria. Ageing considerations were of uppermost importance in those assessments, not only to assure safety of future operation, but also to guarantee future availability and reliability. (orig.)

  11. Palveluprosessi toimivaksi, Case: BR-Lelut

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on tehty toimeksiantona TOP-TOY A/S –konserniin kuluvalle lelumyymäläketju BR-Leluille Suomessa. Opinnäyte on toteutettu produktiluontoisena ja sen tuloksena on syntynyt Asiakaspalvelun ja myynnin käsikirja BR-Lelujen myymälähenkilökunnalle. Ajatus opinnäytetyölle ja eritoten käsikirjalle syntyi, kun kirjoittaja työskenteli kyseisen myymäläketjun myymälässä ja samanaikaisesti opiskeli erilaisia myyntitekniikoita ammattikorkeakoulussa. Kirjoittaja huomasi, että myyntihen...

  12. Sulfur-Hz(CHx)y(z = 0,1) functionalized metal oxide nanostructure decorated interfaces: Evidence of Lewis base and Brönsted acid sites – Influence on chemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminack, William; Baker, Caitlin; Gole, James

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure metal oxide decorated n-type extrinsic porous silicon (PS) semiconductor interfaces are modified through in-situ interaction with acidic ethane and butane thiols (EtSH, BuSH) and basic diethyl sulfide (Et 2 S). Highly sensitive conductometric sensor evaluations and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy demonstrate the effect of sulfur group functionalization modifying the acidity of the metal oxides and their interaction with NH 3 . SEM micrographs demonstrate that the sulfur treated particles are less than 30 nm in size. EDAX studies confirm the chemical composition of the modified nanoparticles and suggest the surface interaction of the sulfides and thiols. The acidic thiols can form Brönsted acidic sites enhancing the acidity of the metal oxides, thus broadening the initial metal oxide acidity range. The sulfides interact to lower the Lewis acidity of nanostructured metal oxide sites. Conductometric response matrices with NH 3 at room temperature, corresponding to the thiol and sulfide treated nanostructures of the metal oxides TiO 2 , SnO x , Ni x O, Cu x O, and Au x O (x >> 1) are evaluated for a dominant electron transduction process forming the basis for reversible chemical sensing in the absence of chemical bond formation. Treatment with the acidic thiols enhances the metal center acidity. It is suggested that the thiols can interact to increase the Brönsted acidity of the doped metal oxide surface if they maintain SH bonds. This process may account for the shift in Lewis acidity as the Brönsted acid sites counter the decrease in Lewis acidity resulting from the interaction of S-(CH x ) y groups. In contrast, treatment with basic Et 2 S decreases the Lewis acidity of the metal oxide sites, enhancing the basicity of the decorated interface. XPS measurements indicate a change in binding energy (BE) of the metal and oxygen centers. The observed changes in conductometric response do not represent a simple increase in surface acidity or basicity but

  13. Pt, Au and Ag Electrodes on BiCuVOx

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boukamp, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    ...) parallel to a resistance with characteristics of a charge transfer resistance. Both elements show strong dependence on pO2 and polarization level. Results are explained with theoretical and observational arguments.

  14. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you ca