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Sample records for atypically larger amygdala

  1. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  2. Atypical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ertekin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical depression is defined as a specifier of major depressive disorder. Columbia criteria for atypical depression are commonly used to make a diagnosis. Female sex, onset at early age, chronic course, and higher rate of comorbidity (especially anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder is noteworthy in atypical depression. Although, the atypical depression seems to support the familial genetic transition, there is not any specific study supporting these data. In the treatment of atypical depression, monoamine oxidase inhibitors are reported to be more effective than tricyclic antidepressants. In recent studies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also proven to be efficient.

  3. The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Faces are one of the most significant social stimuli and the processes underlying face perception are at the intersection of cognition, affect, and motivation. Vision scientists have had a tremendous success of mapping the regions for perceptual analysis of faces in posterior cortex. Based on evidence from (a) single unit recording studies in monkeys and humans; (b) human functional localizer studies; and (c) meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, I argue that faces automatically evoke responses not only in these regions but also in the amygdala. I also argue that (a) a key property of faces represented in the amygdala is their typicality; and (b) one of the functions of the amygdala is to bias attention to atypical faces, which are associated with higher uncertainty. This framework is consistent with a number of other amygdala findings not involving faces, suggesting a general account for the role of the amygdala in perception.

  4. Impact of family history and depression on amygdala volume.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleh, Karim

    2012-07-30

    Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study\\'s purpose was to investigate family history\\'s effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala without a family history of MDD. These effects had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history. These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants, providing a rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.

  5. Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eLalumiere

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of amygdala functioning have occupied a significant place in the history of understanding how the brain controls behavior and cognition. Early work on the amygdala placed this small structure as a key component in the regulation of emotion and affective behavior. Over time, our understanding of its role in brain processes has expanded, as we have uncovered amygdala influences on memory, reward behavior, and overall functioning in many other brain regions. Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connections with a variety of brain structures, from the prefrontal cortex to regions of the brainstem, that explain its powerful influence on other parts of the brain and behaviors mediated by those regions. Thus, many optogenetic studies have focused on harnessing the powers of this technique to elucidate the functioning of the amygdala in relation to motivation, fear, and memory as well as to determine how the amygdala regulates activity in other structures. For example, studies using optogenetics have examined how specific circuits within amygdala nuclei regulate anxiety. Other work has provided insight into how the basolateral and central amygdala nuclei regulate memory processing underlying aversive learning. Many experiments have taken advantage of optogenetics’ ability to target either genetically distinct subpopulations of neurons or the specific projections from the amygdala to other brain regions. Findings from such studies have provided evidence that particular patterns of activity in basolateral amygdala glutamatergic neurons are related to memory consolidation processes, while other work has indicated the critical nature of amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in regulating behavior dependent on those downstream structures. This review will examine the recent discoveries on amygdala functioning made through experiments using optogenetics, placing these findings in the context of the major

  6. Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning

    OpenAIRE

    LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Studies of amygdala functioning have occupied a significant place in the history of understanding how the brain controls behavior and cognition. Early work on the amygdala placed this small structure as a key component in the regulation of emotion and affective behavior. Over time, our understanding of its role in brain processes has expanded, as we have uncovered amygdala influences on memory, reward behavior, and overall functioning in many other brain regions. Studies have indicated that t...

  7. Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumiere, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Studies of amygdala functioning have occupied a significant place in the history of understanding how the brain controls behavior and cognition. Early work on the amygdala placed this small structure as a key component in the regulation of emotion and affective behavior. Over time, our understanding of its role in brain processes has expanded, as we have uncovered amygdala influences on memory, reward behavior, and overall functioning in many other brain regions. Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connections with a variety of brain structures, from the prefrontal cortex to regions of the brainstem, that explain its powerful influence on other parts of the brain and behaviors mediated by those regions. Thus, many optogenetic studies have focused on harnessing the powers of this technique to elucidate the functioning of the amygdala in relation to motivation, fear, and memory as well as to determine how the amygdala regulates activity in other structures. For example, studies using optogenetics have examined how specific circuits within amygdala nuclei regulate anxiety. Other work has provided insight into how the basolateral and central amygdala nuclei regulate memory processing underlying aversive learning. Many experiments have taken advantage of optogenetics' ability to target either genetically distinct subpopulations of neurons or the specific projections from the amygdala to other brain regions. Findings from such studies have provided evidence that particular patterns of activity in basolateral amygdala (BLA) glutamatergic neurons are related to memory consolidation processes, while other work has indicated the critical nature of amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NA) in regulating behavior dependent on those downstream structures. This review will examine the recent discoveries on amygdala functioning made through experiments using optogenetics, placing these findings in the context of the major questions in

  8. Electrical amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürmüller, N; Porsolt, R D

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes a method of electrical amygdala kindling in the rat. This procedure requires mastery of stereotaxic electrode implantation which is not covered in the current unit. Also, the investigator must have a sound knowledge of electronics and computing. The text gives instructions on how to render rats epileptic, how to determine the effects of compounds in kindled rats, and how to analyze the data. Results with three reference substances are illustrated. These substances are used in the clinic and give robust results in kindling.

  9. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalyan, Z. A.; Ter-Pogossyan, Z. R.; Abroyan, L. O.; Hakobyan, L. H.; Avetisyan, A. S.; Yu, Karalyan N.; Karalova, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection. PMID:27536044

  10. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Priti; Jain, Rajan; Tripathi, Vaibhav

    2013-10-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  11. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth; Lydia Pöhland; Sebastian Mohnke; Maria Garbusow; Susanne Erk; Leila Haddad; Oliver Grimm; Heike Tost; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Henrik Walter; Torsten Wüstenberg; Andreas Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Me...

  12. Deep prepiriform cortex kindling and amygdala interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D Y; Moshé, S L

    1987-03-01

    The deep prepiriform cortex (DPC) has been recently suggested to be a crucial epileptogenic site in the rat brain. We investigated the susceptibility of the DPC to the development of electrical kindling as compared to that of the superficial prepiriform cortex (SPC) and amygdala as well as the transfer interactions between the two prepiriform sites and amygdala. Adult rats with electrodes implanted in the right prepiriform cortex (DPC or SPC) and left amygdala were divided into a DPC-amygdala and SPC-amygdala group while a third group consisted of rats with electrodes implanted in the ipsilateral DPC and amygdala. Within each group the rats were initially kindled from one site selected randomly and then rekindled from the other site. Both DPC and SPC were as sensitive to the development of kindling as the amygdala. The behavioral seizures elicited with DPC or SPC primary kindling were identical to those induced by amygdala kindling. Initial DPC kindling facilitated the development of kindling from either ipsilateral or contralateral amygdala with the ipsilateral transfer being significantly more potent than the contralateral. SPC kindling also facilitated the development of contralateral amygdala kindling but was less effective than DPC kindling. On the other hand, amygdala kindling did not facilitate contralateral SPC or DPC kindling although it transferred to the ipsilateral DPC. These results indicate that the prepiriform cortex can be readily kindled but not faster than the amygdala and that there are unequal kindling transfer interactions between prepiriform cortex and amygdala.

  13. The intercalated nuclear complex of the primate amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; John, Yohan J; García-Cabezas, Miguel Ángel; Bunce, Jamie G; Barbas, Helen

    2016-08-25

    The organization of the inhibitory intercalated cell masses (IM) of the primate amygdala is largely unknown despite their key role in emotional processes. We studied the structural, topographic, neurochemical and intrinsic connectional features of IM neurons in the rhesus monkey brain. We found that the intercalated neurons are not confined to discrete cell clusters, but form a neuronal net that is interposed between the basal nuclei and extends to the dorsally located anterior, central, and medial nuclei of the amygdala. Unlike the IM in rodents, which are prominent in the anterior half of the amygdala, the primate inhibitory net stretched throughout the antero-posterior axis of the amygdala, and was most prominent in the central and posterior extent of the amygdala. There were two morphologic types of intercalated neurons: spiny and aspiny. Spiny neurons were the most abundant; their somata were small or medium size, round or elongated, and their dendritic trees were round or bipolar, depending on location. The aspiny neurons were on average slightly larger and had varicose dendrites with no spines. There were three non-overlapping neurochemical populations of IM neurons, in descending order of abundance: (1) Spiny neurons that were positive for the striatal associated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+); (2) Aspiny neurons that expressed the calcium-binding protein calbindin (CB+); and (3) Aspiny neurons that expressed nitric oxide synthase (NOS+). The unique combinations of structural and neurochemical features of the three classes of IM neurons suggest different physiological properties and function. The three types of IM neurons were intermingled and likely interconnected in distinct ways, and were innervated by intrinsic neurons within the amygdala, or by external sources, in pathways that underlie fear conditioning and anxiety. PMID:27256508

  14. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  15. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  16. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H; Tye, Kay M

    2015-01-15

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533

  17. Why have microsaccades become larger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted...... from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human......-trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades....

  18. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  19. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  20. [AMYGDALA: NEUROANATOMY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF FEAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, E A; Krasnoshchekova, E I; Vesselkin, N P; Kharazova, A D

    2015-01-01

    This work describes neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning, focusing on contributions of the amygdala, a subcortical nuclear group, to control of conditioned fear responses. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at projections to the amygdala and within amygdala were shown to mediate the formation and retention of fear memory. This work reviews current data on anatomical organization of the amygdala, as well as its afferent and efferent projections, in respect to the role of the amygdala in auditory fear conditioning during which acoustic signals serve as the conditioned stimulus. PMID:26983275

  1. Early Life Stress and Macaque Amygdala Hypertrophy: Preliminary Evidence for a Role for the Serotonin Transporter Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Coplan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children exposed to early life stress (ELS exhibit enlarged amygdala volume in comparison to controls. The primary goal of this study was to examine amygdala volumes in bonnet macaques subjected to maternal variable foraging demand (VFD rearing, a well-established model of ELS. Preliminary analyses examined the interaction of ELS and the serotonin transporter gene on amygdala volume. Secondary analyses were conducted to examine the association between amygdala volume and other stress-related variables previously found to distinguish VFD and non-VFD reared animals. Methods: Twelve VFD-reared and nine normally reared monkeys completed MRI scans on a 3T system (mean age=5.2 years. Results: Left amygdala volume was larger in VFD versus control macaques. Larger amygdala volume was associated with: high cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF determined when the animals were in adolescence (mean age=2.7 years; reduced fractional anisotropy of the anterior limb of the internal capsule during young adulthood (mean age=5.2 years and timid anxiety-like responses to an intruder during full adulthood (mean age=8.4 years. Right amygdala volume varied inversely with left hippocampal neurogenesis assessed in late adulthood (mean age=8.7 years. Exploratory analyses also showed a gene-by-environment effect, with VFD-reared macaques with a single short allele of the serotonin transporter gene exhibiting larger amygdala volume compared to VFD-reared subjects with only the long allele and normally reared controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that the left amygdala exhibits hypertrophy after ELS, particularly in association with the serotonin transporter gene, and that amygdala volume variation occurs in concert with other key stress-related behavioral and neurobiological parameters observed across the lifecycle. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms underlying these diverse and persistent changes a

  2. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system. PMID:2018936

  3. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  4. Stress, memory and the amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McEwen, Bruce S.; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2009-01-01

    Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified

  5. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  6. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  7. Dengue fever: atypical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj Gangasiddaiah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is affecting millions of population globally. For the past one decade, we have seen several outbreaks and even causing significant mortality of affected population. We witnessed numerous pattern and multisystem presentation of dengue in this period. The CNS manifestation like encephalitis, polyneuropathy (GB like syndrome and paresthesias were uncommonly reported priorly. Pancreatitis, polyserositis, carditis of varying severity and hepatic failure are the, some of atypical manifestations observed in recent out breaks. So dengue illness can presents with multi system involvement and can account to significant mortality. Here an attempt was done to present varying, uncommon and atypical manifestation of dengue illness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1804-1806

  8. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of...

  9. Post-traumatic stress and age variation in amygdala volumes among youth exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.

  10. [Atypical presentation of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, A; Boulvain, M; Irion, O; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2015-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome, which still represents one of the major causes of maternal-fetal mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis can be made difficult due to the complexity of the disorder and its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to provide an efficient diagnostic tool to the clinician, medical societies regularly rethink the definition criteria. However, there are still clinical presentations of preeclampsia that escape the frame of the definition. The present review will address atypical forms of preeclampsia, such as preeclampsia without proteinuria, normotensive preeclampsia, preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation and post-partum preeclampsia.

  11. Dermatofibroma: Atypical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Roy Bandyopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma.

  12. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  13. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  14. Transpupillary thermotherapy for atypical central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ryosuke Kawamura1,2, Hidenao Ideta1, Hideyuki Hori1, Kenya Yuki2, Tsuyoshi Uno1, Tatsurou Tanabe1, Kazuo Tsubota2, Tsutomu Kawasaki11Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Keio University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC has been traditionally treated with laser photocoagulation. We thought that transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT utilizing a lower temperature than that of conventional laser photocoagulation might minimize permanent retinal and choroidal damage. Studies suggest that undesirable effects on vision due to TTT are minimal even if it is applied to foveal and/or parafoveal lesions when TTT requires a larger irradiation spot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TTT in the management of atypical CSC.Methods: We defined atypical CSC as bullous retinal detachment with diffuse or several leakages, severe leakage with fibrin formation under serous retinal detachment, or leakage within a pigment epithelium detachment. Eight consecutive patients with atypical CSC underwent visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography to evaluate the results of transpupillary thermotherapy. Retreatment of atypical CSC was based on ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. TTT was performed on the leaking spots shown in fluorescein angiography, with a power of 50–250 mW, spot size of 500–1200 µm, and exposure time of 13–60 seconds to minimize retinal damage.Results: In five of eight affected eyes, serous detachments completely resolved within 1 month after the initial TTT. One eye had persistent subretinal fluid and required a second TTT treatment. Two eyes showed no resolution of CSC and were treated by conventional photocoagulation. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA ranged from 20/600 to 20/20 (mean, 20/40; median, 20/30. Final BCVA

  15. Methylphenidate facilitates learning-induced amygdala plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Tye, Kay M.; Tye, Lynne D.; Cone, Jackson J.; Hekkelman, Evelien F; Janak, Patricia H.; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Although methylphenidate (Ritalin) has been used therapeutically for nearly 60 years, the mechanisms by which it acutely modifies behavioral performance are poorly understood. Here we combined intra–lateral amygdala in vivo pharmacology and ex vivo electrophysiology to show that acute administration of methylphenidate, as well as a selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, facilitated learning-induced strengthening of cortico-amygdala synapses through a postsynaptic increase in AMPA receptor–...

  16. Using the Amygdala in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Maxime; Alexandre, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Decision making is often described as composed of multiple loops, mainly the limbic, associative, and motor loops, in the Prefrontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia. While the various nuclei of the Amygdala has been traditionaly considered for their role in fear prediction and respondent conditioning [9, 4, 7], structural similitudes have been reported between the central amygdala (CeA) and structures involved in decision making the nucleus accumbens and the pallidum [5]. Par...

  17. Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

  18. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  19. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  20. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep M Saygin

    Full Text Available A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei. The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age.

  1. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M; Osher, David E; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D E; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  2. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  3. Awareness of Emotional Stimuli Determines the Behavioral Consequences of Amygdala Activation and Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapate, R C; Rokers, B; Tromp, D P M; Orfali, N S; Oler, J A; Doran, S T; Adluru, N; Alexander, A L; Davidson, R J

    2016-01-01

    Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344

  4. Hemispheric differences in amygdala contributions to response monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Frida E.; Wright, Christopher I.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Vangel, Mark; Barton, Jason J.S.; Rauch, Scott L.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala detects aversive events and coordinates with rostral anterior cingulate cortex to adapt behavior. We assessed error-related activation in these regions and its relation to task performance using functional MRI and a saccadic paradigm. Both amygdalae showed increased activation during error versus correct antisaccade trials that was correlated with error-related activation in the corresponding rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Together, activation in right amygdala and right rostral anterior cingulate cortex predicted greater accuracy. In contrast, left amygdala activation predicted a higher error rate. These findings support a role for amygdala in response monitoring. Consistent with proposed specializations of right and left amygdala in aversive conditioning, we hypothesize that right amygdala-rostral anterior cingulate cortex interactions mediate learning to avoid errors, while left error-related amygdala activation underpins detrimental negative affect. PMID:19218865

  5. Larger foraminifera from Central Falcon (Venezuela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Nettie E.; Vlerk, van der I.M.

    1931-01-01

    Dr. H. G. Kugler, chief geologist of the North Venezuelan Petroleum Company, at Puerto Cabello, entrusted us with the examination of a collection of larger foraminifera, selected from material collected by the geologists of this Company in Central Falcon. Dr. A. Senn kindly added material that had a

  6. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Grabenhorst, F.; Hernadi, I.; Schultz, W.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain’s reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons...

  7. Generating Larger Tax Revenue in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Despite repeated attempts, South Asian countries have managed only limited and sporadic success in mobilizing larger tax revenue. Tax-to-GDP ratios in most countries in the region remain below cross country averages and are considered inadequate to meet their financing needs. Underperformance in tax revenue generation does not seem due to paucity of tax policy reforms. South Asian countries have undertaken considerable reforms in the last decade, and their tax structures have converged with t...

  8. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  9. Familial benign pemphigus atypical localization

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Maria Veronica; Halac, Sabina; Mainardi, Claudio; Kurpis, Maria; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We present an atypical case of familial benign pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease), which presented as crusted, annular plaques limited to the back without intertriginous involvement. We could not find in the literature another patient with plaques located solely on the back without a prior history of classical disease.

  10. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  11. Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The term atypical depression dates to the first wave of reports describing differential response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to more TCA-responsive depressions, patients with so-called atypical symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia, interpersonal sensitivity, leaden paralysis, increased appetite and/or weight, and phobic anxiety) were observed to be more responsive to MAOIs. After several decades of controversy and debate, the phrase "with atypical features" was added as an episode specifier in the DSM-IV in 1994. The 1-year prevalence of the defined atypical depression subtype is approximately 1% to 4%; around 15% to 29% of patients with major depressive disorder have atypical depression. Hardly "atypical" in contemporary contexts, atypical depression also is common in dysthymic bipolar II disorders and is notable for its early age at onset, more chronic course, and high rates of comorbidity with social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. The requirement of preserved mood reactivity is arguably the most controversial of the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. When compared with melancholia, the neurobiological profiles of patients with atypical depression are relatively normal. The utility of the atypical depression subtype for differential therapeutics diminished substantially when the TCAs were supplanted as first-line antidepressants by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although introduction of safer MAOIs has fostered renewed interest in atypical depression, the validity and importance of the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression for the nosology of affective illness remains an open question. PMID:17640153

  12. Pulvinar projections to the striatum and amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Day-Brown

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Visually-guided movement is possible in the absence of conscious visual perception, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight. Similarly, fearful images can elicit emotional responses in the absence of their conscious perception. Both capabilities are thought to be mediated by pathways from the retina through the superior colliculus (SC and pulvinar nucleus. To define potential pathways that underlie behavioral responses to unperceived visual stimuli, we examined the projections from the pulvinar nucleus to the striatum and amygdala in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, a species considered to be a protypical primate. The tree shrew brain has a large pulvinar nucleus that contains two SC-recipient subdivisions; the dorsal (Pd and central (Pc pulvinar both receive topographic (specific projections from SC, and Pd receives an additional nontopographic (diffuse projection from SC (Chomsung et al., 2008; JCN 510:24-46. Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing revealed that both Pd and Pc project to the caudate and putamen, and Pd, but not Pc, additionally projects to the lateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemical staining for substance P (SP and parvalbumin (PV to reveal the patch/matrix organization of tree shrew striatum, we found that SP-rich/PV-poor patches interlock with a PV-rich/SP-poor matrix. Confocal microscopy revealed that tracer-labeled pulvinostriatal terminals preferentially innervate the matrix. Electron microscopy revealed that the postsynaptic targets of tracer-labeled pulvino-striatal and pulvino-amygdala terminals are spines, demonstrating that the pulvinar nucleus projects to the spiny output cells of the striatum matrix and the lateral amygdala, potentially relaying: 1 topographic visual information from SC to striatum to aid in guiding precise movements, and 2 nontopographic visual information from SC to the amygdala alerting the animal to potentially dangerous visual images.

  13. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranne R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  14. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  15. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-06-16

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  16. Atypical eating disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    Frederico Duarte Garcia1, Héloïse Délavenne2, Pierre Déchelotte11Nutrition and Digestive System Research Group (EA 4311) and Nutrition Unit, Rouen Institute of Medical Research and Innovation, Federative Institute for Peptide Research (IFRMP 23), Rouen University and University Hospital, Rouen, France; 2Department of Addictology of the Rouen University Hospital, Rouen University, Rouen, FranceIntroduction: Atypical eating disorders (AEDs), also known ...

  17. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2008-03-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

  18. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  19. Evolving A-Type Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Turing's notion of an A-type artificial neural network. We study a refinement of Turing's original idea, motivated by work of Teuscher, Bull, Preen and Copeland. Our A-types can process binary data by accepting and outputting sequences of binary vectors; hence we can associate a function to an A-type, and we say the A-type {\\em represents} the function. There are two modes of data processing: clamped and sequential. We describe an evolutionary algorithm, involving graph-theoretic manipulations of A-types, which searches for A-types representing a given function. The algorithm uses both mutation and crossover operators. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to three benchmark tasks. We found that the algorithm performed much better than a random search. For two out of the three tasks, the algorithm with crossover performed better than a mutation-only version.

  20. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Re...

  1. Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Hölzel, Britta K.; Carmody, James; Evans, Karleyton C.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Dusek, Jeffery A; Morgan, Lucas; Pitman, Roger K.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2009-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse effects on health and is a risk factor for many illnesses. Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain structure crucial in stress responses. Whereas hyperactive amygdala function is often observed during stress conditions, cross-sectional reports of differences in gray matter structure have been less consistent. We conducted a longitudinal MRI study to investigate the relationship between changes in perceived stress with changes in amygdala ...

  2. The Human Amygdala and Pain: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Laura; Moulton, Eric A.; Linnman, Clas; Carpino, Elizabeth; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple neuroimaging studies of pain in humans have reported activation in the amygdala. Here we summarize these studies by perfor...

  3. Bidirectional communication between amygdala and fusiform gyrus during facial recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington, John D.; Taylor, James M.; Grupe, Daniel W.; Curby, Kim M.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research have documented the specialization of fusiform gyrus (FG) for facial information processes. Recent theories indicate that FG activity is shaped by input from amygdala, but effective connectivity from amygdala to FG remains undocumented. In this fMRI study, 39 participants completed a face recognition task. 11 participants underwent the same experiment approximately four months later. Robust face-selective activation of FG, amygdala, and lateral occipital cortex were observ...

  4. Prefrontal inputs to the amygdala instruct fear extinction memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bukalo, Olena; Pinard, Courtney R.; Silverstein, Shana; Brehm, Christina; Hartley, Nolan D.; Whittle, Nigel; Colacicco, Giovanni; Busch, Erica; Patel, Sachin; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Persistent anxiety after a psychological trauma is a hallmark of many anxiety disorders. However, the neural circuits mediating the extinction of traumatic fear memories remain incompletely understood. We show that selective, in vivo stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)–amygdala pathway facilitated extinction memory formation, but not retrieval. Conversely, silencing the vmPFC-amygdala pathway impaired extinction formation and reduced extinction-induced amygdala activity....

  5. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Kaag, A.M.; Munkhof, H.E. van den; Reneman, L.; Homberg, J.R.; Sabbe, B.; Brink, W. van den; Wingen, G. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the

  6. FAST and SLOW amygdala kindling rat strains: comparison of amygdala, hippocampal, piriform and perirhinal cortex kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, D C; Kelly, M E; Dufresne, C

    1999-07-01

    In our companion paper, we selectively bred offspring of a Long Evans Hooded and Wistar rat cross for either fast or slow rates of amygdala kindling (Racine et al., 1999. Development of kindling-prone and kindling resistant rats: Selective breeding and electrophysiological studies, Epilepsy Res. 35, 183-195). Within 10 generations, there was no overlap in the distribution of kindling rates between these newly developed FAST and SLOW kindling strains. In the present report, we compared the local excitability, kindling rates, and convulsion profiles of kindling sites in either the amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, piriform cortex or perirhinal cortex in the two strains. Local excitability, measured as the local afterdischarge (AD) threshold and its duration, showed varied effects between structures and strains. Before kindling, the AD threshold was lower in the FAST than the SLOW rats in the hippocampus, piriform and perirhinal cortices, but not the amygdala (the selection structure). Also, the duration of the AD threshold duration was significantly longer in the FAST than in the SLOW rats in all structures, except the CA1 hippocampus. Most of these differences were maintained after kindling. Kindling itself was significantly faster in the FAST compared with the SLOW rats in all structures; however, the different structural kindling rates showed proportional differences between strains that were about five times different in the amygdala compared with only about two times different in the hippocampus. This suggested a selection bias for the amygdala and its networks. As in other rat strains, the fastest kindling rates were seen in the perirhinal cortex followed by the piriform cortex, amygdala and hippocampus in both FAST and SLOW rats. Other important differences between strains and structures occurred in the stage-5 convulsion profiles, including latency to forelimb clonus, clonus duration and duration of associated local afterdischarges. The differences in kindling

  7. Atypical extragonadal germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review the experience with the diagnosis and management of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT with a subset analysis of those with atypical features. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients of extragonadal germ cell tumors between 2000 and 2010 was carried out. Results: Fifteen children aged 7 days to 15 years (median, 1.5 years were included. Three had an antenatal diagnosis (one sacrococcygeal, one retrobulbar, one retroperitoneal tumor and were operated in the neonatal period. The locations were distributed between the retrobulbar area (1, anterior neck-thyroid gland (1, mediastinum (4, abdominothoracic extending through the esophageal hiatus (1, retroperitoneal (4 and sacrococcygeal (4. On histological examination, five harbored immature elements while two were malignant; the latter children received postexcision adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no mortality. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years (6 months to 8 years, 14/15 have had an event-free survival. One immature mediastinal teratoma that recurred locally 7.5 years after the initial operation was excised and adjuvant chemotherapy instituted. Conclusions: Extragonadal GCTs in children are uncommon and occasionally present with atypical clinical, radiological and histological features resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

  8. Atypical Manifestation of Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster, Guilherme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor whose cells are derived from Schwann sheaths, which commonly occurs from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve. Furthermore, vestibular schwannomas account for ∼8% of intracranial tumors in adults and 80 to 90% of tumors of the cerebellopontine angle. Its symptoms are varied, but what stands out most is a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with a low index of speech recognition. Objective: Describe an atypical manifestation of vestibular schwannoma. Case Report: The 46-year-old woman had vertigo and binaural hearing loss and fullness, with ear, nose, and throat examination suggestive of cochlear injury. After 6 months, the patient developed worsening of symptoms and onset of right unilateral tinnitus. In further exams the signs of cochlear damage remained, except for the vestibular test (hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive lesion in the right cerebellopontine angle. Discussion: This report warns about the atypical manifestations of vestibular schwannoma, which must always be remembered in investigating and diagnosing hearing loss.

  9. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  10. Amygdala habituation: a reliable fMRI phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Michael M; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Sauer, Carina; Haddad, Leila; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Schwarz, Adam J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Amygdala function is of high interest for cognitive, social and psychiatric neuroscience, emphasizing the need for reliable assessments in humans. Previous work has indicated unsatisfactorily low within-subject reliability of amygdala activation fMRI measures. Based on basic science evidence for strong habituation of amygdala response to repeated stimuli, we investigated whether a quantification of habituation provides additional information beyond the usual estimate of the overall mean activity. We assessed the within-subject reliability of amygdala habituation measures during a facial emotion matching paradigm in 25 healthy subjects. We extracted the amygdala signal decrement across the course of the fMRI run for the two test-retest measurement sessions and compared reliability estimates with previous findings based on mean response amplitude. Retest-reliability of the session-wise amygdala habituation was significantly higher than the evoked amygdala mean amplitude (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)=0.53 vs. 0.16). To test the task-specificity of this finding, we compared the retest-reliability of amygdala habituation across two different tasks. Significant amygdala response decrement was also seen in a cognitive task (n-back working memory) that did not per se activate the amygdala, but was totally unreliable in that context (ICC~0.0), arguing for task-specificity. Together the results show that emotion-dependent amygdala habituation is a robust and considerably more reliable index than the mean amplitude, and provides a robust potential endpoint for within-subject designs including pharmaco-fMRI studies. PMID:25284303

  11. Amygdala temporal dynamics: temperamental differences in the timing of amygdala response to familiar and novel faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Richard C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibited temperament - the predisposition to respond to new people, places or things with wariness or avoidance behaviors - is associated with increased risk for social anxiety disorder and major depression. Although the magnitude of the amygdala's response to novelty has been identified as a neural substrate of inhibited temperament, there may also be differences in temporal dynamics (latency, duration, and peak. We hypothesized that persons with inhibited temperament would have faster responses to novel relative to familiar neutral faces compared to persons with uninhibited temperament. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the temporal dynamics of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD response to both novel and familiar neutral faces in participants with inhibited or uninhibited temperament. Results Inhibited participants had faster amygdala responses to novel compared with familiar faces, and both longer and greater amygdala response to all faces. There were no differences in peak response. Conclusion Faster amygdala response to novelty may reflect a computational bias that leads to greater neophobic responses and represents a mechanism for the development of social anxiety.

  12. Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Teluij, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tendolkar, I.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal

  13. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, pimportance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  14. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard;

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...

  15. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  16. Alexithymic features and automatic amygdala reactivity to facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Harald; Eichmann, Mischa; Dannlowski, Udo; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Suslow, Thomas

    2008-04-11

    Alexithymic individuals have difficulties in identifying and verbalizing their emotions. The amygdala is known to play a central role in processing emotion stimuli and in generating emotional experience. In the present study automatic amygdala reactivity to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia (as assessed by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale). The Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to measure participants' depressivity and trait anxiety. During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 21 healthy volunteers. The amygdala was selected as the region of interest (ROI) and voxel values of the ROI were extracted, summarized by mean and tested among the different conditions. A detection task was applied to assess participants' awareness of the masked emotional faces shown in the fMRI experiment. Masked sad and happy facial emotions led to greater right amygdala activation than masked neutral faces. The alexithymia feature difficulties identifying feelings was negatively correlated with the neural response of the right amygdala to masked sad faces, even when controlling for depressivity and anxiety. Reduced automatic amygdala responsivity may contribute to problems in identifying one's emotions in everyday life. Low spontaneous reactivity of the amygdala to sad faces could implicate less engagement in the encoding of negative emotional stimuli. PMID:18314269

  17. Altered amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkquist, Olivia A; Olsen, Emily K; Nelson, Brady D; Herbener, Ellen S

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia evidence impaired emotional functioning. Abnormal amygdala activity has been identified as an etiological factor underlying affective impairment in this population, but the exact nature remains unclear. The current study utilized psychophysiological interaction analyses to examine functional connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during an emotion perception task. Participants with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) viewed and rated positive, negative, and neutral images while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Results revealed a significant group difference in right amygdala-mPFC connectivity during perception of negative versus neutral images. Specifically, HC participants demonstrated positive functional coupling between the amygdala and mPFC, consistent with co-active processing of salient information. In contrast, SZ participants evidenced negative functional coupling, consistent with top-down inhibition of the amygdala by the mPFC. A significant positive correlation between connectivity strength during negative image perception and clinician-rated social functioning was also observed in SZ participants, such that weaker right amygdala-mPFC coupling during negative compared to neutral image perception was associated with poorer social functioning. Overall, results suggest that emotional dysfunction and associated deficits in functional outcome in schizophrenia may relate to abnormal interactions between the amygdala and mPFC during perception of emotional stimuli. This study adds to the growing literature on abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia and supports the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:27083779

  18. The human amygdala and pain: evidence from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Moulton, Eric A; Linnman, Clas; Carpino, Elizabeth; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-02-01

    The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple neuroimaging studies of pain in humans have reported activation in the amygdala. Here, we summarize these studies by performing a coordinate-based meta-analysis within experimentally induced and clinical pain studies using an activation likelihood estimate analysis. The results are presented in relation to locations of peak activation within and outside of amygdala subregions. The majority of studies identified coordinates consistent with human amygdala cytoarchitecture indicating reproducibility in neuroanatomical labeling across labs, analysis methods, and imaging modalities. Differences were noted between healthy and clinical pain studies: in clinical pain studies, peak activation was located in the laterobasal region, suggestive of the cognitive-affective overlay present among individuals suffering from chronic pain; while the less understood superficial region of the amygdala was prominent among experimental pain studies. Taken together, these findings suggest several important directions for further research exploring the amygdala's role in pain processing. PMID:23097300

  19. Does bilateral damage to the human amygdala produce autistic symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-09-01

    A leading neurological hypothesis for autism postulates amygdala dysfunction. This hypothesis has considerable support from anatomical and neuroimaging studies. Individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions show impairments in some aspects of social cognition. These impairments bear intriguing similarity to those reported in people with autism, such as impaired recognition of emotion in faces, impaired theory of mind abilities, failure to fixate eyes in faces, and difficulties in regulating personal space distance to others. Yet such neurological cases have never before been assessed directly to see if they meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we undertook such an investigation in two rare participants with developmental-onset bilateral amygdala lesions. We administered a comprehensive clinical examination, as well as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), together with several other standardized questionnaires. Results from the two individuals with amygdala lesions were compared with published norms from both healthy populations as well as from people with ASD. Neither participant with amygdala lesions showed any evidence of autism across the array of different measures. The findings demonstrate that amygdala lesions in isolation are not sufficient for producing autistic symptoms. We suggest instead that it may be abnormal connectivity between the amygdala and other structures that contributes to autistic symptoms at a network level. PMID:20700516

  20. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalooei, Jila Rezaeian; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Khosravi, Maryam; Bahari, Zahra; Hatef, Boshra; Mohammadi, Alireza; Nicaeili, Fateme; Eftekhari, Fateme; Ghamari, Fateme; Hadipour, Mohamadmehdi; Kaka, Gholamreza

    2016-09-01

    The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anorexia were measured as stress-induced metabolic changes. Results demonstrated that stress, increases stress, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, weight, food, and water intake. Temporary inhibition of the amygdala slightly decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations, but did not fully reduce the effect of stress. The bilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride to the amygdala reduced the effect of stress and reduced water intake and weight. Unilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride into the left and right amygdala reduced food intake. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the left side and right side of amygdala nuclei play a different role in metabolic responses in stress. PMID:27489731

  1. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. I. Efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial (M) an posteromedial cortical (C3) amygdaloid nuclei and the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (NAOT) are designated the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' because they are the only components of the amygdala to receive a direct projection from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The efferents of M and C3 were traced after injections of 3H-proline into the amygdala in male golden hamsters. Frozen sections of the brains were processed for autoradiography. The efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' are largely to areas which are primary and secondary terminal areas along the vomeronasal pathway, although the efferents from C3 and M terminate in different layers in these areas than do the projections from the vomeronasal nerve or the AOB. Specifically, C3 projects ipsilaterally to the internal granule cell layer of the AOB, the cellular layer of NAOT, and layer Ib of M. Additional fibers from C3 terminate in a retrocommissural component of the bed nucleus of the strain terminalis (BNST) bilaterally, and in the cellular layers of the contralateral C3. The medial nucleus projects to the cellular layer of the ipsilateral NAOT, layer Ib of C3, and bilaterally to the medial component of BNST. Projections from M to non-vomeronasal areas terminate in the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamic junction, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus and possibly in the ventral subiculum. These results demonstrate reciprocal connections between primary and secondary vomeronasal areas between the secondary areas themselves. They suggest that M, but not C3, projects to areas outside this vomeronasal network. The medial amygdaloid nucleus is therefore an important link between the vomeronasal organ and areas of the brain not receiving direct vomeronasal input

  2. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan;

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...

  3. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  4. Atypical presentations of Wolframs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wolfram syndrome is a rare hereditary or sporadic neurodegenerative disorder also known as DIDMOAD. The classically described presentation is of insulin-dependent diabetes, followed by optic atrophy, central diabetes insipidus, and sensory neural deafness. Also included are less well-described presentations of Wolframs syndrome. We here present three cases of atypical presentation of this syndrome. Case 1: A 15-year-old boy with insulin-dependent diabetes was presented for evaluation of depressive symptoms associated with suicidal tendency. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are described with Wolframs syndrome, and wolframin gene, in recessive inheritance, is associated with psychiatric illnesses without other manifestations of Wolframs syndrome. Case 2: A 17-year-old diabetic boy on insulin with good control of blood sugar presented for evaluation of delayed puberty. Central hypogonadism and other anterior pituitary hormone dysfunctions are the less publicized hormone dysfunctions in Wolframs syndrome. Case 3: A 23-year-old female who was on insulin for diabetes for the past 14 years, got admitted for evaluation of sudden loss of vision. This patient had developed a vitreous hemorrhage and, on evaluation, was found to have optic atrophy, sensory neural hearing loss, and diabetes insipidus, and presented differently from the gradual loss of vision described in Wolframs syndrome. Conclusion: Wolframs syndrome being a multisystem degenerative disorder can have myriad other manifestations than the classically described features. Neuropsychiatric manifestations, depression with suicidal risk, central hypogonadism, and secondary adrenal insufficiency are among the less well-described manifestations of this syndrome.

  5. Atypical presentations of neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system classically characterized by acute, severe episodes of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. The identification of an autoantibody exclusively detected in NMO patients against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 has allowed identification of cases beyond the classical phenotype. Brain lesions, once thought as infrequent, can be observed in NMO patients, but lesions have different characteristics from the ones seen in multiple sclerosis. Additionally, some AQP-4 antibody positive patients may present with a variety of symptoms not being restricted to optic neuritis and acute myelitis during the first attack or in a relapse. Examples are not limited to, but may include patients only with brain and/or brainstem lesions, narcolepsy with hypothalamic lesions or patients with intractable hiccups, nausea and vomiting. The prompt identification of NMO patients with atypical presentations may benefit these patients with institution of early treatment to reduce disability and prevent further attacks.

  6. Surgical Options for Atypical Facial Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Shervin; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-07-01

    Atypical neuropathic facial pain is a syndrome of intractable and unremitting facial pain that is secondary to nociceptive signaling in the trigeminal system. These syndromes are often recalcitrant to pharmacotherapy and other common interventions, including microvascular decompression and percutaneous procedures. Herein, the authors present two other viable approaches (nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesioning and motor cortex stimulation), their indications, and finally a possible treatment algorithm to consider when assessing patients with atypical facial pain. PMID:27325003

  7. Does bilateral damage to the human amygdala produce autistic symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Lynn K.; Corsello, Christina; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    A leading neurological hypothesis for autism postulates amygdala dysfunction. This hypothesis has considerable support from anatomical and neuroimaging studies. Individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions show impairments in some aspects of social cognition. These impairments bear intriguing similarity to those reported in people with autism, such as impaired recognition of emotion in faces, impaired theory of mind abilities, failure to fixate eyes in faces, and difficulties in regulating per...

  8. Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, O.; Åhs, F; Furmark, T; Appel, L; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Bani, M; Pich, E M; Bettica, P; Henningsson, S; Manuck, S B; Ferrell, R E; Nikolova, Y S; Hariri, A R; Fredrikson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotio...

  9. LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: a single case fMRI study in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Händel, Nadja; Lemoine, Patrick; Klarhöfer, Markus; Seifritz, Erich; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment contrasts of the erotic pictures against the respective neutral pictures showed an activation of the right amygdala and adjacent parahippocampal gyrus that decreased significantly under treatment with leuprolide acetate. Our single case fMRI study supports the notion that anti-androgens may modify amygdala response to visual erotic stimulation, a hypothesis that should be further examined in larger studies.

  10. Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, O; Åhs, F; Furmark, T; Appel, L; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Bani, M; Pich, E M; Bettica, P; Henningsson, S; Manuck, S B; Ferrell, R E; Nikolova, Y S; Hariri, A R; Fredrikson, M; Westberg, L; Eriksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli. Amygdala reactivity was examined by comparing regional cerebral blood flow, measured with positron emission tomography and [(15)O]water, during exposure to angry and neutral faces, respectively, in a Swedish sample comprising 32 patients with social anxiety disorder and 17 healthy volunteers. In a separate US sample, comprising 85 healthy volunteers studied with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, amygdala reactivity was assessed by comparing the activity during exposure to threatening faces and neutral geometric shapes, respectively. In both the Swedish and the US sample, 9-repeat carriers displayed higher amygdala reactivity than 10-repeat homozygotes. The results suggest that this polymorphism contributes to individual variability in amygdala reactivity. PMID:25093598

  11. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function. PMID:25740536

  12. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  13. Clinical Presentation of Atypical Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 梁沛杨; 罗北京

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To make a clinical analysis on the basis of 36cases of atypical genital herpes (GH) patients. Methods: Thirty-six cases of atypical GH were diagnosedclinically, and their case histories, symptoms and signs wererecorded in detail and followed up. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was adopted for testing HSV2-DNA with cotton-tippedswabs. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) forserum anti-HSV2-IgM was done to establish a definfiivediagnosis. Other diagnoses were excluded at the same time bytesting for related pathogens including fungi, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, Treponema pallidum, gonococci, Trichomonas,etc. Results: The main clinical manifestations of atypical GHwere: (1) small genital ulcers; (2) inflammation of urethralmeatus; (3) nonspecific genital erythema; (4) papuloid noduleson the glands; (5) nonspecific vaginitis. Twenty-three cases(64%) tested by PCR were HSV2-DNA sera-positive, and 36cases (100 %) anti-HSV2-IgM sera-positive by ELISA. Conclusion: atypical HSV is difficult to be diagnosed. Butthe combination of PCR and ELIAS will be helpful to thediagnosis of atypical HSV.

  14. Evolution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the vertebrates: an atypical butyrylcholinesterase from the Medaka Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pezzementi

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE are thought to be the result of a gene duplication event early in vertebrate evolution. To learn more about the evolution of these enzymes, we expressed in vitro, characterized, and modeled a recombinant cholinesterase (ChE from a teleost, the medaka Oryzias latipes. In addition to AChE, O. latipes has a ChE that is different from either vertebrate AChE or BChE, which we are classifying as an atypical BChE, and which may resemble a transitional form between the two. Of the fourteen aromatic amino acids in the catalytic gorge of vertebrate AChE, ten are conserved in the atypical BChE of O. latipes; by contrast, only eight are conserved in vertebrate BChE. Notably, the atypical BChE has one phenylalanine in its acyl pocket, while AChE has two and BChE none. These substitutions could account for the intermediate nature of this atypical BChE. Molecular modeling supports this proposal. The atypical BChE hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine (ATCh and propionylthiocholine (PTCh preferentially but butyrylthiocholine (BTCh to a considerable extent, which is different from the substrate specificity of AChE or BChE. The enzyme shows substrate inhibition with the two smaller substrates but not with the larger substrate BTCh. In comparison, AChE exhibits substrate inhibition, while BChE does not, but may instead show substrate activation. The atypical BChE from O. latipes also shows a mixed pattern of inhibition. It is effectively inhibited by physostigmine, typical of all ChEs. However, although the atypical BChE is efficiently inhibited by the BChE-specific inhibitor ethopropazine, it is not by another BChE inhibitor, iso-OMPA, nor by the AChE-specific inhibitor BW284c51. The atypical BChE is found as a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored amphiphilic dimer (G(2 (a, which is unusual for any BChE. We classify the enzyme as an atypical BChE and discuss its implications for the evolution of ACh

  15. Paradoxical facilitation of working memory after basolateral amygdala damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Morgan

    Full Text Available Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot "see". To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a 'cooperation through competition' networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical

  16. Selective involvement of the amygdala in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J Emmer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies specifically affect the amygdala in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there is also specific involvement of the amygdala in human SLE. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a group of 37 patients with neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE, 21 patients with SLE, and a group of 12 healthy control participants with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI. In addition, in a subset of eight patients, plasma was available to determine their anti-NMDAR antibody status. From the structural magnetic resonance imaging data, the amygdala and the hippocampus were segmented, as well as the white and gray matter, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was retrieved. ADC values between controls, patients with SLE, and patients with NP-SLE were tested using analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni correction. No differences were found in the gray or white matter segments. The average ADC in the amygdala of patients with NP-SLE and SLE (940 x 10(-6 mm2/s; p = 0.006 and 949 x 10(-6 mm2/s; p = 0.019, respectively was lower than in healthy control participants (1152 x 10(-6 mm2/s. Mann-Whitney analysis revealed that the average ADC in the amygdala of patients with anti-NMDAR antibodies (n = 4; 802 x 10(-6 mm2/s was lower (p = 0.029 than the average ADC of patients without anti-NMDAR antibodies (n = 4; 979 x 10(-6 mm2/s and also lower (p = 0.001 than in healthy control participants. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to our knowledge to observe damage in the amygdala in patients with SLE. Patients with SLE with anti-NMDAR antibodies had more severe damage in the amygdala compared to SLE patients without anti-NMDAR antibodies.

  17. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Alexander; Ruf, Matthias; Kief, Christine; Demirakca, Traute; Bailer, Josef; Ende, Gabriele; Henn, Fritz A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Dressing, Harald

    2008-08-01

    Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10 male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a sexually non-explicit functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with images of men, women, boys or girls randomly embedded in neutral target/non-target geometrical symbols. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and SPSS 14 for image processing and analysis. While controls activated significantly less to pictures of children compared to adults, the activation profile was reversed in subjects with pedophilia, who exhibited significantly more activation to children than adults. The highest activation was observed for boys in the patient group, and for women in control participants. Our data show enhanced activation to children's pictures even in an incidental context and suggest the provocative hypothesis that a normally present mechanism for reduced emotional arousal for children relative to adults is reversed in pedophilia, suggesting a neural substrate associated with deviant sexual preference in this condition. More extensive research in this field would be of benefit for both the victims and the offenders.

  18. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  19. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  20. Atypical RNAs in the coelacanth transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Anne; Doose, Gero; Tafer, Hakim; Robinson, Mark; Saha, Nil Ratan; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Hoffmann, Steve; Amemiya, Chris T; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-09-01

    Circular and apparently trans-spliced RNAs have recently been reported as abundant types of transcripts in mammalian transcriptome data. Both types of non-colinear RNAs are also abundant in RNA-seq of different tissue from both the African and the Indonesian coelacanth. We observe more than 8,000 lincRNAs with normal gene structure and several thousands of circularized and trans-spliced products, showing that such atypical RNAs form a substantial contribution to the transcriptome. Surprisingly, the majority of the circularizing and trans-connecting splice junctions are unique to atypical forms, that is, are not used in normal isoforms.

  1. An Exploration of Eye Movements when Reading Texts with Atypical Spatial Layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we explored eye movements that people make when looking at texts with an atypical spatial layout. In the first experiment, participants repeatedly viewed the same piece of text, containing sections in different languages and printed using different fonts and reading directions, while they answered different questions about what they saw. In agreement with earlier studies showing significant differences in gaze patterns across different tasks, we found that reading was strongly influenced by the questions that participants tried to answer. In the second experiment, we examined gaze patterns for different types of poems while participants performed a single task: To rate their appreciation of the poem. Poems were either in the typical form, with short lines all aligned to the left, or they were in an atypical form (“graphical poem”, with the text dispersed across the page, in different fonts, reading directions, and size. Half of the poems were from an artist known for his graphical poems, the other half were from different authors who posted their poems on a webpage. All these poems were presented in a typical and an atypical form. Participants rated the poems from the web more highly, but took less time to inspect them. Whether the poem was in a typical or an atypical layout did not influence the ratings, even though longer inspection times were found for the atypical forms. Eye movement parameters, such as fixation duration and saccade amplitude, were relatively unaffected by the layout of the poems, although some additional larger amplitude saccades could be observed for the atypical forms.

  2. Larger Foraminifera from the Spermonde Archipelago (Sulawesi, Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, S.R.; Jonkers, H.M.; Rijk, de S.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic description of the distributional patterns of larger symbiont-bearing benthic Foraminifera from the Spermonde Archipelago (Sulawesi, Indonesia) and their relation with local coral reef growth is presented. The larger Foraminiferal assemblages and diversity indices correspond with the di

  3. Amygdala volume is reduced in early course schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alyson M; Cho, Youngsun T; Tang, Yanqing; Savic, Aleksandar; Krystal, John H; Wang, Fei; Xu, Ke; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-04-30

    Subcortical structural alterations have been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Yet, the extent of anatomical alterations for subcortical structures across illness phases remains unknown. To assess this, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine volume differences of major subcortical structures: thalamus, nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala and hippocampus. These differences were examined across four groups: (i) healthy comparison subjects (HCS, n=96); (ii) individuals at high risk (HR, n=21) for schizophrenia; (iii) early-course schizophrenia patients (EC-SCZ, n=28); and (iv) chronic schizophrenia patients (C-SCZ, n=20). Raw gray matter volumes and volumetric ratios (volume of specific structure/total gray matter volume) were extracted using automated segmentation tools. EC-SCZ group exhibited smaller bilateral amygdala volumetric ratios, compared to HCS and HR subjects. Findings did not change when corrected for age, level of education and medication use. Amygdala raw volumes did not differ among groups once adjusted for multiple comparisons, but the smaller amygdala volumetric ratio in EC-SCZ survived Bonferroni correction. Other structures were not different across the groups following Bonferroni correction. Smaller amygdala volumes during early illness course may reflect pathophysiologic changes specific to illness development, including disrupted salience processing and acute stress responses. PMID:27035063

  4. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  5. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Veer; N.Y.L. Oei; M.A. van Buchem; Ph. Spinhoven; B.M. Elzinga; S.A.R.B. Rombouts

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here

  6. Genetics Home Reference: atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the genes associated with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome C3 CD46 CFB CFH CFHR5 CFI THBD Related Information ... Manual Consumer Version: Thrombocytopenia Merck Manual Professional Version: Complement System Orphanet: Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome Patient Support ...

  7. Involvement of the basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala in the omission effects of different magnitudes of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Tavares, Tatiane F; Bueno, José Lino O

    2012-07-15

    Evidence from appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in modulation of responses correlated with motivational states, and therefore, to the modulation of processes probably underlying reinforcement omission effects. The present study aimed to clarify whether or not the mechanisms related to reinforcement omission effects of different magnitudes depend on basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12s with limited hold 6s signaled schedule in which correct responses were always followed by one of two reinforcement magnitudes. Bilateral lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus were made after acquisition of stable performance. After postoperative recovery, the training was changed from 100% to 50% reinforcement schedules. The results showed that lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus did not eliminate or reduce, but interfere with reinforcement omission effects. The response from rats of both the basolateral complex and central nucleus lesioned group was higher relative to that of the rats of their respective sham-lesioned groups after reinforcement omission. Thus, the lesioned rats were more sensitive to the omission effect. Moreover, the basolateral complex lesions prevented the magnitude effect on reinforcement omission effects. Basolateral complex lesioned rats showed no differential performance following omission of larger and smaller reinforcement magnitude. Thus, the basolateral complex is involved in incentive processes relative to omission of different reinforcement magnitudes. Therefore, it is possible that reinforcement omission effects are modulated by brain circuitry which involves amygdala.

  8. Atypical fractures on long term bisphosphonates therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussein, W

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce fractures risk in patients with osteoporosis. A new pattern of fractures is now being noted in patients on prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. We report a case of an atypical femoral fracture with preceding pain and highlight the characteristics of these fractures.

  9. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  10. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Dickson, Chata A.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Farren, Kevin M.; Wheeler, Emily E.; McIlvane, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded…

  11. Atypical visuomotor performance in children with PDD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9–12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), a

  12. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  13. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  14. Disentangling the Emerging Evidence around Atypical Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Clark, Emma M

    2012-01-01

    Atypical femur fractures are rare but a growing concern, as they are more common in patients who use bisphosphonates. The best radiology-based studies have had access to only short-term exposure data, while the studies using prescription databases with substantial long-term data did not have access...

  15. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  16. Intradentate colchicine retards the development of amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, J O

    1982-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the kindling model of epilepsy are unknown. Presumably, an altered network of neural circuits underlie amygdala kindling. Biochemical and radiohistochemical studies have pointed to the dentate granule cells (DGC) of the hippocampal formation as a member of this altered circuit. To test the role of these cells, colchicine, a neurotoxin of DGC, was directly injected into the dentate gyrus. Prior destruction of DGC retarded the development of amygdala kindling. Destruction of DGC after kindling was completed did not reverse the kindling effect. We conclude that DGC play a key role in the development, but not the permanence, of amygdala kindling. We propose a model whereby the greater the input to the hippocampal formation, the faster limbic kindling will proceed.

  17. Intra-Amygdala Injections of CREB Antisense Impair Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Role of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Infusions of CREB antisense into the amygdala prior to training impair memory for aversive tasks, suggesting that the antisense may interfere with CRE-mediated gene transcription and protein synthesis important for the formation of new memories within the amygdala. However, the amygdala also appears to modulate memory formation in distributed…

  18. Intact rapid detection of fearful faces in the absence of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Moradi, Farshad; Felsen, Csilla; Yamazaki, Madoka; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is thought to process fear-related stimuli rapidly and nonconsciously. We found that an individual with complete bilateral amygdala lesions, who cannot recognize fear from faces, nonetheless showed normal rapid detection and nonconscious processing of those same fearful faces. We conclude that the amygdala is not essential for early stages of fear processing but, instead, modulates recognition and social judgment.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  20. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  1. Larger sperm outcompete smaller sperm in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    LaMunyon, C W; Ward, S.

    1998-01-01

    Sperm competition is generally thought to drive the evolution of sperm miniaturization. Males gain advantage by transferring more sperm, which they produce by dividing limited resources into ever smaller cells. Here, we describe the opposite effect of size on the competitiveness of amoeboid sperm in the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Larger sperm crawled faster and displaced smaller sperm, taking precedence at fertilization. Larger sperm took longer to produce, however, and s...

  2. Larger Foraminifera from the Spermonde Archipelago (Sulawesi, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Troelstra, S. R.; Jonkers, H.M.; Rijk, de, J.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic description of the distributional patterns of larger symbiont-bearing benthic Foraminifera from the Spermonde Archipelago (Sulawesi, Indonesia) and their relation with local coral reef growth is presented. The larger Foraminiferal assemblages and diversity indices correspond with the diversity of Scleractinia and marine plants on the Spermonde platform. Our results indicate that the group is an excellent biomonitor for the health condition of recent coral reefs and a valuable too...

  3. Diversity in neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in atypical scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Nentwig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE in sheep and goats. In recent years, atypical scrapie cases were identified that differed from classical scrapie in the molecular characteristics of the disease-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(sc. In this study, we analyze the molecular and neuropathological phenotype of nine Swiss TSE cases in sheep and goats. One sheep was identified as classical scrapie, whereas six sheep, as well as two goats, were classified as atypical scrapie. The latter revealed a uniform electrophoretic mobility pattern of the proteinase K-resistant core fragment of PrP(sc distinct from classical scrapie regardless of the genotype, the species, and the neuroanatomical structure. Remarkably different types of neuroanatomical PrP(sc distribution were observed in atypical scrapie cases by both western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicate that the biodiversity in atypical scrapie is larger than expected and thus impacts on current sampling and testing strategies in small ruminant TSE surveillance.

  4. New insights on amygdala: Basomedial amygdala regulates the physiological response to social novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Laura Tavares; Abreu, Aline Rezende; de Abreu, Alessandra Rezende; de Souza, Aline Arlindo; de Noronha, Sylvana Rendeiro; Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Campos, Glenda Siqueira Viggiano; Chianca, Deoclecio Alves; de Menezes, Rodrigo Cunha

    2016-08-25

    The amygdala has been associated with a variety of functions linked to physiological, behavioral and endocrine responses during emotional situations. This brain region is comprised of multiple sub-nuclei. These sub-nuclei belong to the same structure, but may be involved in different functions, thereby making the study of each sub-nuclei important. Yet, the involvement of the basomedial amygdala (BMA) in the regulation of emotional states has yet to be defined. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the regulatory role of the BMA on the responses evoked during a social novelty model and whether the regulatory role depended on an interaction with the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Our results showed that the chemical inhibition of the BMA by the microinjection of muscimol (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist) promoted increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), whereas the chemical inhibition of regions near the BMA did not induce such cardiovascular changes. In contrast, the BMA chemical activation by the bilateral microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI; GABAA antagonist), blocked the increases in MAP and HR observed when an intruder rat was suddenly introduced into the cage of a resident rat, and confined to the small cage for 15min. Additionally, the increase in HR and MAP induced by BMA inhibition were eliminated by DMH chemical inhibition. Thus, our data reveal that the BMA is under continuous GABAergic influence, and that its hyperactivation can reduce the physiological response induced by a social novelty condition, possibly by inhibiting DMH neurons. PMID:27261213

  5. Plasticity-related genes in brain development and amygdala-dependent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, D E; Josselyn, S A

    2016-01-01

    Learning about motivationally important stimuli involves plasticity in the amygdala, a temporal lobe structure. Amygdala-dependent learning involves a growing number of plasticity-related signaling pathways also implicated in brain development, suggesting that learning-related signaling in juveniles may simultaneously influence development. Here, we review the pleiotropic functions in nervous system development and amygdala-dependent learning of a signaling pathway that includes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), extracellular signaling-related kinases (ERKs) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Using these canonical, plasticity-related genes as an example, we discuss the intersection of learning-related and developmental plasticity in the immature amygdala, when aversive and appetitive learning may influence the developmental trajectory of amygdala function. We propose that learning-dependent activation of BDNF, ERK and CREB signaling in the immature amygdala exaggerates and accelerates neural development, promoting amygdala excitability and environmental sensitivity later in life. PMID:26419764

  6. Interactions between chemical and electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-09-16

    Holtzman rats were implanted with a chemitrode into the left basolateral amygdala, which could then be stimulated electrically (400 microA, 1 s, AC) or chemically by injection of carbachol (1 microliter, 2.7 nmoles, sterile, isotonic). Group A received a daily injection of carbachol and developed kindled seizures. Group B received carbachol mixed with equimolar atropine, which blocked seizures and kindling. After 20 injections, both groups were stimulated electrically once a day and kindled at similar rates. Two additional groups received electrical or sham stimulation, followed by carbachol kindling. No transfer effects were observed. Four additional groups received 27 nmoles of atropine through the chemitrode, followed 15 min later by electrical stimulation, sham stimulation, carbachol injection or saline injection, respectively. Atropine completely blocked carbachol kindling but did not alter the rate of electrical kindling. No different in the number of QNB binding sites was observed in the amygdala of rats sacrificed two weeks after full electrical kindling. The lack of interaction between electrical and carbachol kindling and the failure of atropine to block electrical kindling of the amygdala suggest that the activation of local muscarinic synapses, while essential for carbachol kindling, is not required for electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

  7. A Model of Differential Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Caroline; Killcross, Simon; Dadds, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a novel hypothesis regarding amygdala function in psychopathy. The first part of this article introduces the concept of psychopathy and describes the main cognitive and affective impairments demonstrated by this population; that is, a deficit in fear-recognition, lower conditioned fear responses and poor performance in…

  8. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  9. Dynamic modulation of amygdala-hippocampal connectivity by emotional arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastenrath, M.; Coynel, D.; Spalek, K.; Milnik, A.; Gschwind, L.; Roozendaal, B.; Papassotiropoulos, A.; Quervain, D.J. de

    2014-01-01

    Positive and negative emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. Studies in animals suggest that this phenomenon depends on the influence of the amygdala upon the hippocampus. In humans, however, it is largely unknown how these two brain structures functionally interact and whether

  10. GABAergic mechanisms contributing to categorical amygdala responses to chemosensory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from conspecific and heterospecific animals, elicit categorically different immediate-early gene response-patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. We previously showed that conspecific signals activate posterior (MeP) as well as anterior medial amygdala (MeA), and especially relevant heterospecific signals such as chemosensory stimuli from potential predators also activate MeP in mice. Other heterospecific chemosignals activate MeA, but not MeP. Here we show that male hamster amygdala responds significantly differentially to different conspecific signals, by activating different proportions of cells of different phenotype, possibly leading to differential activation of downstream circuits. Heterospecific signals that fail to activate MeP do activate GABA-immunoreactive cells in the adjacent caudal main intercalated nucleus (mICNc) and elicit selective suppression of MeP cells bearing GABA-Receptors, suggesting GABA inhibition in MeP by GABAergic cells in mICNc. Overall, work presented here suggests that medial amygdala may discriminate between important conspecific social signals, distinguish them from the social signals of other species and convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. PMID:27329335

  11. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen;

    2007-01-01

    the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from......Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one of...... eventually seen in all patients. Anterior horn cell involvement developed in three cases. Early gait disturbances resulting in falls were seen in all patients and none of them responded to dopaminergic medications. Two patients underwent dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT scanning with normal results. Other...

  12. Primary atypical sacral meningioma- not always benign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadra, A.K.; Casey, A.T.H.; Saifuddin, A.; Briggs, T.W. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    We present a case of an atypical recurrent meningioma of the sacrum with pulmonary metastasis in a 31-year-old man. He presented with deep-seated buttock pain and urinary hesitancy for 3 months. MRI revealed a lesion occupying the central and left side of the sacral canal at the S1-S2 level. Surgical excision of the lesion via a posterior approach was undertaken, and the patient became symptom-free post-operatively. Histology confirmed atypical meningioma. Eight months later he re-presented with similar symptoms, and MRI confirmed local recurrence. The patient underwent left hemisacrectomy. Six months later he again presented with low back pain and MRI confirmed a second local recurrence. A CT scan of the chest showed multiple lung metastases. The patient died of a severe chest infection 18 months later. (orig.)

  13. An atypical mycobacterial infection of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense is an acid-fast non-tuberculous organism that most commonly causes pulmonary infection. Extrapulmonary infection has also been reported. With an increased emphasis being placed on the clinical importance of this organism, especially within Europe, we report the first case of septic arthritis of the shoulder caused by this organism. We also highlight the importance of considering atypical mycobacterium infection in the differential diagnosis of shoulder infection and issues surrounding the management of this entity.

  14. Atypical retroperitoneal extension of iliopsoas bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, B.; Cloots, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Cliniques St. Luc, Rue St Luc 8, 5004, Bouge, Namur (Belgium)

    2003-05-01

    We report two rare cases of iliopsoas bursitis extending into the retroperitoneal space. The first lesion contained much gas, mimicking a retroperitoneal abscess, and the second was responsible for atypical inguinal pain. The diagnosis was made by contrast-enhanced CT in both cases and arthrography in the first case. Iliopsoas bursitis in these two patients, it is hypothesized, extended into the retroperitoneum, at least in part, by way of intraneural or perineural structures. (orig.)

  15. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    Troxell, Megan L.; Donald C Houghton

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopa...

  16. Atypical burkitt's lymphoma transforming from follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Lap P; Loong Florence; Hwang Yu Y; Chim Chor S

    2011-01-01

    Amongst follicular lymphoma that transforms into a high-grade lymphoma, majority are diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Here we reported a rare atypical Burkitt's lymphoma transformation from an asymptomatic follicular lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy showed a composite lymphoma with infiltration of the inter-follicular areas by high grade small non-cleaved lymphoma cells amongst neoplastic follicles. Moreover, FISH and molecular genetic study confirmed concomitant MYC translocations and t(14;18) in t...

  17. Atypical reactive histiocytosis. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Barleta del Castillo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a 50 year old chronic alcoholic and heavy smoker female that was assisted at the provincial university hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city due to a severe adenic syndrome and who was diagnosed as a case of atypical reactive histiocytosis , problem which disappeared with the abstinence of toxic habits, improving her health.

  18. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  19. Sex and laterality differences in medial amygdala neurons and astrocytes of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Daniel R; Hobbs, Nicholas J; Breedlove, S Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2016-08-15

    The posterodorsal aspect of the medial amygdala (MePD) in rats is sexually dimorphic, being larger and containing more and larger neurons in males than in females. It is also highly lateralized, with the right MePD larger than the left in both sexes, but with the smaller left MePD actually containing more and larger neurons than the larger right. Astrocytes are also strikingly sexually differentiated, with male-biased numbers and lateralized favoring the right in the rat MePD. However, comparable information is scant for mice where genetic tools offer greater experimental power. Hence, we examined the MePD from adult male and female C57Bl/6(J) mice. We now report that the MePD is larger in males than in females, with the MePD in males containing more astrocytes and neurons than in females. However, we did not find sex differences in astrocyte complexity or overall glial number nor effects of laterality in either measure. While the mouse MePD is generally less lateralized than in rats, we did find that the sex difference in astrocyte number is only on the right because of a significant lateralization in females, with significantly fewer astrocytes on the right than the left but only in females. A sex difference in neuronal soma size favoring males was also evident, but only on the left. Sex differences in the number of neurons and astrocytes common to both rodent species may represent core morphological features that critically underlie the expression of sex-specific behaviors that depend on the MePD. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2492-2502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780286

  20. Microbubbles are detected prior to larger bubbles following decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J G; Wilbur, J C; Moodie, K L; Kane, S A; Knaus, D A; Phillips, S D; Beach, T L; Fellows, A M; Magari, P J; Buckey, J C

    2014-04-01

    Using dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU), microbubbles (multiple sites, 2) appear in the presence and absence of bmdVGE, and 3) occur before bmdVGE. This supports the hypothesis that microbubbles precede larger VGE bubbles. Microbubble presence may be an early marker of decompression stress. Since DFU is a low-power ultrasonic method, it may be useful for operational diving applications.

  1. Disconnection Between Amygdala and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prerona; Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Parsey, Ramin; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-07-01

    Distracting emotional information impairs attention more in schizophrenia (SCZ) than in never-psychotic individuals. However, it is unclear whether this impairment and its neural circuitry is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of SCZ, and whether it is even more specific to certain SCZ symptoms (eg, deficit syndrome). It is also unclear if this abnormality contributes to impaired behavioral performance and real-world functioning. Functional imaging data were recorded while individuals with SCZ, bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) and no history of psychotic disorders (CON) attended to identity of faces while ignoring their emotional expressions. We examined group differences in functional connectivity between amygdala, involved in emotional evaluation, and sub-regions of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control. Additionally, we examined correlation of this connectivity with deficit syndrome and real-world functioning. Behaviorally, SCZ showed the worst accuracy when matching the identity of emotional vs neutral faces. Neurally, SCZ showed lower amygdala-MPFC connectivity than BDP and CON. BPD did not differ from CON, neurally or behaviorally. In patients, reduced amygdala-MPFC connectivity during emotional distractors was related to worse emotional vs neutral accuracy, greater deficit syndrome severity, and unemployment. Thus, reduced amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity during emotional distractors reflects a deficit that is specific to SCZ. This reduction in connectivity is associated with worse clinical and real-world functioning. Overall, these findings provide support for the specificity and clinical utility of amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity as a potential neural marker of SCZ. PMID:26908926

  2. Epidemiological investigations on the potential transmissibility of a rare disease: the case of atypical scrapie in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Peláez, A; Arnold, M E; Vidal-Diez, A

    2016-07-01

    Multiple cases of atypical scrapie in the same holding and co-existence with classical scrapie have been reported in Great Britain. A two-stage simulation tool was developed by combining a sampling algorithm and a hierarchical Bayesian model to simulate the number of positive cases of atypical scrapie from: (i) random sampling and (ii) using the actual sampled population in Great Britain, being the output probability of detection of flocks with one and more cases. Cluster analysis was conducted to assess the level of geographical over- and under-sampling over the years. The probability of detecting at least two cases of atypical scrapie in the same holding is much lower in simulated random data than in simulated actual data for all scenarios. Sampling bias in the selection of sheep for testing led to multiple sampling from fewer but larger holdings, Scotland, and areas of Wales were under-sampled and the South-West and East of England oversampled. The pattern of atypical scrapie cases observed is unlikely to be explained by a multi-case event epidemiologically linked. The co-existence of classical and atypical scrapie is a rare event with 19 holdings detected in GB and does not suggest an epidemiological link between the two types of disease. PMID:26976340

  3. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  4. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author).

  5. Effective field theory in larger clusters – Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2015-07-15

    General formulation for the effective field theory with differential operator technique and the decoupling approximation with larger finite clusters (namely EFT-N formulation) has been derived for several S-1/2 bulk systems. The effect of enlarging this finite cluster on the results for the critical temperatures and thermodynamic properties has been investigated in detail. Beside the improvement on the critical temperatures, the necessity of using larger clusters, especially in nanomaterials has been discussed. Using the derived formulation, applications on the effective field and mean field renormalization group techniques have also been performed. - Highlights: • General formulation for effective field theory in finite clusters obtained. • The advantages and disadvantages of the method discussed. • Application of the formulation to the 2D and 3D lattices performed.

  6. How Entrepreneurial Firms Prosper while Larger Firms Crumble

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, P K

    2009-01-01

    Many firms are facing great difficulty surviving the declining financial markets in Fall 2008. As larger firms take drastic measures to control and cut costs while forecasting declining revenue, entrepreneurial firms view the same marketplace in a more positive light. What separate these two types of firms is their differing levels of entrepreneurial intensity.An entrepreneurial grid positions firms upon two dimensions: Frequency of Entrepreneurship and Degree of Entrepreneurship (innovativen...

  7. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  8. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  9. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  10. Amygdala Signaling during Foraging in a Hazardous Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Alon; Lee, Seung-Chan; Headley, Drew B; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Pare, Denis

    2015-09-23

    We recorded basolateral amygdala (BL) neurons in a seminaturalistic foraging task. Rats had to leave their nest to retrieve food in an elongated arena inhabited by a mechanical predator. There were marked trial-to-trial variations in behavior. After poking their head into the foraging arena and waiting there for a while, rats either retreated to their nest or initiated foraging. Before initiating foraging, rats waited longer on trials that followed failed than successful trials indicating that prior experience influenced behavior. Upon foraging initiation, most principal cells (Type-1) reduced their firing rate, while in a minority (Type-2) it increased. When rats aborted foraging, Type-1 cells increased their firing rates, whereas in Type-2 cells it did not change. Surprisingly, the opposite activity profiles of Type-1 and Type-2 units were also seen in control tasks devoid of explicit threats or rewards. The common correlate of BL activity across these tasks was movement velocity, although an influence of position was also observed. Thus depending on whether rats initiated movement or not, the activity of BL neurons decreased or increased, regardless of whether threat or rewards were present. Therefore, BL activity not only encodes threats or rewards, but is closely related to behavioral output. We propose that higher order cortical areas determine task-related changes in BL activity as a function of reward/threat expectations and internal states. Because Type-1 and Type-2 cells likely form differential connections with the central amygdala (controlling freezing), this process would determine whether movement aimed at attaining food or exploration is suppressed or facilitated. Significance statement: For decades, amygdala research has been dominated by pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigms. This work has led to the view that amygdala neurons signal threats or rewards, in turn causing defensive or approach behaviors. However, the artificial circumstances of

  11. Atypical meningioma and extensive calvarium defects in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Enver [Department of Paediatrics, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Yavuz, Cevdet [Department of Neurosurgery, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Ustundag, Nil [Department of Pathology, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey)

    2003-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with a massive atypical meningioma and calvarial defect. Skull radiographs and cranial CT showed an extensive lytic bone lesion at the vertex. MRI demonstrated a large mass invading the calvarium and sagittal sinus. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the resected mass was atypical meningioma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with atypical meningioma and massive calvarial defect in a child. (orig.)

  12. Annual research review: Towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Frith, Uta

    2014-06-01

    As a starting point for our review we use a developmental timeline, starting from birth and divided into major developmental epochs defined by key milestones of social cognition in typical development. For each epoch, we highlight those developmental disorders that diverge from the normal developmental pattern, what is known about these key milestones in the major disorders affecting social cognition, and any available research on the neural basis of these differences. We relate behavioural observations to four major networks of the social brain, that is, Amygdala, Mentalizing, Emotion and Mirror networks. We focus on those developmental disorders that are characterized primarily by social atypicality, such as autism spectrum disorder, social anxiety and a variety of genetically defined syndromes. The processes and aspects of social cognition we highlight are sketched in a putative network diagram, and include: agent identification, emotion processing and empathy, mental state attribution, self-processing and social hierarchy mapping involving social ‘policing’ and in-group/out-group categorization. Developmental disorders reveal some dissociable deficits in different components of this map of social cognition. This broad review across disorders, ages and aspects of social cognition leads us to some key questions: How can we best distinguish primary from secondary social disorders? Is social cognition especially vulnerable to developmental disorder, or surprisingly robust? Are cascading notions of social development, in which early functions are essential stepping stones or building bricks for later abilities, necessarily correct? PMID:24963529

  13. Annual research review: Towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Frith, Uta

    2014-06-01

    As a starting point for our review we use a developmental timeline, starting from birth and divided into major developmental epochs defined by key milestones of social cognition in typical development. For each epoch, we highlight those developmental disorders that diverge from the normal developmental pattern, what is known about these key milestones in the major disorders affecting social cognition, and any available research on the neural basis of these differences. We relate behavioural observations to four major networks of the social brain, that is, Amygdala, Mentalizing, Emotion and Mirror networks. We focus on those developmental disorders that are characterized primarily by social atypicality, such as autism spectrum disorder, social anxiety and a variety of genetically defined syndromes. The processes and aspects of social cognition we highlight are sketched in a putative network diagram, and include: agent identification, emotion processing and empathy, mental state attribution, self-processing and social hierarchy mapping involving social ‘policing’ and in-group/out-group categorization. Developmental disorders reveal some dissociable deficits in different components of this map of social cognition. This broad review across disorders, ages and aspects of social cognition leads us to some key questions: How can we best distinguish primary from secondary social disorders? Is social cognition especially vulnerable to developmental disorder, or surprisingly robust? Are cascading notions of social development, in which early functions are essential stepping stones or building bricks for later abilities, necessarily correct?

  14. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  15. Distinct patterns of outcome valuation and amygdala-prefrontal cortex synaptic remodeling in adolescence and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStolyarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R, dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R, and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward choices in adolescents, but not in adult animals. Increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in adolescents may index increased structural plasticity and represent a neural correlate of a reward sensitive endophenotype.

  16. Atypical giant chondroblastoma mimicking a chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Sunita; Menon, Santosh; Gulia, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor derived from chondroblasts, commonly presenting in the second decade of life. It is usually found in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones; however, it may rarely affect flat bones like scapula. Occasionally a histologically typical chondroblastoma may exhibit an aggressive behavior that is not normally associated with benign tumors such as a large size, pulmonary metastases, joint and soft-tissue infiltration and local recurrence. We present a case report of a patient with chondroblastoma showing atypical radiological presentation and non-concordance with age. PMID:26458670

  17. Trisomy 18 with unilateral atypical ectrodactyly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Becerra et al. recently reported on an infant with multiple congenital anomalies who had trisomy 18. This preterm infant presented with bilateral ectrodactyly of feet, small cleft palate, esophageal atresia with associated tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital heart disease and other anomalies. The authors referenced article by Castle and Bernstein, in which they reported a male with trisomy 18 and cleft foot as well as a review of the literature which showed 2 other infants with trisomy 18 and ectrodactyly of the feet. An additional case of trisomy 18 associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including unilaterial, atypical ectrodactyly of the left foot.

  18. Atypical And Severe Enlargement Of Right Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Carmine; Rossetti, Pietro; Rocci, Anna; Rubino, Pasquale; Basaglia, Manuela; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Quintavalla, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A 76 year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for recent-onset dyspnea and cough. The electrocardiogram was considered inconclusive. A thoracic X-ray showed global cardiac profile enlargement. Computed tomography, acutely performed in the clinical suspicion of atypical pneumonia/myocarditis or pericardial effusion, showed cardiac enlargement especially of the right chambers. In order to investigate Ebstein's anomaly, pericardial cysts, tumors or other conditions of the right heart a simple trans-thoracic echocardiogram was performed. Four chambers view showed a giant right atrium aneurysm with moderate tricuspid regurgitation without stenosis or typical Ebstein's echocardiographic pattern. PMID:27649002

  19. Atypical Teratoid/Rrhabdoid Tumour of Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sidhu,P.Sakhuja,V.Malhotra,R.Gondal S.Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET / medulloblastoma (MB are the most commonmalignantcentral nervous tumors of the first decade of life. Atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor (ATT / RT isa tumor of infancy and childhood although occasional cases have also been described in adults.ATT/RT has a characteristic histopathological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features.ATT /RT is a rare tumor, incidence of which remains to be defined with only hundred publishedcases. The present report docurilents the clinical features, histological and immunohistochemicalfindings of a case ofATT / RT.

  20. Atypical giant chondroblastoma mimicking a chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Sunita; Menon, Santosh; Gulia, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor derived from chondroblasts, commonly presenting in the second decade of life. It is usually found in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones; however, it may rarely affect flat bones like scapula. Occasionally a histologically typical chondroblastoma may exhibit an aggressive behavior that is not normally associated with benign tumors such as a large size, pulmonary metastases, joint and soft-tissue infiltration and local recurrence. We present a case report of a patient with chondroblastoma showing atypical radiological presentation and non-concordance with age.

  1. Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Meningioma

    OpenAIRE

    Premeshwar Niwant; Mukta Motwani; Sushil Naik

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain that lasts from few seconds to few minutes in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed. More than one nerve branch can be affected by the disorder. We report an unusual case of trigeminal neuralgia affecting right side of face presenting atypical features of neuralgia and not responding to the usual course of treatment. The magnetic res...

  2. Atypical presentation of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The phenomenology of OCD in children and adolescent is strikingly similar to that of adults. But at times, the presentation of OCD may be so atypical or unusual in children and adolescents that may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We report a case of 10-year-old child who was initially misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, and treated with antipsychotic for 2 months. But once the core symptoms were recognized as obsessions and compulsions and appropriately treated in the line of OCD, the symptoms resolved significantly.

  3. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  4. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  5. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  6. Intact electrodermal skin conductance responses after bilateral amygdala damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the amygdala is a crucial component of the anatomical network that mediates the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR). In this study, the electrodermal activity of a patient whose entire amygdaloid complex had been destroyed bilaterally, and of 7 age- and gender-matched controls, was recorded under the same experimental conditions. The results indicate unequivocally that the subject could generate normal skin conductance and SCORs, in response to stimuli of different sensory modalities and configurations. This suggests that the amygdala is not a necessary component of the neural network underlying SCORs and that there are alternate neural units and pathways that link sensory cortices to autonomic effectors.

  7. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  8. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    OpenAIRE

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depr...

  9. Categorization of biologically relevant chemical signals in the medial amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsen, Chad L.; Meredith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many species employ chemical signals to convey messages between members of the same species (conspecific), but chemosignals may also provide information to another species (heterospecific). Here, we found that conspecific chemosignals (male, female mouse urine) increased immediate early gene-protein (IEG) expression in both anterior and posterior medial amygdala of male mice, whereas most heterospecific chemosignals (e.g.: hamster vaginal fluid, steer urine) increased expression only in anter...

  10. Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Ralph; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Tranel, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Lesion, functional imaging, and single-unit studies in human and nonhuman animals have demonstrated a role for the amygdala in processing stimuli with emotional and social significance. We investigated the recognition of a wide variety of facial expressions, including basic emotions (e.g., happiness, anger) and social emotions (e.g., guilt, admiration, flirtatiousness). Prior findings with a standardized set of stimuli indicated that recognition of social emotions can be signaled by the eye r...

  11. Amygdala involvement in human avoidance, escape and approach behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schlund, Michael W.; Cataldo, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Many forms of psychopathology and substance abuse problems are characterized by chronic ritualized forms of avoidance and escape behavior that are designed to control or modify external or internal (i.e, thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations) threats. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, we examined amygdala reactivity to threatening cues when avoidance responding consistently prevented contact with an upcoming aversive event (money loss). In addition, we examined esca...

  12. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    David E Ehrlich; Ryan, Steven J.; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and autism spectrum disorders, have early ages of onset and high incidence in juveniles. To better treat and prevent these disorders, it is important to first understand normal development of brain circuits that process emotion. Healthy and maladaptive emotional processing involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dysfunction of which has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Normal function of the adult BLA relies on a fine balance of ...

  13. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths. PMID:27014154

  14. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  15. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  16. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  17. Prefrontal-amygdala fear networks come into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Clem, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations between aversive threats and their predictors is fundamental to survival. However, fear and anxiety in excess are detrimental and are a hallmark of psychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD symptomatology includes persistent and intrusive thoughts of an experienced trauma, suggesting an inability to downregulate fear when a corresponding threat has subsided. Convergent evidence from human and rodent studies supports a role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-amygdala network in both PTSD and the regulation of fear memory expression. In particular, current models stipulate that the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of the rodent mPFC bidirectionally regulate fear expression via differential recruitment of amygdala neuronal subpopulations. However, an array of recent studies that employ new technical approaches has fundamentally challenged this interpretation. Here we explore how a new emphasis on the contribution of inhibitory neuronal populations, subcortical structures and the passage of time is reshaping our understanding of mPFC-amygdala circuits and their control over fear. PMID:26578902

  18. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Balderston

    Full Text Available The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  19. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Schultz, Douglas H; Baillet, Sylvain; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  20. Prefrontal-amygdala fear networks come into focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithe eArruda-Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to form associations between aversive threats and their predictors is fundamental to survival. However, fear and anxiety in excess are detrimental and are a hallmark of psychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD symptomatology includes persistent and intrusive thoughts of an experienced trauma, suggesting an inability to downregulate fear when a corresponding threat has subsided. Convergent evidence from human and rodent studies supports a role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC-amygdala network in both PTSD and the regulation of fear memory expression. In particular, current models stipulate that the prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions of the rodent mPFC bidirectionally regulate fear expression via differential recruitment of amygdala neuronal subpopulations. However, an array of recent studies that employ new technical approaches has fundamentally challenged this interpretation. Here we explore how a new emphasis on the contribution of inhibitory neuronal populations, subcortical structures and the passage of time is reshaping our understanding of mPFC-amygdala circuits and their control over fear.

  1. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah; Sandi, Carmen; Markram, Henry

    2008-01-01

    A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism to (a) screen for autism-like symptoms in rats, (b) test for alterations in amygdala-dependent fear processing, and (c) evaluate neuronal reactivity and synaptic plast...

  2. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brashers-Krug

    Full Text Available Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent.We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs.Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala.Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The conceptualization of post

  3. The Amygdala and the Relevance Detection Theory of Autism: An Evolutionary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Zalla; Marco Sperduti

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and in particular its contribution to the socio-emotional impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the “social brain”, several theoretical explanations compatible with amygdala dysfunction have been proposed to account for socio-emotional impairments in ASDs, including abnormal eye contact, gaze monitoring, face processing...

  4. Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Vanda; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Örjan; Bani, Massimo; Bettica, Paolo; Pich, Emilio M; Jacobsson, Eva; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygd...

  5. The Role of Amygdala in Emotional and Social Functions: Implications for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinzio Perrin, Chiara; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is among the most frequent causes of chronic and drug-resistant seizure disorders. It is typically associated with lesions involving critical limbic structures within the anterior medial temporal lobe, such as the amygdala and hippocampus. While the role of the hippocampus and adjacent cortical regions in memory function is now well established, the role of the amygdala and related brain circuits is still poorly known. The amygdala is a complex neural structure implicat...

  6. The impact of puberty and social anxiety on amygdala activation to faces in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior, and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15. We observed amygdala activati...

  7. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain' most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of 'orofacial pain' are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of 'orofacial pain' remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of 'atypical odontalgia'. 'Atypical odontalgia' is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. 'Atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia' can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain. PMID:26464604

  8. Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Admou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD becomes increasingly common in physician’s daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8 of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc., biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc., and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.. Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD.

  9. Understanding amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions through the lens of psychopathy and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-06-01

    Because the face is the central focus of human social interactions, emotional facial expressions provide a unique window into the emotional lives of others. They play a particularly important role in fostering empathy, which entails understanding and responding to others' emotions, especially distress-related emotions such as fear. This Review considers how fearful facial as well as vocal and postural expressions are interpreted, with an emphasis on the role of the amygdala. The amygdala may be best known for its role in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, but it also supports the perception and recognition of others' fear. Various explanations have been supplied for the amygdala's role in interpreting and responding to fearful expressions. They include theories that amygdala responses to fearful expressions 1) reflect heightened vigilance in response to uncertain danger, 2) promote heightened attention to the eye region of faces, 3) represent a response to an unconditioned aversive stimulus, or 4) reflect the generation of an empathic fear response. Among these, only empathic fear explains why amygdala lesions would impair fear recognition across modalities. Supporting the possibility of a link between fundamental empathic processes and amygdala responses to fear is evidence that impaired fear recognition in psychopathic individuals results from amygdala dysfunction, whereas enhanced fear recognition in altruistic individuals results from enhanced amygdala function. Empathic concern and caring behaviors may be fostered by sensitivity to signs of acute distress in others, which relies on intact functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26366635

  10. Accountable care organizations: financial advantages of larger hospital organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rodrigo; Camargo, Thaisa; Deslich, Stacie; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are groups of providers who agree to accept the responsibility for elevating the health status of a defined group of patients, with the goal of enabling people to take charge of their health and enroll in shared decision making with providers. The large initial investment required (estimated at $1.8 million) to develop an ACO implies that the participation of large health care organizations, especially hospitals and health systems, is required for success. Findings of this study suggest that ACOs based in a larger hospital organization are more likely to meet Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services criteria for formation because of financial and structural assets of those entities.

  11. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  12. Keloidal Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Case and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongdee, Emily; Touloei, Khasha; Shitabata, Paul K.; Shareef, Shahjahan; Maranda, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (KAF) has recently been categorized as a variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. This paper will emphasize the importance of including KAF in both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions which exhibit keloidal collagen and will also review the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, immunochemistry and treatments. PMID:27462224

  13. [Atypical cerebellar neurocytoma resembling a hemangioblastoma. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista Martínez, Olalla; Rivas López, Luis Alfredo; Pombo Otero, Jorge Francisco; Amaro Cendón, Santiago; Bravo García, Christian; Villa Fernández, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through August 2013, 105 cases of intracranial extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) had been described; 6% were located in cerebellum and 22% were atypical EVN. A rare morphologic form of neurocytoma, atypical EVN has had only 24 cases reported to date. Its prognosis is poorer than the typical central neurocytoma. This case report describes an atypical cerebellar EVN, a form that has not been reported yet, hence the interest of this article. We emphasise its cystic nature and mural nodule, in an infrequent presentation. EVN are low-incidence tumours that we need to take into consideration when making the differential diagnosis of cystic cerebellar lesions with mural nodule. Given that the prognosis of atypical EVNs depends on the atypical nature and on the grade of resection, medical follow up has to be more constant, due to the greater degree of recurrence. PMID:24837842

  14. Detection of atypical seismic events on a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Hernandez, E. A.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Perez-Campos, X.; Iglesias, A.

    2013-12-01

    We propose an event-detection algorithm to locate seismic events on a regional scale. Our goal is to identify non-impulsive or 'atypical' events which are not detected by regional or global networks, due to their low P-wave amplitude. Ekstrom (2006) has developed and implemented a method to detect and locate sources of long-period seismic surface waves on a global scale. Atypical events are generated by, for example, rapid glacial movements (Ekstrom, et al., 2003; Ekstrom, et al., 2006), volcanic events (Schuler and Ekstrom, 2009) and landslides (Ekstrom and Stark, 2013). Furthermore, non-impulsive earthquakes have been located on oceanic transform faults (Abercrombie and Ekstrom, 2001). The current method (Ekstrom, 2006), that is applied on the scale of the globe, routinely detects events with magnitudes around Mw 5 and larger. In this work we wish to lower the detection threshold by using shorter period records registered by regional networks. The difficulty lies in that the shorter period records are strongly influenced by the heterogeneous crust and upper mantle, which need to be accounted for in the modeling process. Our proposed method involves first computing full waveforms, Green's functions or moment tensor responses, between a grid of test locations and existing seismic stations in a 3D medium. We then effectively back propagate observed data through cross correlation with the responses, obtaining a function that localizes in time and space at the source. Our method is a variant of the timereversal method presented by, for example, McMechan (1982), Tromp et al. (2005), Larmat et al. (2006), Gajewski and Tessmer (2005) and Kim et al. (2010). To calibrate the various parameters used by the detection method, we use the aftershocks sequence of the March 20, 2012 Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico earthquake, recorded by the SSN (Mexican National Network). The lively aftershock sequence provided us with many events of different magnitudes, all occurring approximately

  15. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  16. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases larger than three centimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm. From March 2003 to October 2009, 40 patients with brain metastases larger than 3 cm were treated by HSRT. HSRT was applied in 29 patients for primary treatment and in 11 patients for rescue. Single brain metastasis was detected in 21 patients. Whole brain radiotherapy was incorporated into HSRT in 10 patients for primary treatment. HSRT boosts were applied in 23 patients. The diameters of the brain metastases ranged from 3.1 to 5.5 cm (median, 4.1 cm). The median prescribed dose (not including HSRT boosts) was 40 Gy (range, 20-53 Gy) with a median of 10 fractions (range, 4-15 fractions) to the 90% isodose line. The median dose of the boost was 20 Gy (range, 10-35 Gy) in 4 fractions (range, 2-10 fractions). The median overall survival time was 15 months. The overall survival and local control rate at 12 months was 55.3% and 94.2%, respectively. Four patients experienced local progression of large brain metastases. Nine patients died of intracranial disease progression. One patient died of radiation necrosis with brain edema. HSRT was a safe and effective treatment for patients with brain metastases ranged from 3.1 to 5.5 cm. Dose escalation of HSRT boost may improve local control with an acceptable toxicity

  17. STUDY ON RECIPROCATING SEALS FOR A LARGER DIAMETER AXIAL PISTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian; Yang Huayong; Xu Bing

    2004-01-01

    Sealing performance of the reciprocating seals on a larger diameter (100 mm in diameter ) axial piston is theoretically investigated.Based on the characteristics of the clearance flow between the seal and the piston, reasonable boundary conditions for Navier-Stokes equations are determined and the equations are modified, so that the final equations can describe the real flow state of the clearance flow.Through combining the final equations with finite element method, the pressure distributions within the clearance field during the reciprocating motion of the piston and the leakage rate with the pressure are studied.The deflections of the seal which affect sealing performance are calculated as well.Sealing performance of piston seals using oil as the working liquid is compared with using water.It is concluded that the seal using water as the working liquid is under dry friction, which cannot be dealt with the theory of fluid mechanics.The seal structure is only acceptable using oil as the working liquid..

  18. Human resource management and career planning in a larger library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Gazvoda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management is presented as a managerial function which is used to develop potential abilities of the employees to achieve organizational goals.Different perception of the employees is essential - people working in the organization are treated as capital and not as an expenditure. In human resource management the most important view of the employees is their potential growth and professional development, training for acquiring new responsibilities and encouragement for innovation. Library management is becoming more and more complex as the result of introducing new technologies. For this reason libraries need well trained people with potentials to modernize library performance and to overcome the conflict between the traditional organizational culture and the requirements of the modem technologically developed environment. The author presents different techniques of active human resource management, which can be used in larger libraries where an appropriate number of employees exists to realize different programmes with. These are programmes for education, staffing,career planning, stimmulation and reward systems, job redefinition and enrichment,and other forms of internal segmentation.

  19. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  20. Progressively Disrupted Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala in Very Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian; Peters, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) – i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia – is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala.

  1. [Treatment of atypical and neurotic depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, P; Umann, E; Kulawik, H

    1986-10-01

    Hitherto it has not been usual to talk in the German language about the therapy-oriented concept of two forms of the progress of atypical depression (Type A and Type V). The characteristic symptom of Type A is angst, together with phobias, physical complaints, etc. In Type V there are vegetative symptoms, often towards evening (Hypersomnia, difficulty in getting to sleep, increased appetite, increased weight, increased libido), accompanied by hysterical extrovert personality traits, and of intermittent occurrence. These clinical pictures are amenable to psychopharmalogical therapy. In conformity with the assumption of "somatic accommodation" treatment with antidepressives is recommended in the case neurotic depression, too, at least in the initial stages of treatment. PMID:3809300

  2. [Atypical early posttraumatic syndromes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, G E

    1974-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 1,925 head injuries, 283 patients (14.7%), could not be classified, neither in the group of simple head injuries without cerebral symptoms, nor in the group of typical concussions characterized by immediate amnesia or observed coma. We have prefered the rather neutral term of atypical early posttraumatic syndromes. In this group, apart from neurovegetative manifestations, partial disturbances of consciousness and perception, we have also classified delayed disturbances of consciousness. Special attention has been given to migraineous phenomena and to a syndrome, characteristic for children, described by Mealey. This is an intermediate group important from a medico-legal point of view because certain transient cerebral manifestations risk to be mistaken for psychological reactions. On the other hand symptoms probably of psychic origin were discussed. PMID:4469864

  3. Atypical Radiological Manifestation of Pulmonary Metastatic Calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul Hwan; Ham, Soo Youn; Oh, Yu Whan [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a condition of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, and this is secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism without any prior soft tissue damage. The predisposing factors for this condition include chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia and increased tissue alkalinity. The most common radiologic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities in the upper lung zone. These opacities reflect the deposition of calcium salts in the pulmonary interstitium. We present here a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient who recovered from pneumonia with sepsis and whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) images demonstrated localized parenchymal airspace calcification that was limited to the bilateral lower lobes. These lower lobes had been involved with pneumonic consolidation without calcification, as seen on the previous CT scan. In summary, we report here on an atypical presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification that showed dense airspace consolidation localized to the bilateral lower lobes in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and pneumonia.

  4. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shane, Elizabeth; Burr, David; Abrahamsen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) and denosumab reduce the risk of spine and nonspine fractures. Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) located in the subtrochanteric region and diaphysis of the femur have been reported in patients taking BPs and in patients on denosumab, but they also occur in patients with no exp....... Lower limb geometry and Asian ethnicity may contribute to the risk of AFFs. There is inconsistent evidence that teriparatide may advance healing of AFFs. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....... associations between AFFs and BP use, although the strength of associations and magnitude of effect vary. Although the relative risk of patients with AFFs taking BPs is high, the absolute risk of AFFs in patients on BPs is low, ranging from 3.2 to 50 cases per 100,000 person-years. However, long-term use may...

  5. Case Report: Atypical Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanza, Vito; Rubbino, Gabriella; Leanza, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) (also called Bushy Syndrome or Amsterdam dwarfism), is a genetic disorder that can lead to several alterations. This disease affects both physical and neuropsychiatric development. The various abnormalities include facial dysmorphia (arched eyebrows, synophrys, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, down-turned angles of the mouth), upper-extremity malformations, hirsutism, cardiac defects, and gastrointestinal alterations. The prevalence of this syndrome is approximately one per 15,000. Ultrasound is not the perfect means to diagnose CdLS, however, many abnormalities can be detected prenatally by scrupulous image observation. We report an atypical CdLS case characterized by increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester, normal karyotype, saddle nose, micrognathia with receding jaw, low set ears, facies senilis, arthrogryposis of the hands, absence of the Aranzio ductus venous, dilatation of gallbladder and bowel, a unique umbilical artery, increased volume of amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth retardation ending with the interruption of pregnancy. PMID:26834972

  6. A case of atypical progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaccavento S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simona Spaccavento, Marina Del Prete, Angela Craca, Anna Loverre IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Cassano Murge, Bari, Italy Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that PSP can present clinically as an atypical dementing syndrome dominated by a progressive apraxia of speech (AOS and aphasia. Aim: We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of PSP, using a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, and the disease response to various pharmacological treatments. Methods: A 72-year-old right-handed male, with 17 years education, who first presented with aphasia, AOS, depression, apathy, and postural instability at 69 years; a complete neuropsychological evaluation, tapping the different cognitive domains, was performed. Results: Testing revealed a moderate global cognitive deficit (Mini-Mental State Examination test score =20, low memory test scores (story recall, Rey’s 15-word Immediate and Delayed Recall, and poor phonemic and semantic fluency. The patient’s language was characterized by AOS, with slow speech rate, prolonged intervals between syllables and words, decreased articulatory accuracy, sound distortions, and anomia. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability, were reported. The neurological examination revealed supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, poor face miming, and a mild balance deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed only widespread cortical atrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated left > right frontotemporal cortical abnormalities. After 6 months, a further neuropsychological assessment showed a progression in cognitive deficits, with additional attention deficits. The patient reported frequent falls, but the neurological deficits remained unchanged. Neuroimaging tests showed the same brain involvement. Conclusion: Our case highlights the heterogeneity of the clinical features in

  7. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting Li

    Full Text Available Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264. Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  8. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  9. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah;

    2008-01-01

    acid (VPA) rat model of autism to (a) screen for autism-like symptoms in rats, (b) test for alterations in amygdala-dependent fear processing, and (c) evaluate neuronal reactivity and synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala by means of in vitro single-cell electrophysiological recordings. VPA...

  10. EXAMINATION OF THE ANTICONVULSANT PROPERTIES OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE CALCIUM CHANNEL INHIBITORS IN AMYGDALA KINDLED SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Representatives from three different classes of voltage-sensitive calcium (VSC) channel inhibitors were assessed for their protection against amygdala kindled seizures. dult male long Evans rats (n=12) were implanted with electrodes in the amygdala and were stimulated once daily ...

  11. Learning Enhances Intrinsic Excitability in a Subset of Lateral Amygdala Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Megha; Ehlers, Vanessa L.; Moyer, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Learning-induced modulation of neuronal intrinsic excitability is a metaplasticity mechanism that can impact the acquisition of new memories. Although the amygdala is important for emotional learning and other behaviors, including fear and anxiety, whether learning alters intrinsic excitability within the amygdala has received very little…

  12. The responsive amygdala: treatment-induced alterations in functional connectivity in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, L E; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-09-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear, and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-sex matched control subjects before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared with control subjects, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pretreated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy control subjects from time 1 to time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores; and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity after an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  13. Subchronic duloxetine administration alters the extended amygdala circuitry in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, H.J.F. van; Tendolkar, I.; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Wingen, G.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have consistently linked depression to hyperactivation of a (para)limbic affective processing network centered around the amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate how antidepressant drugs affect amygdala reactivity in healthy individuals, but the influence of their s

  14. Mechanisms Contributing to the Induction and Storage of Pavlovian Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongbeom; Pare, Denis; Nair, Satish S.

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of plasticity in the amygdala vs. its afferent pathways to conditioned fear remain controversial. Some believe that thalamic and cortical neurons transmitting information about the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the lateral amygdala (LA) serve a relay function. Others maintain that thalamic and/or cortical plasticity is…

  15. The Amygdala Is Not Necessary for Unconditioned Stimulus Inflation after Pavlovian Fear Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Orsini, Caitlin A.; Zimmerman, Joshua M.; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The basolateral complex (BLA) and central nucleus (CEA) of the amygdala play critical roles in associative learning, including Pavlovian conditioning. However, the precise role for these structures in Pavlovian conditioning is not clear. Recent work in appetitive conditioning paradigms suggests that the amygdala, particularly the BLA, has an…

  16. The BOLD signal in the amygdala does not differentiate between dynamic facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Christiaan; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Keysers, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The amygdala has been considered to be essential for recognizing fear in other people's facial expressions. Recent studies shed doubt on this interpretation. Here we used movies of facial expressions instead of static photographs to investigate the putative fear selectivity of the amygdala using fMR

  17. Modulation of instrumental responding by a conditioned threat stimulus requires lateral and central amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eCampese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the role of the amygdala in response modulation by an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS in rats. Experiment 1 investigated the role of amygdala circuitry in conditioned suppression using a paradigm in which licking for sucrose was inhibited by a tone CS that had been previously paired with footshock. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral amygdala impaired suppression relative to sham-operated animals, and produced the same pattern of results when applied to central amygdala. In addition, disconnection of the lateral and central amygdala, by unilateral lesion of each on opposite sides of the brain, also impaired suppression relative to control subjects that received lesions of both areas on the same side. In each case, lesions were placed following Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training, but before testing. This procedure produced within-subjects measures of the effects of lesion on freezing and between-group comparisons for the effects on suppression. Experiment 2 extended this analysis to a task where an aversive CS suppressed shuttling responses that had been previously food reinforced and also found effects of bilateral lesions of the central amygdala in a pre-post design. Together, these studies demonstrate that connections between the lateral and central amygdala constitute a serial circuit involved in processing aversive Pavlovian stimuli, and add to a growing body of findings implicating central amygdala in the modulation of instrumental behavior.

  18. Amygdala Habituation and Prefrontal Functional Connectivity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Carrasco, Melissa; Lord, Catherine; Monk, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Amygdala habituation, the rapid decrease in amygdala responsiveness to the repeated presentation of stimuli, is fundamental to the nervous system. Habituation is important for maintaining adaptive levels of arousal to predictable social stimuli and decreased habituation is associated with heightened anxiety. Input from the ventromedial…

  19. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2007-09-01

    We investigated whether puberty influences the morphology of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were sacrificed at 42-49 days of age, at which point all LD hamsters were reproductively mature, as evidenced by adult-like testes weights (mean: 657 mg). In contrast, the testes weights of the SD hamsters were low (mean: 31 mg), indicating that the SD photoperiod had delayed puberty. The regional volume and mean soma size of the four MeA subnuclei was estimated bilaterally by stereological procedures. In the posterior dorsal and ventral MeA subnuclei, regional volume was 22-25% larger, and mean soma size 18% larger, in LD males than SD males. Unbiased cell counts in the posterior dorsal MeA showed that LD and SD hamsters have equivalent neuron numbers. In the anterior MeA subnuclei, regional volumes and soma sizes from LD and SD hamsters were equivalent. Additionally, the regional volume of the posteroventral subnucleus was larger in the right hemisphere than the left, but this laterality did not respond to photoperiod manipulation. These results suggest that the extant neurons within the posterior MeA, a steroid-sensitive nucleus implicated in socio-sexual behavior, grow in response to the elevated levels of circulating androgen accompanying puberty, and that photoperiodic regulation of puberty affects morphological maturation of this nucleus.

  20. Atypical antipsychotics in first admission schizophrenia: medication continuation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Lavelle, Janet; Gibson, P Joseph; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic medications on treatment continuation and outcomes in a first admission sample of patients with schizophrenia treated in usual practice settings. In a sample of 189 participants with a research diagnosis of DSM-IV schizophrenia drawn from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, we compared the effects of atypical and conventional agents on change of medication, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. For these analyses we used the method of survival analysis for recurrent events, in which the episodes of treatment rather than individual subjects are the units of analysis. In addition, we compared improvement in positive and negative symptoms from intake to 24- or 48-month followups for subjects who stayed on one type of medication or changed to atypicals from conventional antipsychotics. Atypical agents were associated with lower risk of medication change, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. Both conventional and atypical agents were associated with improvement of positive symptoms at followup, but only subjects on atypical agents at followup experienced a significant improvement in negative symptoms. We conclude that in usual practice settings, as in randomized clinical trials, atypical agents are associated with improved treatment continuation and outcomes.

  1. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  2. Atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Matteo; Bonavita, Ornella; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine system is a fundamental component of cancer-related inflammation involved in all stages of cancer development. It controls not only leukocyte infiltration in primary tumors but also angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and migration to metastatic sites. Atypical chemokine receptors are a new, emerging class of regulators of the chemokine system. They control chemokine bioavailability by scavenging, transporting, or storing chemokines. They can also regulate the activity of canonical chemokine receptors with which they share the ligands by forming heterodimers or by modulating their expression levels or signaling activity. Here, we summarize recent results about the role of these receptors (atypical chemokine receptor 1/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine, atypical chemokine receptor 2/D6, atypical chemokine receptor 3/CXC-chemokine receptor 7, and atypical chemokine receptor 4/CC-chemokine receptor-like 1) on the tumorigenesis process, indicating that their effects are strictly dependent on the cell type on which they are expressed and on their coexpression with other chemokine receptors. Indeed, atypical chemokine receptors inhibit tumor growth and progression through their activity as negative regulators of chemokine bioavailability, whereas, on the contrary, they can promote tumorigenesis when they regulate the signaling of other chemokine receptors, such as CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Thus, atypical chemokine receptors are key components of the regulatory network of inflammation and immunity in cancer and may have a major effect on anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26908826

  3. Repeatedly stressed rats have enhanced vulnerability to amygdala kindling epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nigel C; Lee, Han Ee; Yang, Meng; Rees, Sandra M; Morris, Margaret J; O'Brien, Terence J; Salzberg, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders associated with elevated stress levels, such as depression, are present in many epilepsy patients, including those with mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE). Evidence suggests that these psychiatric disorders can predate the onset of epilepsy, suggesting a causal/contributory role. Prolonged exposure to elevated corticosterone, used as a model of chronic stress/depression, accelerates limbic epileptogenesis in the amygdala kindling model. The current study examined whether exposure to repeated stress could similarly accelerate experimental epileptogenesis. Female adult non-epileptic Wistar rats were implanted with a bipolar electrode into the left amygdala, and were randomly assigned into stressed (n=18) or non-stressed (n=19) groups. Rats underwent conventional amygdala kindling (two electrical stimulations per day) until 5 Class V seizures had been experienced ('the fully kindled state'). Stressed rats were exposed to 30min restraint immediately prior to each kindling stimulation, whereas non-stressed rats received control handling. Restraint stress increased circulating corticosterone levels (pre-stress: 122±17ng/ml; post-stress: 632±33ng/ml), with no habituation observed over the experiment. Stressed rats reached the 'fully kindled state' in significantly fewer stimulations than non-stressed rats (21±1 vs 33±3 stimulations; p=0.022; ANOVA), indicative of a vulnerability to epileptogenesis. Further, seizure durations were significantly longer in stressed rats (p<0.001; ANOVA). These data demonstrate that exposure to repeated experimental stress accelerates the development of limbic epileptogenesis, an effect which may be related to elevated corticosterone levels. This may have implications for understanding the effects of chronic stress and depression in disease onset and progression of mTLE in humans.

  4. Amygdala Regulation Following fMRI-Neurofeedback without Instructed Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Michael; Jacob, Mark J; Müller, Dirk K; Posse, Stefan; Ackley, Elena; Hellrung, Lydia; Riedel, Philipp; Bender, Stephan; Epple, Robert; Smolka, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback, most studies provide subjects with instructions or suggest strategies to regulate a particular brain area, while other neuro-/biofeedback approaches often do not. This study is the first to investigate the hypothesis that subjects are able to utilize fMRI neurofeedback to learn to differentially modulate the fMRI signal from the bilateral amygdala congruent with the prescribed regulation direction without an instructed or suggested strategy and apply what they learned even when feedback is no longer available. Thirty-two subjects were included in the analysis. Data were collected at 3 Tesla using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-sensitivity optimized multi-echo EPI. Based on the mean contrast between up- and down-regulation in the amygdala in a post-training scan without feedback following three neurofeedback sessions, subjects were able to regulate their amygdala congruent with the prescribed directions with a moderate effect size of Cohen's d = 0.43 (95% conf. int. 0.23-0.64). This effect size would be reduced, however, through stricter exclusion criteria for subjects that show alterations in respiration. Regulation capacity was positively correlated with subjective arousal ratings and negatively correlated with agreeableness and susceptibility to anger. A learning effect over the training sessions was only observed with end-of-block feedback (EoBF) but not with continuous feedback (trend). The results confirm the above hypothesis. Further studies are needed to compare effect sizes of regulation capacity for approaches with and without instructed strategies. PMID:27199706

  5. Increased amygdala response to shame in remitted major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Pulcu

    Full Text Available Proneness to self-blaming moral emotions such as shame and guilt is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD, and may play an important role in vulnerability even after symptoms have subsided. Social psychologists have argued that shame-proneness is relevant for depression vulnerability and is distinct from guilt. Shame depends on the imagined critical perception of others, whereas guilt results from one's own judgement. The neuroanatomy of shame in MDD is unknown. Using fMRI, we compared 21 participants with MDD remitted from symptoms with no current co-morbid axis-I disorders, and 18 control participants with no personal or family history of MDD. The MDD group exhibited higher activation of the right amygdala and posterior insula for shame relative to guilt (SPM8. This neural difference was observed despite equal levels of rated negative emotional valence and frequencies of induced shame and guilt experience across groups. These same results were found in the medication-free MDD subgroup (N = 15. Increased amygdala and posterior insula activations, known to be related to sensory perception of emotional stimuli, distinguish shame from guilt responses in remitted MDD. People with MDD thus exhibit changes in the neural response to shame after symptoms have subsided. This supports the hypothesis that shame and guilt play at least partly distinct roles in vulnerability to MDD. Shame-induction may be a more sensitive probe of residual amygdala hypersensitivity in MDD compared with facial emotion-evoked responses previously found to normalize on remission.

  6. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  7. Comparison between substantia innominata and amygdala kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Hoshino, S; Kumashiro, H

    1990-11-26

    Kindling was induced in rats by electrical stimulation of the lateral portion of the substantia innominata (SI). The pattern of seizure development was similar to that of amygdala (AM) kindling. However, lateral SI kindling was associated with ipsilateral head turning as an initial manifestation. In addition, lateral SI kindling had a higher afterdischarge threshold than AM kindling, and the generalized seizure triggering threshold was more unstable in SI kindling than in AM kindling. These findings suggest that lateral SI participates in, but is not essential for, AM seizure development in rats.

  8. Intracranial Tuberculoma Presenting as Atypical Eclampsia: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sharmila; Pradeep, Sunitha; John, Lopamudra; Kolluru, Vasavi

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of eclampsia before 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 48 hours of delivery in the absence of typical signs of hypertension and or proteinuria is termed as atypical eclampsia. Atypical or non-classic eclampsia will have some symptoms of eclampsia but without the usual proteinuria or hypertension. All patients with atypical onset should undergo neurological evaluation to rule out neurologic causes of seizures. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare and serious form of disease secondary to haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present a case of cerebral tuberculoma with seizures in late pregnancy mimicking eclampsia. PMID:27504359

  9. Sex differences in the functional connectivity of the amygdalae in association with cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Müller, Veronika I; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Boubela, Roland; Kalcher, Klaudius; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Gur, Ruben C; Eickhoff, Simon B; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-07-01

    Human amygdalae are involved in various behavioral functions such as affective and stress processing. For these behavioral functions, as well as for psychophysiological arousal including cortisol release, sex differences are reported. Here, we assessed cortisol levels and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of left and right amygdalae in 81 healthy participants (42 women) to investigate potential modulation of amygdala rsFC by sex and cortisol concentration. Our analyses revealed that rsFC of the left amygdala significantly differed between women and men: Women showed stronger rsFC than men between the left amygdala and left middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and hippocampus, regions involved in face processing, inner-speech, fear and pain processing. No stronger connections were detected for men and no sex difference emerged for right amygdala rsFC. Also, an interaction of sex and cortisol appeared: In women, cortisol was negatively associated with rsFC of the amygdalae with striatal regions, mid-orbital frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area and the parietal-occipital sulcus. Contrarily in men, positive associations of cortisol with rsFC of the left amygdala and these structures were observed. Functional decoding analyses revealed an association of the amygdalae and these regions with emotion, reward and memory processing, as well as action execution. Our results suggest that functional connectivity of the amygdalae as well as the regulatory effect of cortisol on brain networks differs between women and men. These sex-differences and the mediating and sex-dependent effect of cortisol on brain communication systems should be taken into account in affective and stress-related neuroimaging research. Thus, more studies including both sexes are required. PMID:27039701

  10. [Apropos of atypical melancholia with Sustiva (efavirenz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J P; Halleguen, O; Picard, A; Lang, J M; Danion, J M

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of HIV infection has changed dramatically in recent years as a result of the development of new drugs which allows a variety of multitherapy combinations more adapted to patients' needs and thereby improving compliance. Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition to a potent antiretroviral activity, efavirenz is an easy-to-take drug with once-daily dosing and is usually well tolerated. Efavirenz, however, may induce psychic alterations which are variable and atypical in both their clinical presentation and severity. As early as the first days of treatment, efavirenz may provoke surprising phenomena such as nightmares, vivid dreams, hallucinations or illusions, and twilight states. Depersonalization and derealization episodes, personality alterations, stream of thought troubles and unusual thought contents, atypical depression and cognitive disorders have also been observed. These phenomena may occur either early or later on treatment. The prevalence of severe psychic disorders is less than 5%, but they are often responsible for harmful treatment discontinuations. Psychiatric side effects are heterogeneous and probably not related to pre-existing psychologic weakness. We do not have enough data to evaluate these side effects and their etiopathogeny. The drug could act directly on the central nervous system since it crosses the blood-brain barrier, on the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. Some authors have compared efavirenz-induced psychic effects to those associated with LSD and found structural similarities between the two molecules. However, the heterogeneity and low prevalence of the psychiatric side effects of efavirenz suggest and individual sensitivity. In order to improve patient care, a better clinical approach, neuropsychological evaluation, and functional brain imagery should be used to progress in the analysis and comprehension of these disorders. We discuss in this paper the case of Mister H. This HIV

  11. Input-specific contributions to valence processing in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Susana S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-10-01

    Reward and punishment are often thought of as opposing processes: rewards and the environmental cues that predict them elicit approach and consummatory behaviors, while punishments drive aversion and avoidance behaviors. This framework suggests that there may be segregated brain circuits for these valenced behaviors. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is one brain region that contributes to both types of motivated behavior. Individual neurons in the BLA can favor positive over negative valence, or vice versa, but these neurons are intermingled, showing no anatomical segregation. The amygdala receives inputs from many brain areas and current theories posit that encoding of positive versus negative valence by BLA neurons is determined by the wiring of each neuron. Specifically, many projections from other brain areas that respond to positive and negative valence stimuli and predictive cues project strongly to the BLA and likely contribute to valence processing within the BLA. Here we review three of these areas, the basal forebrain, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the ventral tegmental area, and discuss how these may promote encoding of positive and negative valence within the BLA. PMID:27634144

  12. Consolidation of altered associability information by amygdala central nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffino, Felipe L; Holland, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The surprising omission of a reinforcer can enhance the associability of the stimuli that were present when the reward prediction error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from this laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. These elements include the amygdala, the midbrain substantia nigra, the basal forebrain substantia innominata, the dorsolateral striatum, the secondary visual cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we found that consolidation of a surprise-enhanced associability memory in a serial prediction task depends on processing in the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) after completion of sessions that included the surprising omission of an expected event. Post-surprise infusions of anisomycin, lidocaine, or muscimol prevented subsequent display of surprise-enhanced associability. Because previous studies indicated that CeA function is unnecessary for the expression of associability enhancements that were induced previously when CeA function was intact (Holland & Gallagher, 2006), we interpreted these results as indicating that post-surprise activity of CeA ("surprise replay") is necessary for the consolidation of altered associability memories elsewhere in the brain, such as the posterior parietal cortex (Schiffino et al., 2014a). PMID:27427328

  13. Acute rhabdomyolysis associated with atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, A. J.; Duncan, R; Henderson, L.; Jamal, G A; Kennedy, P G

    1991-01-01

    We report a patient with atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with acute rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis may be the cause of elevation of creatine kinase sometimes seen in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  14. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  15. Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rizwan Khan; Taimur Saleem; Tanveer Ul Haq; Kanwal Aftab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia, a benign hepatic tumor, is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely the entity can cause symptoms, mandating intervention. METHOD: We present a case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, which caused a considerable diagnostic dilemma due to its atypical presentation. RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a progressively increasing mass in the right upper quadrant which was associated with pain and emesis. Examination showed a firm, mobile mass palpable below the right subcostal margin. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an exophytic mass arising from hepatic segments III and IVb. Trucut biopsy of the hepatic mass was equivocal. Angiography showed a vascular tumor that was supplied by a tortuous branch of the proper hepatic artery. Surgical intervention for removal of the mass was undertaken. Intra-operatively, two large discrete tumors were found and completely resected. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This description of an unusual case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver highlights the point that the diagnosis of otherwise benign hepatic tumors may be difficult despite extensive work-up in some cases.

  16. Atypical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Eric T

    2016-09-01

    A 14 year old patient with short stature, type I diabetes, and cataracts was referred for evaluation of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Radiography was suggestive of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with decreased bone mineral density for age. Targeted molecular and biochemical testing were normal in this patient. Whole exome sequencing was performed and showed compound heterozygosity for previously reported pathogenic GALNS variants which were diagnostic of mucopolysaccharidosis, type IVA (Morquio A). While this case describes neither a novel condition nor a new mutation, it does illustrate three important points in the diagnosis of patients with atypical forms of MPS IVA. First, that in many instances urine glycosaminoglycan analysis is not sufficient to rule out MPS IVA as a potential diagnosis. Patients in whom biochemical screening is advised should have measurement of leukocyte enzymatic activity. Second, that in patients with radiographic evidence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with additional features or with normal targeted testing, MPS IVA should remain in the differential diagnosis. Third, that whole exome sequencing represents a viable diagnostic platform for evaluation of patients with unknown skeletal or metabolic disease.

  17. Nocturnal manifestations of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Colosimo, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although nocturnal disturbances are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the continuum of daytime manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still little evidence in the medical literature to support the occurrence of these complex phenomena in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). Based on the anatomical substrates in APDs, which are considered to be more extensive outside the basal ganglia than in PD, we might expect that patients with APDs encounter the whole range of nocturnal disturbances, including motor, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and neuropsychiatric manifestations at a similar, or even greater, frequency than in PD. This article is a review of the current literature on the problems at nighttime of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. MEDLINE, life science journals and online books were searched by querying appropriate key words. Reports were included if the studies were related to nocturnal manifestations in APDs. Forty articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Differences between these symptoms in APDs and PD are highlighted, given the evidence available about each manifestation. This analysis of nocturnal manifestations of APDs suggests the need for future studies to address these issues to improve the quality of life not only of patients with APDs but the caregivers who encounter the challenges of supporting these patients on a daily basis.

  18. Atypical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Eric T

    2016-09-01

    A 14 year old patient with short stature, type I diabetes, and cataracts was referred for evaluation of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Radiography was suggestive of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with decreased bone mineral density for age. Targeted molecular and biochemical testing were normal in this patient. Whole exome sequencing was performed and showed compound heterozygosity for previously reported pathogenic GALNS variants which were diagnostic of mucopolysaccharidosis, type IVA (Morquio A). While this case describes neither a novel condition nor a new mutation, it does illustrate three important points in the diagnosis of patients with atypical forms of MPS IVA. First, that in many instances urine glycosaminoglycan analysis is not sufficient to rule out MPS IVA as a potential diagnosis. Patients in whom biochemical screening is advised should have measurement of leukocyte enzymatic activity. Second, that in patients with radiographic evidence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with additional features or with normal targeted testing, MPS IVA should remain in the differential diagnosis. Third, that whole exome sequencing represents a viable diagnostic platform for evaluation of patients with unknown skeletal or metabolic disease. PMID:27331011

  19. Orthostatic Hypotension in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad; Johan Lökk

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is one of the commonly occurring nonmotor symptoms in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP). We aimed to review current evidences on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of OH in patients with IPD and AP. Major electronic medical databases were assessed including PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase up to February 2013. English-written original or review articles with keywords such as “Parkinson’s disease,” “atypical p...

  20. Atypical fibroxanthoma: An unusual skin neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-year-old male with XP.

  1. Atypical Fibroxanthoma: An Unusual Skin Neoplasm in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay; Dipanwita Nag; Sanjay Bandyopadhyay; Swapan Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV) damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-y...

  2. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  3. Atypical meningococcal meningitis with rashless presentation:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunita; Singh Manpreet; Kapoor Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is the major health problem in developing world. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from transient fever and bacteraemia to fulminant disease with death ensuing within hours of the onset of clinical symptoms. The classical clinical manifestations of meningococcal disease have been well described, but atypical presentations if unrecognized, may lead to a delay in treatment and fatal outcome. We here report a case presented with atypical presentation of meningococcal meningitis without classical rash, which was diagnosed and managed successfully.

  4. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M

    2012-02-03

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  5. An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papakostas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity.

  6. Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Whittle, Sarah L; Pilioussis, Eleanor; Allott, Kelly; Rice, Simon; Schäfer, Miriam R; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, G Paul

    2014-12-30

    Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-recognition and outcome measures. The amygdala was manually delineated from magnetic resonance images for 39 UHR individuals who had also completed facial and prosody emotion-recognition tasks. Partial correlations were conducted to examine associations between amydgala volume/asymmetry and recognition of negative emotions. Mediation analyses were conducted using regression and bootstrapping techniques. Amygdala volume was positively correlated with sadness emotion recognition, in particular prosody, for females only. Left amygdala volume mediated the effect of sadness recognition on depressive symptoms, negative symptoms, overall psychopathology, and global functioning in females. Findings suggest a complex relationship between emotion recognition, the structure of the amygdala and illness outcome, where recognition of sadness appears to be the precipitator of this relationship in UHR females. Further research is needed to determine illness specificity and to confirm our sex- and emotion-specific results.

  7. Amygdala hyperactivation during symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and its modulation by distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Simon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to a hyperactivated cortico-amygdalar circuitry. Recent findings highlight the amygdala's role in mediating elevated anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. However, modulation of amygdala hyperactivation by attentional distraction – an effective emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals – has not yet been examined. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging twenty-one unmedicated OCD patients and 21 controls performed an evaluation and a distraction task during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures. To test the specificity of responses, additional aversive and neutral stimuli were included. Significant group-by-picture type interactions were observed within fronto–striato–limbic circuits including the amygdala. In these regions patients showed increased BOLD responses during processing of OCD triggers relative to healthy controls. Amygdala hyperactivation was present across OCD symptom dimensions indicating that it represents a common neural correlate. During distraction, we observed dampening of patients' amygdala hyperactivity to OCD-relevant stimuli. Augmented amygdala involvement in patients during symptom provocation, present across OCD symptom dimensions, might constitute a correlate of fear expression in OCD linking it to other anxiety disorders. Attentional distraction seemed to dampen emotional processing of disorder-relevant stimuli via amygdala downregulation. The clinical impact of this strategy to manage anxiety in OCD should be further elucidated.

  8. Abnormal amygdala connectivity in patients with primary insomnia: Evidence from resting state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Neurobiological mechanisms underlying insomnia are poorly understood. Previous findings indicated that dysfunction of the emotional circuit might contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying insomnia. The present study will test this hypothesis by examining alterations in functional connectivity of the amygdala in patients with primary insomnia (PI). Methods: Resting-state functional connectivity analysis was used to examine the temporal correlation between the amygdala and whole-brain regions in 10 medication-naive PI patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additionally, the relationship between the abnormal functional connectivity and insomnia severity was investigated. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity mainly between the amygdala and insula, striatum and thalamus, and increased functional connectivity mainly between the amygdala and premotor cortex, sensorimotor cortex in PI patients as compared to healthy controls. The connectivity of the amygdala with the premotor cortex in PI patients showed significant positive correlation with the total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Conclusions: The decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula, striatum, and thalamus suggests that dysfunction in the emotional circuit might contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PI. The increased functional connectivity of the amygdala with the premotor and sensorimotor cortex demonstrates a compensatory mechanism to overcome the negative effects of sleep deficits and maintain the psychomotor performances in PI patients.

  9. Neuroimaging study of the human amygdala. Toward an understanding of emotional and stress responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential. (author)

  10. Double dissociation of amygdala and hippocampal contributions to trace and delay fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2011-01-19

    A key finding in studies of the neurobiology of learning memory is that the amygdala is critically involved in Pavlovian fear conditioning. This is well established in delay-cued and contextual fear conditioning; however, surprisingly little is known of the role of the amygdala in trace conditioning. Trace fear conditioning, in which the CS and US are separated in time by a trace interval, requires the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. It is possible that recruitment of cortical structures by trace conditioning alters the role of the amygdala compared to delay fear conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To investigate this, we inactivated the amygdala of male C57BL/6 mice with GABA (A) agonist muscimol prior to 2-pairing trace or delay fear conditioning. Amygdala inactivation produced deficits in contextual and delay conditioning, but had no effect on trace conditioning. As controls, we demonstrate that dorsal hippocampal inactivation produced deficits in trace and contextual, but not delay fear conditioning. Further, pre- and post-training amygdala inactivation disrupted the contextual but the not cued component of trace conditioning, as did muscimol infusion prior to 1- or 4-pairing trace conditioning. These findings demonstrate that insertion of a temporal gap between the CS and US can generate amygdala-independent fear conditioning. We discuss the implications of this surprising finding for current models of the neural circuitry involved in fear conditioning.

  11. Differential Activation of Amygdala Arc Expression By Positive and Negatively Valenced Emotional Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eYoung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, 5 auditory tones only, or 5 auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35mA during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 minutes following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p

  12. Role of amygdala MAPK activation on immobility behavior of forced swim rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tung-Yi; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2006-10-01

    The role of amygdala mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in rats during a forced swim test was investigated. The variation of amygdala MAPK level was studied in control rats and early-life maternally deprived rats. A forced swim test was carried out to estimate the immobility level. The data showed that the immobility time of rats that received maternal deprivation in early life was longer than that of control rats and Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala phospho-MAPK level in maternally deprived rats was almost two times higher than in control rats. Intra-amygdala infusion of PD098059 or U0126, MEK inhibitors, suppressed immobility behavior during the forced swim test in both rats. Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala MAPK activities in both rats infused with MEK inhibitors were also suppressed in parallel with expression of immobility behavior. The suppressed MAPK activities as well as the restoration of immobility time returned to the original level 48 h later. These results suggest that amygdala MAPK activation might play a role in the regulation of immobility behavior in rats during the forced swim test. Moreover, it could provide a hint that amygdala MAPK activation might be involved in the formation of depression-like behavior.

  13. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veer, Ilya M; Oei, Nicole Y L; van Buchem, Mark A; Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2015-09-30

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here we investigated hippocampus and amygdala volumes and shapes in an adult sample of PTSD patients related to childhood trauma. T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 12 female PTSD patients with trauma related to physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse before age 18, and from 12 matched controls. Hippocampus and amygdala were segmented, and volumes were calculated and corrected for the total intracranial volume. Additionally, a shape analysis was done on the surface of the structures to explore abnormalities in specific subnuclei. Smaller right amygdala volumes were found in PTSD patients as compared with the controls. This difference appeared to be located specifically in the basolateral and superficial nuclei groups. Severity of sexual abuse during childhood was negatively correlated with the size of the amygdala. No difference in hippocampal volumes was found. Although our results are not conclusive, traumatic events in childhood might impede normal development of the amygdala, which could render a person more vulnerable to develop PTSD later in life. PMID:26211620

  14. Neural mechanisms of social decision-making in the primate amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Fagan, Nicholas A; Toda, Koji; Utevsky, Amanda V; Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2015-12-29

    Social decisions require evaluation of costs and benefits to oneself and others. Long associated with emotion and vigilance, the amygdala has recently been implicated in both decision-making and social behavior. The amygdala signals reward and punishment, as well as facial expressions and the gaze of others. Amygdala damage impairs social interactions, and the social neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences human social decisions, in part, by altering amygdala function. Here we show in monkeys playing a modified dictator game, in which one individual can donate or withhold rewards from another, that basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons signaled social preferences both across trials and across days. BLA neurons mirrored the value of rewards delivered to self and others when monkeys were free to choose but not when the computer made choices for them. We also found that focal infusion of OT unilaterally into BLA weakly but significantly increased both the frequency of prosocial decisions and attention to recipients for context-specific prosocial decisions, endorsing the hypothesis that OT regulates social behavior, in part, via amygdala neuromodulation. Our findings demonstrate both neurophysiological and neuroendocrinological connections between primate amygdala and social decisions. PMID:26668400

  15. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  16. Inhibitory effect of ketamine on lighting amygdala of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiguo Zhang; Bin Yang; Jing Zhang; Feng Zhang; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. Some researchers suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is closely related to epileptic attack.OBJECTIVE: To observe inhibitory effect of ketamine on lighting amygdala of rats and analyze pathway of anti-lighting.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology and Department of Management, Pharmacological College of Taishan Medical College; Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Sixty adult female Wistar rats, of clean grade, weighing 180-200 g, were provided by Animal Center of Qingdao Institute of Drug Control. Ketamine hydrochloride was provided by the First Pharmacological Factory of the First Biochemical Pharmacology Company of Shanghai, and nicardipine, an antagonist of calcium ions, was provided by Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiment was completed in the Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Qingdao University from March to November 2004. ① Model establishing: After anesthesia, left and right amygdalas were inserted with double electrodes. The top was separated about 0.25 mm, and the other end was welded with a micro-plug, respectively. Electrode and micro-plug were fixed with dental base acrylic resin powder at the surface of cranium. Two weeks after recovery, right amygdala was stimulated with constant current once a day. According to Racine technique, attacking intensity was divided into 5 grades: grade I:closing eyes, a little tingling of beards and twitching face; grade Ⅱ: nodding, chewing accompanying with twitching face; grade Ⅲ: raising one of a forelimb and clonus; grade Ⅳ: standing accompanying with bilateral forelimbs; grade Ⅴ: standing accompanying with falling down. Rats with grades Ⅳ and Ⅴ were used to establish secondarily generalized epilepsy. If 3 successive attacks of grade Ⅴ were observed, the lighting was to be successful. ② Effect of

  17. Amygdala Connectivity Differs Among Chronic, Early Course, and Individuals at Risk for Developing Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Tang, Yanqing; Cho, Youngsun T.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Wang, Fei; Krystal, John H.; Xu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in circuits involving the amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in schizophrenia neuropathology, given their role in stress, affective salience processing, and psychosis onset. Disturbances in amygdala whole-brain functional connectivity associated with schizophrenia have yet to be fully characterized despite their importance in psychosis. Moreover, it remains unknown if there are functional alterations in amygdala circuits across illness phases. To evaluate this possibility, we compared whole-brain amygdala connectivity in healthy comparison subjects (HCS), individuals at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia, individuals in the early course of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ), and patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ). We computed whole-brain resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T via anatomically defined individual-specific amygdala seeds. We identified significant alterations in amygdala connectivity with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), driven by reductions in EC-SCZ and C-SCZ (effect sizes of 1.0 and 0.97, respectively), but not in HR for schizophrenia, relative to HCS. Reduced amygdala-OFC coupling was associated with schizophrenia symptom severity (r = .32, P < .015). Conversely, we identified a robust increase in amygdala connectivity with a brainstem region around noradrenergic arousal nuclei, particularly for HR individuals relative to HCS (effect size = 1.54), but not as prominently for other clinical groups. These results suggest that deficits in amygdala-OFC coupling could emerge during the initial episode of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ) and may present as an enduring feature of the illness (C-SCZ) in association with symptom severity but are not present in individuals with elevated risk for developing schizophrenia. Instead, in HR individuals, there appears to be increased connectivity in a circuit implicated in stress response. PMID:24366718

  18. Serotonin Transporter Genotype Modulates Functional Connectivity between Amygdala and PCC/PCu during Mood Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo eFang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The short (S allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The default brain network (DMN has also been shown to modulate amygdala activity. However, it remains unclear whether 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates functional connectivity between the amygdala and regions of DMN. In this study, we re-analyzed our previous imaging dataset and examined the effects of 5-HTTLPR genetic variation on amygdala connectivity. A total of 15 homozygous short (S/S and 15 homozygous long individuals (L/L were scanned in functional MRI during four blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery, and return to baseline. The S/S and L/L groups showed a similar pattern of functional connectivity and no differences were found between the two groups during baseline and sad mood scans. However, during mood recovery, the S/S group showed significantly reduced anti-correlations between amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu compared to the L/L group. Moreover, PCC/PCu-amygdala connectivity correlated with amygdala activity in the S/S group but not the L/L group. These results suggest that 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates amygdala connectivity which subsequently affects its activity during mood regulation, providing an additional mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk.

  19. General and specific responsiveness of the amygdala during explicit emotion recognition in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windischberger Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions relies on an extensive neural network with the amygdala as the key node as has typically been demonstrated for the processing of fearful stimuli. A sufficient characterization of the factors influencing and modulating amygdala function, however, has not been reached now. Due to lacking or diverging results on its involvement in recognizing all or only certain negative emotions, the influence of gender or ethnicity is still under debate. This high-resolution fMRI study addresses some of the relevant parameters, such as emotional valence, gender and poser ethnicity on amygdala activation during facial emotion recognition in 50 Caucasian subjects. Stimuli were color photographs of emotional Caucasian and African American faces. Results Bilateral amygdala activation was obtained to all emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, and sad and neutral faces across all subjects. However, only in males a significant correlation of amygdala activation and behavioral response to fearful stimuli was observed, indicating higher amygdala responses with better fear recognition, thus pointing to subtle gender differences. No significant influence of poser ethnicity on amygdala activation occurred, but analysis of recognition accuracy revealed a significant impact of poser ethnicity that was emotion-dependent. Conclusion Applying high-resolution fMRI while subjects were performing an explicit emotion recognition task revealed bilateral amygdala activation to all emotions presented and neutral expressions. This mechanism seems to operate similarly in healthy females and males and for both in-group and out-group ethnicities. Our results support the assumption that an intact amygdala response is fundamental in the processing of these salient stimuli due to its relevance detecting function.

  20. Amygdala subregions tied to SSRI and placebo response in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Vanda; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Örjan; Bani, Massimo; Bettica, Paolo; Pich, Emilio M; Jacobsson, Eva; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2012-09-01

    The amygdala is a key structure in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, and a putative target for anxiolytic treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala responsiveness. However, conflicting amygdala findings have also been reported. Moreover, the neural profile of responders and nonresponders is insufficiently characterized and it remains unknown whether SSRIs and placebo engage common or distinct amygdala subregions or different modulatory cortical areas. We examined similarities and differences in the neural response to SSRIs and placebo in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labeled water was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 72 patients with SAD during an anxiogenic public speaking task, before and after 6-8 weeks of treatment under double-blind conditions. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Conjunction analysis revealed a common rCBF-attenuation from pre- to post-treatment in responders to SSRIs and placebo in the left basomedial/basolateral and right ventrolateral amygdala. This rCBF pattern correlated with behavioral measures of reduced anxiety and differentiated responders from nonresponders. However, nonanxiolytic treatment effects were also observed in the amygdala. All subgroups, including nonresponders, showed deactivation of the left lateral part of the amygdala. No rCBF differences were found between SSRI responders and placebo responders. This study provides new insights into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis. PMID:22617357

  1. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  2. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  3. Atypical femoral fractures and current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianye Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs for treating osteoporosis, one of the clinical complications associated with its long-term use is atypical femoral fractures (AFFs. Although the absolute risk for AFFs is low and it was a consensus that AFFs were acceptable compared with the amount of osteoporotic fractures BPs have prevented, epidemiological studies have proved that BPs had a strong association with AFFs and possibly more people were going to suffer from this adverse effect with wide prescriptions of this drug. In addition, AFFs seemed to have impaired ability to heal. Thus, to understand the mechanism(s behind AFFs is important and desirable for considering preventive measures. This article reviewed the clinical features of AFFs as well as potential underlining pathological characteristics, such as the decreased turnover rate caused by BPs that led to multiple-level alternations, e.g., changes not only at cellular and tissue levels, but also related to changes in bone micro- and macrostructure and organic/inorganic contents, leading to potentially compromised mechanical properties of cortical bone when exposed to prolonged BP therapy. Severely suppressed bone turnover may also be the underlying mechanism for impaired fracture healing in patients with AFFs. The rising concerns about the risk for AFFs in nonosteoporotic patients receiving high-dose BPs to treat cancers were also discussed. Detailed investigation will help develop potential targeted pharmacological treatments such as parathyroid hormone. In addition, potential innovative internal fixation implants were discussed with regard to dynamic and biological fixation for enhancing AFF repair.

  4. Preferential reduction of binding of sup 125 I-iodopindolol to beta-1 adrenoceptors in the amygdala of rat after antidepressant treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordway, G.A.; Gambarana, C.; Tejani-Butt, S.M.; Areso, P.; Hauptmann, M.; Frazer, A. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This study utilized quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine the effects of repeated administration of antidepressants to rats on the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist, {sup 125}I-iodopindolol ({sup 125}I-IPIN) to either beta-1 or beta-2 adrenoceptors in various regions of brain. Antidepressants were selected to represent various chemical and pharmacological classes including tricyclic compounds (desipramine and protriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (clorgyline, phenelzine and tranylcypromine), atypical antidepressants (mianserin and trazodone) and selective inhibitors of the uptake of serotonin (citalopram and sertraline). Additionally, rats were treated with various psychotropic drugs that lack antidepressant efficacy (cocaine, deprenyl, diazepam and haloperidol). Repeated treatment of rats with desipramine, protriptyline, clorgyline, phenelzine, tranylcypromine or mianserin reduced the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-1 adrenoceptors in many brain areas. Only in the basolateral and lateral nuclei of the amygdala did all six of these antidepressants significantly reduce {sup 125}I-IPIN binding to beta-1 adrenoceptors. In these amygdaloid nuclei, the magnitude of the reduction in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN caused by each of these drugs was comparable to or greater than the reduction in binding produced in any other region of brain. Reductions of binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN after antidepressant treatments were not consistently observed in the cortex, the area of brain examined most often in homogenate binding studies. Only the monoamine oxidase inhibitors caused reductions in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-2 adrenoceptors, and this effect was generally localized to the amygdala and hypothalamus.

  5. Mesolimbic dopaminergic supersensitivity following electrical kindling of the amygdala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernansky, J.G.; Mellentin, J.; Beauclair, L.; Lombrozo, L.

    1988-02-01

    Limbic seizures developed in rats following daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Animals were designated as kindled after five complete (stage 5) behavioral seizures were observed. A subgroup, designated as superkindled, received three additional weeks of electrical stimulations. Kindled rats were significantly subsensitive to the stereotypy-inducing effects of apomorphine, a direct dopamine agonist, compared to controls. Superkindled rats were supersensitive to the effects of apomorphine. However, both kindled and superkindled rats demonstrated an increase in /sup 3/H-spiperone Bmax values, reflecting dopamine D2-receptor densities, in the nucleus accumbens ipsilateral to the stimulating electrode. The number of interictal spikes recorded from the stimulating amygdaloid electrode during the last week of kindling was correlated with changes in apomorphine sensitivity in individual animals.

  6. Ifenprodil and arcaine alter amygdala-kindling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourick, D L; Repasi, R T; Rittase, W B; Staten, L D; Meyerhoff, J L

    1999-04-29

    The NMDA receptor complex is thought to be altered in kindling, an animal model for complex partial epilepsy. This receptor complex has several modulatory sites including those for glutamate, glycine and polyamines with activation resulting in altered cation channel opening. Two NMDA receptor effectors, ifenprodil and arcaine, were evaluated for effects on the acquisition of electrical kindling of the amygdala. Rats were administered 0, 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 microg of ifenprodil or 0, 32 or 100 microg of arcaine, intracerebroventricularly, 10 min before a daily kindling stimulus. Ifenprodil, at low doses, enhanced kindling acquisition, while the highest dose, 100 microg, inhibited kindling. Arcaine increased the number of trials required to reach fully generalized (stage 5) seizures at the 100 microg dose. Since these agents had mixed actions on kindling development, it is unclear whether these or similar NMDA effectors would be useful in the modulation of complex partial seizures.

  7. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the amygdala of the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bossowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and morphology of neurons containing somatostatin (SOM was investigated in the amygdala (CA of the pig. The SOM-immunoreactive (SOM-IR cell bodies and fibres were present in all subdivisions of the porcine CA, however, their number and density varied depending on the nucleus studied. The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled part of the lateral nucleus. Moderate to high numbers of SOM-IR cells were also observed in the medial and basolateral nuclei. Many labeled neurons were also consistently observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus. In the remaining CA regions, the density of SOM-positive cell bodies varied from moderate to low. In any CA region studied SOM-IR neurons formed heterogeneous population consisting of small, rounded or slightly elongated cell bodies, with a few poorly branched smooth dendrites. In general, morphological features of these cells clearly resembled the non-pyramidal Golgi type II interneurons. The routine double-labeling studies with antisera directed against SOM and neuropeptide Y (NPY demonstrated that a large number of SOM-IR cell bodies and fibers in all studied CA areas contained simultaneously NPY. In contrast, co-localization of SOM and cholecystokinin (CCK or SOM and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP was never seen in cell bodies and fibres in any of nuclei studied. In conclusion, SOM-IR neurons of the porcine amygdala form large and heterogeneous subpopulation of, most probably, interneurons that often contain additionally NPY. On the other hand, CCK- and/or VIP-IR neurons belonged to another, discrete subpopulations of porcine CA neurons.

  8. Symptomatic atypical femoral fractures are related to underlying hip geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, David P; Marcano, Alejandro I; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±3.5] vs. 7.7 [±3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p<0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p<0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were

  9. Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767

  10. Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli.

  11. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: Does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mourad Chekroud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area, using racial group memberships, quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field, and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions.

  12. Pavlovian fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampus and amygdala function: cautions and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning has become an important model for investigating the neural substrates of learning and memory in rats, mice and humans. The hippocampus and amygdala are widely believed to be essential for fear conditioning to contexts and discrete cues, respectively. Indeed, this parsing of function within the fear circuit has been used to leverage fear conditioning as a behavioral assay of hippocampal and amygdala function, particularly in transgenic mouse models. Recent work, however, blurs the anatomical segregation of cue and context conditioning and challenges the necessity for the hippocampus and amygdala in fear learning. Moreover, nonassociative factors may influence the performance of fear responses under a variety of conditions. Caution must therefore be exercised when using fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent learning.

  13. Trait aggressiveness is not related to structural connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Beyer

    Full Text Available Studies in both pathological and healthy samples have suggested altered functional connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and amygdala as a possible cause of anger and aggression. In patient populations presenting with pathological aggression, there is also evidence for changes in structural connectivity between OFC and amygdala. In healthy samples, however, the relationship between white matter integrity and aggression has not been studied to date. Here, we investigated the relationship between trait aggressiveness and structural OFC-amygdala connectivity in a large sample (n = 93 of healthy young men. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured the distribution of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along the uncinate fascicle bilaterally. We found no differences in either measure between participants high and low in physical aggressiveness, or between those high and low in trait anger. Our results therefore argue against a direct relationship between structural OFC-amygdala connectivity and normal-range trait aggressiveness.

  14. The Rhesus Monkey Connectome Predicts Disrupted Functional Networks Resulting from Pharmacogenetic Inactivation of the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, David S; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Machado, Christopher J; Bennett, Jeffrey; Shen, Kelly; Grant, Kathleen A; Fair, Damien A; Amaral, David G

    2016-07-20

    Contemporary research suggests that the mammalian brain is a complex system, implying that damage to even a single functional area could have widespread consequences across the system. To test this hypothesis, we pharmacogenetically inactivated the rhesus monkey amygdala, a subcortical region with distributed and well-defined cortical connectivity. We then examined the impact of that perturbation on global network organization using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Amygdala inactivation disrupted amygdalocortical communication and distributed corticocortical coupling across multiple functional brain systems. Altered coupling was explained using a graph-based analysis of experimentally established structural connectivity to simulate disconnection of the amygdala. Communication capacity via monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways, in aggregate, largely accounted for the correlational structure of endogenous brain activity and many of the non-local changes that resulted from amygdala inactivation. These results highlight the structural basis of distributed neural activity and suggest a strategy for linking focal neuropathology to remote neurophysiological changes. PMID:27477019

  15. Ichthyosiform mycosis fungoides with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a rare case of variant of mycosis fungoides (MF: ichthyosiform MF with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy. The diagnosis was made based on the following findings: generalized ichthyosis-like eruption, alopecia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, proteinuria, and hematuria, the histological features of the skin biopsy from both ichthyotic and alopecic lesions with immunohistochemical staining, and the renal biopsy examination with immunofluorescence. The histological examination of ichthyotic and alopecic lesions displayed a predominant infiltration of atypical lymphocytes in the upper dermis with the characteristics of epidermotropism and folliculotropism. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that most infiltrated atypical lymphocytes were CD3, CD4, and CD45RO positive, whereas negative for CD5, CD7, CD20, CD30, and CD56. A renal biopsy examination revealed atypical membranous nephropathy with deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, IgA, C1q, and C3. In this case atypical membranous nephropathy was involved, which is very uncommon and has never been presented in the literature to date. Although ichthyosiform MF usually features a relatively favorable course, diffuse alopecia and the renal involvement in this case might indicate aggressive disease and poor prognosis.

  16. Enhanced noradrenergic activity in the amygdala contributes to hyperarousal in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzoni, Giacomo; Del Arco, Alberto; Mora, Francisco; Segovia, Gregorio

    2016-08-01

    Increased activity of the noradrenergic system in the amygdala has been suggested to contribute to the hyperarousal symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only two studies have examined the content of noradrenaline or its metabolites in the amygdala of rats previously exposed to traumatic stress showing inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an inescapable foot shock (IFS) procedure (1) on reactivity to novelty in an open-field (as an index of hyperarousal), and (2) on noradrenaline release in the amygdala during an acute stress. To test the role of noradrenaline in amygdala, we also investigated the effects of microinjections of propranolol, a β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, and clenbuterol, a β-adrenoreceptor agonist, into the amygdala of IFS and control animals. Finally, we evaluated the expression of mRNA levels of β-adrenoreceptors (β1 and β2) in the amygdala, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Male Wistar rats (3 months) were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral guide cannulae. After recovering from surgery, animals were exposed to IFS (10 shocks, 0.86mA, and 6s per shock) and seven days later either microdialysis or microinjections were performed in amygdala. Animals exposed to IFS showed a reduced locomotion compared to non-shocked animals during the first 5min in the open-field. In the amygdala, IFS animals showed an enhanced increase of noradrenaline induced by stress compared to control animals. Bilateral microinjections of propranolol (0.5μg) into the amygdala one hour before testing in the open-field normalized the decreased locomotion observed in IFS animals. On the other hand, bilateral microinjections of clenbuterol (30ng) into the amygdala of control animals did not change the exploratory activity induced by novelty in the open field. IFS modified the mRNA expression of β1 and β2 adrenoreceptors in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. These results

  17. Transient elevation of amygdala alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites during the early stages of amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M J; Vigil, A; Savage, D D; Weiss, G K

    1990-03-01

    Enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission retards but does not prevent the development of kindling. We previously reported that locus coeruleus (LC) alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites are transiently elevated during the early stages of kindling development. Since the firing activity of LC noradrenergic neurons is partially regulated via an alpha 2 receptor-mediated recurrent inhibition, the transient elevation in LC alpha 2 receptors could decrease LC activity and consequently facilitate the development of kindling. Transient elevation of alpha 2 receptor binding sites during early stages of kindling may also occur on noradrenergic axon terminals projecting to forebrain sites. Using in vitro neurotransmitter autoradiography techniques, we investigated this hypothesis by measuring specific [3H]idazoxan binding in 5 different areas of rat forebrain at 2 different stages of kindling development. After 2 class 1 kindled seizures, specific [3H]idazoxan binding was elevated significantly in the amygdala, but not in other forebrain regions. No differences in specific [3H]idazoxan binding were observed in any of the 5 brain regions in rats kindled to a single class 5 kindled motor seizure. Saturation of binding experiments indicated that the increase in amygdala [3H]idazoxan binding, following 2 class 1 kindled motor seizures, was due to an increase in the total number of alpha 2 receptor binding sites without a change in the affinity of the binding sites for [3H]idazoxan. Thus, the transient increase in alpha 2 receptors that occurs in the LC in the early stages of kindling also occurs in the forebrain region in which the kindled seizure originates.

  18. Age-related effect of serotonin transporter genotype on amygdala and prefrontal cortex function in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Bedoyan, Jirair K.; Carrasco, Melisa; Swartz, Johnna R.; Martin, Donna M.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The S and LG alleles of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) lower serotonin transporter expression. These low expressing alleles are linked to increased risk for depression and brain activation patterns found in depression (increased amygdala activation and decreased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity). Paradoxically, serotonin transporter blockade relieves depression symptoms. Rodent models suggest that decreased serotonin transporter in early life produces de...

  19. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  20. The Amygdala and the Relevance Detection Theory of Autism: An Evolutionary Perspective

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    Tiziana eZalla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and in particular its contribution to the socio-emotional impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the social brain, several theoretical explanations compatible with amygdala dysfunction have been proposed to account for socio-emotional impairments in ASDs, including abnormal eye contact, gaze monitoring, face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Nevertheless, many theoretical accounts, based on the Amygdala Theory of Autism, fail to elucidate the complex pattern of impairments observed in this population, which extends beyond the social domain. As posited by the Relevance Detector theory (Sander, Grafman and Zalla, 2003, the human amygdala is a critical component of a brain circuit involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events that include, but are not restricted to, social stimuli. Here, we propose that the behavioral and social-emotional features of ASDs may be better understood in terms of a disruption in a ‘Relevance Detector Network’ affecting the processing of stimuli that are relevant for the organism’s self-regulating functions. In the present review, we will first summarize the main literature supporting the involvement of the amygdala in socio-emotional disturbances in ASDs. Next, we will present a revised version of the amygdala Relevance Detector hypothesis and we will show that this theoretical framework can provide a better understanding of the heterogeneity of the impairments and symptomatology of ASDs. Finally, we will discuss some predictions of our model, and suggest new directions in the investigation of the role of the amygdala within the more generally disrupted cortical connectivity framework as a model of neural organization of the autistic brain.

  1. Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory storage involves noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Quirarte, Gina L.; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the modulatory effects of the adrenergic stress hormone epinephrine as well as several other neuromodulatory systems on memory storage are mediated by activation of β-adrenergic mechanisms in the amygdala. In view of our recent findings indicating that the amygdala is involved in mediating the effects of glucocorticoids on memory storage, the present study examined whether the glucocorticoid-induced effects on memory storage depend on β-adrenergic activation within the...

  2. Role of Anxiety in the Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Importance of the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    BrentMyers; BeverleyGreenwood-VanMeerveld

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala...

  3. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A.; Serrano, P.; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L.; Borsook, D.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced ...

  4. Effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on fear learning, conditioned inhibition, and extinction in adult macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy M; Heuer, Eric; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2012-06-01

    Fear conditioning studies have demonstrated the critical role played by the amygdala in emotion processing. Although all lesion studies until now investigated the effect of adult-onset damage on fear conditioning, the current study assessed fear-learning abilities, as measured by fear-potentiated startle, in adult monkeys that had received neonatal neurotoxic amygdala damage or sham-operations. After fear acquisition, their abilities to learn and use a safety cue to modulate their fear to the conditioned cue, and, finally, to extinguish their response to the fear conditioned cue were measured with the AX+/BX- Paradigm. Neonatal amygdala damage retarded, but did not completely abolish, the acquisition of a learned fear. After acquisition of the fear signal, four of the six animals with neonatal amygdala lesions discriminated between the fear and safety cues and were also able to use the safety signal to reduce the potentiated-startle response and to extinguish the fear response when the air-blast was absent. In conclusion, the present results support the critical contribution of the amygdala during the early phases of fear conditioning that leads to quick, robust responses to potentially threatening stimuli, a highly adaptive process across all species and likely to be present in early infancy. The neonatal amygdala lesions also indicated the presence of amygdala-independent alternate pathways that are capable to support fear learning in the absence of a functional amygdala. This parallel processing of fear responses within these alternate pathways was also sufficient to support the ability to flexibly modulate the magnitude of the fear responses.

  5. Serotonin Transporter Genotype Modulates Functional Connectivity between Amygdala and PCC/PCu during Mood Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo eFang; Senhua eZhu; Gillihan, Seth J.; Marc eKorczykowski; Detre, John A.; Hengyi eRao

    2013-01-01

    The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The default brain network (DMN) has also been shown to...

  6. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC/PCu during mood recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zhuo; Zhu, Senhua; Gillihan, Seth J.; Korczykowski, Marc; Detre, John A.; Rao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The brain default mode network (DMN) has also been sho...

  7. A model of amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal interaction in fear conditioning and extinction in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Orr, Scott P.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are involved in fear conditioning. However, the functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not clearly understood. Here, we extend existing neural network models of the functional roles of the hippocampus in classical conditioning to include interactions with the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. We apply the model to fear conditioning, in which animal...

  8. Amygdala perfusion is predicted by its functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and negative affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Coombs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect. It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1 amygdala over-activity and 2 reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. METHODS: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA, and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach.

  9. The Impact of Early Amygdala Damage on Juvenile Rhesus Macaque Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The present experiments continue a longitudinal study of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. Juvenile animals (approximately 1.5- 2.5 years of age) were tested in four different social contexts—alone, while interacting with one familiar peer, while interacting with one unfamiliar peer, and in their permanent social groups. During infancy, the amygdala-lesioned animals displayed more interest in c...

  10. Oscillatory interaction between amygdala and hippocampus coordinates behavioral modulation based on reward expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eTerada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine how the amygdala and hippocampus interact for behavioral performance modulated by different reward expectations. We simultaneously recorded neuronal spikes and local field potential from the basolateral amygdala and hippocampal CA1 while rats were performing a light-side discrimination task with different expectations of a high or low probability of reward delivery. Here, we report the following results. First, the rats actually modulated their behavioral performance on their expectations of a high or low probability of reward. Second, we found more neurons related to reward expectation in the amygdala and more neurons related to task performance in the hippocampus. Third, a prominent increase in the coherence of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs (90-150Hz between the amygdala and the hippocampus was present during high reward expectation. Fourth, coherent HFOs during inter-trial intervals and theta coherence during trials had significant correlations with the behavioral goal-selection time. Finally, cross-frequency couplings of LFPs within and across the amygdala and hippocampus occurred during ITI. These results suggest that the amygdala and hippocampus have different functional roles in the present task with different reward expectations, and the distinctive band of coherence between the amygdala and the hippocampus contributes to behavioral modulation on the basis of reward expectations. We propose that the amygdala influences firing rates and the strength of synchronization of hippocampal neurons through coherent oscillation, which is a part of the mechanism of how reward expectations modulate goal-directed behavior.

  11. Individual differences in social behavior predict amygdala response to fearful facial expressions in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Brian W.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Searcy, Yvonne M.; Mills, Debra; Bellugi, Ursula; Reiss, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic condition often paired with abnormal social functioning and behavior. In particular, those with WS are characterized as being relatively hypersocial, overly emotional/empathic, and socially uninhibited or fearless. In addition, WS is associated with abnormal amygdala structure and function. Very little is known however about the relationship between specific social behaviors and altered amygdala function in WS. This study was designed to compare three models tha...

  12. Unconscious Processing of Negative Animals and Objects: Role of the Amygdala Revealed by fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han; Chen, Gang; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional stimuli can be processed through the amygdala without conscious awareness. The amygdala is also involved in processing animate and social information. However, it is unclear whether different categories of pictures (e.g., animals, objects) elicit different activity in the amygdale and other regions without conscious awareness. The objective of this study was to explore whether the factors of category, emotion and picture context modulate brain activa...

  13. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  14. Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, I; Leanza, G; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, M; Lindvall, O

    2000-06-01

    Intraventricular administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in rats has been shown to cause a selective loss of cholinergic afferents to the hippocampus and cortical areas, and to facilitate seizure development in hippocampal kindling. Here we demonstrate that this lesion also accelerates seizure progression when kindling is induced by electrical stimulations in the amygdala. However, whereas intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin facilitated the development of the initial stages of hippocampal kindling, the same lesion promoted the late stages of amygdala kindling. To explore the role of various parts of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in amygdala kindling, selective lesions of the cholinergic projections to either hippocampus or cortex were produced by intraparenchymal injections of 192 IgG-saporin into medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band or nucleus basalis, respectively. Cholinergic denervation of the cortical regions caused acceleration of amygdala kindling closely resembling that observed after the more widespread lesion induced by intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. In contrast, removal of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus had no effect on the development of amygdala kindling. These data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suppress kindling elicited from amygdala, and that this dampening effect is mediated via cortical but not hippocampal projections.

  15. Amygdala kindling in immature rats: proconvulsant effect of the organophosphate insecticide-chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurpel, J N; Hirt, P C; Bidanset, J H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos to immature rats exerted a proconvulsant effect on seizures induced by kindling. Chlorpyrifos was administered to 16 or 17 day old rats in a dose range of 0.3 to 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously. Amygdala kindling was performed by stimulating the rats every 15 minutes to a total of 20 stimulations. Kindling occurred more rapidly in the chlorpyrifos treated rats than vehicle treated rats, the proconvulsant effect was dose-dependent. The proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos was more pronounced in the early stages of kindling, indicating a possible increase in local excitability of the amygdala in the presence of chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos also reduced the after discharge threshold in the amygdala in a dose-dependent manner and increased the duration of after discharges elicited by electrical stimulus, indicating an increase in excitability of the amygdala. The effects of chlorpyrifos on kindling were additive with xylene: the proconvulsant effect in the early stages of kindling was greatly enhanced by xylene. Xylene, administered alone as a 0.2% solution, reduced the after discharge threshold of the amygdala, increased the after discharge duration and increased the rate of kindling. These experiments demonstrate a proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos in amygdala kindling and this proconvulsant action is additive with xylene.

  16. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

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    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:25618591

  17. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking.

  18. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. PMID:27033686

  19. Basolateral amygdala lesion inhibits the development of pain chronicity in neuropathic pain rats.

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    Zheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronicity of pain is one of the most interesting questions in chronic pain study. Clinical and experimental data suggest that supraspinal areas responsible for negative emotions such as depression and anxiety contribute to the chronicity of pain. The amygdala is suspected to be a potential structure for the pain chronicity due to its critical role in processing negative emotions and pain information. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether amygdala or its subregions, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the central medial amygdala (CeA, contributes to the pain chronicity in the spared nerve injury (SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 Before the establishment of the SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats, lesion of the amygdaloid complex with stereotaxic injection of ibotenic acid (IBO alleviated mechanical allodynia significantly at days 7 and 14, even no mechanical allodynia at day 28 after SNI; Lesion of the BLA, but not the CeA had similar effects; (2 however, 7 days after SNI when the neuropathic pain model was established, lesion of the amygdala complex or the BLA or the CeA, mechanical allodynia was not affected. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BLA activities in the early stage after nerve injury might be crucial to the development of pain chronicity, and amygdala-related negative emotions and pain-related memories could promote pain chronicity.

  20. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and fMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre- and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  1. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H Schultz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and FMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  2. Amygdala responsivity to high-level social information from unseen faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Stolier, Ryan M; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Hehman, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    Previous research shows that the amygdala automatically responds to a face's trustworthiness when a face is clearly visible. However, it is unclear whether the amygdala could evaluate such high-level facial information without a face being consciously perceived. Using a backward masking paradigm, we demonstrate in two functional neuroimaging experiments that the human amygdala is sensitive to subliminal variation in facial trustworthiness. Regions in the amygdala tracked how untrustworthy a face appeared (i.e., negative-linear responses) as well as the overall strength of a face's trustworthiness signal (i.e., nonlinear responses), despite faces not being subjectively seen. This tracking was robust across blocked and event-related designs and both real and computer-generated faces. The findings demonstrate that the amygdala can be influenced by even high-level facial information before that information is consciously perceived, suggesting that the amygdala's processing of social cues in the absence of awareness may be more extensive than previously described. PMID:25100591

  3. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Myers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone (CORT or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  4. State-dependent amygdala stimulation-induced cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Liang, Keng-Chen; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2009-12-31

    Stimulation of the amygdala is known to produce pressor, depressor, or has no effects. The present study was performed to test whether amygdala cardiovascular effects are influenced by consciousness states and by different types of anesthetics. Adult rats were set up for stimulation amygdala and measurement of blood pressure in a chronic preparation. After recovery, same sites of the amygdala were stimulated electrically for several trials with the rat under conscious or anesthetic states induced by pentobarbital, urethane, ketamine, alpha-chloralose and urethane plus alpha-chloralose, respectively. The interval between any two stimulation trials was at least 2 days. The stimulation was an 80-Hz, 0.5-ms, 100-micro A square wave pulse train lasting for 15 s. Cardiovascular responsive sites were found in the central, medial, and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. In stimulating these responsive sites, significantly different cardiovascular effects were induced under a conscious state and an anesthetized state of the animal, yet no significant differences were found among the various anesthetic agents. We conclude, that the cardiovascular influence of the amygdala is state-dependent in the rat.

  5. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18731.001 PMID:27731795

  6. Amygdala functional connectivity as a longitudinal biomarker of symptom changes in generalized anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Meeten, Frances; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Cercignani, Mara; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry, autonomic dysregulation and functional amygdala dysconnectivity, yet these illness markers have rarely been considered together, nor their interrelationship tested longitudinally. We hypothesized that an individual’s capacity for emotion regulation predicts longer-term changes in amygdala functional connectivity, supporting the modification of GAD core symptoms. Sixteen patients with GAD (14 women) and individually matched controls were studied at two time points separated by 1 year. Resting-state fMRI data and concurrent measurement of vagally mediated heart rate variability were obtained before and after the induction of perseverative cognition. A greater rise in levels of worry following the induction predicted a stronger reduction in connectivity between right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and enhanced coupling between left amygdala and ventral tegmental area at follow-up. Similarly, amplified physiological responses to the induction predicted increased connectivity between right amygdala and thalamus. Longitudinal shifts in a distinct set of functional connectivity scores were associated with concomitant changes in GAD symptomatology over the course of the year. Results highlight the prognostic value of indices of emotional dysregulation and emphasize the integral role of the amygdala as a critical hub in functional neural circuitry underlying the progression of GAD symptomatology. PMID:27369066

  7. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by social decision-making under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Achua, Justin K; Summers, Tangi R; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2014-01-01

    In a newly developed conceptual model of stressful social decision-making, the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM; used for the 1st time in mice) elicits two types of response: escape or remain submissively. Daily (4d) aggressive social interaction in a neutral arena between a C57BL6/N test mouse and a larger, novel aggressive CD1 mouse, begin after an audible tone (conditioned stimulus; CS). Although escape holes (only large enough for smaller test animals) are available, and the aggressor is unremittingly antagonistic, only half of the mice tested utilize the possibility of escape. During training, for mice that choose to leave the arena and social interaction, latency to escape dramatically decreases over time; this is also true for control C57BL6/N mice which experienced no aggression. Therefore, the open field of the SAM apparatus is intrinsically anxiogenic. It also means that submission to the aggressor is chosen despite this anxiety and the high intensity of the aggressive attacks and defeat. While both groups that received aggression displayed stress responsiveness, corticosterone levels were significantly higher in animals that chose submissive coexistence. Although both escaping and non-escaping groups of animals experienced aggression and defeat, submissive animals also exhibited classic fear conditioning, freezing in response to the CS alone, while escaping animals did not. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA), gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was diminished, at the same time neuropeptide S (NPS) expression was significantly elevated, but only in submissive animals. This increase in submission-evoked NPS mRNA expression was greatest in the central amygdala (CeA), which coincided with decreased BDNF expression. Reduced expression of BDNF was only found in submissive animals that also exhibit elevated NPS expression, despite elevated corticosterone in all socially interacting animals. The results suggest an interwoven relationship

  8. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

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    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  9. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by social decision-making under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a newly developed conceptual model of stressful social decision making, the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM; used for the 1st time in mice elicits two types of response: escape or remain submissively. Daily (4d aggressive social interaction in a neutral arena between a C57BL6/N test mouse and a larger, novel aggressive CD1 mouse, begin after an audible tone (conditioned stimulus; CS. Although escape holes (only large enough for smaller test animals are available, and the aggressor is unremittingly antagonistic, only half of the mice tested utilize the possibility of escape. During training, for mice that choose to leave the arena and social interaction, latency to escape dramatically decreases over time; this is also true for control C57BL6/N mice which experienced no aggression. Therefore, the open field of the SAM apparatus is intrinsically anxiogenic. It also means that submission to the aggressor is chosen despite this anxiety and the high intensity of the aggressive attacks and defeat. While both groups that received aggression displayed stress responsiveness, corticosterone levels were significantly higher in animals that chose submissive coexistence. Although both escaping and non-escaping groups of animals experienced aggression and defeat, submissive animals also exhibited classic fear conditioning, freezing in response to the CS alone, while escaping animals did not. In the basolateral amygdala, gene expression of BDNF was diminished, but NPS expression was significantly elevated, but only in submissive animals. This increase in submission-evoked NPS mRNA expression was greatest in the central amygdala, which coincided with decreased BDNF expression. Reduced expression of BDNF is only in submissive animals that also exhibit elevated NPS expression, despite elevated corticosterone in all socially interacting animals. The results suggest an interwoven relationship, linked by social context, between amygdalar BDNF, NPS and plasma

  10. Atypical Imaging Findings in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

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    Zahra Afravi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The incidence of primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL is increasing. Timely diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to proper therapeutic management. There are some atypical imaging findings that may easily be misdiagnosed as other pathologic processes such as infectious and demyelinative diseases. As a result, histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for all suspected lesions."nPatients and Methods: In this research we studied 120 cases of PCNSL over the past 16 years. Some of them had atypical imaging findings, suggesting many differential diagnoses. Having said that, stereotactic biopsy was performed for all cases and the diagnosis was proved."nResults: We selected some interesting cases with atypical imaging findings of PCNSL, which were unlikely to be diagnosed without histopathologic evaluation. "nConclusion: PCNSL must be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for other brain lesions. Histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for prompt management.

  11. EPR dosimetry with synthetic A-type carbonated apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic A-type carbonated apatite prepared in reproducible conditions were irradiated at room temperature with 60 Co γ rays. The EPR spectrum is associated to axial CO2- and orthorhombic CO3- species. Radicals used as dose marker in biological apatite are long live paramagnetic species. The stability of the post-irradiation signal of A-type apatite was investigated for more than one year. Measurements showed variations in the spectra attributed to unstable CO3- species, which can be eliminated by thermal treatments at 100 deg C for 24 hours. The CO2- spectrum can be identified in samples irradiated up to 0.2 Gy. All results indicate the A-type apatite as an appropriate material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  12. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with osteomyelofibrosis

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    Živanović Dubravka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum generally appear on the upper extremities; most frequently they are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including osteomyelofibrosis. A response to systemic steroids is more pronounced than in classical form. Sometimes it may be the first sign of an underlying malignancy. Case report. We reported a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum developed during the course of a myeloid malignancy - osteomyelofibrosis. The lesions occurred after a minor trauma. Painful blistering plaques, with an elevated, bluish-gray border were located on the dorsal aspect of hands. No skin malignancy was found. The lesions resolved rapidly to systemic steroids. Conclusion. Considering the unusual clinical presentation which makes the diagnosis difficult, as well as the fact that atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum can be the first sign of malignancies, especially myeloproliferative ones, recognizing this entity enables timely guiding future investigations toward their prompt detection.

  13. Atypical femur fractures associated with bisphosphonates: from prodrome to resolution

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    Braulio Sastre-Jala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical fractures related to the prolonged use of bisphosphonates are caused by low energy mechanisms and are characterized by oblique and transverse lines and frequent bilateralism. We present a clinical case of a patient who we believe illustrates, both in clinical and radiological aspects, the new definition of atypical femur fracture related to treatment using bisphosphonates treated conservatively and successfully with discharge and teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h. The appearance of painful symptoms in the upper thigh, especially if bilateral, in patients treated with bisphosphonates for long periods of time, makes it necessary to dismiss bone lesions that might otherwise suggest atypical fracture. In those cases where the fracture is incomplete, restoring bone metabolism through the administration of teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h could prevent displaced fractures.

  14. Atypicality in presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by olanzapine

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    Mishra Biswaranjan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is the most serious of acute neurological side effects produced by antipsychotic medication, characterized by hyperthermia, rigidity, altered consciousness and autonomic dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies from 0.4-1.4%. NMS is usually seen in treatment with high potency typical antipsychotics and very rarely with atypical antipsychotics. However, NMS cases have been reported with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. The presentations of NMS have often varied, and we report another atypicality in presentation of NMS due to olanzapine use.

  15. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma with atypical T cells: a morphologic variant mimicking peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohani, Aliyah R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Harris, Nancy Lee; Ferry, Judith A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2011-11-01

    years after diagnosis. In comparison with control patients, NLPHL patients with atypical T cells were more likely to develop recurrent NLPHL (71.4% vs. 13.6%, P=0.008) and to have a shorter time to relapse (P=0.04). Our findings suggest that some cases of NLPHL, occurring predominantly in younger patients, contain prominent populations of morphologically atypical T cells that may raise the possibility of concurrent nodal involvement by PTCL-NOS, a rare diagnosis in children. The clinical behavior of these cases appears similar to that of NLPHL with T-cell-rich diffuse areas, with a higher risk of disease recurrence and no difference in overall survival; however, this finding warrants confirmation in studies of larger numbers of patients. PMID:21997687

  16. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia due to involvement of the hypothalamus and hypothalamus-amygdala linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kodai; Deguchi, Kazushi; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Takata, Tadayuki; Kokudo, Yohei; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia accompanied by decreased CSF orexin level. First episode associated with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction showed bilateral hypothalamic lesions that can cause secondary damage to the orexin neurons. The second episode associated with impaired memory showed a left temporal lesion involving the amygdala. The mechanism remains unknown, but the reduced blood flow in the hypothalamus ipsilateral to the amygdala lesion suggested trans-synaptic hypothalamic dysfunction secondary to the impaired amygdala. A temporal lesion involving the amygdala and hypothalamus could be responsible for hypersomnia due to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  17. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat.

  18. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Silverstein; Jules Angst

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetit...

  19. Interaction of the amygdala with the frontal lobe in reward memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, D; Murray, E A; Fabre-Thorpe, M

    1993-07-01

    Five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were assessed for their ability to associate visual stimuli with food reward. They learned a series of new two-choice visual discriminations between coloured patterns displayed on a touch-sensitive monitor screen; the feedback for correct choice was delivery of food. Normal learning in this task is known to be dependent on the amygdala. The monkeys received brain lesions which were designed to disconnect the amygdala from interaction with other brain structures thought to be involved in this memory task. All the monkeys received an amygdalectomy in one hemisphere and lesions in the other hemisphere of some of the projection targets of the amygdala, namely the ventral striatum, the mediodorsal thalamus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. The rate of learning new problems was assessed before and after each operation. Disconnection of the amygdala from the ventral striatum was without effect on learning rate. An earlier study had shown that disconnection of the amygdala from either the mediodorsal thalamus or the ventromedial prefrontal cortex produced only a mild impairment, significantly less severe than that produced by bilateral lesions of any of these three structures. The present results show, however, that disconnection of the amygdala from both the mediodorsal thalamus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the same animal, by crossed unilateral lesions of the amygdala in one hemisphere and of both the mediodorsal thalamus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the other hemisphere, produces an impairment as severe as that which follows bilateral lesions of any of these three structures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8281307

  20. The amygdala as a neurobiological target for ghrelin in rats: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    Full Text Available Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL and ventromedial (LaVM parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field, intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like behaviors if food is not available.

  1. Amygdala enlargement in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE without MRI abnormalities (MTLE-NL represent a challenge for definition of underlying pathology and for presurgical evaluation. In a recent study we observed significant amygdala enlargement in 14% of MTLE patients with MRI signs of HS. Areas of gray matter volume (GMV increase could represent structural abnormalities related to the epileptogenic zone or part of a developmental abnormality. Our objective was to look for undetected areas of increased GMV in MTLE-NL using post processing MRI techniques to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition.Methods: We evaluated 66 patients with MTLE-NL on visual analysis and 82 controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM group analysis was performed with VBM8/SPM8 looking for areas of increased GMV. We then performed automatic amygdala volumetry using Freesurfer software and T2 relaxometry to confirm VBM findings.Results: VBM group-analysis demonstrated increased amygdala volume in the MTLE-NL group compared to controls. Individual volumetric analysis confirmed amygdala enlargement (AE in eight (12% patients. Overall, from all patients with AE and defined epileptic focus, four (57% had the predominant increased volume ipsilateral to the epileptic focus. These results were cross-validated by a secondary VBM analysis including subgroups of patients according to the volumetric data. T2 relaxometry demonstrated no amygdala hyperintense signal in any individual with significant amygdala enlargement. There were no clinical differences between patients with and without AE.Discussion: This exploratory study demonstrates the occurrence of AE in 12% of patients with MTLE-NL. This finding supports the hypothesis that there might be a subgroup of patients with MTLE-NL in which the enlarged amygdala could be related to the epileptogenic process. Further studies are necessary but this finding could be of great importance in the understanding of MTLE-NL.

  2. Intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Fisher, Kristen R; Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie J M; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-03-17

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) has been implicated in modulating drug seeking behavior and is a target of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Given that the discriminative stimulus (subjective/interoceptive) effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking behavior, we examined the role of ERK(1/2) in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Using drug discrimination procedures, rats were trained to discriminate a moderate intragastric (IG) alcohol dose (1g/kg) versus water (IG). Following an alcohol (1g/kg) discrimination session phosphorylated ERK(1/2) (pERK(1/2)) immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly elevated in the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, we hypothesized that intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) would disrupt expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. However, intra-amygdala or accumbens administration of the MEK/ERK(1/2) inhibitor U0126 (1 and 3μg) had no effect on the discriminative stimulus effects of the training dose of alcohol (1g/kg). Contrary to our hypothesis, intra-amygdala infusion of U0126 (3μg) potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of a low alcohol dose (0.5g/kg) and had no effect following nucleus accumbens infusion. Importantly, site-specific inhibition of pERK(1/2) in each brain region was confirmed. Therefore, the increase in pERK(1/2) IR in the amygdala following systemic alcohol administration may be reflective of the widespread effects of alcohol on the brain (activation/inhibition of brain circuits), whereas the site specific microinjection studies confirmed functional involvement of intra-amygdala ERK(1/2). These findings show that activity of the ERK signaling pathway in the amygdala can influence the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

  3. Attentional bias towards and away from fearful faces is modulated by developmental amygdala damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnamazi, Morteza; Tafakhori, Abbas; Loloee, Sogol; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Aghamollaii, Vajiheh; Bahrami, Bahador; Winston, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    The amygdala is believed to play a major role in orienting attention towards threat-related stimuli. However, behavioral studies on amygdala-damaged patients have given inconsistent results-variously reporting decreased, persisted, and increased attention towards threat. Here we aimed to characterize the impact of developmental amygdala damage on emotion perception and the nature and time-course of spatial attentional bias towards fearful faces. We investigated SF, a 14-year-old with selective bilateral amygdala damage due to Urbach-Wiethe disease (UWD), and ten healthy controls. Participants completed a fear sensitivity questionnaire, facial expression classification task, and dot-probe task with fearful or neutral faces for spatial cueing. Three cue durations were used to assess the time-course of attentional bias. SF expressed significantly lower fear sensitivity, and showed a selective impairment in classifying fearful facial expressions. Despite this impairment in fear recognition, very brief (100 msec) fearful cues could orient SF's spatial attention. In healthy controls, the attentional bias emerged later and persisted longer. SF's attentional bias was due solely to facilitated engagement to fear, while controls showed the typical phenomenon of difficulty in disengaging from fear. Our study is the first to demonstrate the separable effects of amygdala damage on engagement and disengagement of spatial attention. The findings indicate that multiple mechanisms contribute in biasing attention towards fear, which vary in their timing and dependence on amygdala integrity. It seems that the amygdala is not essential for rapid attention to emotion, but probably has a role in assessment of biological relevance. PMID:27173975

  4. Amygdala kindling alters protein kinase C activity in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Desai, M A; Klann, E; Winder, D G; Sweatt, J D; Conn, P J

    1992-11-01

    Kindling is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity and a widely used model of epilepsy. Although kindling has been widely studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of this phenomenon are not well understood. We determined the effect of amygdala kindling on protein kinase C (PKC) activity in various regions of rat brain. Kindling stimulation markedly elevated basal (Ca(2+)-independent) and Ca(2+)-stimulated phosphorylation of an endogenous PKC substrate (which we have termed P17) in homogenates of dentate gyrus, assayed 2 h after kindling stimulation. The increase in P17 phosphorylation appeared to be due at least in part to persistent PKC activation, as basal PKC activity assayed in vitro using an exogenous peptide substrate was increased in kindled dentate gyrus 2 h after the last kindling stimulation. A similar increase in basal PKC activity was observed in dentate gyrus 2 h after the first kindling stimulation. These results document a kindling-associated persistent PKC activation and suggest that the increased activity of PKC could play a role in the induction of the kindling effect.

  5. Amygdala mechanisms of Pavlovian psychostimulant conditioning and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; See, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction often consists of periods of sustained drug abstinence disrupted by periods of relapse and renewed heavy drug use. Prevention of relapse remains the greatest challenge to the successful treatment of drug addiction. Drug-associated cues are a primary trigger for relapse, as they can elicit intense craving for the drug. These cues become associated with the drug reward through Pavlovian learning processes that develop over multiple drug-cue pairings. The amygdala (AMY) is critical for such drug-related learning. Intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry position the AMY to integrate cue and drug-related information and influence drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Animal models of conditioned drug reward, drug use, and relapse have confirmed the necessary role of the AMY for drug conditioned cues to control motivated behavior. Neurons within the AMY are responsive to the primary effects of psychostimulants, and more critically, they also respond to the presentation of drug-associated cues. The mechanisms by which conditioned cues come to influence drug-seeking behavior likely involve long-term plasticity and neuroadaptations within the AMY. A greater understanding of the associative learning mechanisms that depend upon the AMY and related limbic and cortical structures, and the process by which drug cues come to gain control over behavior that maintains the addictive state, will facilitate the development of more effective addiction treatments.

  6. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action.

  7. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action. PMID:26341938

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Atypicals in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, Bart; Buskens, Erik; Botteman, Marc; Caleo, Sue; Ingham, Mike; Damen, Joep; de Charro, Frank; van Hout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), recommended atypical antipsychotics over conventional ones for first-line schizophrenia treatment, based on their lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms. Objective: To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of

  9. Folie a trois : Atypical presentation as shared transient psychotic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Aravind

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or induced delusional disorder can occur in different clinical settings and profile and is not uncommon. A case of Folie a trois with atypical clinical presentation as shared acute transient episode in a bereavement setting is reported. Suggestibility, close association and intimacy of the affected persons and major stress as psychological trigger act as psychopathological factors.

  10. Atypical pathogens in community acquired pneumonia of Egyptian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deraz TE; El Sahriggy SA; Shaheen MA; Motawea AA; Gomaa HE; Fawzy SH; Mohamed AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diagnosis of atypical pathogens as an aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in chil-dren is a challenge world wide.The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of atypical pathogens as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in Egyptian children.Methods:From 50 children (with age ranged from 2 months to 1 2 years)hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia;respiratory sputum samples were collected by induction or spontaneously.All samples were subjected to conventional cultures and Polymer-ase Chain Reaction(PCR)technique DNA extraction for identification of Mycoplasma,Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila.Results:A definite pathogen was identified in 78% of the studied children;30%typical bacteria,8% candida albicans and atypical bacteria in 40% of the pneumonic children.Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated from 26% of the children while Mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 1 4%, whereas Legionella pneumophilla was not isolated at all.Conclusion:Atypical pathogens are evident as a po-tential aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia in (1 3.3%)of young and (80%)of older Egyptian chil-dren.

  11. ATYPICAL BULLOUS PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM WITH EARLY LESIONS MIMICKING CHICKEN POX

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh; Kavya Raju; Gopal; Sharath Kumar; Nandini

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG) rare neutrophilic dermatoses (1/100,00 0), of which Bullous Pyoderma gangrenosum is an atypical form, which is very rare. Bullous PG is usually associated with haematological disorders like myeloproliferative disorders, haematological malignancies specially AML and several other haematological disorders. It presents as a superficial haemorrhagic bulla which ulcerates, ulcers increase in size and heal with scarring. Treatmen...

  12. Treatment of atypical trigeminal neuralgia with microvascular decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the methods for achieving pain relief in patients with atypical trigeminal neuralgia (TN using microvascular decompression (MVD. Study Design and Settings: Retrospective study of 26 patients treated during the years 2000 to 2004. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients in whom vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was identified by high definition magnetic resonance tomographic angiography (MRTA were treated with MVD for atypical TN in our department. Clinical presentations, surgical findings and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In this study, single trigeminal division was involved in only 2 patients (8% and two or three divisions in the other 24 patients (92%. Of prime importance is the fact that in 46.2% of the patients, several conflicting vessels were found in association. Location of the conflicts around the circumference of the trigeminal root was supero-medial to the root in 53.5%, supero-lateral in 30.8% and inferior in 15.7%. MVD for atypical TN resulted in complete pain relief in 50% of the patients with complete decompression, partial pain relief in 30.8% and poor pain relief or pain recurrence in 19.2% of the patients without complete decompression postoperatively. Conclusions: Complete decompression of the entire trigeminal root plays an important role in achieving pain relief in patients with atypical TN with MVD.

  13. Terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, C.M.; Licht, C.; Muus, P.; Greenbaum, L.A.; Babu, S.; Bedrosian, C.; Bingham, C.; Cohen, D.J.; Delmas, Y.; Douglas, K.; Eitner, F.; Feldkamp, T.; Fouque, D.; Furman, R.R.; Gaber, O.; Herthelius, M.; Hourmant, M.; Karpman, D.; Lebranchu, Y.; Mariat, C.; Menne, J.; Moulin, B.; Nurnberger, J.; Ogawa, M.; Remuzzi, G.; Richard, T.; Sberro-Soussan, R.; Severino, B.; Sheerin, N.S.; Trivelli, A.; Zimmerhackl, L.B.; Goodship, T.; Loirat, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a genetic, life-threatening, chronic disease of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Plasma exchange or infusion may transiently maintain normal levels of hematologic measures but does not treat the underlying systemic disease. METHODS: We

  14. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine...

  15. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  16. Locus coeruleus noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala facilitates alerting-induced constriction of the rat tail artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mazher; Kulasekara, Keerthi; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W

    2016-06-01

    The amygdala, innervated by the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, processes salient environmental events. α2-adrenoceptor-stimulating drugs (clonidine-like agents) suppress the behavioral and physiological components of the response to salient events. Activation of sympathetic outflow to the cutaneous vascular bed is part of the physiological response to salience-mediated activation of the amygdala. We have determined whether acute systemic and intra-amygdala administration of clonidine, and chronic immunotoxin-mediated destruction of the noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala, impairs salience-related vasoconstrictor episodes in the tail artery of conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats. After acute intraperitoneal injection of clonidine (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg), there was a dose-related decrease in the reduction in tail blood flow elicited by alerting stimuli, an effect prevented by prior administration of the α2-adrenergic blocking drug idazoxan (1 mg/kg ip or 75 nmol bilateral intra-amygdala). A dose-related decrease in alerting-induced tail artery vasoconstriction was also observed after bilateral intra-amygdala injection of clonidine (5, 10, and 20 nmol in 200 nl), an effect substantially prevented by prior bilateral intra-amygdala injection of idazoxan. Intra-amygdala injection of idazoxan by itself did not alter tail artery vasoconstriction elicited by alerting stimuli. Intra-amygdala injection of saporin coupled to antibodies to dopamine-β-hydroxylase (immunotoxin) destroyed the noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala and the parent noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. The reduction in tail blood flow elicited by standardized alerting stimuli was substantially reduced in immunotoxin-treated rats. Thus, inhibiting the release of noradrenaline within the amygdala reduces activation of the sympathetic outflow to the vascular beds elicited by salient events. PMID:27101292

  17. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  18. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H; van der Putten, P Herman; Gee, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6), Leu-NHEt(13), des-Met(14))-Bombesin (6-14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  19. Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients...... or intracranial volume, the only significant difference between patients and controls was a Hemisphere x Group interaction for the caudate nucleus at baseline, with controls having larger left than right caudate nuclei and patients having marginally larger right than left caudate volumes. Within patients, the two...

  20. Linkage of functional and structural anomalies in the left amygdala of reactive-aggressive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, María A; Ostrosky, Feggy; Diaz, Karla; Romero, Cesar; Borja, Karina; Santos, Yusniel; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-12-01

    Amygdala structural and functional abnormalities have been associated to reactive aggression in previous studies. However, the possible linkage of these two types of anomalies has not been examined. We hypothesized that they would coincide in the same localizations, would be correlated in intensity and would be mediated by reactive aggression personality traits. Here violent (n = 25) and non-violent (n = 29) men were recruited on the basis of their reactive aggression. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits were also assessed. Gray matter concentration (gmC) and reactivity to fearful and neutral facial expressions were measured in dorsal and ventral amygdala partitions. The difference between responses to fearful and neutral facial expressions was calculated (F/N-difference). Violent individuals exhibited a smaller F/N-difference and gmC in the left dorsal amygdala, where a significant coincidence was found in a conjunction analysis. Moreover, the left amygdala F/N-difference and gmC were correlated to each other, an effect mediated by reactive aggression but not by CU. The F/N-difference was caused by increased reactivity to neutral faces. This suggests that anatomical anomalies within local circuitry (and not only altered input) may underlie the amygdala hyper-reactivity to social signals which is characteristic of reactive aggression.

  1. Altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury and comorbid depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihwan eHan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI. Though depression has detrimental effects in TBI and network dysfunction is a 'hallmark' of TBI and depression, there have not been any prior investigations of connectivity-based neuroimaging biomarkers for comorbid depression in TBI. We utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic TBI (eight years post-injury on average exhibiting comorbid depressive symptoms (N=31, relative to chronic TBI individuals having minimal depressive symptoms (N=23. Connectivity analysis of these participant sub-groups revealed that the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group showed relative increases in amygdala connectivity primarily in the regions that are part of the salience, somatomotor, dorsal attention and visual networks (pvoxel<0.01, pcluster<0.025. Relative increases in amygdala connectivity in the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group were also observed within areas of the limbic-cortical mood-regulating circuit (the left dorsomedial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and thalamus and the brainstem. Further analysis revealed that spatially-dissociable patterns of correlation between amygdala connectivity and symptom severity according to subtypes (Cognitive and Affective of depressive symptoms (pvoxel<0.01, pcluster<0.025. Taken together, these results suggest that amygdala connectivity may be a potentially effective neuroimaging biomarker for comorbid depressive symptoms in chronic TBI.

  2. Fluoxetine pretreatment promotes neuronal survival and maturation after auditory fear conditioning in the rat amygdala.

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    Lizhu Jiang

    Full Text Available The amygdala is a critical brain region for auditory fear conditioning, which is a stressful condition for experimental rats. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, known to be sensitive to behavioral stress and treatment of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX, is involved in the formation of hippocampus-dependent memories. Here, we investigated whether neurogenesis also occurs in the amygdala and contributes to auditory fear memory. In rats showing persistent auditory fear memory following fear conditioning, we found that the survival of new-born cells and the number of new-born cells that differentiated into mature neurons labeled by BrdU and NeuN decreased in the amygdala, but the number of cells that developed into astrocytes labeled by BrdU and GFAP increased. Chronic pretreatment with FLX partially rescued the reduction in neurogenesis in the amygdala and slightly suppressed the maintenance of the long-lasting auditory fear memory 30 days after the fear conditioning. The present results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the amygdala is sensitive to antidepressant treatment and may weaken long-lasting auditory fear memory.

  3. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

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    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  4. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects.

  5. Infusions of alpha-2 noradrenergic agonists and antagonists into the amygdala: effects on kindling.

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    Pelletier, M R; Corcoran, M E

    1993-12-31

    We reported previously that activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors with infusions of clonidine into the amygdala/pyriform region is sufficient to retard kindling. To characterize further the involvement in kindling of alpha-2 receptors in the amygdala/pyriform, we exposed rats to unilateral intraamygdaloid infusions of a variety of noradrenergic drugs followed by either low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala, to induce rapid kindling, or conventional high-frequency stimulation. Infusions and electrical stimulation were administered once every 48 h. The prophylactic effects of clonidine were blocked by simultaneous infusion of idazoxan, an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, which suggests strongly that these effects were produced at an alpha-2 receptor. Intraamygdaloid infusions of xylazine, another alpha-2 agonist, also significantly retarded low-frequency kindling. Unexpectedly, intraamygdaloid infusions of the alpha-2 antagonists idazoxan, yohimbine, and SK&F 104856 failed to accelerate kindling. Infusion of the alpha-1 antagonist corynanthine also failed to affect kindling. We propose that the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in the amygdala/pyriform region contribute to the prophylactic effects of systemically administered clonidine and that the facilitation of kindling observed after systemic administration of alpha-2 antagonists may be due to blockade of alpha-2 adrenoceptors outside of the amygdala/pyriform region.

  6. Identification of QTLs involved in the development of amygdala kindling in the rat.

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    Hashimoto, Ryoko; Voigt, Birger; Ishimaru, Yuji; Hokao, Ryoji; Chiba, Shigeru; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is useful for modeling human epilepsy development. It has been known that genetic factors are involved in the development of amygdala kindling. The purpose of this study was to identify the loci that are responsible for the development of amygdala kindling. To achieve this, rat strains from a LEXF/FXLE recombinant inbred (RI) strain panel were used. The phenotypes of amygdala kindling-related parameters for seven RI strains and parental LE/Stm and F344/Stm strains were determined. They included the afterdischarge threshold (ADT), the afterdischarge duration (ADD), and the kindling rate, an incidence of development of kindling. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to identify linkage relationships between these phenotypes and 1,033 SNP markers. Although no significant differences in pre-kindling ADT and ADD were observed, a significant difference in the kindling rate was found for the LEXF/FXLE RI strain. Two QTLs for the amygdala kindling rate (Agkr1 and Agkr2) were identified on rat chromosome 2. These findings clearly prove the existence of genetic influences that are involved in kindling development and suggest that substantial genetic components contribute to the progression of partial seizures into generalized seizures.

  7. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness.

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    Cunningham, William A; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2014-06-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: 'rose-colored glasses' cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it may be happy people will not show this enhanced response, and may even show reduced amygdala activation to negative stimuli. Alternatively, if well-being entails appropriate sensitivity to information, happy people may process any relevant cues-positive or negative-to facilitate appropriate responding. This would mean that happiness is associated with increased amygdala activation to both positive and negative stimuli. Forty-two participants viewed affective stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Happier participants showed greater amygdala responses to positive stimuli. Moreover, no significant relationships were found between happiness and responses to negative stimuli. In other words, for happy people, a tuning toward positive did not come at the cost of losing sensitivity to negativity. This work suggests that trait happiness is associated with a balanced amygdala response to positivity and negativity.

  8. The amygdala excitatory/inhibitory balance in a valproate-induced rat autism model.

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    Hui-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available The amygdala is an important structure contributing to socio-emotional behavior. However, the role of the amygdala in autism remains inconclusive. In this study, we used the 28-35 days valproate (VPA-induced rat model of autism to observe the autistic phenotypes and evaluate their synaptic characteristics in the lateral nucleus (LA of the amygdala. The VPA-treated offspring demonstrated less social interaction, increased anxiety, enhanced fear learning and impaired fear memory extinction. Slice preparation and electrophysiological recordings of the amygdala showed significantly enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP while stimulating the thalamic-amygdala pathway of the LA. In addition, the pair pulse facilitation (PPF at 30- and 60-ms intervals decreased significantly. Whole-cell recordings of the LA pyramidal neurons showed an increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC frequency and amplitude. The relative contributions of the AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor to the EPSCs did not differ significantly between groups. These results suggested that the enhancement of the presynaptic efficiency of excitatory synaptic transmission might be associated with hyperexcitibility and enhanced LTP in LA pyramidal neurons. Disruption of the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory (E/I balance in the LA of VPA-treated rats might play certain roles in the development of behaviors in the rat that may be relevant to autism. Further experiments to demonstrate the direct link are warranted.

  9. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness.

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    Cunningham, William A; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2014-06-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: 'rose-colored glasses' cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it may be happy people will not show this enhanced response, and may even show reduced amygdala activation to negative stimuli. Alternatively, if well-being entails appropriate sensitivity to information, happy people may process any relevant cues-positive or negative-to facilitate appropriate responding. This would mean that happiness is associated with increased amygdala activation to both positive and negative stimuli. Forty-two participants viewed affective stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Happier participants showed greater amygdala responses to positive stimuli. Moreover, no significant relationships were found between happiness and responses to negative stimuli. In other words, for happy people, a tuning toward positive did not come at the cost of losing sensitivity to negativity. This work suggests that trait happiness is associated with a balanced amygdala response to positivity and negativity. PMID:23563851

  10. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

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    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  11. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury.

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    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  12. Subregional Shape Alterations in the Amygdala in Patients with Panic Disorder

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    Kim, Geon Ha; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Bori R.; Jeon, Saerom; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hyun, Heejung; Moon, Sohyeon; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The amygdala has been known to play a pivotal role in mediating fear-related responses including panic attacks. Given the functionally distinct role of the amygdalar subregions, morphometric measurements of the amygdala may point to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying panic disorder. The current study aimed to determine the global and local morphometric alterations of the amygdala related to panic disorder. Methods Volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach to high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images was used to examine the structural variations of the amygdala, with respect to extent and location, in 23 patients with panic disorder and 31 matched healthy individuals. Results There were no significant differences in bilateral amygdalar volumes between patients with panic disorder and healthy individuals despite a trend-level right amygdalar volume reduction related to panic disorder (right, β = -0.23, p = 0.09, Cohen's d = 0.51; left, β = -0.18, p = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.45). Amygdalar subregions were localized into three groups including the superficial, centromedial, and laterobasal groups based on the cytoarchitectonically defined probability map. Surface-based morphometric analysis revealed shape alterations in the laterobasal and centromedial groups of the right amygdala in patients with panic disorder (false discovery rate corrected p panic disorder, which may be attributed to the cause or effects of amygdalar hyperactivation. PMID:27336300

  13. Amygdala subnuclei resting-state functional connectivity sex and estrogen differences.

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    Engman, Jonas; Linnman, Clas; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Milad, Mohammed R

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala is a hub in emotional processing, including that of negative affect. Healthy men and women have distinct differences in amygdala responses, potentially setting the stage for the observed sex differences in the prevalence of fear, anxiety, and pain disorders. Here, we examined how amygdala subnuclei resting-state functional connectivity is affected by sex, as well as explored how the functional connectivity is related to estrogen levels. Resting-state functional connectivity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with seeds placed in the left and right laterobasal (LB) and centromedial (CM) amygdala. Sex differences were studied in 48 healthy men and 48 healthy women, matched for age, while the association with estrogen was analyzed in a subsample of 24 women, for whom hormone levels had been assessed. For the hormone analyses, the subsample was further divided into a lower and higher estrogen levels group based on a median split. We found distinct sex differences in the LB and CM amygdala resting-state functional connectivity, as well as preliminary evidence for an association between estrogen levels and connectivity patterns. These results are potentially valuable in explaining why women are more afflicted by conditions of negative affect than are men, and could imply a mechanistic role for estrogen in modulating emotion. PMID:26406106

  14. An oxytocin receptor polymorphism predicts amygdala reactivity and antisocial behavior in men.

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    Waller, Rebecca; Corral-Frías, Nadia S; Vannucci, Bianca; Bogdan, Ryan; Knodt, Annchen R; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W

    2016-08-01

    Variability in oxytocin (OXT) signaling is associated with individual differences in sex-specific social behavior across species. The effects of OXT signaling on social behavior are, in part, mediated through its modulation of amygdala function. Here, we use imaging genetics to examine sex-specific effects of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR; rs1042778, rs53576 and rs2254298) on threat-related amygdala reactivity and social behavior in 406 Caucasians. Analyses revealed that among men but not women, OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype was associated with increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions, which was uniquely related to higher levels of antisocial behavior among men. Moderated meditation analysis suggested a trending indirect effect of OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype on higher antisocial behavior via increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions in men. Our results provide evidence linking genetic variation in OXT signaling to individual differences in amygdala function. The results further suggest that these pathways may be uniquely important in shaping antisocial behavior in men. PMID:27036876

  15. Reduced amygdala responsivity during conditioning to trauma-related stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Diener, Slawomira J; Nees, Frauke; Wessa, Michèle; Wirtz, Gustav; Frommberger, Ulrich; Penga, Tina; Ruttorf, Michaela; Ruf, Matthias; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2016-10-01

    Exaggerated conditioned fear responses and impaired extinction along with amygdala overactivation have been observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These fear responses might be triggered by cues related to the trauma through higher-order conditioning, where reminders of the trauma may serve as unconditioned stimuli (US) and could maintain the fear response. We compared arousal, valence, and US expectancy ratings and BOLD brain responses using fMRI in 14 traumatized persons with PTSD and 14 without PTSD (NPTSD) and 13 matched healthy controls (HC) in a differential aversive conditioning paradigm. The US were trauma-specific pictures for the PTSD and NPTSD group and equally aversive and arousing for the HC; the conditioned stimuli (CS) were graphic displays. During conditioning, the PTSD patients compared to the NPTSD and HC indicated higher arousal to the conditioned stimulus that was paired with the trauma picture (CS+) compared to the unpaired (CS-), increased dissociation during acquisition and extinction, and failure to extinguish the CS/US-association compared to NPTSD. During early and late acquisition, the PTSD patients showed a significantly lower amygdala activation to CS+ versus CS- and a negative interaction between activation in the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), while NPTSD and HC displayed a negative interaction between amygdala and medial PFC. These findings suggest maladaptive anticipatory coping with trauma-related stimuli in patients with PTSD, indicated by enhanced conditioning, with related abnormal amygdala reactivity and connectivity, and delayed extinction. PMID:27412783

  16. Robust selectivity for faces in the human amygdala in the absence of expressions.

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    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Verosky, Sara C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    There is a well-established posterior network of cortical regions that plays a central role in face processing and that has been investigated extensively. In contrast, although responsive to faces, the amygdala is not considered a core face-selective region, and its face selectivity has never been a topic of systematic research in human neuroimaging studies. Here, we conducted a large-scale group analysis of fMRI data from 215 participants. We replicated the posterior network observed in prior studies but found equally robust and reliable responses to faces in the amygdala. These responses were detectable in most individual participants, but they were also highly sensitive to the initial statistical threshold and habituated more rapidly than the responses in posterior face-selective regions. A multivariate analysis showed that the pattern of responses to faces across voxels in the amygdala had high reliability over time. Finally, functional connectivity analyses showed stronger coupling between the amygdala and posterior face-selective regions during the perception of faces than during the perception of control visual categories. These findings suggest that the amygdala should be considered a core face-selective region.

  17. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

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    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PMID:24219397

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Basolateral Amygdala: Targeting Technique and Electrodiagnostic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Chen, James W Y; Koek, Ralph J; Sultzer, David L; Mandelkern, Mark A; Schwartz, Holly N; Krahl, Scott E

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion regulation. It could prove to be an effective neuromodulation target in the treatment of psychiatric conditions characterized by failure of extinction. We aim to describe our targeting technique, and intra-operative and post-operative electrodiagnostic findings associated with the placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the amygdala. We used a transfrontal approach to implant DBS electrodes in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLn) of a patient suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder. We used microelectrode recording (MER) and awake intra-operative neurostimulation to assist with the placement. Post-operatively, the patient underwent monthly surveillance electroencephalograms (EEG). MER predicted the trajectory of the electrode through the amygdala. The right BLn showed a higher spike frequency than the left BLn. Intra-operative neurostimulation of the BLn elicited pleasant memories. The monthly EEG showed the presence of more sleep patterns over time with DBS. BLn DBS electrodes can be placed using a transfrontal approach. MER can predict the trajectory of the electrode in the amygdala and it may reflect the BLn neuronal activity underlying post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. The EEG findings may underscore the reduction in anxiety. PMID:27517963

  19. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. PMID:26048176

  20. A network of amygdala connections predict individual differences in trait anxiety.

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    Greening, Steven G; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2015-12-01

    In this study we demonstrate that the pattern of an amygdala-centric network contributes to individual differences in trait anxiety. Individual differences in trait anxiety were predicted using maximum likelihood estimates of amygdala structural connectivity to multiple brain targets derived from diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography on 72 participants. The prediction was performed using a stratified sixfold cross validation procedure using a regularized least square regression model. The analysis revealed a reliable network of regions predicting individual differences in trait anxiety. Higher trait anxiety was associated with stronger connections between the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, an area implicated in the generation of emotional reactions, and inferior temporal gyrus and paracentral lobule, areas associated with perceptual and sensory processing. In contrast, higher trait anxiety was associated with weaker connections between amygdala and regions implicated in extinction learning such as medial orbitofrontal cortex, and memory encoding and environmental context recognition, including posterior cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, trait anxiety is not only associated with reduced amygdala connectivity with prefrontal areas associated with emotion modulation, but also enhanced connectivity with sensory areas. This work provides novel anatomical insight into potential mechanisms behind information processing biases observed in disorders of emotion.

  1. Recurrent hypoglycemia increases anxiety and amygdala norepinephrine release during subsequent hypoglycemia

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    Ewan eMcNay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH is a common and debilitating side effect of therapy in patients with both type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. Previous studies in rats have shown marked effects of RH on subsequent hippocampal behavioral, metabolic, and synaptic processes. In addition to impaired memory, patients experiencing RH report alterations in cognitive processes that include mood and anxiety, suggesting that RH may also affect amygdala function. We tested the impact of RH on amygdala function using an elevated plus-maze test of anxiety together with in vivo amygdala microdialysis for norepinephrine (NEp, a widely used marker of basolateral amygdala cognitive processes. In contrast to findings in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex, neither RH nor acute hypoglycemia alone significantly affected plus-maze performance or NEp release. However, animals tested when hypoglycemic who had previously experienced RH had elevated amygdala NEp during plus-maze testing, accompanied by increased anxiety (i.e. less time spent in the open arms of the plus-maze. The results show that RH has widespread effects on subsequent brain function, which vary by neural system.

  2. Anatomy and aging of the amygdala and hippocampus in autism spectrum disorder: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study of Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Clodagh M; Deeley, Q; Daly, E M; Ecker, C; O'Brien, F M; Hallahan, B; Loth, E; Toal, F; Reed, S; Hales, S; Robertson, D M; Craig, M C; Mullins, D; Barker, G J; Lavender, T; Johnston, P; Murphy, K C; Murphy, D G

    2012-02-01

    It has been proposed that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal morphometry and development of the amygdala and hippocampus (AH). However, previous reports are inconsistent, perhaps because they included people of different ASD diagnoses, ages, and health. We compared, using magnetic resonance imaging, the in vivo anatomy of the AH in 32 healthy individuals with Asperger syndrome (12-47 years) and 32 healthy controls who did not differ significantly in age or IQ. We measured bulk (gray + white matter) volume of the AH using manual tracing (MEASURE). We first compared the volume of AH between individuals with Asperger syndrome and controls and then investigated age-related differences. We compared differences in anatomy before, and after, correcting for whole brain size. There was no significant between group differences in whole brain volume. However, individuals with Asperger syndrome had a significantly larger raw bulk volume of total (PAsperger syndrome, had a significant age-related increase in volume (r = 0.486, PAsperger syndrome have significant differences from controls in bulk volume and aging of the amygdala.

  3. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

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    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  4. The effects of various lesions and knife-cuts on septal and amygdala kindling in the rat.

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    Racine, R J; Paxinos, G; Mosher, J M; Kairiss, E W

    1988-06-28

    Large bilateral aspiration lesions of the hippocampus had no significant effect on septal kindling, whereas large bilateral DC lesions of the pyriform lobe resulted in a small but significant increase in the number of septal stimulations required to complete kindling. Bilateral aspiration lesions of the dorsal hippocampus or large bilateral DC lesions of the ventral hippocampus had no effect on amygdala kindling. Small DC lesions of the stria terminalis significantly facilitated amygdala kindling. Unilateral or bilateral ventral knife-cuts delivered in a coronal plane anterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with anterior pyriform structures, produced a small but nearly significant increase in the number of stimulations required for amygdala kindling. Similar cuts placed posterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with the hippocampus, significantly facilitated kindling. Cuts that were medially placed, to disrupt the ventral amygdala-fugal pathway, had no effect on amygdala kindling. These results show that the hippocampus is not critical for either septal or amygdala kindling. The pyriform lobe structures appear to play a facilitatory role in kindling, but none of the lesions or knife-cuts were capable of blocking or even severely retarding kindling.

  5. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  6. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  7. Decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and trophic factors in the amygdala complex of depressed mice after chronic immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soonwoong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala plays an essential role in controlling emotional behaviors and has numerous connections to other brain regions. The functional role of the amygdala has been highlighted by various studies of stress-induced behavioral changes. Here we investigated gene expression changes in the amygdala in the chronic immobilization stress (CIS-induced depression model. Results Eight genes were decreased in the amygdala of CIS mice, including genes for neurotrophic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, osteoglycin, fibromodulin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (Igfbp2 were further analyzed for histological expression changes. The expression of osteoglycin and fibromodulin simultaneously decreased in the medial, basolateral, and central amygdala regions. However, Igf2 and Igfbp2 decreased specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Interestingly, this decrease was found only in the amygdala of mice showing higher immobility, but not in mice displaying lower immobility, although the CIS regimen was the same for both groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the responsiveness of the amygdala may play a role in the sensitivity of CIS-induced behavioral changes in mice.

  8. Amygdala recruitment in schizophrenia in response to aversive emotional material: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Van Snellenberg, Jared X; Cohen, Rachel E; Repovs, Grega; Dowd, Erin C; Barch, Deanna M

    2012-05-01

    Emotional dysfunction has long been established as a critical clinical feature of schizophrenia. In the past decade, there has been extensive work examining the potential contribution of abnormal amygdala activation to this dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have demonstrated under-recruitment of the amygdala in response to emotional stimuli, while others have shown intact recruitment of this region. To date, there have been few attempts to synthesize this literature using quantitative criteria or to use a formal meta-analytic approach to examine which variables may moderate the magnitude of between-group differences in amygdala activation in response to aversive emotional stimuli. We conducted a meta-analysis of amygdala activation in patients with schizophrenia, using a bootstrapping approach to investigate: (a) evidence for amygdala under-recruitment in schizophrenia and (b) variables that may moderate the magnitude of between-group differences in amygdala activation. We demonstrate that patients with schizophrenia show statistically significant, but modest, under-recruitment of bilateral amygdala (mean effect size = -0.20 SD). However, present findings indicate that this under-recruitment is dependent on the use of a neutral vs emotion interaction contrast and is not apparent if amygdala activation by patients and controls is evaluated in a negative emotional condition only. PMID:21123853

  9. NMDA Receptor- and ERK-Dependent Histone Methylation Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Bidirectionally Regulate Fear Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Jarome, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Jordan; Lubin, Farah D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fear memory formation requires de novo gene transcription in the amygdala. We provide evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in the form of histone lysine methylation in the lateral amygdala (LA) are regulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling and involved in gene transcription changes necessary for fear memory…

  10. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov S.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.

  11. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech;

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the amygdala and other brain regions critically regulates sensitivity to threat, which has been associated with risk for mood and affective disorders. The extent to which these neural pathways are genetically determined or correlate with risk-related personality measures...... and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and between both amygdalae and a cluster including posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and visual cortex was significantly increased in 5-HTTLPR S' allele carriers relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with functional connectivity......OFC/vlPFC, such that S' carriers exhibited a more negative association relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for both independent and interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala communication, which may mediate effects on risk for mood and affective disorders....

  12. Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo Menezes; Wenzel, Amy; Borges, Karinne Tavares; Porto, Cristianne Ribeiro; Caminha, Renato Maiato; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis

    2009-08-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often exhibit impulsive and aggressive behavior. The hippocampus and amygdala form part of the limbic system, which plays a central role in controlling such expressions of emotional reactivity. There are mixed results in the literature regarding whether patients with BPD have smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volume relative to healthy controls. To clarify the precise nature of these mixed results, we performed a meta-analysis to aggregate data on the size of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with BPD. Seven publications involving six studies and a total of 104 patients with BPD and 122 healthy controls were included. A significantly smaller volume was found in both the right and left hippocampi and amygdala of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. These findings raise the possibility that reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes are biological substrates of some symptoms of BPD. PMID:19663654

  13. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  14. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; McDonald, Craig G; Johnson, Luke R

    2011-01-12

    Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram) is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  15. Impaired declarative memory for emotional material following bilateral amygdala damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, R; Cahill, L; Schul, R; Babinsky, R

    1997-01-01

    Everyday experience suggests that highly emotional events are often the most memorable, an observation supported by psychological and pharmacological studies in humans. Although studies in animals have shown that nondeclarative emotional memory (behaviors associated with emotional situations) may be impaired by lesions of the amygdala, little is known about the neural underpinnings of emotional memory in humans, especially in regard to declarative memory (memory for facts that can be assessed verbally). We investigated the declarative memory of two rare patients with selective bilateral amygdala damage. Both subjects showed impairments in long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. The data support the hypothesis that the human amygdala normally enhances acquisition of declarative knowledge regarding emotionally arousing stimuli. PMID:10456070

  16. Amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex responses to appearance-based and behavior-based person impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sean G; Gobbini, M I; Engell, Andrew D; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We explored the neural correlates of learning about people when the affective value of both facial appearance and behavioral information is manipulated. Participants were presented with faces that were either rated as high or low on trustworthiness. Subsequently, we paired these faces with positive, negative, or no behavioral information. Prior to forming face-behavior associations, a cluster in the right amygdala responded more strongly to untrustworthy than to trustworthy faces. During learning, a cluster in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) responded more strongly to faces paired with behaviors than faces not paired with behaviors. We also observed that the activity in the dmPFC was correlated with behavioral learning performance assessed after scanning. Interestingly, individual differences in the initial amygdala response to face trustworthiness prior to learning modulated the relationship between dmPFC activity and learning. This finding suggests that the activity of the amygdala can affect the interaction between dmPFC activity and learning.

  17. Identification and Characterization of GABAergic Projection Neurons from Ventral Hippocampus to Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lübkemann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic local circuit neurons are critical for the network activity and functional interaction of the amygdala and hippocampus. Previously, we obtained evidence for a GABAergic contribution to the hippocampal projection into the basolateral amygdala. Using fluorogold retrograde labeling, we now demonstrate that this projection indeed has a prominent GABAergic component comprising 17% of the GABAergic neurons in the ventral hippocampus. A majority of the identified GABAergic projection neurons are located in the stratum oriens of area CA1, but cells are also found in the stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum. We could detect the expression of different markers of interneuron subpopulations, including parvalbumin and calbindin, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin in such retrogradely labeled GABA neurons. Thus GABAergic projection neurons to the amygdala comprise a neurochemically heterogeneous group of cells from different interneuron populations, well situated to control network activity patterns in the amygdalo-hippocampal system.

  18. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  19. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA and centromedial amygdala (CMA in the brain after 36 h of TSD.Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9 ± 2.3 years (range, 18-28 years were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of TSD.TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]. Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and right precentral gyrus.These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD.

  20. Facilitation of synaptic transmission and pain responses by CGRP in the amygdala of normal rats

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    Ji Guangchen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP plays an important role in peripheral and central sensitization. CGRP also is a key molecule in the spino-parabrachial-amygdaloid pain pathway. Blockade of CGRP1 receptors in the spinal cord or in the amygdala has antinociceptive effects in different pain models. Here we studied the electrophysiological mechanisms of behavioral effects of CGRP in the amygdala in normal animals without tissue injury. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurons in the latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC in rat brain slices showed that CGRP (100 nM increased excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs at the parabrachio-amygdaloid (PB-CeLC synapse, the exclusive source of CGRP in the amygdala. Consistent with a postsynaptic mechanism of action, CGRP increased amplitude, but not frequency, of miniature EPSCs and did not affect paired-pulse facilitation. CGRP also increased neuronal excitability. CGRP-induced synaptic facilitation was reversed by an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 50 μM or a PKA inhibitor (KT5720, 1 μM, but not by a PKC inhibitor (GF109203X, 1 μM. Stereotaxic administration of CGRP (10 μM, concentration in microdialysis probe into the CeLC by microdialysis in awake rats increased audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Behavioral effects of CGRP were largely blocked by KT5720 (100 μM but not by GF109203X (100 μM. The results show that CGRP in the amygdala exacerbates nocifensive and affective behavioral responses in normal animals through PKA- and NMDA receptor-dependent postsynaptic facilitation. Thus, increased CGRP levels in the amygdala might trigger pain in the absence of tissue injury.

  1. Culture but not gender modulates amygdala activation during explicit emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derntl Birgit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence indicates that humans have significant difficulties in understanding emotional expressions from individuals of different ethnic backgrounds, leading to reduced recognition accuracy and stronger amygdala activation. However, the impact of gender on the behavioral and neural reactions during the initial phase of cultural assimilation has not been addressed. Therefore, we investigated 24 Asians students (12 females and 24 age-matched European students (12 females during an explicit emotion recognition task, using Caucasian facial expressions only, on a high-field MRI scanner. Results Analysis of functional data revealed bilateral amygdala activation to emotional expressions in Asian and European subjects. However, in the Asian sample, a stronger response of the amygdala emerged and was paralleled by reduced recognition accuracy, particularly for angry male faces. Moreover, no significant gender difference emerged. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between duration of stay and amygdala activation. Conclusion In this study we investigated the “alien-effect” as an initial problem during cultural assimilation and examined this effect on a behavioral and neural level. This study has revealed bilateral amygdala activation to emotional expressions in Asian and European females and males. In the Asian sample, a stronger response of the amygdala bilaterally was observed and this was paralleled by reduced performance, especially for anger and disgust depicted by male expressions. However, no gender difference occurred. Taken together, while gender exerts only a subtle effect, culture and duration of stay as well as gender of poser are shown to be relevant factors for emotion processing, influencing not only behavioral but also neural responses in female and male immigrants.

  2. Neuroanatomical and functional characterization of CRF neurons of the amygdala using a novel transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, P N; Valdivia, S; Cabral, A; Reynaldo, M; Raingo, J; Sakata, I; Osborne-Lawrence, S; Zigman, J M; Perelló, M

    2015-03-19

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-producing neurons of the amygdala have been implicated in behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear, anxiety, stress, food intake and reward. To overcome the difficulties in identifying CRF neurons within the amygdala, a novel transgenic mouse line, in which the humanized recombinant Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) is under the control of the CRF promoter (CRF-hrGFP mice), was developed. First, the CRF-hrGFP mouse model was validated and the localization of CRF neurons within the amygdala was systematically mapped. Amygdalar hrGFP-expressing neurons were located primarily in the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, but also present in the central amygdala. Secondly, the marker of neuronal activation c-Fos was used to explore the response of amygdalar CRF neurons in CRF-hrGFP mice under different experimental paradigms. C-Fos induction was observed in CRF neurons of CRF-hrGFP mice exposed to an acute social defeat stress event, a fasting/refeeding paradigm or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. In contrast, no c-Fos induction was detected in CRF neurons of CRF-hrGFP mice exposed to restraint stress, forced swimming test, 48-h fasting, acute high-fat diet (HFD) consumption, intermittent HFD consumption, ad libitum HFD consumption, HFD withdrawal, conditioned HFD aversion, ghrelin administration or melanocortin 4 receptor agonist administration. Thus, this study fully characterizes the distribution of amygdala CRF neurons in mice and suggests that they are involved in some, but not all, stress or food intake-related behaviors recruiting the amygdala. PMID:25595987

  3. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient

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    Kojić Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  4. Multiplicity of A-type and related stars

    CERN Document Server

    North, Pierre L

    2013-01-01

    The origin of chemically peculiar stars remains enigmatic, especially regarding their frequency among their "normal" peers. In addition to magnetic fields and rotation, multiplicity may shed light on the question. We mention the main surveys of the three kinds performed so far of intermediate mass stars, either normal or chemically peculiar, magnetic or not: imaging, spectroscopic, and photometric. We also consider the mulitiplicity of red giant stars, since many of them are descendants of A-type stars, through Mermilliod's radial velocity monitoring of open cluster members. We briefly review the orbital properties of binary systems hosting chemically peculiar stars. Some specific objects of special interest are mentioned as deserving further study. Finally, we recall that some binary systems composed of A-type stars are progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and evoke the potentialities of future surveys like Gaia.

  5. Combined Papillated Bowen Disease and Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxanthoma

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    Dimas Suárez-Vilela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of papillated Bowen disease (PBD, associated with a clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFXA. The epidermal lesion showed a bowenoid papillomatous growth pattern with histologic features suggestive of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV. In the dermis a neoplasm made up by spindled or polygonal cells with wide clear cytoplasm and moderate nuclear pleomorphism was found. Immunohistochemical characteristics of these two lesions were clearly different. The atypical cells of the intraepidermal proliferation were positive for AE1-AE3 anticytokeratin antibody, EMA, p16, p53 and p63. The dermal tumor was positive for vimentin, CD10, CD68, CD99, alpha-1-antitrypsin and c-kit. Histological features and immunohistochemical profile of the dermal tumor corresponded to a CCAFXA, a very uncommon neoplasm of which only 10 cases have been reported. In situ hybridization for numerous types of HPVs was negative in both lesions.

  6. HOSPITAL OUTBREAK OF POST CAESAREAN WOUND INFECTION WITH ATYPICAL MYCOBACTERIA

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    Battu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of 18 cases of post-operative CS wound infection due to Atypical Mycobacterium (M. chelonae were found in a single hospital over a six-month period. Though the contaminating source could not be identified, remedial control measures taken includes changing all the operative equipment, autoclave machine, air conditioners, exhaust fans of OT, linen and mattresses and solutions like betadine, savlon, spirit and also suture material replaced with new ones. Antibiotic protocols are changed and daily cleaning of OT with cetrimide solution and daily fumigation for one month. No further Atypical MB infective episode have occurred in the one and a half year since the study. Awareness of this ubiquitous opportunistic organism that is not easily eradicated from the hospital environment and strong suspicion of chronic post-operative wound infection, careful surveillance, detailed attention to disinfectant methods of medical devices and appropriate control measures are essential to prevent potential outbreaks.

  7. Magnetic field in atypical prominence structures: Bubble, tornado and eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, P J; Ariste, A López; Labrosse, N; Dalmasse, K; Gelly, B

    2016-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in `atypical' prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in `typical' prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of `atypical' prominences (tornadoes, bubbles and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He I D_3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the Principal Component Analysis inversion method on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more ...

  8. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

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    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  9. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Şeyma Kayalı; Nilden Tuygun; Halise Akça; Can Demir Karacan

    2016-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who...

  10. Childhood atypical meningioma with perineural spread: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Feng-Yu.; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Wu, Chieh-Tsai [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Lin, Kuang-Lin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Meningiomas are uncommon in children. When they occur, they are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. Childhood meningiomas are generally large and commonly associated with cyst formation and an unusual location. Perineural tumor spread, occasionally associated with head and neck malignancies, is very rare in meningiomas. We present the MR findings of an atypical meningioma with perineural spread in a 4.5-year-old girl. (orig.)

  11. Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia with Trisomy 13: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-yu Hu; Chao-hui Yuan; Kui Tan; Zhen-zhen Chen

    2011-01-01

    ATYPICAL chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML),which shows both myeloproliferative and myeIodysplastic features,is a type of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms.1 Because of the presence of neutrophilic leukocytosis,aCML may resemble chronic myeIogenous leukemia (CML).However,in contrast with CML,aCML does not have the Philadelphia chromosome or the bcr/abl fusion gene.

  12. Epithelioid Schwannomas: An Analysis of 58 Cases Including Atypical Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jesse; Gardner, Jerad M; Edgar, Mark; Weiss, Sharon W

    2016-05-01

    The histologic features and outcome of 58 cases of epithelioid schwannoma were studied to determine the significance of atypical histologic features. Cases were retrieved from personal consultation files from 1999 to 2013. Patients (31 male and 26 female patients) ranged in age from 14 to 80 years (median, 38 y). Two patients had schwannomatosis 1. Tumors developed in the dermis/subcutis (n=56) or muscle (n=2) of the upper extremity (34.5%), lower extremity (34.5%), thorax/abdomen/back (18%), and less common anatomic locations including the scalp, neck, lip, and breast. They ranged in size from 0.25 to 4.5 cm (median, 2.0 cm). Typically circumscribed and surrounded by a perineurium, they comprised single or small groups of epithelioid schwann cells with a moderate amphophilic cytoplasm and occasional nuclear pseudoinclusions. Stroma varied from myxoid to hyalinized, often with thick-walled vessels (55 cases). Mitotic rate ranged from 0 to 9 mitoses/10 high-power field (HPF) (2.37 mm) in the most active areas (mean, 2 to 3 mitoses/10 HPFs). Thirteen cases (22%) were "atypical," defined by a high mitotic rate (≥3 mitoses per 10 HPFs) and nuclear size variation (≥3:1). All (56/56) expressed S100 protein; type IV collagen invested groups or individual cells (16/17). Melanoma markers were negative, except for melan A (1 case). Follow-up in 39 patients (median, 78 mo; range, 6 to 174 mo) indicated that 31 (79%) were alive without disease (including 9/13 atypical cases; median, 78 mo), 7 (18%) were alive with unknown status, and 1 patient had died of unrelated causes. One tumor recurred, but none metastasized. Epithelioid schwannomas, even those with atypical features, are benign and do not constitute a histologic continuum with epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which typically occur in deep soft tissues and have more anaplastic features. PMID:26752543

  13. Ureterolithiasis: classical and atypical findings on unenhanced helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Kuldeep K; El-Dieb, Adam; Vitellas, Kenneth M; Bennett, William F; Bova, James G

    2002-03-01

    Evaluation of patients with acute flank pain using helical computed tomography (CT) is a well-accepted, rapid, and safe procedure in the emergency setting. Various primary and secondary signs are described in the literature for evaluation of these patients. Our purpose is to demonstrate both the classical findings associated with ureteral calculi on unenhanced helical CT and atypical findings and potential pitfalls. We also provide readers with a systematic approach to interpreting unenhanced helical CT scans performed for acute flank pain.

  14. Off-label indications for atypical antipsychotics: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Nimatoudis, Ioannis; Iacovides, Apostolos; Kaprinis, George

    2004-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of newer atypical antipsychotic agents, a question emerged, concerning their use as complementary pharmacotherapy or even as monotherapy in mental disorders other than psychosis. Material and method MEDLINE was searched with the combination of each one of the key words: risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine with key words that refered to every DSM-IV diagnosis other than schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and dementia and memory d...

  15. Atypicality in presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by olanzapine

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra Biswaranjan; Mishra Baikunthanath; Sahoo Saddichha; Arora Manu; Khess C.R.J

    2007-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is the most serious of acute neurological side effects produced by antipsychotic medication, characterized by hyperthermia, rigidity, altered consciousness and autonomic dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies from 0.4-1.4%. NMS is usually seen in treatment with high potency typical antipsychotics and very rarely with atypical antipsychotics. However, NMS cases have been reported with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. The presen...

  16. Atypical Attentional Networks and the Emergence of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Townsend, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The sociocommunicative impairments that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not present at birth but emerge gradually over the first two years of life. In typical development, basic attentional processes may provide a critical foundation for sociocommunicative abilities. Therefore early attentional dysfunction in ASD may result in atypical development of social communication. Prior research has demonstrated that persons with ASD exhibit early and lifelong impairments in attention. The p...

  17. Magnetic field in atypical prominence structures: Bubble, tornado and eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Ariste, A. López; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in `atypical' prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in `typical' prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important...

  18. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mila eVulchanova; David eSaldaña; Sobh eChahboun; Valentin eVulchanov

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural la...

  19. Long-term Deformation Measurements of Atypical Roof Timber Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bureš

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes conclusions from evaluation of results obtained from long-termmeasuring of innovative atypical roof timber structures. Based on the results ofmeasurements of vertical and horizontal deformation components it is possible to analyzethe real behavior of structures in given conditions. By assessing deformations in variousstages, including particularly external and internal environment temperatures, relative airhumidity and moisture content of wood, decisive parameters for real structure behaviorcan be established. The data are processed from period 2001 – 2013.

  20. Atypical demyelinating lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetkin, Z. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Haughton, V.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)]|[Dept. of Radiology, Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We describe an atypical MRI appearance of multiple sclerosis (MS). Lesions characterized on T2-weighted images by a well-defined rim of increased signal intensity and a concentric region of higher signal intensity were seen in 6 of 132 patients with MS. On T1-weighted images these lesions were evident as regions of low signal intensity, often with a rim of contrast enhancement or increased signal intensity. These appearances tended to be shown by new, evolving lesions. (orig.)

  1. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGuillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.Materials & MethodsThirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.ResultsThe mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5.Twenty one patients (87.9 % had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2% admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%, ptosis (3%, neck stiffness (3%, inability to stand (proximal weakness (9.1%, headache (3% and dysphagia (3%.According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%, descending in 5 (15.2% and static in 2 (6.1% patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3% children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%.ConclusionIn this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness, headache and dysphagia

  2. Elevated rates of atypical handedness in paedophilia: Theory and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L.; Lykins, Amy D.; Cantor, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors determine handedness including genetics, prenatal stress and post-natal environmental conditions. Atypical handedness, whether manifest as increased sinistrality or decreased strength of lateral preference, has been noted in a wide variety of populations with neuropathology. Those with atypical sexual preferences, specifically paedophilia, also manifest reduced rates of right-handedness. This paper uses the largest sample of phallometrically assessed men to date to establish the pattern of atypical handedness in paedophilia. Specifically, whereas prior research has largely characterized participants dichotomously as right-handed or non-right-handed and/or used self-report of writing hand, this paper expands upon such reports by using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory's laterality quotient. Participants' handedness and phallometrically assessed sexual preference were analyzed both as continuous and categorical variables, and the responses of those scoring in the range of ambiguous-handedness were evaluated to ascertain whether they were ambiguously handed or more accurately described as mixed-handed. Results indicated those producing scores in the range of ambiguous-handedness demonstrated response patterns consistent with ambiguous-handedness, rather than mixed-handedness. Paedophiles demonstrated high rates of non-right-handedness primarily manifested as sinistrality, whereas those who had a sexual preference for pubescent children evidenced increased ambiguous-handedness. Results support a view of ambiguous-handedness as less pathological than previously hypothesized, and of a neurodevelopmental origin of paraphilic sexual preferences. PMID:24666135

  3. Atypical features of nanophthalmic macula- a spectral domain OCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Aparna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report atypical features on Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in a case of non-familial pure adult nanophthalmos. Case presentation A 39 year old male hyperope was found to have biometric and fundus findings typical of nanophthalmos. The additional atypical features included serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED in right eye and a cuff of subretinal fluid with underlying yellow deposits along superotemporal arcade in the left eye. Fundus flourescein angiogram showed hyperfluorescence due to window defect, dye pooling due to serous PED in right eye and leak superior to disc in right eye and superotemporally in left eye. Cirrus-SD OCT horizontal line scan passing through the fovea showed extensive inner limiting membrane corrugations causing distorted foveal contour in both eyes. A large juxtafoveal serous PED and a small extrafoval PED were seen with folds in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-choriocapillary layer in the right eye. Conclusion Structural disruptions in the RPE-choriocapillary complex in the form of folds or juxtafoveal serous PED and RPE folds can be atypical features of nanophthalmic macula better discerned on high resolution OCT.

  4. Paranoid personality masking an atypical case of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroka, Nneka; Jehangir, Waqas; Ii, Jay Littlefield; Pattan, Vishwanath; Yousif, Abdalla; Mishra, Arunesh K

    2015-05-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a debilitating disease that is well described in the "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)", and typically presents with memory impairment, progressive decline in cortical functioning, and behavioral changes. Age of onset is generally in the late fifties, and usually the first presentation involves a change in behavior and emotional blunting. Treatment of FTD involves management of any neurobehavioral symptoms while trials of atypical antipsychotics are ongoing but suggest some efficacy. We present a case of a patient who first presented with severe paranoid personality traits and frank persecutory delusions. This atypical presentation of our patient first led to her incorrect diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and paranoid personality disorder. As a result of this diagnosis, she was treated unsuccessfully. A subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) then showed atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes bilaterally (left more prominent than right) which confirmed the diagnosis of FTD. The importance of this case involves the atypical presentation of paranoia and delusions, and our patient's incorrect diagnosis based on her clinical presentation led to a trial of unsuccessful treatment. Only after performing an MRI, which showed atrophy, was the patient appropriately treated and deemed medically stable. This case report illustrates the importance of considering a rare presentation of frontotemporal lobe dementia with patients who are in the typical age range and present with paranoia and delusions.

  5. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. I. Efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-03-20

    The medial (M) an posteromedial cortical (C3) amygdaloid nuclei and the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (NAOT) are designated the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' because they are the only components of the amygdala to receive a direct projection from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The efferents of M and C3 were traced after injections of /sup 3/H-proline into the amygdala in male golden hamsters. Frozen sections of the brains were processed for autoradiography. The efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' are largely to areas which are primary and secondary terminal areas along the vomeronasal pathway, although the efferents from C3 and M terminate in different layers in these areas than do the projections from the vomeronasal nerve or the AOB. Specifically, C3 projects ipsilaterally to the internal granule cell layer of the AOB, the cellular layer of NAOT, and layer Ib of M. Additional fibers from C3 terminate in a retrocommissural component of the bed nucleus of the strain terminalis (BNST) bilaterally, and in the cellular layers of the contralateral C3. The medial nucleus projects to the cellular layer of the ipsilateral NAOT, layer Ib of C3, and bilaterally to the medial component of BNST. Projections from M to non-vomeronasal areas terminate in the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamic junction, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus and possibly in the ventral subiculum. These results demonstrate reciprocal connections between primary and secondary vomeronasal areas between the secondary areas themselves. They suggest that M, but not C3, projects to areas outside this vomeronasal network. The medial amygdaloid nucleus is therefore an important link between the vomeronasal organ and areas of the brain not receiving direct vomeronasal input.

  6. Comparative distribution of relaxin-3 inputs and calcium-binding protein-positive neurons in rat amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio N Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in mediating complex behaviors are being rapidly elucidated using various newly developed and powerful anatomical and molecular techniques, providing insights into the neural basis for anxiety disorders, depression, addiction, and dysfunctional social behaviors. Many of these behaviors and associated physiological processes involve the activation of the amygdala in conjunction with cortical and hippocampal circuits. Ascending subcortical projections provide modulatory inputs to the extended amygdala and its related nodes (or ‘hubs’ within these key circuits. One such input arises from the nucleus incertus (NI in the tegmentum, which sends amino acid- and peptide-containing projections throughout the forebrain. Notably, a distinct population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, and relaxin-3 signaling has been implicated in the modulation of reward/motivation and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rodents via actions within the extended amygdala. Thus, a detailed description of the relaxin-3 innervation of the extended amygdala would provide an anatomical framework for an improved understanding of NI and relaxin-3 modulation of these and other specific amygdala-related functions. Therefore, in this study, we examined the distribution of NI projections and relaxin-3-positive elements (axons/fibers/terminals within the amygdala, relative to the distribution of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin, calretinin and/or calbindin. Anterograde tracer injections into the NI revealed a topographic distribution of NI efferents within the amygdala that was near identical to the distribution of relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers. Highest densities of anterogradely-labeled elements and relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, medial divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and in the endopiriform

  7. Comparative Distribution of Relaxin-3 Inputs and Calcium-Binding Protein-Positive Neurons in Rat Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabio N; Pereira, Celia W; Sánchez-Pérez, Ana M; Otero-García, Marcos; Ma, Sherie; Gundlach, Andrew L; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E

    2016-01-01

    The neural circuits involved in mediating complex behaviors are being rapidly elucidated using various newly developed and powerful anatomical and molecular techniques, providing insights into the neural basis for anxiety disorders, depression, addiction, and dysfunctional social behaviors. Many of these behaviors and associated physiological processes involve the activation of the amygdala in conjunction with cortical and hippocampal circuits. Ascending subcortical projections provide modulatory inputs to the extended amygdala and its related nodes (or "hubs") within these key circuits. One such input arises from the nucleus incertus (NI) in the tegmentum, which sends amino acid- and peptide-containing projections throughout the forebrain. Notably, a distinct population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, and relaxin-3 signaling has been implicated in the modulation of reward/motivation and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rodents via actions within the extended amygdala. Thus, a detailed description of the relaxin-3 innervation of the extended amygdala would provide an anatomical framework for an improved understanding of NI and relaxin-3 modulation of these and other specific amygdala-related functions. Therefore, in this study, we examined the distribution of NI projections and relaxin-3-positive elements (axons/fibers/terminals) within the amygdala, relative to the distribution of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and/or calbindin. Anterograde tracer injections into the NI revealed a topographic distribution of NI efferents within the amygdala that was near identical to the distribution of relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers. Highest densities of anterogradely-labeled elements and relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, medial divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and in the endopiriform nucleus. In

  8. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  9. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression. PMID:26258131

  10. Relationship between remnant hippocampus and amygdala and memory outcomes after stereotactic surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikova H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hana Malikova,1,2,* Lenka Kramska,3,* Zdenek Vojtech,4,5 Jan Sroubek,6 Jiri Lukavsky,7 Roman Liscak8 1Department of Radiology, Na Homolce Hospital, 2Institute of Anatomy, Second Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, Na Homolce Hospital, 5Department of Neurology, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, 7Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 8Department of Radiation and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Mesial temporal structures play an important role in human memory. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, seizure activity is generated from the same structures. Surgery is the definitive treatment for medically intractable MTLE. In addition to standard temporal lobe microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE is used as an alternative MTLE treatment. While memory impairments after standard epilepsy surgery are well known, it has been shown that memory decline is not a feature of SAHE. The aim of the present study was to correlate the volume of the remnant hippocampus and amygdala in patients treated by SAHE with changes in memory parameters.Materials and methods: Thirty-seven MTLE patients treated by SAHE (ten right, 27 left were included. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations including hippocampal and amygdalar volumetry and neuropsychological evaluation preoperatively and 1 year after surgery.Results: Using Spearman correlation analyses, larger left-sided hippocampal reductions were associated with lower verbal memory performance (ρ=-0.46; P=0.02. On the contrary, improvement of global memory quotient (MQ was positively correlated with larger right-sided hippocampal reduction (ρ=0.66; P=0

  11. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    unicortical trephine defects was tested in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia using 3 different membranes. The critical-size defect in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm, because control defects 8 mm in diameter healed spontaneously. However, it is anatomically not possible to create defects larger...... than 8 mm in an adult Copenhagen White rabbit tibia....

  12. Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the me

  13. Neonatal Amygdala Lesions and Stress Responsivity in Rats : Relevance to schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    "Stress responsiveness in an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia” Rats bearing lesions of the amygdala made on postnatal day 7 (D7 AMX) model aspects of neurodevelopmental psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia. Adult D7 AMX rats display impaired pre-pulse inhibition, impaired behaviora

  14. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  15. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  16. Medial Amygdala Lesions in Male Rats Reduce Aggressive Behavior : Interference With Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, J.D.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the amygdala (am) has been implicated in a variety of social behaviors. The present experiment will test the hypothesis that the effect of am lesions on intermale aggressive behavior is due to interference with social learning processes. Small electrolytic lesions of the am had

  17. Amygdala regulates risk of predation in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, June-Seek; Kim, Jeansok J

    2010-12-14

    In a natural environment, foragers constantly face the risk of encountering predators. Fear is a defensive mechanism evolved to protect animals from danger by balancing the animals' needs for primary resources with the risk of predation, and the amygdala is implicated in mediating fear responses. However, the functions of fear and amygdala in foraging behavior are not well characterized because of the technical difficulty in quantifying prey-predator interaction with real (unpredictable) predators. Thus, the present study investigated the rat's foraging behavior in a seminaturalistic environment when confronted with a predator-like robot programmed to surge toward the animal seeking food. Rats initially fled into the nest and froze (demonstrating fear) and then cautiously approached and seized the food as a function of decreasing nest-food and increasing food-robot distances. The likelihood of procuring food increased and decreased via lesioning/inactivating and disinhibiting the amygdala, respectively. These results indicate that the amygdala bidirectionally regulates risk behavior in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment.

  18. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, th

  19. Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G; Jacoby, Nir; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Brain regions in the "pain matrix", can be activated by observing or reading about others in physical pain. In previous research, we found that reading stories about others' emotional suffering, by contrast, recruits a different group of brain regions mostly associated with thinking about others' minds. In the current study, we examined the neural circuits responsible for deliberately regulating empathic responses to others' pain and suffering. In Study 1, a sample of college-aged participants (n=18) read stories about physically painful and emotionally distressing events during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while either actively empathizing with the main character or trying to remain objective. In Study 2, the same experiment was performed with professional social workers, who are chronically exposed to human suffering (n=21). Across both studies activity in the amygdala was associated with empathic regulation towards others' emotional pain, but not their physical pain. In addition, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis and Granger causal modeling (GCM) showed that amygdala activity while reading about others' emotional pain was preceded by and positively coupled with activity in the theory of mind brain regions, and followed by and negatively coupled with activity in regions associated with physical pain and bodily sensations. Previous work has shown that the amygdala is critically involved in the deliberate control of self-focused distress - the current results extend the central importance of amygdala activity to the control of other-focused empathy, but only when considering others' emotional pain. PMID:25913703

  20. Are you gonna leave me? Separation anxiety is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kaufmann, Carolin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-02-01

    The core feature of separation anxiety is excessive distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment. So far little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of separation anxiety. Therefore, we investigated functional (amygdala responsiveness and functional connectivity during threat-related emotion processing) and structural (grey matter volume) imaging markers associated with separation anxiety as measured with the Relationship Scale Questionnaire in a large sample of healthy adults from the Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (N = 320). We used a robust emotional face-matching task and acquired high-resolution structural images for morphometric analyses using voxel-based morphometry. The main results were positive associations of separation anxiety scores with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces as well as increased amygdala grey matter volumes. A functional connectivity analysis revealed positive associations between separation anxiety and functional coupling of the amygdala with areas involved in visual processes and attention, including several occipital and somatosensory areas. Taken together, the results suggest a higher emotional involvement in subjects with separation anxiety while watching negative facial expressions, and potentially secondary neuro-structural adaptive processes. These results could help to understand and treat (adult) separation anxiety.

  1. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-02-02

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity.

  2. The amygdala, top-down effects, and selective attention to features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Aleman, Andre; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    While the amygdalar role in fear conditioning is well established, it also appears to be involved in a wide spectrum of other functions concerning emotional information. For example, the amygdala is thought to be involved in guiding spatial attention to emotionally relevant information such as the e

  3. A Model of Amygdala-Hippocampal-Prefrontal Interaction in Fear Conditioning and Extinction in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Orr, Scott P.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are involved in fear conditioning. However, the functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not clearly understood. Here, we extend existing neural network models of the functional roles of the hippocampus…

  4. Amygdala Kindling in the WAG-Rij Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aker, R.G.; Yananli, H.R.; Gurbanova, A.A.; Özkaynakçi, A.E.; Ates, N.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Onat, F.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: The kindling model in rats with genetic absence epilepsy is suitable for studying mechanisms involved in the propagation and generalization of seizure activity in the convulsive and nonconvulsive components of epilepsy. In the present study, we compared the amygdala kindling rate a

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT AGONISTIC EXPERIENCES ON BEHAVIORAL SEIZURES IN FULLY AMYGDALA KINDLED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BELDHUIS, HJA; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1992-01-01

    Fully amygdala kindled rats were exposed to two different inter-male agonistic experiences in order to study the interaction between epilepsy and acute social stress. Victory experience did not influence the severity of seizure behaviour, whereas a single acute defeat modified both ictal and postict

  6. Kindling-Induced Changes in Plasticity of the Rat Amygdala and Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Manja; Siegmund, Herbert; Pape, Hans-Christian; Albrecht, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often accompanied by interictal behavioral abnormalities, such as fear and memory impairment. To identify possible underlying substrates, we analyzed long-term synaptic plasticity in two relevant brain regions, the lateral amygdala (LA) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, in the kindling model of epilepsy. Wistar…

  7. Effect of different agonistic experiences on behavioural seizures in fully amygdala kindled rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldhuis, Hans J.A.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    Fully amygdala kindled rats were exposed to two different inter-male agonistic experiences in order to study the interaction between epilepsy and acute social stress. Victory experience did not influence the severity of seizure behaviour, whereas a single acute defeat modified both ictal and postict

  8. Structural Variation within the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Predict Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Shane Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that lesions to regions involved in social and emotional cognition disrupt socioemotional processing and memory. We investigated how structural variation of regions involved in socioemotional memory (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], amygdala, as opposed to a region implicated in explicit memory (hippocampus, affected memory for impressions in young and older adults. Anatomical MRI scans for fifteen young and fifteen older adults were obtained and reconstructed to gather information about cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Young adults had greater amygdala and hippocampus volumes than old, and thicker left vmPFC than old, although right vmPFC thickness did not differ across the age groups. Participants formed behavior-based impressions and responded to interpersonally meaningful, social but interpersonally irrelevant, or non-social prompts, and completed a memory test. Results showed that greater left amygdala volume predicted enhanced overall memory for impressions in older but not younger adults. Increased right vmPFC thickness in older, but not younger, adults correlated with enhanced memory for impressions formed in the interpersonally meaningful context. Hippocampal volume was not predictive of social memory in young or older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of structural variation in regions linked to socioemotional processing in the retention of impressions with age, and suggest that the amygdala and vmPFC play an integral role when encoding and retrieving social information.

  9. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, A.; McGaugh, J.L.; Roozendaal, B.

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidat

  10. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Donowho, Kyle; Abdi, Amin; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno; McIntyre, Christa K.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing events through interactions with the noradrenergic system of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a beta-adrenoc

  11. Modeling a Negative Response Bias in the Human Amygdala by Noradrenergic-Glucocorticoid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukolja, Juraj; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Keysers, Christian; Klingmueller, Dietrich; Maier, Wolfgang; Fink, Gereon R.; Hurlemann, Rene

    2008-01-01

    An emerging theme in the neuroscience of emotion is the question of how acute stress shapes, and distorts, social-emotional behavior. The prevailing neurocircuitry models of social-emotional behavior emphasize the central role of the amygdala. Acute stress leads to increased central levels of norepi

  12. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  13. Function of the centromedial amygdala in reward devaluation and open-field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K; Glueck, A C; Annicchiarico, I; Papini, M R

    2015-09-10

    The present research aimed at determining the role played by the amygdala in reward devaluation using transient inactivation induced by lidocaine microinfusions into the centromedial region. Two situations involving reward devaluation were tested in rats: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC). In cSNC, rats exposed to a downshift from 32% to 4% sucrose consume less 4% sucrose than rats always exposed to 4% sucrose. Extensive evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the cSNC situation is accompanied by negative emotion. In ANC, rats consume less 4% sucrose when each session is closely followed by access to 32% sucrose rather than by 4% sucrose. Evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the ANC situation does not involve negative emotions; rather, ANC appears to involve Pavlovian anticipation of the higher value solution. To test the effects of lidocaine microinfusions in a situation known to induce negative emotion, but unrelated to reward devaluation, animals were also exposed to a lighted open field. Centromedial amygdala inactivation reduced the cSNC effect and increased exploratory behavior in the open field, both effects consistent with a reduction in negative emotional state. However, no detectable effects of amygdala inactivation were observed in the ANC situation. These results suggest that, first, the function of the amygdala is not unique to reward devaluation and, second, it is concerned with tagging the devaluation experience with aversive valence. PMID:26141844

  14. Context Fear Learning Specifically Activates Distinct Populations of Neurons in Amygdala and Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Lidia; Wilson, Yvette M.; Newman, Andrew G.; Murphy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The identity and distribution of neurons that are involved in any learning or memory event is not known. In previous studies, we identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala that show learning-specific activation of a c-"fos"-regulated transgene following context fear conditioning. Here, we have extended these studies to…

  15. Human amygdala reactivity is diminished by the beta-noradrenergic antagonist propranolol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlemann, R.; Walter, H.; Rehme, A. K.; Kukolja, J.; Santoro, S. C.; Schmidt, C.; Schnell, K.; Musshoff, F.; Keysers, C.; Maier, W.; Kendrick, K. M.; Onur, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Animal models of anxiety disorders emphasize the crucial role of locus ceruleus-noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) signaling, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interactions in the expression of anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress. Despite clinical evidence for the efficacy

  16. A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

  17. Back to basics: Making predictions in the orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melissa J; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Underlying many complex behaviors are simple learned associations that allow humans and animals to anticipate the consequences of their actions. The orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala are two regions which are crucial to this process. In this review, we go back to basics and discuss the literature implicating both these regions in simple paradigms requiring the development of associations between stimuli and the motivationally-significant outcomes they predict. Much of the functional research surrounding this ability has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala play very similar roles in making these predictions. However, electrophysiological data demonstrates critical differences in the way neurons in these regions respond to predictive cues, revealing a difference in their functional role. On the basis of these data and theories that have come before, we propose that the basolateral amygdala is integral to updating information about cue-outcome contingencies whereas the orbitofrontal cortex is critical to forming a wider network of past and present associations that are called upon by the basolateral amygdala to benefit future learning episodes. The tendency for orbitofrontal neurons to encode past and present contingencies in distinct neuronal populations may facilitate its role in the formation of complex, high-dimensional state-specific associations. PMID:27112314

  18. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  19. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  20. Conscious and unconscious processing of fear after right amygdala damage : A single case ERP-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, J.H.C.; Brouwer, W.H.; de Jong, B.M.; Bouma, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we describe a 58-year-old male patient (FZ) with a right-amygdala lesion after temporal lobe infarction. FZ is unable to recognize fearful facial expressions. Instead, he consistently misinterprets expressions of fear for expressions of surprise. Employing EEG/ERP measures, we investi

  1. Optogenetic Activation of Presynaptic Inputs in Lateral Amygdala Forms Associative Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Hyung-Su, Kim; Jeong, Yire; Augustine, George J.; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we…

  2. Facilitation of Memory for Extinction of Drug-Induced Conditioned Reward: Role of Amygdala and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason P.; Packard, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    eThese experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP.…

  3. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  4. The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  5. Reprint of: The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  6. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been a

  7. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  8. Progression of Amygdala Volumetric Abnormalities in Adolescents after Their First Manic Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Samantha M.; Mills, Neil P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although previous neuroimaging studies suggest that adolescents with bipolar disorder exhibit smaller amygdala volumes compared with healthy adolescents, whether these abnormalities are present at illness onset or instead develop over time remains unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective longitudinal investigation…

  9. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  10. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. PMID:23428568

  11. Activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala underlies individual differences in prosocial and individualistic economic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kimura, Minoru; Frith, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Much decision-making requires balancing benefits to the self with benefits to the group. There are marked individual differences in this balance such that individualists tend to favor themselves whereas prosocials tend to favor the group. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this difference has important implications for society and its institutions. Using behavioral and fMRI data collected during the performance of the ultimatum game, we show that individual differences in social preferences for resource allocation, so-called "social value orientation," is linked with activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala elicited by inequity, rather than activity in insula, ACC, and dorsolateral pFC. Importantly, the presence of cognitive load made prosocials behave more prosocially and individualists more individualistically, suggesting that social value orientation is driven more by intuition than reflection. In parallel, activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in response to inequity, tracked this behavioral pattern of prosocials and individualists. In addition, we conducted an impunity game experiment with different participants where they could not punish unfair behavior and found that the inequity-correlated activity seen in prosocials during the ultimatum game disappeared. This result suggests that the accumbens and amygdala activity of prosocials encodes "outcome-oriented emotion" designed to change situations (i.e., achieve equity or punish). Together, our results suggest a pivotal contribution of the nucleus accumbens and amygdala to individual differences in sociality. PMID:24564471

  12. Reduced size of the amygdala in individuals with 47,XXY and 47,XXX karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Anil J; Brown, Wendy E; Bender, Bruce G; Linden, Mary G; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-01-01

    The excess of 47,XXX and 47,XXY karyotypes found in cytogenetic screening studies of individuals with schizophrenia has given support for an increased risk of psychiatric illness among men and women with sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). Mesial temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and hippocampus, are thought to be associated with abnormalities of mood and behavior in humans and in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This study focuses on variations in volumes of mesial temporal lobe structures in men and women with SCA. Utilizing an unselected birth cohort of subjects with SCA and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the neuroanatomical consequences of a supernumerary X chromosome on the morphology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Regional and total brain volumes were measured in 10 subjects with 47,XXY, 10 subjects with 47,XXX, and 20 euploid controls. Amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in men with 47,XXY, compared to control men, while the decrease in women with 47,XXX was not as pronounced. Hippocampus volumes were preserved in both groups, compared to same-gender controls. Longitudinal studies of SCA individuals have shown an increased incidence of mild psychopathology and behavioral dysfunction in men with 47,XXY and more overt psychiatric illness in women with 47,XXX, compared to control populations. The alteration in amygdala volumes in individuals with a supernumerary X chromosome may provide a neuroanatomic basis for these findings.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Amygdala Activation in Youths with and without Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Akula, Nirmala; Skup, Martha; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to characterize brain activity underlying a variety of psychiatric disorders. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that amygdala activation during a face-processing task differed between pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls. We…

  14. Distinct contributions of reactive oxygen species in amygdala to bee venom-induced spontaneous pain-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Fei; Neugebauer, Volker; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2016-04-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, play essential roles in physiological plasticity and are also involved in the pathogenesis of persistent pain. Roles of peripheral and spinal ROS in pain have been well established, but much less is known about ROS in the amygdala, a brain region that plays an important role in pain modulation. The present study explored the contribution of ROS in the amygdala to bee venom (BV)-induced pain behaviors. Our data show that the amygdala is activated following subcutaneous BV injection into the left hindpaw, which is reflected in the increased number of c-Fos positive cells in the central and basolateral amygdala nuclei in the right hemisphere. Stereotaxic administration of a ROS scavenger (tempol, 10mM), NADPH oxidase inhibitor (baicalein, 5mM) or lipoxygenase inhibitor (apocynin, 10mM) into the right amygdala attenuated the BV-induced spontaneous licking and lifting behaviors, but had no effect on BV-induced paw flinch reflexes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of the amygdala in nociceptive processing and pain behaviors, and that ROS in amygdala may be a potential target for treatment strategies to inhibit pain. PMID:26971700

  15. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  16. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A.; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder. PMID:27631496

  17. Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga T Ousdal

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18. Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  18. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Strigo

    Full Text Available The allocation of attention modulates negative emotional processing in the amygdala. However, the role of passive exposure time to emotional signals in the modulation of amygdala activity during active task performance has not been examined. In two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI experiments conducted in two different groups of healthy human subjects, we examined activation in the amygdala due to cued anticipation of painful stimuli while subjects performed a simple continuous performance task (CPT with either a fixed or a parametrically varied trial duration. In the first experiment (N = 16, engagement in the CPT during a task with fixed trial duration produced the expected attenuation of amygdala activation, but close analysis suggested that the attenuation occurred during the period of active engagement in CPT, and that amygdala activity increased proportionately during the remainder of each trial, when subjects were passively exposed to the pain cue. In the second experiment (N = 12, the duration of each trial was parametrically varied, and we found that amygdala activation was linearly related to the time of passive exposure to the anticipatory cue. We suggest that amygdala activation during negative anticipatory processing depends directly on the passive exposure time to the negative cue.

  19. Altered effective connectivity network of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC. Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Decreased influence from inferior temporal gyrus (ITG to amygdala was found in SAD, while bidirectional influences between amygdala and visual cortices were increased compared to HCs. Clinical relevance of decreased effective connectivity from ITG to amygdala was suggested by a negative correlation of LSAS avoidance scores and the value of Granger causality. Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. This is in support of a disregulation in predescribed modules involved in affect control. The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. The model which is proposed based on our results lends neurobiological support towards cognitive models considering disinhibition and an attentional bias towards negative stimuli as a core feature of the disorder.

  20. The distribution of motilin receptor in the amygdala of rats and its role in migrating myoelectric complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of the motilin receptor in the amygdala of rats and its role in regulating the duodenal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC). Methods:The distribution of motilin receptor in the amygdala in adult SD rats was detected by immunohistochemistry methods, and the duodenal interdigestive MMC was recorded via the electrodes implanted in the duodenum and analyzed using a multichannel recorder. Results:Motilin receptor was observed in the amygdala of rats. The great amount of motilin receptor was found in the medial amygdaloid nucleus, which was also abundant in the basolateral nucleus but less abundant in the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, the central amygdaloid nucleus and the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. The shortening of the duodenal MMC cycle duration and the in crease of the amplitude and the frequency of phase Ⅲ were recorded after motilin receptors being bound with exogenous motilin in the amygdala. The effects could be completely blocked by the subdiaphragmatic vagotomy but not by the intravenous injections of atropine, phentolamine or propranolol. Anti-motilin serum could partially block these effects, and the destruction of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala had no significant effects on the duodenal MMC. Conclusion: Motilin receptor is present in all the subnuclei of the amygdala, with the greatest amount of motilin receptor present in the medial amygdaloid nucleus. Microinjections of motilin in the amygdala can shorten the duodenal MMC cycle duration and increase the amplitude and the frequency of phase Ⅲ. These effects might be accomplished via the amygdala-hypothalamus-brainstem-vagus pathway, indicating the important role of the amygdala motilin receptor in the duodenal MMC regulation.

  1. Pleiotropic locus for emotion recognition and amygdala volume identified using univariate and bivariate linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emma E. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Kent, Jack W.; Sprooten, Emma; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Olvera, Rene; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David. C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the amygdala in emotion recognition is well established and separately each trait has been shown to be highly heritable, but the potential role of common genetic influences on both traits has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the pleiotropic influences of amygdala and emotion recognition in a sample of randomly selected, extended pedigrees (N = 858). Using a combination of univariate and bivariate linkage we found a pleiotropic region for amygdala and emotion recognition on 4q26 (LOD = 4.34). Association analysis conducted in the region underlying the bivariate linkage peak revealed a variant meeting the corrected significance level (pBonferroni = 5.01×10−05) within an intron of PDE5A (rs2622497, Χ2 =16.67, p = 4.4×10−05) as being jointly influential on both traits. PDE5A has been implicated previously in recognition-memory deficits and is expressed in subcortical structures that are thought to underlie memory ability including the amygdala. The present paper extends our understanding of the shared etiology between amygdala and emotion recognition by showing that the overlap between the two traits is due, at least in part, to common genetic influences. Moreover, the present paper identifies a pleiotropic locus for the two traits and an associated variant, which localizes the genetic signal even more precisely. These results, when taken in the context of previous research, highlight the potential utility of PDE5-inhibitors for ameliorating emotion-recognition deficits in populations including, but not exclusively, those individuals suffering from mental or neurodegenerative illness. PMID:25322361

  2. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  3. Atypical acute urticaria in children and its relationship with urticarial vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Zafer; ÖZMEN, Serap; SÜRMELİ, Sara; ARDA, Nilüfer

    2011-01-01

    In childhood, urticarial lesions are sometimes associated with purpura. This form might be identified as atypical, and may also be related to urticarial vasculitis (UV). The aim of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of UV in children with atypical urticaria. Materials and methods: Fifteen children with atypical urticaria were evaluated with medical history, physical examination, and laboratory and skin punch biopsy findings. Results: Infections were detected as...

  4. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-04-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax.

  5. Healthcare Costs of Atypical Antipsychotic Use for Patients with Bipolar Disorder in a Medicaid Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Qiu; Fu, Alex Z; Gordon G. Liu; Christensen, Dale B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A large body of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic use in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Facing increasing budget pressure, third-party payers, such as state Medicaid programmes in the US, are demanding better understanding of the medical costs beyond atypical antipsychotic drug costs alone in treating bipolar disorder. Objective: To examine healthcare costs associated with the atypical antipsychotic treatments for bipolar disorder from a...

  6. Genetic Characterization of Atypical Mansonella (Mansonella) ozzardi Microfilariae in Human Blood Samples from Northeastern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Luis A.; Arrospide, Nancy; Recuenco, Sergio; Cabezas, Cesar; Gary J Weil; Fischer, Peter U.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence comparisons are useful for characterizing proposed new parasite species or strains. Microfilariae with an atypical arrangement of nuclei behind the cephalic space have been recently described in human blood samples from the Amazon region of Peru. Three blood specimens containing atypical microfilariae were genetically characterized using three DNA markers (5S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase I). All atypical microfilariae were clustered into the Mansonella...

  7. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonov S.F.; Shusterman T.Y.; Rokutov S.V.; Shornikov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  8. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review).

    OpenAIRE

    Spirina, I. D.; Leonov, S. F.; Shusterman, T. Y.; Rokutov, S. V.; Shornikov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli­nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  9. Modeling and Estimation Techniques for Wide-Area Network Traffic with Atypical Components

    OpenAIRE

    Minton, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    A critical first step to improving existing and designing future wide-area networks is an understanding of the load placed on these networks. Efforts to model traffic are often confounded by atypical traffic - traffic particular to the observation site not ubiquitously applicable. The causes and characteristics of atypical traffic are explored in this thesis. Atypical traffic is found to interfere with parsimonious analytic traffic models. A detection and modeling tech...

  10. Atypical presentation of a cervical breast-cancer metastasis mimicking a dumbbell-shaped neurinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kolja Boese

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present case report and the reviewed literature point towards a growing clinical relevance of symptomatic LM in cancer patients and their possible atypical presentations and locations.

  11. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polrat Wilairatana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytopenia similar to dengue infection. We retrospectively studied atypical lymphocytes (AL and atypical lymphocytosis (ALO, defined as AL > 5% of total white blood cells in 1310 uncomplicated malaria patients. In 718 falciparum malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 53.2% and 5.7% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–10%, whereas in 592 vivax malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 55.4% and 9.5% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–14%. After antimalarial treatment, AL and ALO declined in both falciparum and vivax malaria. However, AL and ALO remained in falciparum malaria on days 7, 14, and 21, whereas AL and ALO remained in vivax malaria on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In both falciparum and vivax malaria patients, there was a positive correlation between AL and total lymphocytes, but a negative correlation between AL and highest fever on admission, white blood cells, and neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, AL or ALO may be found in uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria mimicking dengue infection. In tropical countries where both dengue and malaria are endemic, presence of AL or ALO in any acute febrile patients with thrombocytopenia (similar to the findings in dengue malaria could not be excluded. Particularly if the patients have risk of malaria infection, confirmative microscopic examination for malaria should be carried out

  12. Macrokinetics of Ethylene Epoxidation over A-type Silver Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Rujun; Li Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    By taking the surface chemical reactions as the rate-controlling step, a possible reaction mechanism for ethylene epoxidation to synthesize ethylene oxide over the A-type silver catalyst was developed, while it was assumed that the ep-oxidation reaction would take place between ethylene and the un-dissociated adsorbed oxygen O2a on the solo active sites, while the deep oxidation would occur between ethylene and the dissociated adsorbed oxygen Oa on the adjacent multi-active sites. In order to describe the effect of 1,2-C2H4Cl2 (EDC) inhibitor on the ethylene epoxidation process, the reversible reac-tions between EDC and vinyl chloride (VC) on the active sites of silver catalyst was introduced. According to the assumed mechanism, the hyperbolic macro-kinetic model of ethylene epoxidation over the A-type silver catalyst was established, and the macrokinetic experiments were carried out in an internal-recycle gradientless reactor operating at a pressure of 2.1 MPa and a temperature in the range of 217.8—249.0℃, with the gas composition (molar fraction) consisting of 15.82%—34.65%C2H4, 2.55%—7.80%O2, 0.88%—6.15%CO2, 0.15—2.61μmol/mol of 1,2-C2H4Cl2 and 0.14—1.28μmol/mol of C2H3Cl. By means of the Simplex Optimal Method, the parameters of the macrokinetic models were estimated. Statistical test showed that the macrokinetic models developed for the A-type silver catalyst agree well with the experimental results.

  13. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Kayalı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who has leukopenia presenting with petechial/purpuric eruption of an unclear origin.

  14. Dengue Fever Presenting Atypically with Viral Conjunctivitis and Subacute Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheraz, Faizan; Tahir, Hassan; Saqi, Jannavi; Daruwalla, Vistasp

    2016-06-01

    The majority of dengue viral infections are asymptomatic, though symptoms may range from self-limiting febrile illness to life threatening hemorrhagic manifestations. As the burden of disease is dramatically rising in recent years, more patients with atypical presentations and rare complications are increasingly reported. Dengue virus may rarely involve different organ systems including CNS, liver, and heart. However, involvement of eye and thyroid is extremely rare. We present a case of 32-year old patient who presented with conjunctivitis and subacute thyroiditis and was found to have dengue viral infection as the cause of these conditions. PMID:27376214

  15. Atypical presentation of sporotrichosis: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis occurs after fungal implantation of Sporothrix spp. in the skin, and is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Here we describe three atypical cases of the disease. The first case report an extra-cutaneous occurrence of the disease with joint infection; the second one describes a patient with bilateral lymphocutaneous form of sporotrichosis; and the third shows a zoonotic cutaneous case with the development of an erythema nodosum as a hypersensitivity reaction. These cases show the disease importance on the region and the necessity of fungal culture to the diagnosis confirmation.

  16. Quantitative methods for somatosensory evaluation in atypical odontalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana;

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify reliable somatosensory evaluation methods for atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The computerized search included the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library). The studies included used the following quantitative sensory testing (QST......) methods: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) (pinprick), pressure pain threshold (PPT), dynamic mechanical allodynia with a cotton swab (DMA1) or a brush (DMA2), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold detection threshold (CDT), heat pain threshold (HPT), cold pain detection...... compared with healthy subjects. In clinical settings, the most reliable evaluation method for AO in patients with persistent idiopathic facial pain would be intraindividual assessments using HPT or mechanical allodynia tests....

  17. AMELANOTIC MELANOMA WITH ATYPICAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND MULTIPLE METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year old woman presented with a history of asymptomatic skin lesions over left leg for the past 4 months. On examination she had multiple skin coloured papules and plaques over left leg. Oedema was also seen over left leg. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry proved the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Radiological investigation showed metastasis to lung, liver and brain. The patient was asymptomatic at the time of admission but she developed rapid metastasis within a very short span of time. This case is reported for the rare atypical presentation of malignant melanoma.

  18. Thrombotic microangiopathy: focus on atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperati, C John; Moliterno, Alison R

    2015-06-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have evolved from rare, fulminant childhood afflictions to uncommon diseases with acute and chronic phases involving both children and adults. Breakthroughs in complement and coagulation regulation have allowed redefinition of specific entities despite substantial phenotypic mimicry. Reconciliation of phenotypes and delivery of life saving therapies require a multidisciplinary team of experts. The purpose of this review is to describe advances in the molecular pathophysiology of aHUS and to share the 2014 experience of the multidisciplinary Johns Hopkins TMA Registry in applying diagnostic assays, reporting disease associations, and genetic testing. PMID:26043391

  19. A family of congenital hepatic fibrosis and atypical retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Pawar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare cause of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in children. We report cases of siblings with biopsy proven congenital hepatic fibrosis and with atypical retinitis pigmentosa. They presented with repeated episodes of jaundice along with progressive decrease of vision in night. They had hepatosplenomegaly and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. One of the siblings had a large regenerating nodule replacing the entire right lobe of the liver and other one developed repeated hematemesis. This constellation of diagnosis belongs to the ciliopathy group of disorders. The spectrum of ciliopathy disorders has been evolving, and it varies from mild to severe manifestations.

  20. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    OpenAIRE

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which r...

  1. Evolution of sperm size in nematodes: sperm competition favours larger sperm.

    OpenAIRE

    LaMunyon, C W; Ward, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the free-living rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm size is a determinant of sperm competitiveness. Larger sperm crawl faster and physically displace smaller sperm to take fertilization priority, but not without a cost: larger sperm are produced at a slower rate. Here, we investigate the evolution of sperm size in the family Rhabditidae by comparing sperm among 19 species, seven of which are hermaphroditic (self-fertile hermaphrodites and males), the rest being gonochoristic (...

  2. Long-term pharmacological kindling increases in vitro release of IR-Met and IR-Leu-enkephalin from amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Linares, G

    1998-06-01

    Met-enkephalin release is increased from amygdala and striatum 1 and 15 days after pharmacological kindling with pentylenetetrazol, following potassium-induced depolarization in vitro via a Ca2+ dependent mechanism. Leu-enkephalin release was only enhanced in amygdala and striatum 1 day after the last seizure. IR-Met-enkephalin amygdala tissue content enhanced 1 and 15 days after seizure. In striatum, we found an IR-Met-enkephalin decrease 35 days after the last stimulus. IR-Leu-enkephalin amygdala tissue content enhanced 1 day after the last seizure, and no significant increases were found in striatum 1, 15 and 35 days after the last seizure. In this paper, we show that opioid peptides release is differentially enhanced in rat brain for several days after the last seizure, thus suggesting that opioid peptides may have a protective action against seizure activity.

  3. Multiple forms of atypical rearrangements generating supernumerary derivative chromosome 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Marian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally-derived duplications that include the imprinted region on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 underlie a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, seizures and a substantial risk for autism spectrum disorders1. The duplications most often take the form of a supernumerary pseudodicentric derivative chromosome 15 [der(15] that has been called inverted duplication 15 or isodicentric 15 [idic(15], although interstitial rearrangements also occur. Similar to the deletions found in most cases of Angelman and Prader Willi syndrome, the duplications appear to be mediated by unequal homologous recombination involving low copy repeats (LCR that are found clustered in the region. Five recurrent breakpoints have been described in most cases of segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 15q11-q13 and previous studies have shown that most idic(15 chromosomes arise through BP3:BP3 or BP4:BP5 recombination events. Results Here we describe four duplication chromosomes that show evidence of atypical recombination events that involve regions outside the common breakpoints. Additionally, in one patient with a mosaic complex der(15, we examined homologous pairing of chromosome 15q11-q13 alleles by FISH in a region of frontal cortex, which identified mosaicism in this tissue and also demonstrated pairing of the signals from the der(15 and the normal homologues. Conclusion Involvement of atypical BP in the generation of idic(15 chromosomes can lead to considerable structural heterogeneity.

  4. Fungal rhinosinusitis with atypical presentation - a report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael da Costa Monsanto; Rodrigo Silva Orem; Fernanda Resende e Silva; Fabio Hiroshi Okuyama; Fabio Tadeu Moura Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis affects approximately 20% of the population, and the chronic rhinosinusitis represents over 90% of all cases of rhinosinusitis. The correct diagnosis is important for proper treatment and to predict its evolution. This study presents two cases of atypical frontal sinus disease, which the follow-up revealed a diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. The present study aims to describe the cases of two patients with atypical lesions on the left frontal sinus; the treatment options, surgical approach, results, diagnosis and follow-up are further discussed. A significant increase in the reported cases of fungal rhinosinusitis has been seen in the last two decades, justified by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids, as well as the increased number of immunocompromised individuals. This study reports the cases of two patients with a type of fungal rhinosinusitis named "fungal ball", characterized by a tangle of hyphae in the sinuses without tissue invasion. The treatment included surgical removal of the fungal infectious process with aeration of the affected sinus, and the procedure was successfully performed in our patients.

  5. Atypical oculopalatal tremor as the presentation of vertebral artery dolichoectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Jindahra, Panitha; Lueangaram, Sirin; Padungkiatsagul, Tanyatuth

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation. Our case demonstrated a 50-year-old female who presented with 3-month history of oscillopsia. Examination showed binocular conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with a contraction of the soft palate, defined as an atypical OPT, resulting from dolichoectatic left vertebral artery compressing on medulla, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral conjugate torsional jerk nystagmus simultaneous with palatal tremor, considering as an atypical OPT, should be included as one of the symptomatic presentations of vertebral artery dolichoectasia in spite of its rarity. PMID:27660495

  6. Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Wabacha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of an atypical form of ovine dermatophilosis affecting the lips and muzzle with a very high morbidity in weaners and hoggets in Kenya is reported. Clinical diagnosis of ovine dermatophilosis was made and confirmed by direct microscopic examination as well as isolation and identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from scab material from the affected sheep. The morbidity rate within the flock was 31.8 % (237 / 745 with 98.3 % (233 / 237 of the affected sheep being weaners and hoggets. No fatalities were recorded. The lesions, confined in the lips and the muzzle, were swelling of both the upper and lower lips, circumscribed lumps in the skin of both the upper and lower lips, oedema of the head and the submandibular area and scabs and crusts on the lips and muzzle. Within 1 week following treatment with long acting oxytetracycline (20 % at a rate of 20 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly and a topical application of oxytetracycline spray, lumps regressed in size and were covered by dark-brown scabs. Removal of the dark-brown scabs revealed erythematous areas covered with purulent material and horny erythematous projections (papillae projecting from the surfaces. Within the 2nd week, the horny erythematous projections formed greyish scabs, which later peeled off leaving alopaecic areas around the lips. The paper highlights atypical dermatophilosis of sheep and we believe that this is the first published report of an outbreak of ovine dermatophilosis in Kenya.

  7. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  8. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS. This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. Keywords: early-onset schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics, efficacy, onset of action, weight gain

  9. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

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    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  10. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  11. Differentiation of regions with atypical oligonucleotide composition in bacterial genomes

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    Reva Oleg N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete sequencing of bacterial genomes has become a common technique of present day microbiology. Thereafter, data mining in the complete sequence is an essential step. New in silico methods are needed that rapidly identify the major features of genome organization and facilitate the prediction of the functional class of ORFs. We tested the usefulness of local oligonucleotide usage (OU patterns to recognize and differentiate types of atypical oligonucleotide composition in DNA sequences of bacterial genomes. Results A total of 163 bacterial genomes of eubacteria and archaea published in the NCBI database were analyzed. Local OU patterns exhibit substantial intrachromosomal variation in bacteria. Loci with alternative OU patterns were parts of horizontally acquired gene islands or ancient regions such as genes for ribosomal proteins and RNAs. OU statistical parameters, such as local pattern deviation (D, pattern skew (PS and OU variance (OUV enabled the detection and visualization of gene islands of different functional classes. Conclusion A set of approaches has been designed for the statistical analysis of nucleotide sequences of bacterial genomes. These methods are useful for the visualization and differentiation of regions with atypical oligonucleotide composition prior to or accompanying gene annotation.

  12. Atypical Face Perception in Autism: A Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karine; Guy, Jacalyn; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Pagani, Linda; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2015-10-01

    Face perception is the most commonly used visual metric of social perception in autism. However, when found to be atypical, the origin of face perception differences in autism is contentious. One hypothesis proposes that a locally oriented visual analysis, characteristic of individuals with autism, ultimately affects performance on face tasks where a global analysis is optimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing face identity discrimination with synthetic faces presented with and without changes in viewpoint, with the former condition minimizing access to local face attributes used for identity discrimination. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 30 neurotypical participants performed a face identity discrimination task. Stimuli were synthetic faces extracted from traditional face photographs in both front and 20° side viewpoints, digitized from 37 points to provide a continuous measure of facial geometry. Face identity discrimination thresholds were obtained using a two-alternative, temporal forced choice match-to-sample paradigm. Analyses revealed an interaction between group and condition, with group differences found only for the viewpoint change condition, where performance in the autism group was decreased compared to that of neurotypical participants. The selective decrease in performance for the viewpoint change condition suggests that face identity discrimination in autism is more difficult when access to local cues is minimized, and/or when dependence on integrative analysis is increased. These results lend support to a perceptual contribution of atypical face perception in autism. PMID:25683613

  13. Current status of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, F; Calandre, E P; Slim, M

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of fibromyalgia requires pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. The pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia is limited to a few drugs that have been demonstrated to be moderately effective in some but not all dimensions of the disease. Therefore, the search for new drugs to treat this condition is warranted. Atypical antipsychotics offered an attractive alternative because they had been shown to be active against several key symptoms of fibromyalgia. The results of open-label studies, however, appear to indicate that atypical antipsychotics are poorly tolerated in patients with fibromyalgia, and only quetiapine XR has been studied in randomized controlled trials. Quetiapine XR has demonstrated effectiveness in treating comorbid major depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. However, in two randomized controlled trials, quetiapine XR was not differentiated from placebo and failed to demonstrate noninferiority to amitriptyline in terms of improving overall symptomatology. The effect of quetiapine XR on pain and its usefulness as part of a combination pharmacological regimen should be further evaluated. Overall, the use of quetiapine (initiated at a low dose and slowly titrated) in fibromyalgia should be limited to patients with comorbid major depression or patients who are currently receiving other treatments and have unresolved and disabling depressive and/or anxiety symptoms.

  14. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithika Chary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and it is also not very easy to elicit visual hallucinations during history taking. These seizures have a good response to treatment; however, there could be atypical evolution and refractoriness to treatment especially with ICOE-G. We describe three children who presented with visual and non-visual symptoms and the electroencephalography (EEG in all the three cases showed occipital paroxysms. We have emphasized the clues in the clinical history and EEG leading to the diagnosis of these distinct epilepsy syndromes. We have also discussed the natural course of these epilepsy syndromes with some atypical evolution, which clinicians need to be aware of during treatment of these children.

  15. Dual mechanism of action of the atypical tetracycline chelocardin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, Jennifer J; Lukežič, Tadeja; Teichert, Ines; Petković, Hrvoje; Bandow, Julia E

    2016-06-01

    Classical tetracyclines targeting the protein biosynthesis machinery are commonly applied in human and veterinary medicine. The development and spread of resistance seriously compromise the successful treatment of bacterial infections. The atypical tetracycline chelocardin holds promise as it retains activity against tetracycline-resistant strains. It has been suggested that chelocardin targets the bacterial membrane, thus differing in mode of action from that of classical tetracyclines. We investigated the mechanism of action of chelocardin using global proteome analysis. The proteome profiles after sublethal chelocardin stress were compared to a reference compendium containing antibiotic response profiles of Bacillus subtilis. This approach revealed a concentration-dependent dual mechanism of action. At low concentrations, like classical tetracyclines, chelocardin induces the proteomic signature for peptidyl transferase inhibition demonstrating that protein biosynthesis inhibition is the dominant physiological challenge. At higher concentrations B. subtilis mainly responds to membrane stress indicating that at clinically relevant concentrations the membrane is the main antibiotic target of chelocardin. Studying the effects on the membrane in more detail, we found that chelocardin causes membrane depolarization but does not lead to formation of large pores. We conclude that at growth inhibiting doses chelocardin not only targets protein biosynthesis but also corrupts the integrity of the bacterial membrane. This dual mechanism of action might prove beneficial in slowing the development of new resistance mechanisms against this atypical tetracycline. PMID:26969785

  16. A Case of Atypical Mucin Balls Wearing Extended Wear of Silicone Hydrogel Lens for Therapeutic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Matsuzaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man visited our hospital showing atopic conjunctivitis and corneal shield ulcer on his left eye. Although eye drops of 0.1% of betamethasone sodium phosphate and 0.1% of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution were prescribed, calcific corneal opacities developed. The corrected visual acuity decreased to 6/20 in Snellen chart. After corneal epithelial exfoliation, removal of calcific corneal opacity was scrubbed with MQA soaked in 0.05 M of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. After washing the eye with 200 mL of physiological saline, a silicon hydrogel lens, PureVision (balafilcon A, was inserted to obtain pain relief for the therapeutic use. At postoperative day 11, mucin balls were found between cornea and contact lens and stained by rose bengal dye. One of them was atypically larger than usual, and the major axis was approximately 1.5 mm. Wearing lens was stopped, and all of mucin balls and corneal staining were disappeared at postoperative day. Little corneal opacity remained, and visual acuity after surgery recovered to 14/20 at five months.

  17. Giant Thyroid Nodule Atypically Located in The Carotid Triangle of The Neck: A Case Report

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    Guclu Beritan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare pathology of the thyroid that is formed by the abnormal migration of the thyroid tissue. It is seen once in about every 100.000 to 300.000 births and is generally asymptomatic. Asymptomatic ectopic thyroid tissue may grow larger and become symptomatic in the form of a neck mass due to thyroid tissue hyperplasia. The thyroid gland, apart from its normal localization before the trachea, may lie between the tongue root and the trachea generally on the middle line at any level. A 71-year-old male patient presented to our ear- nose and throat clinic with a mass of 5x4x3 cm located in the right carotid triangle. The thin-needle aspiration biopsy specimen was reported as thyroid tissue and subsequently the mass was excised under general anesthesia.  The histopathological evaluation of the mass revealed that it was an atypically located ectopic thyroid nodule. No complications were seen within one year follow-up of the patient.

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of an atypical class C acid phosphatase from Mycoplasma bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the expression, purification and crystallization of the class C acid phosphatase from M. bovis are reported. This enzyme is atypical in that it is nearly 20 kDa larger than other known class C acid phosphatases. Class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs) are 25–30 kDa bacterial surface proteins that are thought to function as broad-specificity 5′,3′-nucleotidases. Analysis of the newly published complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis PG45 revealed a putative CCAP with a molecular weight of 49.9 kDa. The expression, purification and crystallization of this new family member are described here. Standard purification procedures involving immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography yielded highly pure and crystallizable protein. Crystals were grown in sitting drops at room temperature in the presence of PEG 3350 and HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Analysis of diffraction data suggested a primitive monoclinic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 101, c = 180 Å, β = 92°. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain six molecules, which are likely to be arranged as three dimers

  19. Comparing the Anticonvulsant Effects of Low Frequency Stimulation of Different Brain Sites on the Amygdala Kindling Acquisition in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Sheibani, Vahid; Shojaei, Amir; Harandi, Shaahin; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Low frequency stimulation (LFS) is a potential alternative therapy for epilepsy. However, it seems that the anticonvulsant effects of LFS depend on its target sites in the brain. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the anticonvulsant effects of LFS administered to amygdala, piriform cortex and substantia nigra on amygdala kindling acquisition. In control group, rats were kindled in a chronic manner (one stimulation per 24 h). In other experimental groups, animals received low-freq...

  20. Amygdala response to preattentive masked fear in children with conduct problems:the role of callous-unemotional traits

    OpenAIRE

    Viding, Essi; Sebastian, Catherine L.; Dadds, Mark R.; Lockwood, Patricia L; Cecil, Charlotte A M; Stephane A De Brito; McCrory, Eamon J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In children with conduct problems, high levels of callous-unemotional traits are associated with amygdala hypoactivity to consciously perceived fear, while low levels of callous-unemotional traits may be associated with amygdala hyperactivity. Behavioral data suggest that fear processing deficits in children with high callous-unemotional traits may extend to stimuli presented below conscious awareness (preattentively). The authors investigated the neural basis of this effect. Amygd...