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Sample records for atypically larger amygdala

  1. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  2. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  3. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Bacteria that cause atypical pneumonia include: Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae . It often affects people younger than age 40. Pneumonia due ...

  4. The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Faces are one of the most significant social stimuli and the processes underlying face perception are at the intersection of cognition, affect, and motivation. Vision scientists have had a tremendous success of mapping the regions for perceptual analysis of faces in posterior cortex. Based on evidence from (a) single unit recording studies in monkeys and humans; (b) human functional localizer studies; and (c) meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, I argue that faces automatically evoke responses not only in these regions but also in the amygdala. I also argue that (a) a key property of faces represented in the amygdala is their typicality; and (b) one of the functions of the amygdala is to bias attention to atypical faces, which are associated with higher uncertainty. This framework is consistent with a number of other amygdala findings not involving faces, suggesting a general account for the role of the amygdala in perception.

  5. Impact of family history and depression on amygdala volume.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleh, Karim

    2012-07-30

    Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study\\'s purpose was to investigate family history\\'s effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala without a family history of MDD. These effects had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history. These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants, providing a rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.

  6. Impact of family history and depression on amygdala volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Karim; Carballedo, Angela; Lisiecka, Danutia; Fagan, Andrew J; Connolly, Gerald; Boyle, Gerard; Frodl, Thomas

    2012-07-30

    Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study's purpose was to investigate family history's effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala compared to patients with a MDD family history.MDD without family history also had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history.These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants providing rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies [corrected]. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.

  7. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  8. Optogenetic dissection of amygdala functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eLalumiere

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of amygdala functioning have occupied a significant place in the history of understanding how the brain controls behavior and cognition. Early work on the amygdala placed this small structure as a key component in the regulation of emotion and affective behavior. Over time, our understanding of its role in brain processes has expanded, as we have uncovered amygdala influences on memory, reward behavior, and overall functioning in many other brain regions. Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connections with a variety of brain structures, from the prefrontal cortex to regions of the brainstem, that explain its powerful influence on other parts of the brain and behaviors mediated by those regions. Thus, many optogenetic studies have focused on harnessing the powers of this technique to elucidate the functioning of the amygdala in relation to motivation, fear, and memory as well as to determine how the amygdala regulates activity in other structures. For example, studies using optogenetics have examined how specific circuits within amygdala nuclei regulate anxiety. Other work has provided insight into how the basolateral and central amygdala nuclei regulate memory processing underlying aversive learning. Many experiments have taken advantage of optogenetics’ ability to target either genetically distinct subpopulations of neurons or the specific projections from the amygdala to other brain regions. Findings from such studies have provided evidence that particular patterns of activity in basolateral amygdala glutamatergic neurons are related to memory consolidation processes, while other work has indicated the critical nature of amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in regulating behavior dependent on those downstream structures. This review will examine the recent discoveries on amygdala functioning made through experiments using optogenetics, placing these findings in the context of the major

  9. Electrical amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürmüller, N; Porsolt, R D

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes a method of electrical amygdala kindling in the rat. This procedure requires mastery of stereotaxic electrode implantation which is not covered in the current unit. Also, the investigator must have a sound knowledge of electronics and computing. The text gives instructions on how to render rats epileptic, how to determine the effects of compounds in kindled rats, and how to analyze the data. Results with three reference substances are illustrated. These substances are used in the clinic and give robust results in kindling.

  10. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P hippocampus further localized...... these differences to an enlarged head of the hippocampus in the ADHD group. Although conventional measures did not detect significant differences in amygdalar volumes, surface analyses indicated the presence of reduced size bilaterally over the area of the basolateral complex. Correlations with prefrontal measures...

  11. Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Kerzel, Dirk; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J

    2013-06-19

    Cortical blindness refers to the loss of vision that occurs after destruction of the primary visual cortex. Although there is no sensory cortex and hence no conscious vision, some cortically blind patients show amygdala activation in response to facial or bodily expressions of emotion. Here we investigated whether direction of gaze could also be processed in the absence of any functional visual cortex. A well-known patient with bilateral destruction of his visual cortex and subsequent cortical blindness was investigated in an fMRI paradigm during which blocks of faces were presented either with their gaze directed toward or away from the viewer. Increased right amygdala activation was found in response to directed compared with averted gaze. Activity in this region was further found to be functionally connected to a larger network associated with face and gaze processing. The present study demonstrates that, in human subjects, the amygdala response to eye contact does not require an intact primary visual cortex.

  12. Why have microsaccades become larger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The reported size of microsaccades is considerably larger today compared to the initial era of microsaccade studies during the 1950s and 1960s. We investigate whether this increase in size is related to the fact that the eye-trackers of today measure different ocular structures than the older...... techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted...... from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human...

  13. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  14. Predictive value of Pre-treatment Amygdala volume for Electroconvulsive Therapy Response in Severely Depressed Patients

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    Freek eTen Doesschate

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is an effective treatment for patients with severe depression. Knowledge on factors predicting therapeutic response may help to identify patients who will benefit most from the intervention. Based on the neuroplasticity hypothesis, volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus are possible candidates for predicting treatment outcome. Therefore, this prospective cohort study examines the predictive value of amygdala and hippocampal volumes for the effectiveness of ECT.Methods Prior to ECT, 53 severely unipolar depressed patients (mean age 57±14 years; 40% [n=21] male received structural magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla. Normalized amygdala and hippocampal volumes were calculated based on automatic segmentation by FreeSurfer. Regression analyses were used to test if the normalized volumes could predict the response to a course of ECT, based on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS scores. ResultsA larger amygdala volume independently and significantly predicted a lower post-ECT MADRS score (β = -0.347, P=0.013. The left amygdala volume had greater predictive value for treatment outcome relative to the right amygdala volume. Hippocampal volume had no independent predictive value.Conclusion A larger pretreatment amygdala volume predicted more effective ECT, independent of other known predictors. Almost all patients continued their medication during the study, which might have influenced the course of treatment in ways that were not taken into account.

  15. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  16. Deep prepiriform cortex kindling and amygdala interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D Y; Moshé, S L

    1987-03-01

    The deep prepiriform cortex (DPC) has been recently suggested to be a crucial epileptogenic site in the rat brain. We investigated the susceptibility of the DPC to the development of electrical kindling as compared to that of the superficial prepiriform cortex (SPC) and amygdala as well as the transfer interactions between the two prepiriform sites and amygdala. Adult rats with electrodes implanted in the right prepiriform cortex (DPC or SPC) and left amygdala were divided into a DPC-amygdala and SPC-amygdala group while a third group consisted of rats with electrodes implanted in the ipsilateral DPC and amygdala. Within each group the rats were initially kindled from one site selected randomly and then rekindled from the other site. Both DPC and SPC were as sensitive to the development of kindling as the amygdala. The behavioral seizures elicited with DPC or SPC primary kindling were identical to those induced by amygdala kindling. Initial DPC kindling facilitated the development of kindling from either ipsilateral or contralateral amygdala with the ipsilateral transfer being significantly more potent than the contralateral. SPC kindling also facilitated the development of contralateral amygdala kindling but was less effective than DPC kindling. On the other hand, amygdala kindling did not facilitate contralateral SPC or DPC kindling although it transferred to the ipsilateral DPC. These results indicate that the prepiriform cortex can be readily kindled but not faster than the amygdala and that there are unequal kindling transfer interactions between prepiriform cortex and amygdala.

  17. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  18. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  19. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalyan, Z. A.; Ter-Pogossyan, Z. R.; Abroyan, L. O.; Hakobyan, L. H.; Avetisyan, A. S.; Karalyan, N. Yu; Karalova, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection. PMID:27536044

  20. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Karalyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection.

  1. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  2. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  3. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Priti; Jain, Rajan; Tripathi, Vaibhav

    2013-10-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  4. NOVEL ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis. Antipsychotic agents are grouped in two categories: Typical and Atypical antipsychotics. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in the 1970s. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Blockade of D2 receptor in mesolimbic pathway is responsible for antipsychotic action. Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical psychotics in their "limbic-specific" dopamine type 2 (D2-receptor binding and high ratio of serotonin type 2 (5-HT2-receptor binding to D2. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with a decreased capacity to cause EPSs, TD, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. Atypical antipsychotic agents were developed in response to problems with typical agents, including lack of efficacy in some patients, lack of improvement in negative symptoms, and troublesome adverse effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs and tardive dyskinesia (TD.

  5. Variation in mouse basolateral amygdala volume is associated with differences in stress reactivity and fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rebecca J; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A; Williams, Robert W; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A wealth of research identifies the amygdala as a key brain region mediating negative affect, and implicates amygdala dysfunction in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Although there is a strong genetic component to anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there remains debate about whether abnormalities in amygdala function predispose to these disorders. In the present study, groups of C57BL/6 x DBA/2 (B x D) recombinant inbred strains of mice were selected for differences in volume of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). Strains with relatively small, medium, or large BLA volumes were compared for Pavlovian fear learning and memory, anxiety-related behaviors, depression-related behavior, and glucocorticoid responses to stress. Strains with relatively small BLA exhibited stronger conditioned fear responses to both auditory tone and contextual stimuli, as compared to groups with larger BLA. The small BLA group also showed significantly greater corticosterone responses to stress than the larger BLA groups. BLA volume did not predict clear differences in measures of anxiety-like behavior or depression-related behavior, other than greater locomotor inhibition to novelty in strains with smaller BLA. Neither striatal, hippocampal nor cerebellar volumes correlated significantly with any behavioral measure. The present data demonstrate a phenotype of enhanced fear conditioning and exaggerated glucocorticoid responses to stress associated with small BLA volume. This profile is reminiscent of the increased fear processing and stress reactivity that is associated with amygdala excitability and reduced amygdala volume in humans carrying loss of function polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes. Our study provides a unique example of how natural variation in amygdala volume associates with specific fear- and stress-related phenotypes in rodents, and further supports the role of amygdala dysfunction in anxiety

  6. Atypical Optic Neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Boudreault, Katherine; Rizzo, Joseph F; Falardeau, Julie; Cestari, Dean M

    2015-12-01

    Classic demyelinative optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and typically carries a good prognosis for visual recovery. This disorder is well characterized with respect to its presentation and clinical features by baseline data obtained through the optic neuritis treatment trial and numerous other studies. Atypical optic neuritis entails clinical manifestations that deviate from this classic pattern of features. Clinical signs and symptoms that deviate from the typical presentation should prompt consideration of less common etiologies. Atypical features to consider include lack of pain, simultaneous or near-simultaneous onset, lack of response to or relapse upon tapering from corticosteroids, or optic nerve head or peripapillary hemorrhages. The most important alternative etiologies to consider and the steps towards their respective diagnostic evaluations are suggested for these atypical features.

  7. Post-traumatic stress and age variation in amygdala volumes among youth exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.

  8. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  9. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  10. Cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits are organized as hierarchical subsystems through the primate amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsun T; Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie L

    2013-08-28

    The prefrontal and insula cortex, amygdala, and striatum are key regions for emotional processing, yet the amygdala's role as an interface between the cortex and striatum is not well understood. In the nonhuman primate (Macaque fascicularis), we analyzed a collection of bidirectional tracer injections in the amygdala to understand how cortical inputs and striatal outputs are organized to form integrated cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits. Overall, diverse prefrontal and insular cortical regions projected to the basal and accessory basal nuclei of the amygdala. In turn, these amygdala regions projected to widespread striatal domains extending well beyond the classic ventral striatum. Analysis of the cases in aggregate revealed a topographic colocalization of cortical inputs and striatal outputs in the amygdala that was additionally distinguished by cortical cytoarchitecture. Specifically, the degree of cortical laminar differentiation of the cortical inputs predicted amygdalostriatal targets, and distinguished three main cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits. These three circuits were categorized as "primitive," "intermediate," and "developed," respectively, to emphasize the relative phylogenetic and ontogenetic features of the cortical inputs. Within the amygdala, these circuits appeared arranged in a pyramidal-like fashion, with the primitive circuit found in all examined subregions, and subsequent circuits hierarchically layered in discrete amygdala subregions. This arrangement suggests a stepwise integration of the functions of these circuits across amygdala subregions, providing a potential mechanism through which internal emotional states are managed with external social and sensory information toward emotionally informed complex behaviors.

  11. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  12. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Milton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food) or aversive (e.g. electric shock). We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala's mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes. PMID:24367307

  13. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  14. [Atypical presentation of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, A; Boulvain, M; Irion, O; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2015-09-09

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome, which still represents one of the major causes of maternal-fetal mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis can be made difficult due to the complexity of the disorder and its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to provide an efficient diagnostic tool to the clinician, medical societies regularly rethink the definition criteria. However, there are still clinical presentations of preeclampsia that escape the frame of the definition. The present review will address atypical forms of preeclampsia, such as preeclampsia without proteinuria, normotensive preeclampsia, preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation and post-partum preeclampsia.

  15. Fragile X syndrome and the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvrathan, Aparna; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most commonly inherited form of mental impairment and autism. Current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying FXS symptoms is derived mainly from studies on the hippocampus and cortex. However, FXS is also associated with strong emotional symptoms, which are likely to involve changes in the amygdala. Unfortunately, the synaptic basis of amygdalar dysfunction in FXS remains largely unexplored. Here we describe recent findings from mouse models of FXS that have identified synaptic defects in the basolateral amygdala that are in many respects distinct from those reported earlier in the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation and surface expression of AMPA-receptors are impaired. Further, presynaptic defects are seen at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Remarkably, some of these synaptic defects in the amygdala are also amenable to pharmacological rescue. These results also underscore the need to modify the current hippocampus-centric framework to better explain FXS-related synaptic dysfunction in the amygdala.

  16. Serotonin, Amygdala and Fear: Assembling the Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchio, Marco; McHugh, Stephen B.; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic an...

  17. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  18. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep M Saygin

    Full Text Available A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei. The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age.

  19. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  20. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  1. Atypical manifestations of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Balaji, Krishan; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is an illness with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and severe illness affects nearly all organ systems. Serious and potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of acute leptospirosis are caused by both direct tissue invasion by spirochaetes and by the host immune responses. In its severe form, leptospirosis can cause multi-organ dysfunction and death in a matter of days. Therefore it is critical to suspect and recognize the disease early, in order to initiate timely treatment. While the classical presentation of the disease is easily recognized by experienced clinicians practising in endemic regions, rarer manifestations can be easily missed. In this systematic review, we summarize the atypical manifestations reported in literature in patients with confirmed leptospirosis. Awareness of these unusual manifestations would hopefully guide clinicians towards early diagnosis.

  2. Larger foraminifera from Central Falcon (Venezuela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Nettie E.; Vlerk, van der I.M.

    1931-01-01

    Dr. H. G. Kugler, chief geologist of the North Venezuelan Petroleum Company, at Puerto Cabello, entrusted us with the examination of a collection of larger foraminifera, selected from material collected by the geologists of this Company in Central Falcon. Dr. A. Senn kindly added material that had a

  3. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  4. A Developmental Examination of Amygdala Response to Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Monk, Christopher S.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Nelson, Eric E.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Adler, Abby D.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Daniel S Pine; Ernst, Monique

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate the amygdala in face– emotion processing, particularly for fearful facial expressions. Related findings suggest that face–emotion processing engages the amygdala within an interconnected circuitry that can be studied using a functional-connectivity approach. Past work also underscores important functional changes in the amygdala during development. Taken together, prior research on amygdala function and development reveals a need for more work examining dev...

  5. Transpupillary thermotherapy for atypical central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ryosuke Kawamura1,2, Hidenao Ideta1, Hideyuki Hori1, Kenya Yuki2, Tsuyoshi Uno1, Tatsurou Tanabe1, Kazuo Tsubota2, Tsutomu Kawasaki11Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Keio University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC has been traditionally treated with laser photocoagulation. We thought that transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT utilizing a lower temperature than that of conventional laser photocoagulation might minimize permanent retinal and choroidal damage. Studies suggest that undesirable effects on vision due to TTT are minimal even if it is applied to foveal and/or parafoveal lesions when TTT requires a larger irradiation spot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TTT in the management of atypical CSC.Methods: We defined atypical CSC as bullous retinal detachment with diffuse or several leakages, severe leakage with fibrin formation under serous retinal detachment, or leakage within a pigment epithelium detachment. Eight consecutive patients with atypical CSC underwent visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography to evaluate the results of transpupillary thermotherapy. Retreatment of atypical CSC was based on ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. TTT was performed on the leaking spots shown in fluorescein angiography, with a power of 50–250 mW, spot size of 500–1200 µm, and exposure time of 13–60 seconds to minimize retinal damage.Results: In five of eight affected eyes, serous detachments completely resolved within 1 month after the initial TTT. One eye had persistent subretinal fluid and required a second TTT treatment. Two eyes showed no resolution of CSC and were treated by conventional photocoagulation. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA ranged from 20/600 to 20/20 (mean, 20/40; median, 20/30. Final BCVA

  6. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is ...

  7. Atypical GTPases as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Meera; Eswaran, Jeyanthy

    2012-01-01

    The Ras GTPases are the founding members of large Ras superfamily, which constitutes more than 150 of these important class of enzymes. These GTPases function as GDP-GTP-regulated binary switches that control many fundamental cellular processes. There are a number of GTPases that have been identified recently, which do not confine to this prototype termed as "atypical GTPases" but have proved to play a remarkable role in vital cellular functions. In this review, we provide an overview of the crucial physiological functions mediated by RGK and Centaurin class of multi domain atypical GTPases. Moreover, the recently available atypical GTPase structures of the two families, regulation, physiological functions and their critical roles in various diseases will be discussed. In summary, this review will highlight the emerging atypical GTPase family which allows us to understand novel regulatory mechanisms and thus providing new avenues for drug discovery programs.

  8. Atypical Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Steenwyk, Steven D; Molnar, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    We have identified some two-hundred new variable stars in a systematic study of a data archive obtained with the Calvin-Rehoboth observatory. Of these, we present five close binaries showing behaviors presumably due to star spots or other magnetic activity. For context, we first present two new RS CVn systems whose behavior can be readily attribute to star spots. Then we present three new close binary systems that are rather atypical, with light curves that are changing over time in ways not easily understood in terms of star spot activity generally associated with magnetically active binary systems called RS CVn systems. Two of these three are contact binaries that exhibit gradual changes in average brightness without noticeable changes in light curve shape. A third system has shown such large changes in light curve morphology that we speculate this may be a rare instance of a system that transitions back and forth between contact and noncontact configurations, perhaps driven by magnetic cycles in at least o...

  9. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    OpenAIRE

    Ümmü Sena Sarı; Figen Kaptan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was ...

  10. Oxytocin enhances the inhibitory effects of diazepam in the rat central medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, D; Terrettaz, T; Magara, F; Stoop, R

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that can reduce neophobia and improve social affiliation. In vitro, oxytocin induces a massive release of GABA from neurons in the lateral division of the central amygdala which results in inhibition of a subpopulation of peripherally projecting neurons in the medial division of the central amygdala (CeM). Common anxiolytics, such as diazepam, act as allosteric modulators of GABA(A) receptors. Because oxytocin and diazepam act on GABAergic transmission, it is possible that oxytocin can potentiate the inhibitory effects of diazepam if both exert their pre, - respectively postsynaptic effects on the same inhibitory circuit in the central amygdala. We found that in CeM neurons in which diazepam increased the inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) decay time, TGOT (a specific oxytocin receptor agonist) increased IPSC frequency. Combined application of diazepam and TGOT resulted in generation of IPSCs with increased frequency, decay times as well as amplitudes. While individual saturating concentrations of TGOT and diazepam each decreased spontaneous spiking frequency of CeM neurons to similar extent, co-application of the two was still able to cause a significantly larger decrease. These findings show that oxytocin and diazepam act on different components of the same GABAergic circuit in the central amygdala and that oxytocin can facilitate diazepam effects when used in combination. This raises the possibility that neuropeptides could be clinically used in combination with currently used anxiolytic treatments to improve their therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  12. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  13. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-06-16

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  14. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2008-03-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

  15. [Therapy for atypical facial pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

    2009-09-01

    Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge.

  16. Serotonin, amygdala and fear: assembling the puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eBocchio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic and pharmacological alterations of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT affect amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli. Nonetheless, the impact of 5-HT on fear processing remains poorly understood.The aim of this review is to elucidate the physiological role of 5-HT in fear learning via its action on the neuronal circuits of the amygdala. Since 5-HT release increases in the BLA during both fear memory acquisition and expression, we examine whether and how 5-HT neurons encode aversive stimuli and aversive cues. Next, we describe pharmacological and genetic alterations of 5-HT neurotransmission that, in both rodents and humans, lead to altered fear learning.To explore the mechanisms through which 5-HT could modulate conditioned fear, we focus on the rodent basolateral amygdala (BLA. We propose that a circuit-based approach taking into account the localization of specific 5-HT receptors on neurochemically-defined neurons in the BLA may be essential to decipher the role of 5-HT in emotional behavior. In keeping with a 5-HT control of fear learning, we review electrophysiological data suggesting that 5-HT regulates synaptic plasticity, spike synchrony and theta oscillations in the BLA via actions on different subcellular compartments of principal neurons and distinct GABAergic interneuron populations. Finally, we discuss how recently developed optogenetic tools combined with electrophysiological recordings and behavior could progress the knowledge of the

  17. A Developmental Examination of Amygdala Response to Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Monk, Christopher S.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Nelson, Eric E.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Adler, Abby D.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate the amygdala in face– emotion processing, particularly for fearful facial expressions. Related findings suggest that face–emotion processing engages the amygdala within an interconnected circuitry that can be studied using a functional-connectivity approach. Past work also underscores important functional changes in the amygdala during development. Taken together, prior research on amygdala function and development reveals a need for more work examining developmental changes in the amygdala’s response to fearful faces and in amygdala functional connectivity during face processing. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare 31 adolescents (9–17 years old) and 30 adults (21–40 years old) on activation to fearful faces in the amygdala and other regions implicated in face processing. Moreover, these data were used to compare patterns of amygdala functional connectivity in adolescents and adults. During passive viewing, adolescents demonstrated greater amygdala and fusiform activation to fearful faces than did adults. Functional connectivity analysis revealed stronger connectivity between the amygdala and the hippocampus in adults than in adolescents. Within each group, variability in age did not correlate with amygdala response, and sex-related developmental differences in amygdala response were not found. Eye movement data collected outside of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner using the same task suggested that developmental differences in amygdala activation were not attributable to differences in eye-gaze patterns. Amygdala hyperactivation in response to fearful faces may explain increased vulnerability to affective disorders in adolescence; stronger amygdala–hippocampus connectivity in adults than adolescents may reflect maturation in learning or habituation to facial expressions. PMID:18345988

  18. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  19. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  20. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Kaag, A.M.; Munkhof, H.E. van den; Reneman, L.; Homberg, J.R.; Sabbe, B.; Brink, W. van den; Wingen, G. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the

  1. FAST and SLOW amygdala kindling rat strains: comparison of amygdala, hippocampal, piriform and perirhinal cortex kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, D C; Kelly, M E; Dufresne, C

    1999-07-01

    In our companion paper, we selectively bred offspring of a Long Evans Hooded and Wistar rat cross for either fast or slow rates of amygdala kindling (Racine et al., 1999. Development of kindling-prone and kindling resistant rats: Selective breeding and electrophysiological studies, Epilepsy Res. 35, 183-195). Within 10 generations, there was no overlap in the distribution of kindling rates between these newly developed FAST and SLOW kindling strains. In the present report, we compared the local excitability, kindling rates, and convulsion profiles of kindling sites in either the amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, piriform cortex or perirhinal cortex in the two strains. Local excitability, measured as the local afterdischarge (AD) threshold and its duration, showed varied effects between structures and strains. Before kindling, the AD threshold was lower in the FAST than the SLOW rats in the hippocampus, piriform and perirhinal cortices, but not the amygdala (the selection structure). Also, the duration of the AD threshold duration was significantly longer in the FAST than in the SLOW rats in all structures, except the CA1 hippocampus. Most of these differences were maintained after kindling. Kindling itself was significantly faster in the FAST compared with the SLOW rats in all structures; however, the different structural kindling rates showed proportional differences between strains that were about five times different in the amygdala compared with only about two times different in the hippocampus. This suggested a selection bias for the amygdala and its networks. As in other rat strains, the fastest kindling rates were seen in the perirhinal cortex followed by the piriform cortex, amygdala and hippocampus in both FAST and SLOW rats. Other important differences between strains and structures occurred in the stage-5 convulsion profiles, including latency to forelimb clonus, clonus duration and duration of associated local afterdischarges. The differences in kindling

  2. Surface morphology of amygdala is associated with trait anxiety.

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    Shuyu Li

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of amygdala in trait anxiety level, in which amygdala was typically treated as a whole. To date, it remains unknown whether the morphology of specific subregions of amygdala are associated with trait anxiety. Here, we employed a shape analysis approach to locate the association between its morphology and trait anxiety on the surface of amygdala. 24 healthy young participants were included. The boundary of amygdala for each subject was first manually outlined using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR image, followed by 3D surface reconstruction and parameterization using spherical harmonic description. Two point-wise metrics, direct displacement between the individual surface and atlas surface and its normal projection, were used to quantify the surface morphology of amygdala. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between the two surface metrics and trait anxiety levels, which were located around the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala. Our results provided localized information for the association between amygdala and trait anxiety, and suggested a central role of the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala on trait anxiety.

  3. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

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    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  4. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

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    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  5. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large-scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18-83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network-specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network-specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety-gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex-wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low-level sensory networks and high-level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders.

  6. Amygdala temporal dynamics: temperamental differences in the timing of amygdala response to familiar and novel faces

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    Shelton Richard C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibited temperament - the predisposition to respond to new people, places or things with wariness or avoidance behaviors - is associated with increased risk for social anxiety disorder and major depression. Although the magnitude of the amygdala's response to novelty has been identified as a neural substrate of inhibited temperament, there may also be differences in temporal dynamics (latency, duration, and peak. We hypothesized that persons with inhibited temperament would have faster responses to novel relative to familiar neutral faces compared to persons with uninhibited temperament. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the temporal dynamics of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD response to both novel and familiar neutral faces in participants with inhibited or uninhibited temperament. Results Inhibited participants had faster amygdala responses to novel compared with familiar faces, and both longer and greater amygdala response to all faces. There were no differences in peak response. Conclusion Faster amygdala response to novelty may reflect a computational bias that leads to greater neophobic responses and represents a mechanism for the development of social anxiety.

  7. Atypical Steatocystoma Multiplex with Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Hasibur; Islam, Muhammad Saiful; Ansari, Nazma Parvin

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old male reported to us with an atypical case of giant steatocystoma multiplex in the scrotum with calcification. There was no family history of similar lesions. Yellowish, creamy material was expressed from a nodule during punch biopsy. The diagnosis was based on clinical as well as histological findings. Successful surgical excision was done to cure the case without any complications. PMID:22363850

  8. Atypical Centrioles During Sexual Reproduction

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    Tomer eAvidor-Reiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL. We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the zombie centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

  9. Atypical Imaging Appearances of Meningioma

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    Ahmad Soltani shirazi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Meningiomas are the commonest primary non-glial intracranial tumors. The diagnosis is usually correctly established on characteristic imaging appearances. Atypical meningiomas may be difficult to diagnose because of their similarity to other brain tumors. This paper presents one case of atypical meningioma, misdiagnosed primarily as glioblastoma multiforms (GBM by radiological techniques. "nCase report: A 15-year-old girl presented with a severe intermittent generalized headache that on occasion localized to retro-orbital and vertex. Other manifestations were blurred vision, photophobia, diplopia, weakness and clumsiness of the right hand. The result of systemic and neurological examinations was normal, except for a positive right hand drift test. MRI showed a large lobulated mass with peripheral edema, central necrosis and a heterogenous enhancement at the central part of the parietal lobe inducing to subfalcian herniation. Glioblastoma multiforms (GBM was misdiagnosed for the patient on the basis of MRI appearance. Pathology evaluation was compatible with meningioma (WHO grade I to II. The patient was operated and discharged with minimal right hand weakness. Physiotherapy was recommended to improve the remaining problems. "nConclusion: Atypical meningiomas may mimic other intracranical brain lesions and may cause misdiagnosis. It is important to be aware of these features in order to avoid misdiagnosis. "n"n  

  10. Robust automated amygdala segmentation via multi-atlas diffeomorphic registration

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    Jamie eHanson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a novel method for volumetric segmentation of the amygdala from MRI images collected from 35 human subjects. This approach is adapted from open-source techniques employed previously with the hippocampus (Suh et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011a; Wang et al., 2011b. Using multi-atlas segmentation and machine learning-based correction, we were able to produce automated amygdala segments with high dice (Mean= 0.918 for the left amygdala; 0.916 for the right amygdala and Jaccard coefficients (Mean= 0.850 for the left; 0.846 for the right compared to rigorously hand-traced volumes. This automated routine also produced amygdala segments with high intra-class (consistency=.830, absolute agreement =.819 for the left; consistency=. 786, absolute agreement =. 783 for the right and bivariate (r =.831 for the left; r =0.797 for the right correlations compared to hand-drawn amygdala. Our results are discussed in relation to results from other cutting-edge segmentation techniques, as well as commonly- available approaches to amygdala segmentation (e.g., Freesurfer. We believe this new technique has broad application to research with large sample sizes for which amygdala quantification might be needed.

  11. Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Teluij, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tendolkar, I.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal

  12. The Role of Actin Cytoskeleton in Memory Formation in Amygdala

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    Raphael eLamprecht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The central, lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei are essential for the formation of long-term memories including emotional and drug-related memories. The study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning memory in amygdala may shed light on the formation of memory and on fear and addiction-related disorders. A challenge is to identify molecules activated by learning that subserve cellular changes needed for memory formation and maintenance in amygdala. Recent studies show that activation of synaptic receptors during fear and drug-related learning leads to alteration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and structure in amygdala. Such changes in actin cytoskeleton in amygdala are essential for fear and drug-related memories formation. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton subserves, after learning, changes in neuronal morphogenesis and glutamate receptors trafficking in amygdala. These cellular events are involved in fear and drug-related memories formation. Actin polymerization is also needed for the maintenance of drug-associated memories in amygdala. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator between receptor activation during learning and cellular changes subserving long-term memory in amygdala. The actin cytoskeleton may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear memory associated with fear and anxiety disorders and drug addiction to prevent the debilitating consequences of these diseases.

  13. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons.

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    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernádi, István; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-11-13

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain's reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons while monkeys chose between saving liquid reward with interest and spending the accumulated reward. In addition to known value-related responses, we found that activity in a group of amygdala neurons predicted the monkeys' upcoming save-spend choices with an average accuracy of 78%. This choice-predictive activity occurred early in trials, even before information about specific actions associated with save-spend choices was available. For a substantial number of neurons, choice-differential activity was specific for free, internally generated economic choices and not observed in a control task involving forced imperative choices. A subgroup of choice-predictive neurons did not show relationships to value, movement direction, or visual stimulus features. Choice-predictive activity in some amygdala neurons was preceded by transient periods of value coding, suggesting value-to-choice transitions and resembling decision processes in other brain systems. These findings suggest that the amygdala might play an active role in economic decisions. Current views of amygdala function should be extended to incorporate a role in decision-making beyond valuation.

  14. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

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    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL.

  15. A unique role for the human amygdala in novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Avery, Suzanne N; Zald, David H

    2010-04-15

    Previous research indicates that the amygdala and hippocampus are sensitive to novelty; however, two types of novelty can be distinguished - stimuli that are ordinary, but novel in the current context, and stimuli that are unusual. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) response of the human amygdala and hippocampus to novel, commonly seen objects versus novel unusual objects. When presented with the novel common stimuli, the BOLD signal increased significantly in both the amygdala and hippocampus. However, for the novel unusual stimuli, only the amygdala showed an increased response compared to the novel common stimuli. These findings suggest that the amygdala is distinctly responsive to novel unusual stimuli, making a unique contribution to the novelty detection circuit.

  16. Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis

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    Amina Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Optic neuritis (ON is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or "typical" ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to "atypical" causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision.

  17. Atypical Manifestation of Vestibular Schwannoma

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    Webster, Guilherme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor whose cells are derived from Schwann sheaths, which commonly occurs from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve. Furthermore, vestibular schwannomas account for ∼8% of intracranial tumors in adults and 80 to 90% of tumors of the cerebellopontine angle. Its symptoms are varied, but what stands out most is a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with a low index of speech recognition. Objective: Describe an atypical manifestation of vestibular schwannoma. Case Report: The 46-year-old woman had vertigo and binaural hearing loss and fullness, with ear, nose, and throat examination suggestive of cochlear injury. After 6 months, the patient developed worsening of symptoms and onset of right unilateral tinnitus. In further exams the signs of cochlear damage remained, except for the vestibular test (hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive lesion in the right cerebellopontine angle. Discussion: This report warns about the atypical manifestations of vestibular schwannoma, which must always be remembered in investigating and diagnosing hearing loss.

  18. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164398.html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs ... According to the study's first author, Sarah Kowitt, "Most adults, including smokers, have favorable attitudes towards larger ...

  19. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

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    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  20. Amygdala neurons differentially encode motivation and reinforcement.

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    Tye, Kay M; Janak, Patricia H

    2007-04-11

    Lesion studies demonstrate that the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) is important for assigning motivational significance to sensory stimuli, but little is known about how this information is encoded. We used in vivo electrophysiology procedures to investigate how the amygdala encodes motivating and reinforcing properties of cues that induce reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior. Two groups of rats were trained to respond to a sucrose reward. The "paired" group was trained with a reward-predictive cue, whereas the "unpaired" group was trained with a randomly presented cue. Both groups underwent identical extinction and reinstatement procedures during which the reward was withheld. The proportion of neurons that were phasically cue responsive during reinstatement was significantly higher in the paired group (46 of 100) than in the unpaired group (8 of 112). Cues that induce reward-seeking behavior can do so by acting as incentives or reinforcers. Distinct populations of neurons responded to the cue in trials in which the cue acted as an incentive, triggering a motivated reward-seeking state, or as a reinforcer, supporting continued instrumental responding. The incentive motivation-encoding population of neurons (34 of 46 cue-responsive neurons; 74%) extinguished in temporal agreement with a decrease in the rate of instrumental responding. The conditioned reinforcement-encoding population of neurons (12 of 46 cue-responsive neurons; 26%) maintained their response for the duration of cue-reinforced instrumental responding. These data demonstrate that separate populations of cue-responsive neurons in the BLA encode the motivating or reinforcing properties of a cue previously associated with a reward.

  1. Atypical Presentation of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Child

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    Y. T. Udaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT is a rare malignant intracranial neoplasm more commonly diagnosed in young children. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with a long standing history of slowly progressive weight loss, fatigue, and weakness over 1.5 years whose magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneous enhancing dorsally exophytic lower brainstem mass. Examination revealed extreme cachexia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, dysphagia, dysarthria, bilateral dysmetria, and global weakness without ambulation. The protracted history and neuroimaging features were most suggestive of a low grade glioma. However, pathology revealed a hypercellular tumor with large hyperchromatic nucleoli and loss of INI-1 staining on immunohistochemistry consistent with a diagnosis of an ATRT. The child died shortly after surgery due to complications from his brainstem infiltrative disease. This case illustrates the diverse presentation of ATRT in childhood that can clinically and radiographically mimic that of low grade glioma.

  2. Dosage-sensitive X-linked locus influences the development of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, and fear recognition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Catriona D; Lawrence, Kate; Thomas, N Simon; Price, Cathy J; Ashburner, John; Friston, Karl J; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Oreland, Lars; Skuse, David H

    2003-11-01

    The amygdala, which plays a critical role in emotional learning and social cognition, is structurally and functionally sexually dimorphic in humans. We used magnetic neuroimaging and molecular genetic analyses with healthy subjects and patients possessing X-chromosome anomalies to find dosage-sensitive genes that might influence amygdala development. If such X-linked genes lacked a homologue on the Y-chromosome they would be expressed in one copy in normal 46,XY males and two copies in normal 46,XX females. We showed by means of magnetic neuroimaging that 46,XY males possess significantly increased amygdala volumes relative to normal 46,XX females. However, females with Turner syndrome (45,X) have even larger amygdalae than 46,XY males. This finding implies that haploinsufficiency for one or more X-linked genes influences amygdala development irrespective of a direct or indirect (endocrinological) mechanism involving the Y-chromosome. 45,X females also have increased grey matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, close to a region implicated in emotional learning. They are as poor as patients with bilateral amygdalectomies in the recognition of fear from facial expressions. We attempted to localize the gene(s) responsible for these deficits in X-monosomy by means of a deletion mapping strategy. We studied female patients possessing structural X-anomalies of the short arm. A genetic locus (no greater than 4.96 Mb in size) at Xp11.3 appears to play a key role in amygdala and orbitofrontal structural and (by implication) functional development. Females with partial X-chromosome deletions, in whom this critical locus is deleted, have normal intelligence. Their fear recognition is as poor as that of 45,X females and their amygdalae are correspondingly enlarged. This 4.96 Mb region contains, among others, the genes for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB), which are involved in the oxidative deamination of several neurotransmitters, including dopamine and

  3. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates

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    Dustin Scheinost

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  4. Dynamic modulation of amygdala-hippocampal connectivity by emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Spalek, Klara; Milnik, Annette; Gschwind, Leo; Roozendaal, Benno; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F

    2014-10-15

    Positive and negative emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. Studies in animals suggest that this phenomenon depends on the influence of the amygdala upon the hippocampus. In humans, however, it is largely unknown how these two brain structures functionally interact and whether these interactions are similar between positive and negative information. Using dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data in 586 healthy subjects, we show that the strength of the connection from the amygdala to the hippocampus was rapidly and robustly increased during the encoding of both positive and negative pictures in relation to neutral pictures. We also observed an increase in connection strength from the hippocampus to the amygdala, albeit at a smaller scale. These findings indicate that, during encoding, emotionally arousing information leads to a robust increase in effective connectivity from the amygdala to the hippocampus, regardless of its valence.

  5. A unique role for the human amygdala in novelty detection

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the amygdala and hippocampus are sensitive to novelty; however, two types of novelty can be distinguished – stimuli that are ordinary, but novel in the current context, and stimuli that are unusual. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) response of the human amygdala and hippocampus to novel, commonly seen objects versus novel unusual objects. When presented with the novel common stimuli, the BOLD signal i...

  6. Atypical presentations of celiac disease

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    Balasa Adriana Luminita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the association of celiac disease in 81 children with autoimmune disease and genetic syndromes over a two years periods (January 2014 to July 2016 in Pediatric Clinic in Constanta. Because the extraintestinal symptoms are an atypical presentation of celiac disease we determined in these children the presence of celiac disease antibodies: Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgA and IgA total serum level as a screening method followeds in selective cases by Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgG, anti-endomysial antibodies, deamidated gliadin antibodies IgA and IgG and intestinal biopsia. In our study 8 patients had been diagnosed with celiac disease with extraintestinal symptoms, of which 4 with type 1 diabetes, 1 patient with ataxia, 2 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and 1 patient with Down syndrome that associate also autoimmune thyroiditis, alopecia areata, enamel hypoplasia.

  7. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions.

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    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-05-15

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to modulate the effect of stress on mental health, the mechanistic link between stress, neuroticism and amygdala responsivity is unknown. Thus, we studied the relationship between experimentally induced stress, individual differences in neuroticism, and amygdala responsivity. To this end, fearful and happy faces were presented to a large cohort of young, healthy males (n=120) in two separate functional MRI sessions (stress versus control) in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. We revealed that amygdala reactivity was modulated by an interaction between the factors of stress, neuroticism, and the emotional valence of the facial stimuli. Follow-up analysis showed that neuroticism selectively enhanced amygdala responses to fearful faces in the stress condition. Thus, we show that stress unmasks an association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity to potentially threatening stimuli. This effect constitutes a possible mechanistic link within the complex pathophysiology of affective disorders, and our novel approach appears suitable for further studies targeting the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... with individual differences in loss aversion. Together, the results show that the amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness or aversiveness of gain-loss ratios at the time of choice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...

  9. Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel inactivation contributes to spike broadening during repetitive firing in the rat lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E S Louise; Sah, Pankaj

    2003-10-15

    In many neurons, trains of action potentials show frequency-dependent broadening. This broadening results from the voltage-dependent inactivation of K+ currents that contribute to action potential repolarisation. In different neuronal cell types these K+ currents have been shown to be either slowly inactivating delayed rectifier type currents or rapidly inactivating A-type voltage-gated K+ currents. Recent findings show that inactivation of a Ca2+-dependent K+ current, mediated by large conductance BK-type channels, also contributes to spike broadening. Here, using whole-cell recordings in acute slices, we examine spike broadening in lateral amygdala projection neurons. Spike broadening is frequency dependent and is reversed by brief hyperpolarisations. This broadening is reduced by blockade of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and BK channels. In contrast, broadening is not blocked by high concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or alpha-dendrotoxin. We conclude that while inactivation of BK-type Ca2+-activated K+ channels contributes to spike broadening in lateral amygdala neurons, inactivation of another as yet unidentified outward current also plays a role.

  10. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  11. Pseudoarthrosis in atypical femoral fracture: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, S; Bottai, V; Dell'Osso, G; De Paola, G; Ghilardi, M; Guido, G

    2013-11-01

    Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment; they have a high frequency of delayed healing. The authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy. Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment even if, in the literature, there is no clarity on the exact pathogenetic mechanism. The Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research described the major and minor features to define atypical fractures and recommends that all the five major features must be present while minor features are not necessary. Another controversial aspect regarding the atypical femoral fractures is the higher frequency of the delayed healing that can be probably related to a suppressed bone turnover caused by a prolonged period of bisphosphonates treatment. This concept could be corroborated by the Spet Tc exam. In the case of a pseudoarthrosis, there is not a standardization of the treatment. In this report, the authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy; the patient was studied with clinical, bioumoral end SPECT-Tc exam of both femurs. Many studies show the relationship between bisphosphonates and the presence of atypical fractures. These fractures should be monitored more closely due to the risk of nonunion and they require considering an initial treatment with pharmacological augmentation to reduce the complications for the patient and the health care costs.

  12. Bisphosphonate-associated atypical subtrochanteric femur fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Ely A; Banks, Kevin P; Vroman, Penny J

    2015-03-01

    Bisphosphonates help prevent progressive bone mineralization loss and subsequent osteoporotic fractures. However, long-term bisphosphonate therapy paradoxically increases the risk of a unique injury called an atypical subtrochanteric femur fracture. Despite this, the benefits of bisphosphonates outweigh the risks, because far more pathologic fractures are prevented than induced. The early identification of atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures is important as there is high associated morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 76-y-old woman with a completed bisphosphonate-associated atypical subtrochanteric femur fracture.

  13. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders.

  14. Paradoxical facilitation of working memory after basolateral amygdala damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Morgan

    Full Text Available Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot "see". To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a 'cooperation through competition' networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical

  15. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  16. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...

  17. Atypical presentations of Wolframs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wolfram syndrome is a rare hereditary or sporadic neurodegenerative disorder also known as DIDMOAD. The classically described presentation is of insulin-dependent diabetes, followed by optic atrophy, central diabetes insipidus, and sensory neural deafness. Also included are less well-described presentations of Wolframs syndrome. We here present three cases of atypical presentation of this syndrome. Case 1: A 15-year-old boy with insulin-dependent diabetes was presented for evaluation of depressive symptoms associated with suicidal tendency. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are described with Wolframs syndrome, and wolframin gene, in recessive inheritance, is associated with psychiatric illnesses without other manifestations of Wolframs syndrome. Case 2: A 17-year-old diabetic boy on insulin with good control of blood sugar presented for evaluation of delayed puberty. Central hypogonadism and other anterior pituitary hormone dysfunctions are the less publicized hormone dysfunctions in Wolframs syndrome. Case 3: A 23-year-old female who was on insulin for diabetes for the past 14 years, got admitted for evaluation of sudden loss of vision. This patient had developed a vitreous hemorrhage and, on evaluation, was found to have optic atrophy, sensory neural hearing loss, and diabetes insipidus, and presented differently from the gradual loss of vision described in Wolframs syndrome. Conclusion: Wolframs syndrome being a multisystem degenerative disorder can have myriad other manifestations than the classically described features. Neuropsychiatric manifestations, depression with suicidal risk, central hypogonadism, and secondary adrenal insufficiency are among the less well-described manifestations of this syndrome.

  18. Atypical presentations of neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system classically characterized by acute, severe episodes of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. The identification of an autoantibody exclusively detected in NMO patients against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 has allowed identification of cases beyond the classical phenotype. Brain lesions, once thought as infrequent, can be observed in NMO patients, but lesions have different characteristics from the ones seen in multiple sclerosis. Additionally, some AQP-4 antibody positive patients may present with a variety of symptoms not being restricted to optic neuritis and acute myelitis during the first attack or in a relapse. Examples are not limited to, but may include patients only with brain and/or brainstem lesions, narcolepsy with hypothalamic lesions or patients with intractable hiccups, nausea and vomiting. The prompt identification of NMO patients with atypical presentations may benefit these patients with institution of early treatment to reduce disability and prevent further attacks.

  19. ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS FROM SCRATCH TO THE PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chauhan*, Amit Mittal, Pradeep Kumar Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness constitutes the second-largest disease burden in the United States. Psychosis is one of the most common and severe mental illnesses. It is an extremely devastating condition characterised by delusions, hallucinations, distortion of thoughts and deteriorating social functioning experiences. Psychosis in all human societies has approximately same incidence of occurrence as in accordance to “anthropo-parity principle.” It has large economic impact on various aspects of cognition, health, and quality of life which has devastated effects on its sufferers and facing them large economic burden. Psychosis (Schizophrenia is associated with an imbalance of the dopaminergic system, entailing hyper-stimulation of dopamine function in the brain, particularly in the mesolimbic pathway. Consequences of antipsychotic treatment are far reaching and expensive. Detrimental extrapyramidal side effects associated with conventional antipsychotics and non-compliance among patients limits long term treatment with conventional antipsychotics. It gives rise to a new class, atypical antipsychotics owning low propensity to cause EPS, efficacy against refractory cases and better control over negative symptoms, better tolerance and compliance along with lower relapse rate and safer adverse effect profile. Atypical antipsychotics have revolutionized the treatment of psychosis, now being the treatment of choice for patients with psychosis. The positive therapeutic experience with the atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of psychosis and their favourable effects outweighs their unfavourable adverse effects. Though atypical antipsychotics are widely prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia, however not a single atypical antipsychotic drug having any exceptional efficacy and safety profile. Thus, there is still a lot of research needed to be carried out in the development of novel atypical antipsychotics. This review is comprehensive appraisal about

  20. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  1. Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Britta K; Carmody, James; Evans, Karleyton C; Hoge, Elizabeth A; Dusek, Jeffery A; Morgan, Lucas; Pitman, Roger K; Lazar, Sara W

    2010-03-01

    Stress has significant adverse effects on health and is a risk factor for many illnesses. Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain structure crucial in stress responses. Whereas hyperactive amygdala function is often observed during stress conditions, cross-sectional reports of differences in gray matter structure have been less consistent. We conducted a longitudinal MRI study to investigate the relationship between changes in perceived stress with changes in amygdala gray matter density following a stress-reduction intervention. Stressed but otherwise healthy individuals (N = 26) participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Perceived stress was rated on the perceived stress scale (PSS) and anatomical MR images were acquired pre- and post-intervention. PSS change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within the bilateral amygdalae. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced perceived stress. Reductions in perceived stress correlated positively with decreases in right basolateral amygdala gray matter density. Whereas prior studies found gray matter modifications resulting from acquisition of abstract information, motor and language skills, this study demonstrates that neuroplastic changes are associated with improvements in a psychological state variable.

  2. The effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on the amygdala electrical kindling seizures in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Roohollah; Moghimi, Ali; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Ejtehadi, Hamid; Kheirabadi, Masoumeh

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effect of Rosa damascena Mill, essential oil on the development of induced amygdala kindling seizures. Male Wistar rats were implanted with one tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in right basolateral amygdala and dura surface, respectively. The control group was injected solvent of essential oil and two experimental groups were injected 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of essential oil (ip), 30 min before a daily kindling stimulation. The number of stimulations required for the first appearance of seizure stages was significantly larger in two experimental groups than in control group. Mean after discharge duration was significantly different and essential oil reduced the increase of after discharge duration. Mean after discharge amplitude was also shorter in the groups treated with essential oil than in control group. Duration time for 5th stage of seizure at fully-kindled rats was significantly shorter in two experimental groups than control group. These results suggest that Rosa damascena essential oil significantly retarded the development of seizure stages and possesses the ability to counteract kindling acquisition. The flavonoids of Rosa damascena may act via GABAA receptors as previous studies have proposed for flavonoids of other medicinal plants. More detailed studies are recommended to define the effective component(s) of Rosa on different types of epilepsy.

  3. 5-HTTLPR, anxiety and gender interaction moderates right amygdala volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo; Piras, Fabrizio; Mangone, Graziella; Magariello, Angela; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Muglia, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-10-01

    Genetic variants within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impact the neurobiology and risk for anxiety-related behaviours. There are also gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviours. Although numerous studies have investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the neural systems involved in emotional regulation, none have investigated how these effects are modulated by gender and anxiety. We investigated this issue using two complementary region of interest-based structural neuroimaging approaches (voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer) in 138 healthy individuals categorized into 'no anxiety' and 'subclinical anxiety' groups based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Preliminarily, using anxiety as a continuous variable, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype by gender on anxiety. Females homozygous for the Short allele showed the highest HAM-A scores and males the lowest. In addition, a three-way significant interaction among genotype, gender and anxiety category was found for the right amygdala volume. Post hoc tests revealed that homozygous females carrying the Short variant with a subclinical anxiety condition had larger volume. The reported interaction effects demonstrate that gender strongly modulates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and subclinical expression of anxiety acting on amygdala, one region of the emotional neural network specifically involved in the anxiety-like behaviours.

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Amygdala Volume in Elderly with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The RUN DMC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. M. van Uden

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. Lower left amygdala volume is associated with LODS, independent of SVD. This may suggest differential mechanisms, in which individuals with a small amygdala might be vulnerable to develop LODS.

  5. Neural substrates for expectation-modulated fear learning in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P; Tarpley, Jason W; LeDoux, Joseph E; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-08-01

    A form of aversively motivated learning called fear conditioning occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS). UCS-evoked depolarization of amygdala neurons may instruct Hebbian plasticity that stores memories of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus association, but the origin of UCS inputs to the amygdala is unknown. Theory and evidence suggest that instructive UCS inputs to the amygdala will be inhibited when the UCS is expected, but this has not been found during fear conditioning. We investigated neural pathways that relay information about the UCS to the amygdala by recording neurons in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of rats during fear conditioning. UCS-evoked responses in both amygdala and PAG were inhibited by expectation. Pharmacological inactivation of the PAG attenuated UCS-evoked responses in the amygdala and impaired acquisition of fear conditioning, indicating that PAG may be an important part of the pathway that relays instructive signals to the amygdala.

  6. Involvement of the basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala in the omission effects of different magnitudes of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Tavares, Tatiane F; Bueno, José Lino O

    2012-07-15

    Evidence from appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in modulation of responses correlated with motivational states, and therefore, to the modulation of processes probably underlying reinforcement omission effects. The present study aimed to clarify whether or not the mechanisms related to reinforcement omission effects of different magnitudes depend on basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12s with limited hold 6s signaled schedule in which correct responses were always followed by one of two reinforcement magnitudes. Bilateral lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus were made after acquisition of stable performance. After postoperative recovery, the training was changed from 100% to 50% reinforcement schedules. The results showed that lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus did not eliminate or reduce, but interfere with reinforcement omission effects. The response from rats of both the basolateral complex and central nucleus lesioned group was higher relative to that of the rats of their respective sham-lesioned groups after reinforcement omission. Thus, the lesioned rats were more sensitive to the omission effect. Moreover, the basolateral complex lesions prevented the magnitude effect on reinforcement omission effects. Basolateral complex lesioned rats showed no differential performance following omission of larger and smaller reinforcement magnitude. Thus, the basolateral complex is involved in incentive processes relative to omission of different reinforcement magnitudes. Therefore, it is possible that reinforcement omission effects are modulated by brain circuitry which involves amygdala.

  7. Inhibitory networks of the amygdala for emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho eLee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala is important for emotional memory, including learned fear. A number of studies for amygdala neural circuits that underlie fear conditioning have elucidated specific cellular and molecular mechanisms of emotional memory. Recent technical advances such as optogenetic approaches have not only confirmed the importance of excitatory circuits in fear conditioning, but have also shed new light for a direct role of inhibitory circuits in both the acquisition and extinction of fear memory in addition to their role in fine tuning of excitatory neural circuitry. As a result, the circuits in amygdala could be drawn more elaborately, and it led us to understand how fear or extinction memories are formed in the detailed circuit level, and various neuromodulators affect these circuit activities, inducing subtle behavioral changes.

  8. Intradentate colchicine retards the development of amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, J O

    1982-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the kindling model of epilepsy are unknown. Presumably, an altered network of neural circuits underlie amygdala kindling. Biochemical and radiohistochemical studies have pointed to the dentate granule cells (DGC) of the hippocampal formation as a member of this altered circuit. To test the role of these cells, colchicine, a neurotoxin of DGC, was directly injected into the dentate gyrus. Prior destruction of DGC retarded the development of amygdala kindling. Destruction of DGC after kindling was completed did not reverse the kindling effect. We conclude that DGC play a key role in the development, but not the permanence, of amygdala kindling. We propose a model whereby the greater the input to the hippocampal formation, the faster limbic kindling will proceed.

  9. Amygdala-gustatory insular cortex connections and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Reilly, Steve

    2012-12-01

    To examine whether communication between the amygdala and gustatory insular cortex (GC) is required for normal performance of taste neophobia, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, rats with asymmetric unilateral lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the GC displayed elevated intake of a novel saccharin solution relative to control subjects. However, an attenuation of neophobia was not found following asymmetric unilateral lesions of the GC and medial amygdala (MeA; Experiment 2) or of the MeA and BLA (Experiment 3). This pattern of results indicates that the BLA and GC functionally interact during expression of taste neophobia and that the MeA functionally interacts with neither the BLA nor the GC. Research is needed to further characterize the nature of the involvement of the MeA in taste neophobia and to determine the function of the BLA-GC interaction during exposure to a new taste.

  10. Intra-Amygdala Injections of CREB Antisense Impair Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Role of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Infusions of CREB antisense into the amygdala prior to training impair memory for aversive tasks, suggesting that the antisense may interfere with CRE-mediated gene transcription and protein synthesis important for the formation of new memories within the amygdala. However, the amygdala also appears to modulate memory formation in distributed…

  11. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  12. Clinical Presentation of Atypical Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 梁沛杨; 罗北京

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To make a clinical analysis on the basis of 36cases of atypical genital herpes (GH) patients. Methods: Thirty-six cases of atypical GH were diagnosedclinically, and their case histories, symptoms and signs wererecorded in detail and followed up. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was adopted for testing HSV2-DNA with cotton-tippedswabs. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) forserum anti-HSV2-IgM was done to establish a definfiivediagnosis. Other diagnoses were excluded at the same time bytesting for related pathogens including fungi, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, Treponema pallidum, gonococci, Trichomonas,etc. Results: The main clinical manifestations of atypical GHwere: (1) small genital ulcers; (2) inflammation of urethralmeatus; (3) nonspecific genital erythema; (4) papuloid noduleson the glands; (5) nonspecific vaginitis. Twenty-three cases(64%) tested by PCR were HSV2-DNA sera-positive, and 36cases (100 %) anti-HSV2-IgM sera-positive by ELISA. Conclusion: atypical HSV is difficult to be diagnosed. Butthe combination of PCR and ELIAS will be helpful to thediagnosis of atypical HSV.

  13. Atypical aging in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Warren B

    2013-01-01

    divided into two sections. The first section will review typical and atypical aging patterns in somatic issues in elder adults with DS; the second section will review the multifaceted relationship between AD and DS.

  14. Evolution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the vertebrates: an atypical butyrylcholinesterase from the Medaka Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pezzementi

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE are thought to be the result of a gene duplication event early in vertebrate evolution. To learn more about the evolution of these enzymes, we expressed in vitro, characterized, and modeled a recombinant cholinesterase (ChE from a teleost, the medaka Oryzias latipes. In addition to AChE, O. latipes has a ChE that is different from either vertebrate AChE or BChE, which we are classifying as an atypical BChE, and which may resemble a transitional form between the two. Of the fourteen aromatic amino acids in the catalytic gorge of vertebrate AChE, ten are conserved in the atypical BChE of O. latipes; by contrast, only eight are conserved in vertebrate BChE. Notably, the atypical BChE has one phenylalanine in its acyl pocket, while AChE has two and BChE none. These substitutions could account for the intermediate nature of this atypical BChE. Molecular modeling supports this proposal. The atypical BChE hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine (ATCh and propionylthiocholine (PTCh preferentially but butyrylthiocholine (BTCh to a considerable extent, which is different from the substrate specificity of AChE or BChE. The enzyme shows substrate inhibition with the two smaller substrates but not with the larger substrate BTCh. In comparison, AChE exhibits substrate inhibition, while BChE does not, but may instead show substrate activation. The atypical BChE from O. latipes also shows a mixed pattern of inhibition. It is effectively inhibited by physostigmine, typical of all ChEs. However, although the atypical BChE is efficiently inhibited by the BChE-specific inhibitor ethopropazine, it is not by another BChE inhibitor, iso-OMPA, nor by the AChE-specific inhibitor BW284c51. The atypical BChE is found as a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored amphiphilic dimer (G(2 (a, which is unusual for any BChE. We classify the enzyme as an atypical BChE and discuss its implications for the evolution of ACh

  15. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Debra K

    2003-01-01

    A review of the English literature confirms that neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) occurs with both traditional and atypical antipsychotic medications. Published reports of NMS induced by the traditional antipsychotics have given the practitioner valuable information on the prevention and treatment of this adverse effect. Case reports have also been published concerning NMS and clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine. By evaluating the case reports of atypical antipsychotic-induced NMS, valuable information may be obtained concerning similarities or differences from that induced by the traditional antipsychotics. The case reports of NMS with atypical antipsychotics were evaluated for diagnosis, age/sex of patient, risk factors, antipsychotic doses and duration of use, symptoms of NMS, and clinical course.

  16. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  17. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2008-01-01

    The technical developments in laser technology as well as significant improvement in flexible renoscopes have made RIRS for larger lower pole stones possible. The low complication rate gives RIRS for lower pole stones superiority over the invasive percutaneous approach, which is associated with significant morbidity, even in experienced hands.

  18. SME routes for innovation collaboration with larger enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can contribute to industry competiveness through collaboration with larger enterprises. The research is based on a longitudinal qualitative case study starting in 2011 with 10 SME offshore wind farm suppliers and fol...

  19. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  20. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  1. Microbubbles are detected prior to larger bubbles following decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J G; Wilbur, J C; Moodie, K L; Kane, S A; Knaus, D A; Phillips, S D; Beach, T L; Fellows, A M; Magari, P J; Buckey, J C

    2014-04-01

    Using dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU), microbubbles (multiple sites, 2) appear in the presence and absence of bmdVGE, and 3) occur before bmdVGE. This supports the hypothesis that microbubbles precede larger VGE bubbles. Microbubble presence may be an early marker of decompression stress. Since DFU is a low-power ultrasonic method, it may be useful for operational diving applications.

  2. An Exploration of Eye Movements when Reading Texts with Atypical Spatial Layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we explored eye movements that people make when looking at texts with an atypical spatial layout. In the first experiment, participants repeatedly viewed the same piece of text, containing sections in different languages and printed using different fonts and reading directions, while they answered different questions about what they saw. In agreement with earlier studies showing significant differences in gaze patterns across different tasks, we found that reading was strongly influenced by the questions that participants tried to answer. In the second experiment, we examined gaze patterns for different types of poems while participants performed a single task: To rate their appreciation of the poem. Poems were either in the typical form, with short lines all aligned to the left, or they were in an atypical form (“graphical poem”, with the text dispersed across the page, in different fonts, reading directions, and size. Half of the poems were from an artist known for his graphical poems, the other half were from different authors who posted their poems on a webpage. All these poems were presented in a typical and an atypical form. Participants rated the poems from the web more highly, but took less time to inspect them. Whether the poem was in a typical or an atypical layout did not influence the ratings, even though longer inspection times were found for the atypical forms. Eye movement parameters, such as fixation duration and saccade amplitude, were relatively unaffected by the layout of the poems, although some additional larger amplitude saccades could be observed for the atypical forms.

  3. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  4. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  5. Dynamic modulation of amygdala-hippocampal connectivity by emotional arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastenrath, M.; Coynel, D.; Spalek, K.; Milnik, A.; Gschwind, L.; Roozendaal, B.; Papassotiropoulos, A.; Quervain, D.J. de

    2014-01-01

    Positive and negative emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. Studies in animals suggest that this phenomenon depends on the influence of the amygdala upon the hippocampus. In humans, however, it is largely unknown how these two brain structures functionally interact and whether

  6. Evolution of the amygdala: new insights from studies in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Frédéric; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang; Roth, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    The histology of amphibian brains gives an impression of relative simplicity when compared with that of reptiles or mammals. The amphibian telencephalon is small and contains comparatively few and large neurons, which in most parts constitute a dense periventricular cellular layer. However, the view emerging from the last decade is that the brains of all tetrapods, including amphibians, share a general bauplan resulting from common ancestry and the need to perform similar vital functions. To what extent this common organization also applies to higher brain functions is unknown due to a limited knowledge of the neurobiology of early vertebrates. The amygdala is widely recognized as a brain center critical for basic forms of emotional learning (e.g., fear conditioning) and its structure in amphibians could suggest how this capacity evolved. A functional systems approach is used here to synthesize the results of our anatomical investigations of the amphibian amygdala. It is proposed that the connectivity of the amphibian telencephalon portends a capacity for multi-modal association in a limbic system largely similar to that of amniote vertebrates. One remarkable exception is the presence of new sensory-associative regions of the amygdala in amniotes: the posterior dorsal ventricular ridge plus lateral nuclei in reptiles and the basolateral complex in mammals. These presumably homologous regions apparently are capable of modulating the phylogenetically older central amygdala and allow more complex forms of emotional learning.

  7. Amygdala response to emotional stimuli without awareness : Facts and Interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diano, M.; Celeghin, A.; Bagnis, Arianna; Tamietto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that the human amygdala exerts some of its functions also when the observer is not aware of the content, or even presence, of the triggering emotional stimulus. Nevertheless, there is as of yet no consensus on the limits and conditions that affect

  8. Interactions between chemical and electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-09-16

    Holtzman rats were implanted with a chemitrode into the left basolateral amygdala, which could then be stimulated electrically (400 microA, 1 s, AC) or chemically by injection of carbachol (1 microliter, 2.7 nmoles, sterile, isotonic). Group A received a daily injection of carbachol and developed kindled seizures. Group B received carbachol mixed with equimolar atropine, which blocked seizures and kindling. After 20 injections, both groups were stimulated electrically once a day and kindled at similar rates. Two additional groups received electrical or sham stimulation, followed by carbachol kindling. No transfer effects were observed. Four additional groups received 27 nmoles of atropine through the chemitrode, followed 15 min later by electrical stimulation, sham stimulation, carbachol injection or saline injection, respectively. Atropine completely blocked carbachol kindling but did not alter the rate of electrical kindling. No different in the number of QNB binding sites was observed in the amygdala of rats sacrificed two weeks after full electrical kindling. The lack of interaction between electrical and carbachol kindling and the failure of atropine to block electrical kindling of the amygdala suggest that the activation of local muscarinic synapses, while essential for carbachol kindling, is not required for electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

  9. A Model of Differential Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Caroline; Killcross, Simon; Dadds, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a novel hypothesis regarding amygdala function in psychopathy. The first part of this article introduces the concept of psychopathy and describes the main cognitive and affective impairments demonstrated by this population; that is, a deficit in fear-recognition, lower conditioned fear responses and poor performance in…

  10. Atypical RNAs in the coelacanth transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Anne; Doose, Gero; Tafer, Hakim; Robinson, Mark; Saha, Nil Ratan; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Hoffmann, Steve; Amemiya, Chris T; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-09-01

    Circular and apparently trans-spliced RNAs have recently been reported as abundant types of transcripts in mammalian transcriptome data. Both types of non-colinear RNAs are also abundant in RNA-seq of different tissue from both the African and the Indonesian coelacanth. We observe more than 8,000 lincRNAs with normal gene structure and several thousands of circularized and trans-spliced products, showing that such atypical RNAs form a substantial contribution to the transcriptome. Surprisingly, the majority of the circularizing and trans-connecting splice junctions are unique to atypical forms, that is, are not used in normal isoforms.

  11. The role of the amygdala in the extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Mark; Gean, Po-Wu; Lutz, Beat

    2006-08-15

    The amygdala has long been known to play a central role in the acquisition and expression of fear. More recently, convergent evidence has implicated the amygdala in the extinction of fear as well. In rodents, some of this evidence comes from the infusion of drugs directly into the amygdala and, in particular, into the basolateral complex of the amygdala, during or after extinction learning. In vivo electrophysiology has identified cellular correlates of extinction learning and memory in the lateral nucleus of that structure. Human imaging experiments also indicate that amygdaloid activity correlates with extinction training. In addition, some studies have directly identified changes in molecular constituents of the basolateral amygdala. Together these experiments strongly indicate that the basolateral amygdala plays a crucial role in extinction learning. Interpreted in the light of these findings, several recent in vitro electrophysiology studies in amygdala-containing brain slices are suggestive of potential synaptic and circuit bases of extinction learning.

  12. Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, R; Holbrook, S J; Schmitt, R J; Planes, S; Malone, D; Bernardi, G

    2012-06-07

    While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size-fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length, approx. 20% greater biomass). Our analyses further reveal that the contribution of larger females to self-recruitment was significantly greater than expected on the basis of the relationship between body size and fecundity, indicating that there were important maternal effects of female size on traits of their offspring. These results show, for the first time in a natural population, that larger female fish contribute more to local replenishment (self-recruitment) and, more importantly, that size-specific fecundity alone could not explain the disparity.

  13. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  14. Biochemical and molecular studies of atypical nevi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwpoort, Arno Frans van

    2011-01-01

    The results obtained in this thesis suggest that the most explicit differences between normal and atypical melanocytes are subtle changes in pigment biosynthesis and the functioning of the antioxidant system. Impairment of the antioxidant system and increased levels of pheomelanin result in increase

  15. Non-diabetic atypical necrobiosis lipoidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available One 8 year female child had asymptomatic, anaesthetic, hypohidrotic, atrophic, yellowish, waxy plaque on the front of left thigh since 2 months. No nerve thickening was observed clinically or histopathologically. Hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, epidermal atrophy, degeneration of collagen, mononuclear granulomas and perivascular mononuclear infiltrate confirmed the clinical diagnosis of atypical necrobiosis lipoidica.

  16. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  17. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  18. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  19. Atypical fractures on long term bisphosphonates therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussein, W

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce fractures risk in patients with osteoporosis. A new pattern of fractures is now being noted in patients on prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. We report a case of an atypical femoral fracture with preceding pain and highlight the characteristics of these fractures.

  20. Atypical visuomotor performance in children with PDD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9–12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), a

  1. Psychiatric syndromes associated with atypical chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chest pain often indicates coronary disease, but in 25% of patients there is no evidence of ischemic heart disease using standard diagnostic tests. Beside that, cardiologic examinations are repeated several times for months. If other medical causes could not be found, there is a possibility that chest pain is a symptom of psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of psychiatric syndromes, increased somatization, anxiety, stress life events exposure and characteristic of chest pain expression in persons with atypical chest pain and coronary patients, as well as to define predictive parameters for atypical chest pain. Method. We compared 30 patients with atypical chest pain (E group to 30 coronary patients (K group, after cardiological and psychiatric evaluation. We have applied: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, The Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90 R, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Holms-Rahe Scale of stress life events (H-R, Questionnaire for pain expression Pain-O-Meter (POM. Significant differences between groups and predictive value of the parameters for atypical chest pain were determined. Results. The E group participants compared to the group K were younger (33.4 ± 5.4 : 48.3 ± 6,4 years, p < 0.001, had a moderate anxiety level (20.4 ± 11.9 : 9.6 ± 3.8, p < 0.001, panic and somatiform disorders were present in the half of the E group, as well as eleveted somatization score (SOM ≥ 63 -50% : 10%, p < 0.01 and a higher H-R score level (102.0 ± 52.2 : 46.5 ± 55.0, p < 0.001. Pain was mild, accompanied with panic. The half of the E group subjects had somatoform and panic disorders. Conclusion. Somatoform and panic disorders are associated with atypical chest pain. Pain expression is mild, accompained with panic. Predictive factors for atypical chest pain are: age under 40, anxiety level > 20, somatization ≥ 63, presence of panic and somatoform disorders, H-R score > 102

  2. Diversity in neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in atypical scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Nentwig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE in sheep and goats. In recent years, atypical scrapie cases were identified that differed from classical scrapie in the molecular characteristics of the disease-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(sc. In this study, we analyze the molecular and neuropathological phenotype of nine Swiss TSE cases in sheep and goats. One sheep was identified as classical scrapie, whereas six sheep, as well as two goats, were classified as atypical scrapie. The latter revealed a uniform electrophoretic mobility pattern of the proteinase K-resistant core fragment of PrP(sc distinct from classical scrapie regardless of the genotype, the species, and the neuroanatomical structure. Remarkably different types of neuroanatomical PrP(sc distribution were observed in atypical scrapie cases by both western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicate that the biodiversity in atypical scrapie is larger than expected and thus impacts on current sampling and testing strategies in small ruminant TSE surveillance.

  3. How larger quantum correlations are than classical ones

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2004-01-01

    The volume of the set of physically obtainable correlations in the EPR-Bell scenario assumed to be those obtainable within quantum mechanics, is (3 pi/8)^2 = 1.388 larger than the volume of the set of correlations obtainable by classical deterministic theories, but is only 3 pi^2/32 = 0.925 of the volume allowed by general probabilistic theories. We use these results to quantify the success of the approximate characterizations of the set of quantum correlations using linear (Tsirelson's) and quadratic (Uffink's) inequalities.

  4. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  5. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  6. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  7. Distinct patterns of outcome valuation and amygdala-prefrontal cortex synaptic remodeling in adolescence and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStolyarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R, dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R, and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward choices in adolescents, but not in adult animals. Increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in adolescents may index increased structural plasticity and represent a neural correlate of a reward sensitive endophenotype.

  8. Demonstrating the value of larger ensembles in forecasting physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reason L. Machete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble simulation propagates a collection of initial states forward in time in a Monte Carlo fashion. Depending on the fidelity of the model and the properties of the initial ensemble, the goal of ensemble simulation can range from merely quantifying variations in the sensitivity of the model all the way to providing actionable probability forecasts of the future. Whatever the goal is, success depends on the properties of the ensemble, and there is a longstanding discussion in meteorology as to the size of initial condition ensemble most appropriate for Numerical Weather Prediction. In terms of resource allocation: how is one to divide finite computing resources between model complexity, ensemble size, data assimilation and other components of the forecast system. One wishes to avoid undersampling information available from the model's dynamics, yet one also wishes to use the highest fidelity model available. Arguably, a higher fidelity model can better exploit a larger ensemble; nevertheless it is often suggested that a relatively small ensemble, say ~16 members, is sufficient and that larger ensembles are not an effective investment of resources. This claim is shown to be dubious when the goal is probabilistic forecasting, even in settings where the forecast model is informative but imperfect. Probability forecasts for a ‘simple’ physical system are evaluated at different lead times; ensembles of up to 256 members are considered. The pure density estimation context (where ensemble members are drawn from the same underlying distribution as the target differs from the forecasting context, where one is given a high fidelity (but imperfect model. In the forecasting context, the information provided by additional members depends also on the fidelity of the model, the ensemble formation scheme (data assimilation, the ensemble interpretation and the nature of the observational noise. The effect of increasing the ensemble size is quantified by

  9. Intact electrodermal skin conductance responses after bilateral amygdala damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the amygdala is a crucial component of the anatomical network that mediates the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR). In this study, the electrodermal activity of a patient whose entire amygdaloid complex had been destroyed bilaterally, and of 7 age- and gender-matched controls, was recorded under the same experimental conditions. The results indicate unequivocally that the subject could generate normal skin conductance and SCORs, in response to stimuli of different sensory modalities and configurations. This suggests that the amygdala is not a necessary component of the neural network underlying SCORs and that there are alternate neural units and pathways that link sensory cortices to autonomic effectors.

  10. The Possible Contribution of the Amygdala to Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babinsky

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of episodic memories is believed to depend on the proper functioning of so-called bottleneck structures through which information apparently must pass in order to be stored long term. These regions are seen in the basal forebrain, the medial diencephalon, and the medial temporal lobe. We here report a case with circumscribed bilateral temporal lobe damage, principally involving the amygdaloid area. Neuropsychological investigation demonstrated preserved intelligence, intact general memory and several other undisturbed cognitive functions, but a specific, affect-related, memory disorder. We conclude from these findings that the role of the amygdala is to process mnemonic events in a way that a specific emotional significance can be found and reactivated. Therefore it is suggested that the amygdala is likely to be a bottleneck structure for affect-related long-term memory functions.

  11. Amygdala lesions selectively impair familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farovik, Anja; Place, Ryan James; Miller, Danielle Renée; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2011-09-25

    A major controversy in the study of memory concerns whether there are distinct medial temporal lobe (MTL) substrates of recollection and familiarity. Studies using receiver operating characteristics analyses of recognition memory indicate that the hippocampus is essential for recollection, but not for familiarity. We found the converse pattern in the amygdala, wherein damage impaired familiarity while sparing recollection. Combined with previous findings, these results dissociate recollection and familiarity by selective MTL damage.

  12. Mothers’ Unresolved Trauma Blunts Amygdala Response to Infant Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; Fonagy, P; Allen, J.; Strathearn, L.

    2014-01-01

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neurobiological study documenting that mothers' attachment-related trauma, when unresolved, undermines her optimal brain response to her infant's distress. We examined the amygdala blood oxygenation le...

  13. NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala and gustatory neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Guzmán, Yazmín; Reilly, Steve

    2008-05-19

    The attenuation of gustatory neophobia occurs during repeated exposures to an initially novel taste solution that is increasingly perceived as safe and familiar. The present study examined whether NMDA receptors in the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) are involved in this important behavioral phenomenon. The results, which show that the attenuation, but not initial occurrence, of gustatory neophobia is dependent upon NMDA receptors in the BLA, are discussed with reference to a similar finding involving NMDA receptors in the insular cortex.

  14. Absence of gender effect on amygdala volume in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivaldo; Lin, Katia; Jackowski, Andrea P; Centeno, Ricardo da Silva; Pinto, Magali L; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza M; Amado, Débora

    2010-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism has already been described in temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). This study evaluated the effect of gender on amygdala volume in patients with TLE-MTS. One hundred twenty-four patients with refractory unilateral or bilateral TLE-MTS who were being considered for epilepsy surgery underwent a comprehensive presurgical evaluation and MRI. Amygdalas of 67 women (27 with right; 32 with left, and 8 with bilateral TLE) and 57 men (22 with right, 30 with left, and 5 with bilateral TLE) were manually segmented. Significant ipsilateral amygdala volume reduction was observed for patients with right and left TLE. No gender effect on amygdala volume was observed. Contralateral amygdalar asymmetry was observed for patients with right and left TLE. Although no gender effect was observed on amygdala volume, ipsilateral amygdala volume reductions in patients with TLE might be related to differential rates of cerebral maturation between hemispheres.

  15. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech

    2016-01-01

    is not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated independent and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala functional connectivity during an emotional faces paradigm in 76 healthy individuals. Functional connectivity between left amygdala...... and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and between both amygdalae and a cluster including posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and visual cortex was significantly increased in 5-HTTLPR S' allele carriers relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with functional connectivity...... between right amygdala and mPFC and visual cortex, and between both amygdalae and left lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Notably, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between neuroticism and functional connectivity between both amygdalae and left l...

  16. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  17. The amygdala: an agent of change in adolescent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Smyth, Joshua M; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". A unique component of adolescent development is the need to master new developmental tasks in which peer interactions become primary (for the purposes of becoming autonomous from parents, forming intimate friendships, and romantic/sexual partnerships). Previously, it has been suggested that the ability to master these tasks requires an important re-organization in the relation between perceptual, motivational, affective, and cognitive systems in a very general and broad way that is fundamentally influenced by the infusion of sex hormones during pubertal development (Scherf et al., 2012). Herein, we extend this argument to suggest that the amygdala, which is vastly connected with cortical and subcortical regions and contains sex hormone receptors, may lie at the heart of this re-organization. We propose that during adolescent development there is a shift in the attribution of relevance to existing stimuli and contexts that is mediated by the amygdala (e.g., heightened relevance of peer faces, reduced relevance of physical distance from parents). As a result, amygdala inputs to existing stable neural networks are re-weighted (increased or decreased), which destabilizes the functional interactions among regions within these networks and allows for a critical restructuring of the network functional organization. This process of network re-organization enables processing of qualitatively new kinds of social information and the emergence of novel behaviors that support mastery of adolescent-specific developmental tasks.

  18. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  19. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Balderston

    Full Text Available The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  20. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Schultz, Douglas H; Baillet, Sylvain; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  1. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  2. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  3. Prefrontal-amygdala fear networks come into focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithe eArruda-Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to form associations between aversive threats and their predictors is fundamental to survival. However, fear and anxiety in excess are detrimental and are a hallmark of psychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD symptomatology includes persistent and intrusive thoughts of an experienced trauma, suggesting an inability to downregulate fear when a corresponding threat has subsided. Convergent evidence from human and rodent studies supports a role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC-amygdala network in both PTSD and the regulation of fear memory expression. In particular, current models stipulate that the prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions of the rodent mPFC bidirectionally regulate fear expression via differential recruitment of amygdala neuronal subpopulations. However, an array of recent studies that employ new technical approaches has fundamentally challenged this interpretation. Here we explore how a new emphasis on the contribution of inhibitory neuronal populations, subcortical structures and the passage of time is reshaping our understanding of mPFC-amygdala circuits and their control over fear.

  4. An atypical presentation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Deepti; Dandakeri, Sukumar; Bhat, M Ramesh; Srinath, M K

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous manifestations in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) though common, are extremely diverse and it is important to know which dermatological finding should prompt consideration of antiphospholipid syndrome. The cutaneous manifestations of APS vary from livedo reticularis to cutaneous necrosis, and systemic involvement is invariably an accomplice in APS. Cutaneous ulcers with sharp margins can be seen in APS and they are usually seen on the legs. This case had an atypical presentation, as the initial presentation was painful necrotic ulcers over the legs, which resembled pyoderma gangrenosum and she had no systemic manifestations. There was no history of any arterial or venous thrombosis or any abortions. Antiphospholipid syndrome can be tricky to diagnose when cutaneous lesions are atypical. Nonetheless, it is very important to pin down this syndrome early due to its systemic complications.

  5. An atypical presentation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS though common, are extremely diverse and it is important to know which dermatological finding should prompt consideration of antiphospholipid syndrome. The cutaneous manifestations of APS vary from livedo reticularis to cutaneous necrosis, and systemic involvement is invariably an accomplice in APS. Cutaneous ulcers with sharp margins can be seen in APS and they are usually seen on the legs. This case had an atypical presentation, as the initial presentation was painful necrotic ulcers over the legs, which resembled pyoderma gangrenosum and she had no systemic manifestations. There was no history of any arterial or venous thrombosis or any abortions. Antiphospholipid syndrome can be tricky to diagnose when cutaneous lesions are atypical. Nonetheless, it is very important to pin down this syndrome early due to its systemic complications.

  6. Primary atypical sacral meningioma- not always benign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadra, A.K.; Casey, A.T.H.; Saifuddin, A.; Briggs, T.W. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    We present a case of an atypical recurrent meningioma of the sacrum with pulmonary metastasis in a 31-year-old man. He presented with deep-seated buttock pain and urinary hesitancy for 3 months. MRI revealed a lesion occupying the central and left side of the sacral canal at the S1-S2 level. Surgical excision of the lesion via a posterior approach was undertaken, and the patient became symptom-free post-operatively. Histology confirmed atypical meningioma. Eight months later he re-presented with similar symptoms, and MRI confirmed local recurrence. The patient underwent left hemisacrectomy. Six months later he again presented with low back pain and MRI confirmed a second local recurrence. A CT scan of the chest showed multiple lung metastases. The patient died of a severe chest infection 18 months later. (orig.)

  7. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brashers-Krug

    Full Text Available Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent.We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs.Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala.Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The conceptualization of post

  8. Atypical reactive histiocytosis. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Barleta del Castillo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a 50 year old chronic alcoholic and heavy smoker female that was assisted at the provincial university hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city due to a severe adenic syndrome and who was diagnosed as a case of atypical reactive histiocytosis , problem which disappeared with the abstinence of toxic habits, improving her health.

  9. Bisphosphonate-induced atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The use of bisphosphonates (BPs) is universally accepted in the management of osteoporosis. However, a small percentage of patients have been recognised to develop atypical subtrochanteric fractures of the femur with the prolonged use of BPs. We report a rare case of bilateral insufficiency lesions in the proximal femora, where a major subtrochanteric fracture developed with a minor fall. This was successfully treated with internal fixation using proximal femoral nail.

  10. An atypical case of segmental spinal dysgenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zana, Elodie; Chalard, Francois; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Mazda, Keyvan [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Paris (France)

    2005-09-01

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a complex closed dysraphism. The diagnostic criteria are: lumbar or thoracolumbar vertebral dysgenesis causing kyphosis, focal spinal cord narrowing without exiting roots, deformity of the lower limbs and paraplegia or paraparesis. We present a newborn who showed atypical features of bifocal spinal cord narrowing, without any vertebral abnormality at the proximal level. This seems to be a variant of this rare entity, whose early diagnosis is important, as surgical stabilisation of the spine is required. (orig.)

  11. Atypical presentations of methemoglobinemia from benzocaine spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisattamo, Ekamol; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Vierra, Joseph R; Evans, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    Widely used for local anesthesia, especially prior to endoscopic procedures, benzocaine spray is one of the most common causes of iatrogenic methemoglobinemia. The authors report an atypical case of methemoglobinemia in a woman presenting with pale skin and severe hypoxemia, after a delayed repeat exposure to benzocaine spray. Early recognition and prompt management of methemoglobinemia is needed in order to lessen morbidity and mortality from this entity.

  12. An atypical mycobacterial infection of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense is an acid-fast non-tuberculous organism that most commonly causes pulmonary infection. Extrapulmonary infection has also been reported. With an increased emphasis being placed on the clinical importance of this organism, especially within Europe, we report the first case of septic arthritis of the shoulder caused by this organism. We also highlight the importance of considering atypical mycobacterium infection in the differential diagnosis of shoulder infection and issues surrounding the management of this entity.

  13. Atypical manifestations of multiple myeloma: Radiological appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Thomas [Department of Radiology, St-Vincenz Hospital, Auf dem Schafsberg, D-65549 Limburg (Germany)]. E-mail: t.hess@st-vincenz.de; Egerer, Gerlinde [Department of Internal Medicine V, Haematology/Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kasper, Bernd [Department of Internal Medicine V, Haematology/Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rasul, Kakil Ibrahim [Hamad Medical Center, Moha (Qatar); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Internal Medicine V, Haematology/Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W. [Department of Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Diagnostic procedures performed on patients with multiple myeloma typically reveal lytic bone lesions, osteopenia or osteoporosis, bone marrow infiltration by plasma cells as well as overproduction of immunoglobulin or light chains in the serum or urine. Skeletal manifestations are extremely variable and the unusual forms have been described extensively. Extramedullary plasma-cell tumours (plasmocytoma) are found in about 5% of newly diagnosed patients with multiple myelomas. In this paper we present eight patients with atypical forms of multiple myeloma.

  14. Atypical retroperitoneal extension of iliopsoas bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, B.; Cloots, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Cliniques St. Luc, Rue St Luc 8, 5004, Bouge, Namur (Belgium)

    2003-05-01

    We report two rare cases of iliopsoas bursitis extending into the retroperitoneal space. The first lesion contained much gas, mimicking a retroperitoneal abscess, and the second was responsible for atypical inguinal pain. The diagnosis was made by contrast-enhanced CT in both cases and arthrography in the first case. Iliopsoas bursitis in these two patients, it is hypothesized, extended into the retroperitoneum, at least in part, by way of intraneural or perineural structures. (orig.)

  15. Prophylactic Nailing of Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wug Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent reports have described the occurrence of low-energy subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. Although information regarding the surgical treatment of these atypical femoral fractures is increasing, it is unclear if the preventive operation is useful in incomplete fractures. This study examined the results of preventive intramedullary nailing for incomplete atypical femoral fractures. Material and Methods. A retrospective search was conducted for patients older than 50 years receiving bisphosphonate therapy, with incomplete, nondisplaced fractures in either the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal area of the femur. Seventeen patients with a total of 20 incomplete, non-displaced lesions were included. The mean duration of bisphosphonate use was 50.5 months. Eleven of the 17 (64.7% patients had complete or incomplete fractures on the contralateral femur. All were treated with prophylactic fixation of an intramedullary (IM nail. The minimum followup was 12 months. Results. All cases healed with a mean period of 14.3 weeks. Nineteen of the 20 cases healed with the dissolution of incomplete fractures of the lateral aspect. A complete fracture developed at the time of nailing in one patient, but it healed with callus bridging. Conclusion. IM nailing appears to be a reliable way of preventing the progress of incomplete atypical femoral fractures.

  16. Atypical depressive symptoms as a predictor of treatment response to exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, Chad D; Tu, Jian; Carmody, Thomas J; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will require the development of alternative treatments and the ability for clinicians to match patients with the treatment likely to produce the greatest effect. We examined atypical depression subtype as a predictor of treatment response to aerobic exercise augmentation in persons with non-remitted MDD. Our results revealed a small-to-moderate effect, particularly in a group assigned to high-dose exercise (semi-partial eta-squared =0.0335, p=0.0735), indicating that those with atypical depression tended to have larger treatment response to exercise. Through this hypothesis-generating analysis, we indicate the need for research to examine depression subtype, along with other demographic, clinical and biological factors as predictors of treatment response to exercise.

  17. The Neurosteroids Allopregnanolone and DHEA Modulate Resting-State Amygdala Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; Welsh, Robert C.; Marx, Christine E.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are integral components of the stress response and exert positive modulatory effects on emotion in both human and animal studies. Though these antidepressant and anxiolytic effects have been well established, little research to date has examined their neural correlates, and no research has been conducted into the effects of neurosteroids on large-scale networks at rest. To investigate the neurosteroid impact on intrinsic connectivity networks, participants were administered 400 mg of pregnenolone (N = 16), 400 mg of DHEA (N = 14), or placebo (N = 15) and underwent 3T fMRI. Resting-state brain connectivity was measured using amygdala as a seed region. Compared to placebo, pregnenolone administration reduced connectivity between amygdala and dmPFC, between amygdala and precuneus, and between amygdala and hippocampus. DHEA reduced connectivity between amygdala and peri-amygdala and between amygdala and insula. Reductions in amygdala to precuneus connectivity were associated with less self-reported negative affect. These results demonstrate that neurosteroids modulate amygdala functional connectivity during resting-state, and may be a target for pharmacological intervention. Additionally, allopregnanolone and DHEA may shift the balance between salience network and default network, a finding that could provide insight into the neurocircuitry of anxiety psychopathology. PMID:24302681

  18. Amygdala responses to salient social cues vary with oxytocin receptor genotype in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A.; Furman, Daniella J.; Kuruvadi, Nisha; Shattuck, David W.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Joshi, Anand A.; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E.

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder are linked to altered limbic morphology, dysregulated neuroendocrine function, and heightened amygdala responses to salient social cues. Oxytocin appears to be a potent modulator of amygdala reactivity and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stress. Given these stress regulatory effects, there is increasing interest in understanding the role of oxytocin in vulnerability to stress-related clinical disorders. The present study examines the impact of a common functional variant within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene (rs2254298) on structure and function of the amygdala in a high-risk sample of urban, low-income, minority youth with a high incidence of early life stress (ELS). Compared to G/G homozygotes, youth carrying the OXTR A-allele showed increased amygdala volume, reduced behavioral performance, and heightened amygdala response during two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks that involved viewing socially-relevant face stimuli. Higher amygdala response was related to ELS in A-alleles carriers but not G/G homozygotes. These findings underscore a series of relationships among a common oxytocin system gene variant, ELS exposure, and structure and function of the amygdala in early life. Heightened amygdala response to salient social cues in OXTR A-allele carriers may elevate risk for emotional psychopathology by increasing amygdala involvement in disambiguating environmental cues, particularly for individuals with ELS. PMID:26477647

  19. Effects of gaze direction, head orientation and valence of facial expression on amygdala activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Andreas; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence for a role of the amygdala in processing gaze direction and emotional relevance of faces. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance study we investigated amygdala responses while we orthogonally manipulated head direction, gaze direction and facial expression (angry, happy and neutral). This allowed us to investigate effects of stimulus ambiguity, low-level factors and non-emotional factors on amygdala activation. Averted vs direct gaze induced increased activation in the right dorsal amygdala regardless of facial expression and head orientation. Furthermore, valence effects were found in the ventral amygdala and strongly dependent on head orientation. We observed enhanced activation to angry and neutral vs happy faces for observer-directed faces in the left ventral amygdala while the averted head condition reversed this pattern resulting in increased activation to happy as compared to angry and neutral faces. These results suggest that gaze direction drives specifically dorsal amygdala activation regardless of facial expression, low-level perceptual factors or stimulus ambiguity. The role of the amygdala is thus not restricted to the detection of potential threat, but has a more general role in attention processes. Furthermore, valence effects are associated with activation of the ventral amygdala and strongly influenced by non-emotional factors.

  20. STUDY ON RECIPROCATING SEALS FOR A LARGER DIAMETER AXIAL PISTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian; Yang Huayong; Xu Bing

    2004-01-01

    Sealing performance of the reciprocating seals on a larger diameter (100 mm in diameter ) axial piston is theoretically investigated.Based on the characteristics of the clearance flow between the seal and the piston, reasonable boundary conditions for Navier-Stokes equations are determined and the equations are modified, so that the final equations can describe the real flow state of the clearance flow.Through combining the final equations with finite element method, the pressure distributions within the clearance field during the reciprocating motion of the piston and the leakage rate with the pressure are studied.The deflections of the seal which affect sealing performance are calculated as well.Sealing performance of piston seals using oil as the working liquid is compared with using water.It is concluded that the seal using water as the working liquid is under dry friction, which cannot be dealt with the theory of fluid mechanics.The seal structure is only acceptable using oil as the working liquid..

  1. Why do colder mothers produce larger eggs? An optimality approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownds, Celeste; Wilson, Robbie; Marshall, Dustin J

    2010-11-15

    One of the more common patterns of offspring size variation is that mothers tend to produce larger offspring at lower temperatures. Whether such variation is adaptive remains unclear. Determining whether optimal offspring size differs between thermal environments provides a direct way of assessing the adaptive significance of temperature-driven variation in egg size. Here, we examined the relationship between offspring size and performance at three temperatures for several important fitness components in the zebra fish, Danio rerio. The effects of egg size on performance were highly variable among life-history stages (i.e. pre- and post-hatching) and dependent on the thermal environment; offspring size positively affected performance at some temperatures but negatively affected performance at others. When we used these data to generate a simple optimality model, the model predicted that mothers should produce the largest size offspring at the lowest temperature, offspring of intermediate size at the highest temperature and the smallest offspring at the intermediate temperature. An experimental test of these predictions showed that the rank order of observed offspring sizes produced by mothers matched our predictions. Our results suggest that mothers adaptively manipulate the size of their offspring in response to thermally driven changes in offspring performance and highlight the utility of optimality approaches for understanding offspring size variation.

  2. Human resource management and career planning in a larger library

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    Jelka Gazvoda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management is presented as a managerial function which is used to develop potential abilities of the employees to achieve organizational goals.Different perception of the employees is essential - people working in the organization are treated as capital and not as an expenditure. In human resource management the most important view of the employees is their potential growth and professional development, training for acquiring new responsibilities and encouragement for innovation. Library management is becoming more and more complex as the result of introducing new technologies. For this reason libraries need well trained people with potentials to modernize library performance and to overcome the conflict between the traditional organizational culture and the requirements of the modem technologically developed environment. The author presents different techniques of active human resource management, which can be used in larger libraries where an appropriate number of employees exists to realize different programmes with. These are programmes for education, staffing,career planning, stimmulation and reward systems, job redefinition and enrichment,and other forms of internal segmentation.

  3. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  4. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

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    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author).

  5. Recombining overlapping BACs into a single larger BAC

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    Huxley Clare

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC clones containing entire mammalian genes including all the transcribed region and long range controlling elements are very useful for functional analysis. Sequenced BACs are available for most of the human and mouse genomes and in many cases these contain intact genes. However, large genes often span more than one BAC, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here we describe a system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone by homologous recombination. Results The method was used to link a 61-kb insert carrying the final 5 exons of the human CFTR gene onto a 160-kb BAC carrying the first 22 exons. Two rounds of homologous recombination were carried out in the EL350 strain of bacteria which can be induced for the Red genes. In the first round, the inserts of the two overlapping BACs were subcloned into modified BAC vectors using homologous recombination. In the second round, the BAC to be added was linearised with the very rare-cutting enzyme I-PpoI and electroporated into recombination efficient EL350 bacteria carrying the other BAC. Recombined BACs were identified by antibiotic selection and PCR screening and 10% of clones contained the correctly recombined 220-kb BAC. Conclusion The system can be used to link the inserts from any overlapping BAC or PAC clones. The original orientation of the inserts is not important and desired regions of the inserts can be selected. The size limit for the fragments recombined may be larger than the 61 kb used here and multiple BACs in a contig could be combined by alternating use of the two pBACLink vectors. This system should be of use to many investigators wishing to carry out functional analysis on large mammalian genes which are not available in single BAC clones.

  6. Annual research review: Towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition.

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    Happé, Francesca; Frith, Uta

    2014-06-01

    As a starting point for our review we use a developmental timeline, starting from birth and divided into major developmental epochs defined by key milestones of social cognition in typical development. For each epoch, we highlight those developmental disorders that diverge from the normal developmental pattern, what is known about these key milestones in the major disorders affecting social cognition, and any available research on the neural basis of these differences. We relate behavioural observations to four major networks of the social brain, that is, Amygdala, Mentalizing, Emotion and Mirror networks. We focus on those developmental disorders that are characterized primarily by social atypicality, such as autism spectrum disorder, social anxiety and a variety of genetically defined syndromes. The processes and aspects of social cognition we highlight are sketched in a putative network diagram, and include: agent identification, emotion processing and empathy, mental state attribution, self-processing and social hierarchy mapping involving social ‘policing’ and in-group/out-group categorization. Developmental disorders reveal some dissociable deficits in different components of this map of social cognition. This broad review across disorders, ages and aspects of social cognition leads us to some key questions: How can we best distinguish primary from secondary social disorders? Is social cognition especially vulnerable to developmental disorder, or surprisingly robust? Are cascading notions of social development, in which early functions are essential stepping stones or building bricks for later abilities, necessarily correct?

  7. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

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    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  8. Progressively Disrupted Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala in Very Early Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Marion Ortner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n=33 and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n=38 and mild dementia (AD-D, n=36. Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM values and region of interest-based intrinsic functional connectivity maps (iFC of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D. Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D, particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions including that of amygdala.

  9. Atypical meningioma and extensive calvarium defects in neurofibromatosis type 1

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    Simsek, Enver [Department of Paediatrics, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Yavuz, Cevdet [Department of Neurosurgery, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Ustundag, Nil [Department of Pathology, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey)

    2003-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with a massive atypical meningioma and calvarial defect. Skull radiographs and cranial CT showed an extensive lytic bone lesion at the vertex. MRI demonstrated a large mass invading the calvarium and sagittal sinus. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the resected mass was atypical meningioma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with atypical meningioma and massive calvarial defect in a child. (orig.)

  10. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueting; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Guo, Jiahui; Ma, Feilong; Xu, Miao; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  11. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting Li

    Full Text Available Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264. Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  12. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

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    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  13. Increased amygdala response to shame in remitted major depressive disorder.

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    Erdem Pulcu

    Full Text Available Proneness to self-blaming moral emotions such as shame and guilt is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD, and may play an important role in vulnerability even after symptoms have subsided. Social psychologists have argued that shame-proneness is relevant for depression vulnerability and is distinct from guilt. Shame depends on the imagined critical perception of others, whereas guilt results from one's own judgement. The neuroanatomy of shame in MDD is unknown. Using fMRI, we compared 21 participants with MDD remitted from symptoms with no current co-morbid axis-I disorders, and 18 control participants with no personal or family history of MDD. The MDD group exhibited higher activation of the right amygdala and posterior insula for shame relative to guilt (SPM8. This neural difference was observed despite equal levels of rated negative emotional valence and frequencies of induced shame and guilt experience across groups. These same results were found in the medication-free MDD subgroup (N = 15. Increased amygdala and posterior insula activations, known to be related to sensory perception of emotional stimuli, distinguish shame from guilt responses in remitted MDD. People with MDD thus exhibit changes in the neural response to shame after symptoms have subsided. This supports the hypothesis that shame and guilt play at least partly distinct roles in vulnerability to MDD. Shame-induction may be a more sensitive probe of residual amygdala hypersensitivity in MDD compared with facial emotion-evoked responses previously found to normalize on remission.

  14. Repeatedly stressed rats have enhanced vulnerability to amygdala kindling epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nigel C; Lee, Han Ee; Yang, Meng; Rees, Sandra M; Morris, Margaret J; O'Brien, Terence J; Salzberg, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders associated with elevated stress levels, such as depression, are present in many epilepsy patients, including those with mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE). Evidence suggests that these psychiatric disorders can predate the onset of epilepsy, suggesting a causal/contributory role. Prolonged exposure to elevated corticosterone, used as a model of chronic stress/depression, accelerates limbic epileptogenesis in the amygdala kindling model. The current study examined whether exposure to repeated stress could similarly accelerate experimental epileptogenesis. Female adult non-epileptic Wistar rats were implanted with a bipolar electrode into the left amygdala, and were randomly assigned into stressed (n=18) or non-stressed (n=19) groups. Rats underwent conventional amygdala kindling (two electrical stimulations per day) until 5 Class V seizures had been experienced ('the fully kindled state'). Stressed rats were exposed to 30min restraint immediately prior to each kindling stimulation, whereas non-stressed rats received control handling. Restraint stress increased circulating corticosterone levels (pre-stress: 122±17ng/ml; post-stress: 632±33ng/ml), with no habituation observed over the experiment. Stressed rats reached the 'fully kindled state' in significantly fewer stimulations than non-stressed rats (21±1 vs 33±3 stimulations; p=0.022; ANOVA), indicative of a vulnerability to epileptogenesis. Further, seizure durations were significantly longer in stressed rats (p<0.001; ANOVA). These data demonstrate that exposure to repeated experimental stress accelerates the development of limbic epileptogenesis, an effect which may be related to elevated corticosterone levels. This may have implications for understanding the effects of chronic stress and depression in disease onset and progression of mTLE in humans.

  15. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2007-09-01

    We investigated whether puberty influences the morphology of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were sacrificed at 42-49 days of age, at which point all LD hamsters were reproductively mature, as evidenced by adult-like testes weights (mean: 657 mg). In contrast, the testes weights of the SD hamsters were low (mean: 31 mg), indicating that the SD photoperiod had delayed puberty. The regional volume and mean soma size of the four MeA subnuclei was estimated bilaterally by stereological procedures. In the posterior dorsal and ventral MeA subnuclei, regional volume was 22-25% larger, and mean soma size 18% larger, in LD males than SD males. Unbiased cell counts in the posterior dorsal MeA showed that LD and SD hamsters have equivalent neuron numbers. In the anterior MeA subnuclei, regional volumes and soma sizes from LD and SD hamsters were equivalent. Additionally, the regional volume of the posteroventral subnucleus was larger in the right hemisphere than the left, but this laterality did not respond to photoperiod manipulation. These results suggest that the extant neurons within the posterior MeA, a steroid-sensitive nucleus implicated in socio-sexual behavior, grow in response to the elevated levels of circulating androgen accompanying puberty, and that photoperiodic regulation of puberty affects morphological maturation of this nucleus.

  16. Atypical And Severe Enlargement Of Right Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Carmine; Rossetti, Pietro; Rocci, Anna; Rubino, Pasquale; Basaglia, Manuela; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Quintavalla, Roberto

    2016-09-13

    A 76 year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for recent-onset dyspnea and cough. The electrocardiogram was considered inconclusive. A thoracic X-ray showed global cardiac profile enlargement. Computed tomography, acutely performed in the clinical suspicion of atypical pneumonia/myocarditis or pericardial effusion, showed cardiac enlargement especially of the right chambers. In order to investigate Ebstein's anomaly, pericardial cysts, tumors or other conditions of the right heart a simple trans-thoracic echocardiogram was performed. Four chambers view showed a giant right atrium aneurysm with moderate tricuspid regurgitation without stenosis or typical Ebstein's echocardiographic pattern.

  17. Wilson’s disease: Atypical imaging features

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    Venugopalan Y Vishnu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a genetic movement disorder with characteristic clinical and imaging features. We report a 17- year-old boy who presented with sialorrhea, hypophonic speech, paraparesis with repeated falls and recurrent seizures along with cognitive decline. He had bilateral Kayser Flescher rings. Other than the typical features of Wilson’s disease in cranial MRI, there were extensive white matter signal abnormalities (T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities and gyriform contrast enhancement which are rare imaging features in Wilson's disease. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose Wilson’s disease when atypical imaging features are present.

  18. Atypical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Freidson, S

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the course of psychiatric illness in two boys. Both presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in midchildhood; after puberty, one boy developed a schizophrenic illness while the other boy developed a major affective illness. Although the major ADHD outcome studies have found no link between the childhood occurrence of ADHD and psychosis in adulthood, occasionally such a link may exist. The theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. It should be noted, however, that such outcome is highly atypical and very rare.

  19. Atypical Log D profile of rifampicin

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    Mariappan T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution coefficient (log D values of rifampicin, an essential first-line antitubercular drug, at gastrointestinal pH conditions are not reported in literature. Hence determinations were made using n-octanol and buffers ranging between pH 1-7. Also, log D values were predicted using Prolog D. Both the determinations showed opposite behaviour. The atypical experimental log D profile of rifampicin could be attributed to its surface-active properties, which also explained the reported permeability behaviour of the drug in various gastrointestinal tract segments.

  20. Atypical giant chondroblastoma mimicking a chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Sunita; Menon, Santosh; Gulia, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor derived from chondroblasts, commonly presenting in the second decade of life. It is usually found in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones; however, it may rarely affect flat bones like scapula. Occasionally a histologically typical chondroblastoma may exhibit an aggressive behavior that is not normally associated with benign tumors such as a large size, pulmonary metastases, joint and soft-tissue infiltration and local recurrence. We present a case report of a patient with chondroblastoma showing atypical radiological presentation and non-concordance with age.

  1. Bisphosphonates and Atypical Fractures of Femur

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    Tero Yli-Kyyny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed medicines for the treatment of osteoporosis and have generally been regarded as well-tolerated and safe drugs. Since 2005, there have been numerous case reports about atypical fractures of the femur linked to long-term treatment of osteoporosis with bisphosphonates. Some attempts to characterize pathophysiology and epidemiology of these fractures have been published as well. However, as the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR concluded in their task force report, the subject warrants further studies.

  2. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

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    Kraemer, E.J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [Dept. of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  3. Gorlin’s syndrome: Atypical case report

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    Sanjay N. Agrawal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. The condition appears to have complete penetrance and variable expressivity, which makes clinilcal presentation among families variable. All known BCNS carry mutations in PATCHED gene. A 65 years old male patient presented with complaints of characteristic skin lesions on his face, back, palms since early adulthood. The lesions were pigmented nodules with characteristic border. The histopathology showed characteristic features suggestive of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC. This case was atypical due to appearance of lesions quite later in life.

  4. Atypical presentation of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

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    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The phenomenology of OCD in children and adolescent is strikingly similar to that of adults. But at times, the presentation of OCD may be so atypical or unusual in children and adolescents that may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We report a case of 10-year-old child who was initially misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, and treated with antipsychotic for 2 months. But once the core symptoms were recognized as obsessions and compulsions and appropriately treated in the line of OCD, the symptoms resolved significantly.

  5. The amygdala and basal forebrain as a pathway for motivationally guided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher J; Salzman, C Daniel

    2014-10-08

    Visual stimuli associated with rewards attract spatial attention. Neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate this process must register both the motivational significance and location of visual stimuli. Recent neurophysiological evidence indicates that the amygdala encodes information about both of these parameters. Furthermore, the firing rate of amygdala neurons predicts the allocation of spatial attention. One neural pathway through which the amygdala might influence attention involves the intimate and bidirectional connections between the amygdala and basal forebrain (BF), a brain area long implicated in attention. Neurons in the rhesus monkey amygdala and BF were therefore recorded simultaneously while subjects performed a detection task in which the stimulus-reward associations of visual stimuli modulated spatial attention. Neurons in BF were spatially selective for reward-predictive stimuli, much like the amygdala. The onset of reward-predictive signals in each brain area suggested different routes of processing for reward-predictive stimuli appearing in the ipsilateral and contralateral fields. Moreover, neurons in the amygdala, but not BF, tracked trial-to-trial fluctuations in spatial attention. These results suggest that the amygdala and BF could play distinct yet inter-related roles in influencing attention elicited by reward-predictive stimuli.

  6. Subchronic duloxetine administration alters the extended amygdala circuitry in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, H.J.F. van; Tendolkar, I.; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Wingen, G.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have consistently linked depression to hyperactivation of a (para)limbic affective processing network centered around the amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate how antidepressant drugs affect amygdala reactivity in healthy individuals, but the influence of their s

  7. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the amygdala and other brain regions critically regulates sensitivity to threat, which has been associated with risk for mood and affective disorders. The extent to which these neural pathways are genetically determined or correlate with risk-related personality measures is not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated independent and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala functional connectivity during an emotional faces paradigm in 76 healthy individuals. Functional connectivity between left amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and between both amygdalae and a cluster including posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and visual cortex was significantly increased in 5-HTTLPR S' allele carriers relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between right amygdala and mPFC and visual cortex, and between both amygdalae and left lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Notably, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between neuroticism and functional connectivity between both amygdalae and left lOFC/vlPFC, such that S' carriers exhibited a more negative association relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for both independent and interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala communication, which may mediate effects on risk for mood and affective disorders.

  8. Learning Enhances Intrinsic Excitability in a Subset of Lateral Amygdala Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Megha; Ehlers, Vanessa L.; Moyer, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Learning-induced modulation of neuronal intrinsic excitability is a metaplasticity mechanism that can impact the acquisition of new memories. Although the amygdala is important for emotional learning and other behaviors, including fear and anxiety, whether learning alters intrinsic excitability within the amygdala has received very little…

  9. Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus

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    Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

  10. Mechanisms Contributing to the Induction and Storage of Pavlovian Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongbeom; Pare, Denis; Nair, Satish S.

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of plasticity in the amygdala vs. its afferent pathways to conditioned fear remain controversial. Some believe that thalamic and cortical neurons transmitting information about the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the lateral amygdala (LA) serve a relay function. Others maintain that thalamic and/or cortical plasticity is…

  11. The Amygdala Is Not Necessary for Unconditioned Stimulus Inflation after Pavlovian Fear Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Orsini, Caitlin A.; Zimmerman, Joshua M.; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The basolateral complex (BLA) and central nucleus (CEA) of the amygdala play critical roles in associative learning, including Pavlovian conditioning. However, the precise role for these structures in Pavlovian conditioning is not clear. Recent work in appetitive conditioning paradigms suggests that the amygdala, particularly the BLA, has an…

  12. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

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    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  13. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone modulate resting-state amygdala connectivity.

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    Sripada, Rebecca K; Welsh, Robert C; Marx, Christine E; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-07-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are integral components of the stress response and exert positive modulatory effects on emotion in both human and animal studies. Although these antidepressant and anxiolytic effects have been well established, to date, little research has examined their neural correlates, and no research has been conducted into the effects of neurosteroids on large-scale networks at rest. To investigate the neurosteroid impact on intrinsic connectivity networks, participants were administered 400 mg of pregnenolone (N = 16), 400 mg of DHEA (N = 14), or placebo (N = 15) and underwent 3T fMRI. Resting-state brain connectivity was measured using amygdala as a seed region. When compared with placebo, pregnenolone administration reduced connectivity between amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, between amygdala and precuneus, and between amygdala and hippocampus. DHEA reduced connectivity between amygdala and periamygdala and between amygdala and insula. Reductions in amygdala to precuneus connectivity were associated with less self-reported negative affect. These results demonstrate that neurosteroids modulate amygdala functional connectivity during resting state and may be a target for pharmacological intervention. Additionally, allopregnanolone and DHEA may shift the balance between salience network and default network, a finding that could provide insight into the neurocircuitry of anxiety psychopathology.

  14. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  15. Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

  16. Reduced amygdala volume in newly admitted psychiatric in-patients with unipolar major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Regen, Francesca; Deuschle, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Structural neuroimaging studies investigating amygdala volumes in patients suffering from major depression have yielded variable results. Discrepant findings across studies may be attributable in part to heterogeneity with respect to antidepressant medication and to lack of adequate control for the effects of total brain volume and age. Here, 24 unipolar depressed in-patients newly admitted to a psychiatric unit and 14 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and years of education underwent quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) toward the end of a one-week washout period. Saliva cortisol was measured at 08.00 and at 16.00h in patients during washout. Absolute amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in the patient group (by 13% in left amygdala and 12% in right amygdala). The effect of reduced amygdala volumes in patients remained significant after correction for brain volume (BV) and age. Furthermore, amygdala volume measurements in the patient sample showed a significant inverse relationship to the number of preceding depressive episodes. In patients, severity of disease (baseline HAMD scores) and baseline cortisol levels were not related to amygdala volume. This study of a sample of unmedicated depressed in-patients adds to the small, yet growing, body of evidence linking untreated major depression to reduced amygdala volume.

  17. Functional and structural amygdala - anterior cingulate connectivity correlates with attentional bias to masked fearful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2013-10-01

    An attentional bias to threat has been causally related to anxiety. Recent research has linked nonconscious attentional bias to threat with variability in the integrity of the amygdala - anterior cingulate pathway, which sheds light on the neuroanatomical basis for a behavioral precursor to anxiety. However, the extent to which structural variability in amygdala - anterior cingulate integrity relates to the functional connectivity within this pathway and how such functional connectivity may relate to attention bias behavior, remain critical missing pieces of the puzzle. In 15 individuals we measured the structural integrity of the amygdala - prefrontal pathway with diffusion tensor-weighted MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), amygdala-seeded intrinsic functional connectivity to the anterior cingulate, and attentional bias toward backward masked fearful faces with a dot-probe task. We found that greater biases in attention to threat predicted greater levels of uncinate fasciculus integrity, greater positive amygdala - anterior cingulate functional connectivity, and greater amygdala coupling with a broader social perception network including the superior temporal sulcus, tempoparietal junction (TPJ), and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, greater levels of uncinate fasciculus integrity correlated with greater levels of amygdala - anterior cingulate intrinsic functional connectivity. Thus, high bias individuals displayed a heightened degree of amygdala - anterior cingulate connectivity during basal conditions, which we believe predisposes these individuals to focus their attention on signals of threat within their environment.

  18. Modulation of instrumental responding by a conditioned threat stimulus requires lateral and central amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eCampese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the role of the amygdala in response modulation by an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS in rats. Experiment 1 investigated the role of amygdala circuitry in conditioned suppression using a paradigm in which licking for sucrose was inhibited by a tone CS that had been previously paired with footshock. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral amygdala impaired suppression relative to sham-operated animals, and produced the same pattern of results when applied to central amygdala. In addition, disconnection of the lateral and central amygdala, by unilateral lesion of each on opposite sides of the brain, also impaired suppression relative to control subjects that received lesions of both areas on the same side. In each case, lesions were placed following Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training, but before testing. This procedure produced within-subjects measures of the effects of lesion on freezing and between-group comparisons for the effects on suppression. Experiment 2 extended this analysis to a task where an aversive CS suppressed shuttling responses that had been previously food reinforced and also found effects of bilateral lesions of the central amygdala in a pre-post design. Together, these studies demonstrate that connections between the lateral and central amygdala constitute a serial circuit involved in processing aversive Pavlovian stimuli, and add to a growing body of findings implicating central amygdala in the modulation of instrumental behavior.

  19. Severe stress hormone conditions cause an extended window of excitability in the mouse basolateral amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karst, Henk; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Shortly after stress, basolateral amygdala neurons are exposed to sequential yet partly overlapping waves of hormones. We examined how these hormonal waves can change activity of basolateral amygdala neurons such that emotional aspects of stress become so deeply ingrained. To this end, spontaneous g

  20. Comparison between substantia innominata and amygdala kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Hoshino, S; Kumashiro, H

    1990-11-26

    Kindling was induced in rats by electrical stimulation of the lateral portion of the substantia innominata (SI). The pattern of seizure development was similar to that of amygdala (AM) kindling. However, lateral SI kindling was associated with ipsilateral head turning as an initial manifestation. In addition, lateral SI kindling had a higher afterdischarge threshold than AM kindling, and the generalized seizure triggering threshold was more unstable in SI kindling than in AM kindling. These findings suggest that lateral SI participates in, but is not essential for, AM seizure development in rats.

  1. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p cycle.

  2. Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Admou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD becomes increasingly common in physician’s daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8 of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc., biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc., and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.. Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD.

  3. The role of TNF-alpha in amygdala kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandra, A A; Godlevsky, L S; Vastyanov, R S; Oleinik, A A; Konovalenko, V L; Rapoport, E N; Korobka, N N

    2002-02-01

    In the present study, the interaction between epileptogenesis and the immune system were studied in a kindling model. First, the effects of a single administration of TNF-alpha (5.0 microg/kg, i.p.) on seizure and EEG activity were investigated in amygdala-kindled rats. TNF-alpha treated rats showed more prolonged epileptiformic discharges than control rats. TNF-alpha also induced a decrease in the power of delta band and an increase in theta and alpha activity. In addition, a marked increase in the power of beta and gamma band was observed. The EEG changes were most numerous in the frontal cortex and amygdala. All effects were registered 24 h after TNF-alpha administration. Finally, electrical stimulation enhanced the level of TNF-alpha in blood serum from 1.9 +/- 1.5 to 12.7 +/- 3.8 pg/ml and in brain tissue 56.8 +/- 6.0 to 109.2 +/- 6.0 pg/mg, as was determined via the ELISA method. It can be concluded that there is a mutual facilitative interaction of both epileptogenic and cytokine-derived mechanisms on this type of seizure. The changes in the power spectrum of the EEG after TNF-alpha might contribute to intensify thalamic-derived facilitation of epileptic discharge in cortical structures.

  4. Consolidation of altered associability information by amygdala central nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffino, Felipe L; Holland, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The surprising omission of a reinforcer can enhance the associability of the stimuli that were present when the reward prediction error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from this laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. These elements include the amygdala, the midbrain substantia nigra, the basal forebrain substantia innominata, the dorsolateral striatum, the secondary visual cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we found that consolidation of a surprise-enhanced associability memory in a serial prediction task depends on processing in the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) after completion of sessions that included the surprising omission of an expected event. Post-surprise infusions of anisomycin, lidocaine, or muscimol prevented subsequent display of surprise-enhanced associability. Because previous studies indicated that CeA function is unnecessary for the expression of associability enhancements that were induced previously when CeA function was intact (Holland & Gallagher, 2006), we interpreted these results as indicating that post-surprise activity of CeA ("surprise replay") is necessary for the consolidation of altered associability memories elsewhere in the brain, such as the posterior parietal cortex (Schiffino et al., 2014a).

  5. Atypical relapse of hemolytic uremic syndrome after transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, K.H.; Florquin, S.; Groothoff, J.W.; Verlaak, R.; Strain, L.; Goodship, T.H.; Weening, J.J.; Davin, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) frequently leads to end-stage renal failure and can relapse after transplantation. A 12-year-old girl presenting with familial atypical HUS with a factor H mutation was successfully transplanted 6 years after a first transplant that had failed because of imme

  6. Detection of atypical seismic events on a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Hernandez, E. A.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Perez-Campos, X.; Iglesias, A.

    2013-12-01

    We propose an event-detection algorithm to locate seismic events on a regional scale. Our goal is to identify non-impulsive or 'atypical' events which are not detected by regional or global networks, due to their low P-wave amplitude. Ekstrom (2006) has developed and implemented a method to detect and locate sources of long-period seismic surface waves on a global scale. Atypical events are generated by, for example, rapid glacial movements (Ekstrom, et al., 2003; Ekstrom, et al., 2006), volcanic events (Schuler and Ekstrom, 2009) and landslides (Ekstrom and Stark, 2013). Furthermore, non-impulsive earthquakes have been located on oceanic transform faults (Abercrombie and Ekstrom, 2001). The current method (Ekstrom, 2006), that is applied on the scale of the globe, routinely detects events with magnitudes around Mw 5 and larger. In this work we wish to lower the detection threshold by using shorter period records registered by regional networks. The difficulty lies in that the shorter period records are strongly influenced by the heterogeneous crust and upper mantle, which need to be accounted for in the modeling process. Our proposed method involves first computing full waveforms, Green's functions or moment tensor responses, between a grid of test locations and existing seismic stations in a 3D medium. We then effectively back propagate observed data through cross correlation with the responses, obtaining a function that localizes in time and space at the source. Our method is a variant of the timereversal method presented by, for example, McMechan (1982), Tromp et al. (2005), Larmat et al. (2006), Gajewski and Tessmer (2005) and Kim et al. (2010). To calibrate the various parameters used by the detection method, we use the aftershocks sequence of the March 20, 2012 Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico earthquake, recorded by the SSN (Mexican National Network). The lively aftershock sequence provided us with many events of different magnitudes, all occurring approximately

  7. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  8. The Role of the Amygdala in Facial Trustworthiness Processing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of fMRI Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveiros, Bárbara

    2016-01-01

    evidence that the (right) amygdala responds preferentially to untrustworthy faces. Moreover, two ALE analyses performed with 6 articles (7 studies) identified the amygdala, insula and medial dorsal nuclei of thalamus as structures with negative correlation with trustworthiness. Six articles/studies showed that posterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus present positive correlations with increasing facial trustworthiness levels. Significant effects considering subgroup analysis based on methodological criteria were found for experiments using spatial smoothing, categorization of trustworthiness in 2 or 3 categories and paradigms which involve both explicit and implicit tasks. Limitations Significant heterogeneity between studies was found in MA, which might have arisen from inclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and differences in methodological options. Studies using ROI analysis / small volume correction methods were more often devoted specifically to the amygdala region, with some results reporting uncorrected p-values based on mainly clinical a priori evidence of amygdala involvement in these processes. Nevertheless, we did not find significant evidence for publication bias. Conclusions and implications of key findings Our results support the role of amygdala in facial trustworthiness judgment, emphasizing its predominant role during processing of negative social signals in (untrustworthy) faces. This systematic review suggests that little consistency exists among studies’ methodology, and that larger sample sizes should be preferred. PMID:27898705

  9. Role of amygdala MAPK activation on immobility behavior of forced swim rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tung-Yi; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2006-10-01

    The role of amygdala mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in rats during a forced swim test was investigated. The variation of amygdala MAPK level was studied in control rats and early-life maternally deprived rats. A forced swim test was carried out to estimate the immobility level. The data showed that the immobility time of rats that received maternal deprivation in early life was longer than that of control rats and Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala phospho-MAPK level in maternally deprived rats was almost two times higher than in control rats. Intra-amygdala infusion of PD098059 or U0126, MEK inhibitors, suppressed immobility behavior during the forced swim test in both rats. Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala MAPK activities in both rats infused with MEK inhibitors were also suppressed in parallel with expression of immobility behavior. The suppressed MAPK activities as well as the restoration of immobility time returned to the original level 48 h later. These results suggest that amygdala MAPK activation might play a role in the regulation of immobility behavior in rats during the forced swim test. Moreover, it could provide a hint that amygdala MAPK activation might be involved in the formation of depression-like behavior.

  10. Genetic variations in the serotoninergic system contribute to amygdala volume in humans

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    Jin eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion processing and psychiatric disorders associated with emotion dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that amygdala structure is modulated by serotonin-related genes. However, there is a gap between the small contributions of single loci (less than 1% and the reported 63-65% heritability of amygdala structure. To understand the missing heritability, we systematically explored the contribution of serotonin genes on amygdala structure at the gene set level. The present study of 417 healthy Chinese volunteers examined 129 representative polymorphisms in genes from multiple biological mechanisms in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. A system-level approach using multiple regression analyses identified that nine SNPs collectively accounted for approximately 8% of the variance in amygdala volume. Permutation analyses showed that the probability of obtaining these findings by chance was low (p=0.043, permuted for 1000 times. Findings showed that serotonin genes contribute moderately to individual differences in amygdala volume in a healthy Chinese sample. These results indicate that the system-level approach can help us to understand the genetic basis of a complex trait such as amygdala structure.

  11. Amygdala hyperactivation during symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and its modulation by distraction

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    Daniela Simon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to a hyperactivated cortico-amygdalar circuitry. Recent findings highlight the amygdala's role in mediating elevated anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. However, modulation of amygdala hyperactivation by attentional distraction – an effective emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals – has not yet been examined. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging twenty-one unmedicated OCD patients and 21 controls performed an evaluation and a distraction task during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures. To test the specificity of responses, additional aversive and neutral stimuli were included. Significant group-by-picture type interactions were observed within fronto–striato–limbic circuits including the amygdala. In these regions patients showed increased BOLD responses during processing of OCD triggers relative to healthy controls. Amygdala hyperactivation was present across OCD symptom dimensions indicating that it represents a common neural correlate. During distraction, we observed dampening of patients' amygdala hyperactivity to OCD-relevant stimuli. Augmented amygdala involvement in patients during symptom provocation, present across OCD symptom dimensions, might constitute a correlate of fear expression in OCD linking it to other anxiety disorders. Attentional distraction seemed to dampen emotional processing of disorder-relevant stimuli via amygdala downregulation. The clinical impact of this strategy to manage anxiety in OCD should be further elucidated.

  12. Neuroticism and extraversion are associated with amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M; van Tol, Marie-José; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic J

    2014-06-01

    The personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are differentially related to socioemotional functioning and susceptibility to affective disorders. However, the neurobiology underlying this differential relationship is still poorly understood. This discrepancy could perhaps best be studied by adopting a brain connectivity approach. Whereas the amygdala has repeatedly been linked to neuroticism and extraversion, no study has yet focused on the intrinsic functional architecture of amygdala-centered networks in relation to both traits. To this end, seed-based correlation analysis was employed to reveal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and its associations with neuroticism and extraversion in 50 healthy participants. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with increased amygdala RSFC with the precuneus, and decreased amygdala RSFC with the temporal poles, insula, and superior temporal gyrus (p neuroticism may relate to the less-adaptive perception and processing of self-relevant and socioemotional information that is frequently seen in neurotic individuals, whereas the amygdala RSFC pattern associated with extraversion may relate to the heightened reward sensitivity and enhanced socioemotional functioning in extraverts. We hypothesize that the variability in amygdala RSFC observed in the present study could potentially link neuroticism and extraversion to the neurobiology underlying increased susceptibility or resilience to affective disorders.

  13. Double dissociation of amygdala and hippocampal contributions to trace and delay fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2011-01-19

    A key finding in studies of the neurobiology of learning memory is that the amygdala is critically involved in Pavlovian fear conditioning. This is well established in delay-cued and contextual fear conditioning; however, surprisingly little is known of the role of the amygdala in trace conditioning. Trace fear conditioning, in which the CS and US are separated in time by a trace interval, requires the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. It is possible that recruitment of cortical structures by trace conditioning alters the role of the amygdala compared to delay fear conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To investigate this, we inactivated the amygdala of male C57BL/6 mice with GABA (A) agonist muscimol prior to 2-pairing trace or delay fear conditioning. Amygdala inactivation produced deficits in contextual and delay conditioning, but had no effect on trace conditioning. As controls, we demonstrate that dorsal hippocampal inactivation produced deficits in trace and contextual, but not delay fear conditioning. Further, pre- and post-training amygdala inactivation disrupted the contextual but the not cued component of trace conditioning, as did muscimol infusion prior to 1- or 4-pairing trace conditioning. These findings demonstrate that insertion of a temporal gap between the CS and US can generate amygdala-independent fear conditioning. We discuss the implications of this surprising finding for current models of the neural circuitry involved in fear conditioning.

  14. Differential Activation of Amygdala Arc Expression By Positive and Negatively Valenced Emotional Learning Conditions

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    Erica eYoung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, 5 auditory tones only, or 5 auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35mA during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 minutes following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p

  15. Cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the amygdala of a monotreme, Tachyglossus aculeatus (the short-beaked echidna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D; Paxinos, George

    2005-10-01

    We have examined the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the temporal and extended amygdala in the brain of a monotreme (the short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus) using Nissl and myelin staining, enzyme histochemistry for acetylcholine esterase and NADPH diaphorase, immunohistochemistry for calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) and tyrosine hydroxylase. While the broad subdivisions of the eutherian temporal amygdala were present in the echidna brain, there were some noticeable differences. No immunoreactivity for parvalbumin or calretinin for somata was found in the temporal amygdala of the echidna. The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract could not be definitively identified and the medial nucleus of amygdala appeared to be very small in the echidna. Calbindin immunoreactive neurons were most frequently found in the ventrolateral part of the lateral nucleus, intraamygdaloid parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral part of the central nucleus. Neurons strongly reactive for NADPH diaphorase with filling of the dendritic tree were found mainly scattered through the cortical, central and lateral subnuclei, while neurons showing only somata reactivity for NADPH diaphorase were concentrated in the basomedial and basolateral subnuclei. Most of the components of the extended amygdala of eutherians could also be identified in the echidna. Volumetric analysis indicated that the temporal amygdala in both the platypus and echidna is small compared to the same structure in both insectivores and primates, with the central and medial components of the temporal amygdala being particularly small.

  16. Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

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    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Whittle, Sarah L; Pilioussis, Eleanor; Allott, Kelly; Rice, Simon; Schäfer, Miriam R; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, G Paul

    2014-12-30

    Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-recognition and outcome measures. The amygdala was manually delineated from magnetic resonance images for 39 UHR individuals who had also completed facial and prosody emotion-recognition tasks. Partial correlations were conducted to examine associations between amydgala volume/asymmetry and recognition of negative emotions. Mediation analyses were conducted using regression and bootstrapping techniques. Amygdala volume was positively correlated with sadness emotion recognition, in particular prosody, for females only. Left amygdala volume mediated the effect of sadness recognition on depressive symptoms, negative symptoms, overall psychopathology, and global functioning in females. Findings suggest a complex relationship between emotion recognition, the structure of the amygdala and illness outcome, where recognition of sadness appears to be the precipitator of this relationship in UHR females. Further research is needed to determine illness specificity and to confirm our sex- and emotion-specific results.

  17. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

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    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  18. Amygdala activation by corticosterone alters visceral and somatic pain in cycling female rats.

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    Gustafsson, Jenny K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2011-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often seen in women, and symptom severity is known to vary over the menstrual cycle. In addition, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis enhances symptomology and patients with IBS have increased activation of the amygdala, a brain region known to facilitate HPA output. However, little is known about the effects of amygdala activation during different stages of the menstrual cycle. We therefore investigated the effects of amygdala activation on somatic and visceral pain perception over the rat estrous cycle. Female Wistar rats were implanted with either corticosterone (Cort) or cholesterol as a control onto the dorsal margin of the central amygdala. Visceral sensitivity was quantified by recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) and somatic sensitivity was assessed via the Von Frey test. In cholesterol controls, both visceral and somatic sensitivity varied over the estrous cycle. Rats in proestrus/estrus responded to CRD with an increased VMR compared with rats in metestrus/diestrus. Somatic sensitivity followed a similar pattern with enhanced sensitivity during proestrus/estrus compared with metestrus/diestrus. Elevated amygdala Cort induced visceral hypersensitivity during metestrus/diestrus but had no effect during proestrus/estrus. In contrast, elevated amygdala Cort increased somatic sensitivity during both metestrus/diestrus and proestrus/estrous. These results suggests that amygdala activation by Cort eliminates spontaneously occurring differences in visceral and somatic pain perception, which could explain the lowered pain thresholds and higher incidence of somatic pain observed in women with IBS.

  19. Inhibitory effect of ketamine on lighting amygdala of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiguo Zhang; Bin Yang; Jing Zhang; Feng Zhang; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. Some researchers suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is closely related to epileptic attack.OBJECTIVE: To observe inhibitory effect of ketamine on lighting amygdala of rats and analyze pathway of anti-lighting.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology and Department of Management, Pharmacological College of Taishan Medical College; Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Sixty adult female Wistar rats, of clean grade, weighing 180-200 g, were provided by Animal Center of Qingdao Institute of Drug Control. Ketamine hydrochloride was provided by the First Pharmacological Factory of the First Biochemical Pharmacology Company of Shanghai, and nicardipine, an antagonist of calcium ions, was provided by Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiment was completed in the Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Qingdao University from March to November 2004. ① Model establishing: After anesthesia, left and right amygdalas were inserted with double electrodes. The top was separated about 0.25 mm, and the other end was welded with a micro-plug, respectively. Electrode and micro-plug were fixed with dental base acrylic resin powder at the surface of cranium. Two weeks after recovery, right amygdala was stimulated with constant current once a day. According to Racine technique, attacking intensity was divided into 5 grades: grade I:closing eyes, a little tingling of beards and twitching face; grade Ⅱ: nodding, chewing accompanying with twitching face; grade Ⅲ: raising one of a forelimb and clonus; grade Ⅳ: standing accompanying with bilateral forelimbs; grade Ⅴ: standing accompanying with falling down. Rats with grades Ⅳ and Ⅴ were used to establish secondarily generalized epilepsy. If 3 successive attacks of grade Ⅴ were observed, the lighting was to be successful. ② Effect of

  20. Clinical grand rounds: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

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    Hodgkins, Kavita S; Bobrowski, Amy E; Lane, Jerome C; Langman, Craig B

    2012-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, lifethreatening, chronic, genetic disease of uncontrolled alternative pathway complement activation. The understanding of the pathophysiology and genetics of this disease has expanded over recent decades and promising new developments in the management of aHUS have emerged. Regardless of the cause of aHUS, with or without a demonstrated mutation or autoantibody, blockade of terminal complement activation through C5 is of high interest as a mechanism to ameliorate the disease. Eculizumab, an existing monoclonal antibody directed against C5 with high affinity, prevents the perpetuation of the downstream activation of the complement cascade and the damage caused by generation of the anaphylotoxin C5a and the membrane attack complex C5b-9, by blocking C5 cleavage. We report the successful use of eculizumab in a patient after kidney transplantation and discuss the disease aHUS.

  1. Atypical Cogan's syndrome associated with coronary disease

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    Ivanovic Branislava; Tadic Marijana; Damjanov Nemanja; Simic Dragan; Zlatanovic Maja

    2011-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome (CS) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by interstitial keratitis and vestibuloauditory abnormalities often associated with various systemic manifestations. Involvement of cardiovascular system resembling systemic vasculitis may lead to severe complications and death. The present report describes a case of a female patient with atypical Cogan's syndrome presented with systemic manifestations and severe coronary and femoral artery stenosis.Despite the clinical improvement after glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, the patient required double aortocoronal bypass grafting one year letter. During three years follow-up, she was in stable condition, without stenocardial symptoms and claudication and her inflammatory parameters remain normal. This case highlights the rare involvement of coronary arteries without associated large-vessel vasculitis of the aortic arch in CS.

  2. Brugada Syndrome with atypical characteristics: Case report

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    Hatem Ari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brugada Syndrome (BrS is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by persistent or transient ST-segment elevation in the right precordial electrocardiography (ECG leads and a high incidence of sudden death and life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with structurally normal hearts. The syndrome generally manifests in men during adulthood. The ECG manifestations can be overt or concealed. We report a case of BrS whose type 1 ECG pattern during febrile state converted to type 2 ECG after alleviation of fever with atypical characteristics (78-year-old woman with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia on holter monitoring, a history of the sudden infant death of her child, and without inducible ventricular arrhythmia by programed ventricular stimulation [PVS].

  3. Pulmonary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia And Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeilinXu; XiaYang; ZhiyaoZhang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC). METHODS Morphometric, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed in 4 patients with low grade AAH, 5 with high grade AAH and 7 with BAC. RESULTS The mean nuclear areas of high grade AAH and BAC were greater than those of low grade AAH (P<0.05); p53 protein expression was negative in 4 cases of low grade AAH,while the positive rates in high grade AAH and BAC were 40% (2/5) and 57% (4/7), respectively. CONCLUSION The development of BAC is stepwise. AAH appears to be a lesion closely related with BAC, probably as its genuine precursor.

  4. Indications of atypical antipsychotics in the elderly.

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    McKean, Andrew; Monasterio, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAP) have become some of the most commonly prescribed medications in primary and specialist care settings. Off-label prescribing accounts for much of the expanded use of AAPs. This has become common in the elderly. Marketing by pharmaceutical companies appears to have contributed to the off-label use of AAPs, in situations where their safety and efficacy is far from established. Although evidence provides varying degrees of support for their use for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, augmentation of antidepressants in depression, anxiety, insomnia and in the management of psychosis in Parkinson's Disease, there are a number of potential problems with their expanded use in the elderly. These include weight gain, type two diabetes mellitus, sudden cardiac death and increased mortality rates in the elderly with dementia. It is recommended that whenever AAPs are used off-label, a review date is identified, informed consent is obtained and treatment and side-effects are closely monitored.

  5. Atypical parakeratosis: a marker of dysplasia?

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    Voytek, T M; Kannan, V; Kline, T S

    1996-11-01

    The Bethesda System categorizes atypical parakeratosis (APK) as "ASCUS or SIL depending on the degree of cellular abnormalities." APK, however, is not well-defined. We retrospectively reviewed 68 cervicovaginal specimens with follow-up material to identify specific criteria and clinical significance of APK. APK cells were small cells, 2-3 times the diameter of neutrophil, with dense, orangeophilic cytoplasm, high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, dense, often uneven chromatin, and irregular nuclear contour. Of 62 cases with APK, 37 had accompanying dysplastic cells. Of 25 cases with APK alone, follow-up revealed 12 with squamous intraepithelial lesion (5 HSIL and 7 LSIL) and 13 with benign changes. A major diagnostic pitfall of APK was inflammation with degeneration. Abundant APK cells, minimal inflammation and degeneration, and previous history of dysplasia frequently were associated with follow-up SIL. The findings of this study identify APK as an important marker for dysplasia that warrants careful evaluation and follow-up.

  6. Atypical Radiological Manifestation of Pulmonary Metastatic Calcification

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    Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul Hwan; Ham, Soo Youn; Oh, Yu Whan [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a condition of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, and this is secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism without any prior soft tissue damage. The predisposing factors for this condition include chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia and increased tissue alkalinity. The most common radiologic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities in the upper lung zone. These opacities reflect the deposition of calcium salts in the pulmonary interstitium. We present here a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient who recovered from pneumonia with sepsis and whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) images demonstrated localized parenchymal airspace calcification that was limited to the bilateral lower lobes. These lower lobes had been involved with pneumonic consolidation without calcification, as seen on the previous CT scan. In summary, we report here on an atypical presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification that showed dense airspace consolidation localized to the bilateral lower lobes in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and pneumonia.

  7. Emphysematous Cystitis: Report of an Atypical Case

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    Karen De Baets

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the atypical case of a nondiabetic 66-year old male with severe abdominal pain and vomiting who was found to have emphysematous cystitis. Of all gas-forming infections of the urinary tract emphysematous cystitis is the most common and the least severe. The major risk factors are diabetes mellitus and urinary tract obstruction. Most frequent causative pathogens are Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and ranges from asymptomatic urinary tract infection to urosepsis and septic shock. The diagnosis is made by abdominal imaging. Treatment consists of broad-spectrum antibiotics, bladder drainage, and management of the risk factors. Surgery is reserved for severe cases. Overall mortality rate of emphysematous cystitis is 7%. Immediate diagnosis and treatment is necessary because of the rapid progression to bladder necrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis, urosepsis, and possibly fatal evolution.

  8. Amygdala Connectivity Differs Among Chronic, Early Course, and Individuals at Risk for Developing Schizophrenia

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    Anticevic, Alan; Tang, Yanqing; Cho, Youngsun T.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Wang, Fei; Krystal, John H.; Xu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in circuits involving the amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in schizophrenia neuropathology, given their role in stress, affective salience processing, and psychosis onset. Disturbances in amygdala whole-brain functional connectivity associated with schizophrenia have yet to be fully characterized despite their importance in psychosis. Moreover, it remains unknown if there are functional alterations in amygdala circuits across illness phases. To evaluate this possibility, we compared whole-brain amygdala connectivity in healthy comparison subjects (HCS), individuals at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia, individuals in the early course of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ), and patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ). We computed whole-brain resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T via anatomically defined individual-specific amygdala seeds. We identified significant alterations in amygdala connectivity with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), driven by reductions in EC-SCZ and C-SCZ (effect sizes of 1.0 and 0.97, respectively), but not in HR for schizophrenia, relative to HCS. Reduced amygdala-OFC coupling was associated with schizophrenia symptom severity (r = .32, P < .015). Conversely, we identified a robust increase in amygdala connectivity with a brainstem region around noradrenergic arousal nuclei, particularly for HR individuals relative to HCS (effect size = 1.54), but not as prominently for other clinical groups. These results suggest that deficits in amygdala-OFC coupling could emerge during the initial episode of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ) and may present as an enduring feature of the illness (C-SCZ) in association with symptom severity but are not present in individuals with elevated risk for developing schizophrenia. Instead, in HR individuals, there appears to be increased connectivity in a circuit implicated in stress response. PMID:24366718

  9. General and specific responsiveness of the amygdala during explicit emotion recognition in females and males

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    Windischberger Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions relies on an extensive neural network with the amygdala as the key node as has typically been demonstrated for the processing of fearful stimuli. A sufficient characterization of the factors influencing and modulating amygdala function, however, has not been reached now. Due to lacking or diverging results on its involvement in recognizing all or only certain negative emotions, the influence of gender or ethnicity is still under debate. This high-resolution fMRI study addresses some of the relevant parameters, such as emotional valence, gender and poser ethnicity on amygdala activation during facial emotion recognition in 50 Caucasian subjects. Stimuli were color photographs of emotional Caucasian and African American faces. Results Bilateral amygdala activation was obtained to all emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, and sad and neutral faces across all subjects. However, only in males a significant correlation of amygdala activation and behavioral response to fearful stimuli was observed, indicating higher amygdala responses with better fear recognition, thus pointing to subtle gender differences. No significant influence of poser ethnicity on amygdala activation occurred, but analysis of recognition accuracy revealed a significant impact of poser ethnicity that was emotion-dependent. Conclusion Applying high-resolution fMRI while subjects were performing an explicit emotion recognition task revealed bilateral amygdala activation to all emotions presented and neutral expressions. This mechanism seems to operate similarly in healthy females and males and for both in-group and out-group ethnicities. Our results support the assumption that an intact amygdala response is fundamental in the processing of these salient stimuli due to its relevance detecting function.

  10. A case of atypical progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Spaccavento S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simona Spaccavento, Marina Del Prete, Angela Craca, Anna Loverre IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Cassano Murge, Bari, Italy Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that PSP can present clinically as an atypical dementing syndrome dominated by a progressive apraxia of speech (AOS and aphasia. Aim: We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of PSP, using a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, and the disease response to various pharmacological treatments. Methods: A 72-year-old right-handed male, with 17 years education, who first presented with aphasia, AOS, depression, apathy, and postural instability at 69 years; a complete neuropsychological evaluation, tapping the different cognitive domains, was performed. Results: Testing revealed a moderate global cognitive deficit (Mini-Mental State Examination test score =20, low memory test scores (story recall, Rey’s 15-word Immediate and Delayed Recall, and poor phonemic and semantic fluency. The patient’s language was characterized by AOS, with slow speech rate, prolonged intervals between syllables and words, decreased articulatory accuracy, sound distortions, and anomia. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability, were reported. The neurological examination revealed supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, poor face miming, and a mild balance deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed only widespread cortical atrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated left > right frontotemporal cortical abnormalities. After 6 months, a further neuropsychological assessment showed a progression in cognitive deficits, with additional attention deficits. The patient reported frequent falls, but the neurological deficits remained unchanged. Neuroimaging tests showed the same brain involvement. Conclusion: Our case highlights the heterogeneity of the clinical features in

  11. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  12. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of pathological aggression in children and adolescents: literature review and clinical recommendations

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    Eduardo Henrique Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature about the use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of pathological aggression in children and adolescents. Method: The databases MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS were searched for publications in Portuguese or English from 1992 to August 2011 using the following keywords: mental disease, child, adolescent, treatment, atypical antipsychotic, aggressive behavior, aggression, and violent behavior. Results: Sixty-seven studies of good methodological quality and clinical interest and relevance were identified. Studies including children and adolescents were relatively limited, because few atypical antipsychotics have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. All the medications included in this review (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and clozapine have some effectiveness in treating aggression in children and adolescents, and choices should be based on clinical indications and side effects. Conclusions: There are few studies about the effectiveness and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the pediatric population, and further randomized controlled studies with larger groups of patients and more diagnostic categories, such as severe conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, should be conducted to confirm the results reported up to date and to evaluate the impact of long-term use.

  13. Mesolimbic dopaminergic supersensitivity following electrical kindling of the amygdala

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    Csernansky, J.G.; Mellentin, J.; Beauclair, L.; Lombrozo, L.

    1988-02-01

    Limbic seizures developed in rats following daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Animals were designated as kindled after five complete (stage 5) behavioral seizures were observed. A subgroup, designated as superkindled, received three additional weeks of electrical stimulations. Kindled rats were significantly subsensitive to the stereotypy-inducing effects of apomorphine, a direct dopamine agonist, compared to controls. Superkindled rats were supersensitive to the effects of apomorphine. However, both kindled and superkindled rats demonstrated an increase in /sup 3/H-spiperone Bmax values, reflecting dopamine D2-receptor densities, in the nucleus accumbens ipsilateral to the stimulating electrode. The number of interictal spikes recorded from the stimulating amygdaloid electrode during the last week of kindling was correlated with changes in apomorphine sensitivity in individual animals.

  14. Ifenprodil and arcaine alter amygdala-kindling development.

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    Yourick, D L; Repasi, R T; Rittase, W B; Staten, L D; Meyerhoff, J L

    1999-04-29

    The NMDA receptor complex is thought to be altered in kindling, an animal model for complex partial epilepsy. This receptor complex has several modulatory sites including those for glutamate, glycine and polyamines with activation resulting in altered cation channel opening. Two NMDA receptor effectors, ifenprodil and arcaine, were evaluated for effects on the acquisition of electrical kindling of the amygdala. Rats were administered 0, 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 microg of ifenprodil or 0, 32 or 100 microg of arcaine, intracerebroventricularly, 10 min before a daily kindling stimulus. Ifenprodil, at low doses, enhanced kindling acquisition, while the highest dose, 100 microg, inhibited kindling. Arcaine increased the number of trials required to reach fully generalized (stage 5) seizures at the 100 microg dose. Since these agents had mixed actions on kindling development, it is unclear whether these or similar NMDA effectors would be useful in the modulation of complex partial seizures.

  15. Integrated genomic analyses of de novo pathways underlying atypical meningiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmancı, Akdes Serin; Youngblood, Mark W.; Clark, Victoria E.; Coşkun, Süleyman; Henegariu, Octavian; Duran, Daniel; Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Kaulen, Leon D.; Lee, Tong Ihn; Abraham, Brian J.; Simon, Matthias; Krischek, Boris; Timmer, Marco; Goldbrunner, Roland; Omay, S. Bülent; Baranoski, Jacob; Baran, Burçin; Carrión-Grant, Geneive; Bai, Hanwen; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Schramm, Johannes; Moliterno, Jennifer; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Bilgüvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Young, Richard A.; Günel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Meningiomas are mostly benign brain tumours, with a potential for becoming atypical or malignant. On the basis of comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses, we compared benign meningiomas to atypical ones. Here, we show that the majority of primary (de novo) atypical meningiomas display loss of NF2, which co-occurs either with genomic instability or recurrent SMARCB1 mutations. These tumours harbour increased H3K27me3 signal and a hypermethylated phenotype, mainly occupying the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) binding sites in human embryonic stem cells, thereby phenocopying a more primitive cellular state. Consistent with this observation, atypical meningiomas exhibit upregulation of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, as well as the E2F2 and FOXM1 transcriptional networks. Importantly, these primary atypical meningiomas do not harbour TERT promoter mutations, which have been reported in atypical tumours that progressed from benign ones. Our results establish the genomic landscape of primary atypical meningiomas and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:28195122

  16. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

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    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  17. Atypical antipsychotics in first admission schizophrenia: medication continuation and outcomes.

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    Mojtabai, Ramin; Lavelle, Janet; Gibson, P Joseph; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic medications on treatment continuation and outcomes in a first admission sample of patients with schizophrenia treated in usual practice settings. In a sample of 189 participants with a research diagnosis of DSM-IV schizophrenia drawn from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, we compared the effects of atypical and conventional agents on change of medication, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. For these analyses we used the method of survival analysis for recurrent events, in which the episodes of treatment rather than individual subjects are the units of analysis. In addition, we compared improvement in positive and negative symptoms from intake to 24- or 48-month followups for subjects who stayed on one type of medication or changed to atypicals from conventional antipsychotics. Atypical agents were associated with lower risk of medication change, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. Both conventional and atypical agents were associated with improvement of positive symptoms at followup, but only subjects on atypical agents at followup experienced a significant improvement in negative symptoms. We conclude that in usual practice settings, as in randomized clinical trials, atypical agents are associated with improved treatment continuation and outcomes.

  18. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the amygdala of the pig.

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    Agnieszka Bossowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and morphology of neurons containing somatostatin (SOM was investigated in the amygdala (CA of the pig. The SOM-immunoreactive (SOM-IR cell bodies and fibres were present in all subdivisions of the porcine CA, however, their number and density varied depending on the nucleus studied. The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled part of the lateral nucleus. Moderate to high numbers of SOM-IR cells were also observed in the medial and basolateral nuclei. Many labeled neurons were also consistently observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus. In the remaining CA regions, the density of SOM-positive cell bodies varied from moderate to low. In any CA region studied SOM-IR neurons formed heterogeneous population consisting of small, rounded or slightly elongated cell bodies, with a few poorly branched smooth dendrites. In general, morphological features of these cells clearly resembled the non-pyramidal Golgi type II interneurons. The routine double-labeling studies with antisera directed against SOM and neuropeptide Y (NPY demonstrated that a large number of SOM-IR cell bodies and fibers in all studied CA areas contained simultaneously NPY. In contrast, co-localization of SOM and cholecystokinin (CCK or SOM and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP was never seen in cell bodies and fibres in any of nuclei studied. In conclusion, SOM-IR neurons of the porcine amygdala form large and heterogeneous subpopulation of, most probably, interneurons that often contain additionally NPY. On the other hand, CCK- and/or VIP-IR neurons belonged to another, discrete subpopulations of porcine CA neurons.

  19. Results of surgical treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia

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    O. A. Gornykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of surgical treatment in 132 patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia have been studied. Post-operative diagnosis was: en- dometrial cancer – in 19 %, atypical hyperplasia – in 35 %, simple and complex hyperplasia – in 33 %, only atrophic endometrial changes – in 13 % of patients. The tumor was within the endometrium in 5 patients, the superficial invasion of the myometrium (1–2 mm were in 8 patients, invasion to half of the myometrium – in 9 patients, invasion of more than half of the myometrium – in 3 patients. The questions of tactics of treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia is under discussion.

  20. Intracranial Tuberculoma Presenting as Atypical Eclampsia: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sharmila; Pradeep, Sunitha; John, Lopamudra; Kolluru, Vasavi

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of eclampsia before 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 48 hours of delivery in the absence of typical signs of hypertension and or proteinuria is termed as atypical eclampsia. Atypical or non-classic eclampsia will have some symptoms of eclampsia but without the usual proteinuria or hypertension. All patients with atypical onset should undergo neurological evaluation to rule out neurologic causes of seizures. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare and serious form of disease secondary to haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present a case of cerebral tuberculoma with seizures in late pregnancy mimicking eclampsia. PMID:27504359

  1. Preferential reduction of binding of sup 125 I-iodopindolol to beta-1 adrenoceptors in the amygdala of rat after antidepressant treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordway, G.A.; Gambarana, C.; Tejani-Butt, S.M.; Areso, P.; Hauptmann, M.; Frazer, A. (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This study utilized quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine the effects of repeated administration of antidepressants to rats on the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist, {sup 125}I-iodopindolol ({sup 125}I-IPIN) to either beta-1 or beta-2 adrenoceptors in various regions of brain. Antidepressants were selected to represent various chemical and pharmacological classes including tricyclic compounds (desipramine and protriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (clorgyline, phenelzine and tranylcypromine), atypical antidepressants (mianserin and trazodone) and selective inhibitors of the uptake of serotonin (citalopram and sertraline). Additionally, rats were treated with various psychotropic drugs that lack antidepressant efficacy (cocaine, deprenyl, diazepam and haloperidol). Repeated treatment of rats with desipramine, protriptyline, clorgyline, phenelzine, tranylcypromine or mianserin reduced the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-1 adrenoceptors in many brain areas. Only in the basolateral and lateral nuclei of the amygdala did all six of these antidepressants significantly reduce {sup 125}I-IPIN binding to beta-1 adrenoceptors. In these amygdaloid nuclei, the magnitude of the reduction in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN caused by each of these drugs was comparable to or greater than the reduction in binding produced in any other region of brain. Reductions of binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN after antidepressant treatments were not consistently observed in the cortex, the area of brain examined most often in homogenate binding studies. Only the monoamine oxidase inhibitors caused reductions in the binding of {sup 125}I-IPIN to beta-2 adrenoceptors, and this effect was generally localized to the amygdala and hypothalamus.

  2. Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulvershorn, L.A.; Mennes, M.; Castellanos, F.X.; Martino, A. Di; Milham, M.P.; Hummer, T.A.; Roy, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relat

  3. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroud, Adam M.; Everett, Jim A. C.; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area using racial group memberships has quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions. PMID:24734016

  4. Topographic Organization of Projections from the Amygdala to the Hypothalamus of the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ono, Taketoshi; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Nishijo, Hisao; Fukuda, Masaji; Nishino, Hitoo

    1985-01-01

    Afferent fibers from the amygdala to subdivisions of lateral, ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei were investigated in rat by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Small (intranuclear size) peroxidase deposits were placed in hypothalamic nuclei by iontophoresis of a tracer sol

  5. Effect of the observed pupil size on the amygdala of the beholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-03-01

    Among a range of cognitive functions of the amygdala, recent studies suggest its involvement in identification of the pupil size. To further address its role, we investigated the response of the amygdala to human and cat faces with varied pupil size, taking into account the effect of the gender and subjective attractiveness ratings. Twenty-seven subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing faces with large and small pupils. Large pupil faces induced increased activation in the amygdala, without interactions with either subject or stimuli gender, although no equivalent activation differences were seen for cat face stimuli. The activation differences were irrespective of the perceived attractiveness, and without explicit knowledge about the manipulation of the pupil size. These data support the idea that the amygdala is responsive not only to explicit or implicit fear, abhorrence or preference, but also to other elements that might suggest heightened vigilance of biologically relevant stimuli, which does not necessarily require subjective awareness.

  6. Pavlovian fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampus and amygdala function: cautions and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning has become an important model for investigating the neural substrates of learning and memory in rats, mice and humans. The hippocampus and amygdala are widely believed to be essential for fear conditioning to contexts and discrete cues, respectively. Indeed, this parsing of function within the fear circuit has been used to leverage fear conditioning as a behavioral assay of hippocampal and amygdala function, particularly in transgenic mouse models. Recent work, however, blurs the anatomical segregation of cue and context conditioning and challenges the necessity for the hippocampus and amygdala in fear learning. Moreover, nonassociative factors may influence the performance of fear responses under a variety of conditions. Caution must therefore be exercised when using fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent learning.

  7. Amygdala activation to threat under attentional load in individuals with anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that strong attentional distraction prevents the amygdala from responding to threat stimuli. Here, we investigated the effects of attentional load on amygdala activation to threat-related stimuli in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, spider-phobicand healthy control subjects were presented with phobia-related and neutral stimuli while performing a distraction task with varying perceptual load (high vs low. Results Our data revealed a pattern of simultaneously increased amygdala and visual cortical activation to threat vs neutral pictures in phobic individuals, compared with controls, occurring regardless of attentional load. Conclusions These results suggest that, in contrast to studies in healthy subjects, amygdala activation to clinically relevant threat stimuli is more resistant to attentional load.

  8. Amygdala reactivity to sad faces in preschool children: An early neural marker of persistent negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Gaffrey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The current findings provide preliminary evidence for amygdala activity as a potential biomarker of persistent negative affect during early childhood and suggest future work examining the origins and long-term implications of this relationship is necessary.

  9. Updating temporal expectancy of an aversive event engages striatal plasticity under amygdala control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallérac, Glenn; Graupner, Michael; Knippenberg, Jeroen; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Tavares, Tatiane Ferreira; Tallot, Lucille; El Massioui, Nicole; Verschueren, Anna; Höhn, Sophie; Bertolus, Julie Boulanger; Reyes, Alex; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Schafe, Glenn E.; Diaz-Mataix, Lorenzo; Doyère, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Pavlovian aversive conditioning requires learning of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned, aversive stimulus (US) but also involves encoding the time interval between the two stimuli. The neurobiological bases of this time interval learning are unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the dorsal striatum and basal amygdala belong to a common functional network underlying temporal expectancy and learning of a CS–US interval. Importantly, changes in coherence between striatum and amygdala local field potentials (LFPs) were found to couple these structures during interval estimation within the lower range of the theta rhythm (3–6 Hz). Strikingly, we also show that a change to the CS–US time interval results in long-term changes in cortico-striatal synaptic efficacy under the control of the amygdala. Collectively, this study reveals physiological correlates of plasticity mechanisms of interval timing that take place in the striatum and are regulated by the amygdala. PMID:28067224

  10. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: Does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mourad Chekroud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area, using racial group memberships, quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field, and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions.

  11. Trait aggressiveness is not related to structural connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Beyer

    Full Text Available Studies in both pathological and healthy samples have suggested altered functional connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and amygdala as a possible cause of anger and aggression. In patient populations presenting with pathological aggression, there is also evidence for changes in structural connectivity between OFC and amygdala. In healthy samples, however, the relationship between white matter integrity and aggression has not been studied to date. Here, we investigated the relationship between trait aggressiveness and structural OFC-amygdala connectivity in a large sample (n = 93 of healthy young men. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured the distribution of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along the uncinate fascicle bilaterally. We found no differences in either measure between participants high and low in physical aggressiveness, or between those high and low in trait anger. Our results therefore argue against a direct relationship between structural OFC-amygdala connectivity and normal-range trait aggressiveness.

  12. Transient elevation of amygdala alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites during the early stages of amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M J; Vigil, A; Savage, D D; Weiss, G K

    1990-03-01

    Enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission retards but does not prevent the development of kindling. We previously reported that locus coeruleus (LC) alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites are transiently elevated during the early stages of kindling development. Since the firing activity of LC noradrenergic neurons is partially regulated via an alpha 2 receptor-mediated recurrent inhibition, the transient elevation in LC alpha 2 receptors could decrease LC activity and consequently facilitate the development of kindling. Transient elevation of alpha 2 receptor binding sites during early stages of kindling may also occur on noradrenergic axon terminals projecting to forebrain sites. Using in vitro neurotransmitter autoradiography techniques, we investigated this hypothesis by measuring specific [3H]idazoxan binding in 5 different areas of rat forebrain at 2 different stages of kindling development. After 2 class 1 kindled seizures, specific [3H]idazoxan binding was elevated significantly in the amygdala, but not in other forebrain regions. No differences in specific [3H]idazoxan binding were observed in any of the 5 brain regions in rats kindled to a single class 5 kindled motor seizure. Saturation of binding experiments indicated that the increase in amygdala [3H]idazoxan binding, following 2 class 1 kindled motor seizures, was due to an increase in the total number of alpha 2 receptor binding sites without a change in the affinity of the binding sites for [3H]idazoxan. Thus, the transient increase in alpha 2 receptors that occurs in the LC in the early stages of kindling also occurs in the forebrain region in which the kindled seizure originates.

  13. Effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on fear learning, conditioned inhibition, and extinction in adult macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy M; Heuer, Eric; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2012-06-01

    Fear conditioning studies have demonstrated the critical role played by the amygdala in emotion processing. Although all lesion studies until now investigated the effect of adult-onset damage on fear conditioning, the current study assessed fear-learning abilities, as measured by fear-potentiated startle, in adult monkeys that had received neonatal neurotoxic amygdala damage or sham-operations. After fear acquisition, their abilities to learn and use a safety cue to modulate their fear to the conditioned cue, and, finally, to extinguish their response to the fear conditioned cue were measured with the AX+/BX- Paradigm. Neonatal amygdala damage retarded, but did not completely abolish, the acquisition of a learned fear. After acquisition of the fear signal, four of the six animals with neonatal amygdala lesions discriminated between the fear and safety cues and were also able to use the safety signal to reduce the potentiated-startle response and to extinguish the fear response when the air-blast was absent. In conclusion, the present results support the critical contribution of the amygdala during the early phases of fear conditioning that leads to quick, robust responses to potentially threatening stimuli, a highly adaptive process across all species and likely to be present in early infancy. The neonatal amygdala lesions also indicated the presence of amygdala-independent alternate pathways that are capable to support fear learning in the absence of a functional amygdala. This parallel processing of fear responses within these alternate pathways was also sufficient to support the ability to flexibly modulate the magnitude of the fear responses.

  14. Effect of the observed pupil size on the amygdala of the beholders

    OpenAIRE

    Amemiya, Shiori; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    Among a range of cognitive functions of the amygdala, recent studies suggest its involvement in identification of the pupil size. To further address its role, we investigated the response of the amygdala to human and cat faces with varied pupil size, taking into account the effect of the gender and subjective attractiveness ratings. Twenty-seven subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing faces with large and small pupils. Large pupil faces induced increased activat...

  15. The amygdala modulates neuronal activation in the hippocampus in response to spatial novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Archana; Berretta, Sabina; Lange, Nicholas; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that the amygdala and the hippocampus play an important role in the pathophysiology of major psychotic disorders. Consistent with this evidence, and with data indicating amygdala modulation of hippocampal activity, animal model investigations have shown that a disruption of amygdala activity induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus that are similar to those detected in subjects with schizophrenia. With the present study, we used induction of the immediate early gene Fos, to test the hypothesis that the amygdala may affect neuronal activation of the hippocampus in response to different spatial environments (familiar, modified, and novel). Exploratory and anxiety related behaviors were also assessed. In vehicle-treated rats, exposure to a modified version of the familiar environment was associated with an increase of numerical densities of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei in sectors CA1 and CA2, while exposure to a completely novel environment was associated with an increase in sectors CA1, CA4, and DG, compared with the familiar environment. Pharmacological disruption of amygdala activity resulted in a failure to increase Fos induction in the hippocampus in response to these environments. Exploratory behavior in response to the different environments was not altered by manipulation of amygdala activity. These findings support the idea that the amygdala modulates spatial information processing in the hippocampus and may affect encoding of specific environmental features, while complex behavioral responses to environment may be the result of broader neural circuits. These findings also raise the possibility that amygdala abnormalities may contribute to impairments in cognitive information processing in subjects with major psychoses.

  16. Amygdala perfusion is predicted by its functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and negative affect.

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    Garth Coombs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect. It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1 amygdala over-activity and 2 reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. METHODS: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA, and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach.

  17. Role of Anxiety in the Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Importance of the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Myers; Beverley Greenwood-VanMeerveld

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala...

  18. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  19. 5-HT1A-receptor agonist modified amygdala activity and amygdala-associated social behavior in a valproate-induced rat autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chan, Yun-Han; Gean, Po-Wu; Yang, Yen Kung; Chen, Po See

    2013-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dysfunction of the amygdala is related to abnormal fear processing, anxiety, and social behaviors noted in autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In addition, studies have shown that disrupted brain serotonin homeostasis is linked to ASD. With a valproate (VPA)-induced rat ASD model, we investigated the possible role of amygdala serotonin homeostasis in autistic phenotypes and further explored the underlying mechanism. We first discovered that the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the caudal raphe system was modulated on postnatal day (PD) 28 of the VPA-exposed offspring. Then, we found a significantly higher serotonin transporter availability in the amygdala of the VPA-exposed offspring on PD 56 by using single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography co-registration following injection of (123)I-labeled 2-((2-(dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine((123)I[ADAM]). Furthermore, treatment with 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, increased social interaction and improved fear memory extinction in the VPA-exposed offspring. 8-OH-DPAT treatment also reversed the characteristics of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents as well as paired pulse facilitation observed in lateral amygdala slices. These results provided further evidence to support the role of the amygdala in characteristic behavioral changes in the rat ASD model. The serotonergic projections that modulate the amygdala function might play a certain role in the development and treatment of behavioral symptoms exhibited in individuals with ASD.

  20. Teaching strategies for atypical presentation of illness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Miceli, Deanna; Aselage, Melissa; Mezey, Mathy

    2010-07-01

    Atypical presentation of illness is a phenomenon where "seeing is believing." Expert geriatric nurses and clinicians know all too well the early signs and symptoms of this phenomenon, which frequently masquerades bacterial infections, pain, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or other serious medical ailments in older adults. Students, however, as novices to clinical practice, require interactive learning approaches to reflect on the patient's illness presentations, help with developing the necessary skills to analyze and synthesize clinically relevant data, and witness resolution of an atypical presentation when found and treated. Use of a case study as an educational tool can facilitate critical thinking about a clinical problem, such as atypical presentation of illness, for students within a problem-based learning format. Furthermore, we highlight strategies for teaching students atypical presentation of illness with consideration of student learning preferences, which include visual, auditory, reading, and kinesthetic modes of learning.

  1. Functional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Andrew C; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Simmonds, Daniel; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2016-10-16

    Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning. We then examined task-based functional connectivity between the FFA and the rest of the brain, comparing autism and TD groups during encoding and recognition of face and car stimuli. The autism group exhibited underconnectivity, relative to the TD group, between the FFA and frontal and primary visual cortices, independent of age. Underconnectivity with the medial and rostral lateral prefrontal cortex was face-specific during encoding and recognition, respectively. Conversely, underconnectivity with the L orbitofrontal cortex was evident for both face and car encoding. Atypical age-related changes in connectivity emerged between the FFA and the R temporoparietal junction, and R dorsal striatum for face stimuli only. Similar differences in age-related changes in autism emerged for FFA connectivity with the amygdala across both face and car recognition. Thus, underconnectivity and atypical development of functional connectivity may lead to a less optimal face-processing network in the context of increasing general and social cognitive deficits in autism.

  2. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-30

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.

  3. Basolateral amygdala lesion inhibits the development of pain chronicity in neuropathic pain rats.

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    Zheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronicity of pain is one of the most interesting questions in chronic pain study. Clinical and experimental data suggest that supraspinal areas responsible for negative emotions such as depression and anxiety contribute to the chronicity of pain. The amygdala is suspected to be a potential structure for the pain chronicity due to its critical role in processing negative emotions and pain information. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether amygdala or its subregions, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the central medial amygdala (CeA, contributes to the pain chronicity in the spared nerve injury (SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 Before the establishment of the SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats, lesion of the amygdaloid complex with stereotaxic injection of ibotenic acid (IBO alleviated mechanical allodynia significantly at days 7 and 14, even no mechanical allodynia at day 28 after SNI; Lesion of the BLA, but not the CeA had similar effects; (2 however, 7 days after SNI when the neuropathic pain model was established, lesion of the amygdala complex or the BLA or the CeA, mechanical allodynia was not affected. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BLA activities in the early stage after nerve injury might be crucial to the development of pain chronicity, and amygdala-related negative emotions and pain-related memories could promote pain chronicity.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

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    Antonio Aubry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of AMPA receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  5. Amygdala-based intrinsic functional connectivity and anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toazza, Rudineia; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Molle, Roberta Dalle; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Reis, Roberta Sena; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Esper, Nathalia Bianchini; Aguzzoli, Cristiano; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2016-11-30

    Anxiety disorders (AD) are the most prevalent group of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is still poorly understood. This study investigated differences in the functional connectivity of intrinsic amygdala-based networks of participants with and without AD. Resting state fMRI data were obtained from 18 participants with an AD and 19 healthy comparison individuals. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using standardized structured interviews. The comparison between groups was carried out using functional connectivity maps from six seed regions defined using probabilistic maps bilaterally within the amygdala (basolateral, superficial and centromedial amygdala). We found significant between-group differences in five clusters, which showed aberrant functional connectivity with the left basolateral amygdala: right precentral gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and right superior frontal gyrus in subjects with AD as compared with the comparison subjects. For the comparison subjects, the correlations between the amygdala and the five clusters were either non-significant, or negative. The present study suggests there is an intrinsic disruption in the communication between left basolateral amygdala and a network of brain regions involved with emotion regulation, and with the default mode network in adolescents and young adults with anxiety disorders.

  6. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and fMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre- and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  7. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H Schultz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and FMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  8. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala.

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    Aubry, Antonio V; Serrano, Peter A; Burghardt, Nesha S

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  10. State-dependent amygdala stimulation-induced cardiovascular effects in rats.

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    Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Liang, Keng-Chen; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2009-12-31

    Stimulation of the amygdala is known to produce pressor, depressor, or has no effects. The present study was performed to test whether amygdala cardiovascular effects are influenced by consciousness states and by different types of anesthetics. Adult rats were set up for stimulation amygdala and measurement of blood pressure in a chronic preparation. After recovery, same sites of the amygdala were stimulated electrically for several trials with the rat under conscious or anesthetic states induced by pentobarbital, urethane, ketamine, alpha-chloralose and urethane plus alpha-chloralose, respectively. The interval between any two stimulation trials was at least 2 days. The stimulation was an 80-Hz, 0.5-ms, 100-micro A square wave pulse train lasting for 15 s. Cardiovascular responsive sites were found in the central, medial, and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. In stimulating these responsive sites, significantly different cardiovascular effects were induced under a conscious state and an anesthetized state of the animal, yet no significant differences were found among the various anesthetic agents. We conclude, that the cardiovascular influence of the amygdala is state-dependent in the rat.

  11. Oxidant/antioxidant effects of chronic exposure to predator odor in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

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    Mejia-Carmona, G E; Gosselink, K L; Pérez-Ishiwara, G; Martínez-Martínez, A

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of anxiety-related diseases is increasing these days, hence there is a need to understand the mechanisms that underlie its nature and consequences. It is known that limbic structures, mainly the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are involved in the processing of anxiety, and that projections from prefrontal cortex and amygdala can induce activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with consequent cardiovascular changes, increase in oxygen consumption, and ROS production. The compensatory reaction can include increased antioxidant enzymes activities, overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, and genetic shifts that could include the activation of antioxidant genes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant effect that chronic anxiogenic stress exposure can have in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus by exposition to predator odor. Results showed (a) sensitization of the HPA axis response, (b) an enzymatic phase 1 and 2 antioxidant response to oxidative stress in amygdala, (c) an antioxidant stability without elevation of oxidative markers in prefrontal cortex, (d) an elevation in phase 1 antioxidant response in hypothalamus. Chronic exposure to predator odor has an impact in the metabolic REDOX state in amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus, with oxidative stress being prevalent in amygdala as this is the principal structure responsible for the management of anxiety.

  12. The importance of accurate anatomic assessment for the volumetric analysis of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bonilha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of values reported in volumetric studies of the amygdala. The use of single plane thick magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may prevent the correct visualization of anatomic landmarks and yield imprecise results. To assess whether there is a difference between volumetric analysis of the amygdala performed with single plane MRI 3-mm slices and with multiplanar analysis of MRI 1-mm slices, we studied healthy subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. We performed manual delineation of the amygdala on T1-weighted inversion recovery, 3-mm coronal slices and manual delineation of the amygdala on three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted images with 1-mm slice thickness. The data were compared using a dependent t-test. There was a significant difference between the volumes obtained by the coronal plane-based measurements and the volumes obtained by three-dimensional analysis (P < 0.001. An incorrect estimate of the amygdala volume may preclude a correct analysis of the biological effects of alterations in amygdala volume. Three-dimensional analysis is preferred because it is based on more extensive anatomical assessment and the results are similar to those obtained in post-mortem studies.

  13. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

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    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking.

  14. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences

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    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18731.001 PMID:27731795

  15. Amygdala functional connectivity as a longitudinal biomarker of symptom changes in generalized anxiety

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    Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Meeten, Frances; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Cercignani, Mara; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry, autonomic dysregulation and functional amygdala dysconnectivity, yet these illness markers have rarely been considered together, nor their interrelationship tested longitudinally. We hypothesized that an individual’s capacity for emotion regulation predicts longer-term changes in amygdala functional connectivity, supporting the modification of GAD core symptoms. Sixteen patients with GAD (14 women) and individually matched controls were studied at two time points separated by 1 year. Resting-state fMRI data and concurrent measurement of vagally mediated heart rate variability were obtained before and after the induction of perseverative cognition. A greater rise in levels of worry following the induction predicted a stronger reduction in connectivity between right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and enhanced coupling between left amygdala and ventral tegmental area at follow-up. Similarly, amplified physiological responses to the induction predicted increased connectivity between right amygdala and thalamus. Longitudinal shifts in a distinct set of functional connectivity scores were associated with concomitant changes in GAD symptomatology over the course of the year. Results highlight the prognostic value of indices of emotional dysregulation and emphasize the integral role of the amygdala as a critical hub in functional neural circuitry underlying the progression of GAD symptomatology. PMID:27369066

  16. Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats.

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    Ferencz, I; Leanza, G; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, M; Lindvall, O

    2000-06-01

    Intraventricular administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in rats has been shown to cause a selective loss of cholinergic afferents to the hippocampus and cortical areas, and to facilitate seizure development in hippocampal kindling. Here we demonstrate that this lesion also accelerates seizure progression when kindling is induced by electrical stimulations in the amygdala. However, whereas intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin facilitated the development of the initial stages of hippocampal kindling, the same lesion promoted the late stages of amygdala kindling. To explore the role of various parts of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in amygdala kindling, selective lesions of the cholinergic projections to either hippocampus or cortex were produced by intraparenchymal injections of 192 IgG-saporin into medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band or nucleus basalis, respectively. Cholinergic denervation of the cortical regions caused acceleration of amygdala kindling closely resembling that observed after the more widespread lesion induced by intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. In contrast, removal of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus had no effect on the development of amygdala kindling. These data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suppress kindling elicited from amygdala, and that this dampening effect is mediated via cortical but not hippocampal projections.

  17. Amygdala kindling in immature rats: proconvulsant effect of the organophosphate insecticide-chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurpel, J N; Hirt, P C; Bidanset, J H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos to immature rats exerted a proconvulsant effect on seizures induced by kindling. Chlorpyrifos was administered to 16 or 17 day old rats in a dose range of 0.3 to 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously. Amygdala kindling was performed by stimulating the rats every 15 minutes to a total of 20 stimulations. Kindling occurred more rapidly in the chlorpyrifos treated rats than vehicle treated rats, the proconvulsant effect was dose-dependent. The proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos was more pronounced in the early stages of kindling, indicating a possible increase in local excitability of the amygdala in the presence of chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos also reduced the after discharge threshold in the amygdala in a dose-dependent manner and increased the duration of after discharges elicited by electrical stimulus, indicating an increase in excitability of the amygdala. The effects of chlorpyrifos on kindling were additive with xylene: the proconvulsant effect in the early stages of kindling was greatly enhanced by xylene. Xylene, administered alone as a 0.2% solution, reduced the after discharge threshold of the amygdala, increased the after discharge duration and increased the rate of kindling. These experiments demonstrate a proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos in amygdala kindling and this proconvulsant action is additive with xylene.

  18. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice.

  19. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  20. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Myers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone (CORT or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  1. Attachment-security priming attenuates amygdala activation to social and linguistic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Luke; Lawrence, Natalia; Iles, Andrew; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Karl, Anke

    2015-06-01

    A predominant expectation that social relationships with others are safe (a secure attachment style), has been linked with reduced threat-related amygdala activation. Experimental priming of mental representations of attachment security can modulate neural responding, but the effects of attachment-security priming on threat-related amygdala activation remains untested. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the effects of trait and primed attachment security on amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli in an emotional faces and a linguistic dot-probe task in 42 healthy participants. Trait attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were positively correlated with amygdala activation to threatening faces in the control group, but not in the attachment primed group. Furthermore, participants who received attachment-security priming showed attenuated amygdala activation in both the emotional faces and dot-probe tasks. The current findings demonstrate that variation in state and trait attachment security modulates amygdala reactivity to threat. These findings support the potential use of attachment security-boosting methods as interventions and suggest a neural mechanism for the protective effect of social bonds in anxiety disorders.

  2. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by social decision-making under stress

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    Justin P. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a newly developed conceptual model of stressful social decision making, the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM; used for the 1st time in mice elicits two types of response: escape or remain submissively. Daily (4d aggressive social interaction in a neutral arena between a C57BL6/N test mouse and a larger, novel aggressive CD1 mouse, begin after an audible tone (conditioned stimulus; CS. Although escape holes (only large enough for smaller test animals are available, and the aggressor is unremittingly antagonistic, only half of the mice tested utilize the possibility of escape. During training, for mice that choose to leave the arena and social interaction, latency to escape dramatically decreases over time; this is also true for control C57BL6/N mice which experienced no aggression. Therefore, the open field of the SAM apparatus is intrinsically anxiogenic. It also means that submission to the aggressor is chosen despite this anxiety and the high intensity of the aggressive attacks and defeat. While both groups that received aggression displayed stress responsiveness, corticosterone levels were significantly higher in animals that chose submissive coexistence. Although both escaping and non-escaping groups of animals experienced aggression and defeat, submissive animals also exhibited classic fear conditioning, freezing in response to the CS alone, while escaping animals did not. In the basolateral amygdala, gene expression of BDNF was diminished, but NPS expression was significantly elevated, but only in submissive animals. This increase in submission-evoked NPS mRNA expression was greatest in the central amygdala, which coincided with decreased BDNF expression. Reduced expression of BDNF is only in submissive animals that also exhibit elevated NPS expression, despite elevated corticosterone in all socially interacting animals. The results suggest an interwoven relationship, linked by social context, between amygdalar BDNF, NPS and plasma

  3. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

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    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  4. Atypical presentation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

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    Rush, Eric T

    2016-09-01

    A 14 year old patient with short stature, type I diabetes, and cataracts was referred for evaluation of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Radiography was suggestive of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with decreased bone mineral density for age. Targeted molecular and biochemical testing were normal in this patient. Whole exome sequencing was performed and showed compound heterozygosity for previously reported pathogenic GALNS variants which were diagnostic of mucopolysaccharidosis, type IVA (Morquio A). While this case describes neither a novel condition nor a new mutation, it does illustrate three important points in the diagnosis of patients with atypical forms of MPS IVA. First, that in many instances urine glycosaminoglycan analysis is not sufficient to rule out MPS IVA as a potential diagnosis. Patients in whom biochemical screening is advised should have measurement of leukocyte enzymatic activity. Second, that in patients with radiographic evidence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with additional features or with normal targeted testing, MPS IVA should remain in the differential diagnosis. Third, that whole exome sequencing represents a viable diagnostic platform for evaluation of patients with unknown skeletal or metabolic disease.

  5. Atypical clinical response patterns to ipilimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Blanca; Binder, Sandra; Hamid, Omid

    2011-08-01

    Patients with advanced melanoma have few treatment options, and survival is poor. However, improved understanding of how the immune system interacts with cancer has led to the development of novel therapies. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a key negative regulator of host T-cell responses. This article presents cases of patients receiving ipilimumab in clinical trials along with a discussion of their significance and relevance to nursing practice. The patients showed different response patterns to ipilimumab and also had various typical immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which were managed successfully. The atypical response patterns produced by ipilimumab likely reflect its mechanism of action, which requires time for the immune system to mount an effective antitumor response. Meanwhile, lesions may appear to enlarge as a consequence of enhanced T-cell infiltration, although this may not necessarily be true disease progression. Patients receiving ipilimumab may respond very differently compared to how they might react to chemotherapy. Responses can take weeks or months to develop; therefore, clinicians should not terminate treatment prematurely, providing the patient's condition allows for continuation. Early recognition of irAEs combined with prompt management will ensure that events are more likely to resolve without serious consequences.

  6. Atypical Takotsubo syndrome during anagrelide therapy.

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    Proietti, Riccardo; Rognoni, Andrea; Ardizzone, Fabio; Maccio, Sergio; Santagostino, Alberto; Rognoni, Giorgio

    2009-07-01

    Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor utilized in the treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Anagrelide can be responsible for positive inotropic and chonotropic activity of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, it can induce vasospam directly on the epicardial coronary arteries. In the literature, it is well reported that this inhibitor can determine serious cardiovascular side effects, including congestive heart failure, arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed a mid-ventricular Takotsubo syndrome while on anagrelide therapy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as left ventricular ballooning syndrome, is characterized by a reversible ventricular contractile dysfunction with akinesis and expansion of apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Recently, atypical cases with akinesia and dilation of mid-ventricular segment and hypercontraction of the apical segments, also called mid-ventricular and inverted Takotsubo syndrome, have been described. Even though the pathogenesis of Takotsubo syndrome is poorly understood, several mechanisms have been proposed, including catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning, and ischemia-mediated stunning due to multivessel epicardial or microvascular spasm. We think that in our case, the adverse response of anagrelide therapy was determined, by accumulated dosage of the drug, through an intensive inotropic stimulation and a sympathetic hyperactivation in a vulnerable myocardium. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of an association between anagrelide therapy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  7. Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rizwan Khan; Taimur Saleem; Tanveer Ul Haq; Kanwal Aftab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia, a benign hepatic tumor, is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely the entity can cause symptoms, mandating intervention. METHOD: We present a case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, which caused a considerable diagnostic dilemma due to its atypical presentation. RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a progressively increasing mass in the right upper quadrant which was associated with pain and emesis. Examination showed a firm, mobile mass palpable below the right subcostal margin. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an exophytic mass arising from hepatic segments III and IVb. Trucut biopsy of the hepatic mass was equivocal. Angiography showed a vascular tumor that was supplied by a tortuous branch of the proper hepatic artery. Surgical intervention for removal of the mass was undertaken. Intra-operatively, two large discrete tumors were found and completely resected. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This description of an unusual case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver highlights the point that the diagnosis of otherwise benign hepatic tumors may be difficult despite extensive work-up in some cases.

  8. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  9. Nocturnal manifestations of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Colosimo, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although nocturnal disturbances are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the continuum of daytime manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still little evidence in the medical literature to support the occurrence of these complex phenomena in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). Based on the anatomical substrates in APDs, which are considered to be more extensive outside the basal ganglia than in PD, we might expect that patients with APDs encounter the whole range of nocturnal disturbances, including motor, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and neuropsychiatric manifestations at a similar, or even greater, frequency than in PD. This article is a review of the current literature on the problems at nighttime of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. MEDLINE, life science journals and online books were searched by querying appropriate key words. Reports were included if the studies were related to nocturnal manifestations in APDs. Forty articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Differences between these symptoms in APDs and PD are highlighted, given the evidence available about each manifestation. This analysis of nocturnal manifestations of APDs suggests the need for future studies to address these issues to improve the quality of life not only of patients with APDs but the caregivers who encounter the challenges of supporting these patients on a daily basis.

  10. Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts

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    Michèle M. M. Mazzocco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders’ number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes.

  11. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable.

  12. DENGUE WITH ATYPICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND WHO CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Mahadeorao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever are important arboviral diseases. Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae , has four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes . Dengue epidemics can have a significant economic and health t oll. Worldwide, an estimated 3.6 billion people are at risk of infection with about 50 - 100 million new cases each year Illness produced by any of the four dengue virus serotypes varies from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fe ver/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS. During the early febrile stage clinicians cannot predict which patients will progress to severe disease. Atypical manifestations were reported are associated with high risk of mortality. The existing WHO dengue classific ation scheme and case definitions have some drawbacks. A global strategy to reduce the disease burden using integrated vector management in conjunction with early and accurate diagnosis has been advocated. Antiviral drugs and vaccines that are currently un der development could also make an important contribution to dengue control in the future

  13. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  14. Atypical presentations among Medicare beneficiaries with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, John G; Fincher, Contessa; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan J; Li, Qing; Funkhouser, Ellen; Centor, Robert M; Selker, Harry P; Weissman, Norman W

    2002-08-01

    Chest pain is a hallmark symptom in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). However, little is known regarding the prevalence of an atypical presentation among these patients and its relation to subsequent care. We examined the medical records of 4,167 randomly sampled Medicare patients hospitalized with unstable angina at 22 Alabama hospitals between 1993 and 1999. We defined typical presentation as (1) chest pain located substernally in the left or right chest, or (2) chest pain characterized as squeezing, tightness, aching, crushing, arm discomfort, dullness, fullness, heaviness, pressure, or pain aggravated by exercise or relieved with rest or nitroglycerin. Atypical presentation was defined as confirmed UAP without typical presentation. Among patients with confirmed UAP, 51.7% had atypical presentations. The most frequent symptoms associated with atypical presentation were dyspnea (69.4%), nausea (37.7%), diaphoresis (25.2%), syncope (10.6%), or pain in the arms (11.5%), epigastrium (8.1%), shoulder (7.4%), or neck (5.9%). Independent predictors of atypical presentation for patients with UAP were older age (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.17/decade), history of dementia (odds ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.03), and absence of prior myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, or family history of heart disease. Patients with atypical presentation received aspirin, heparin, and beta-blocker therapy less aggressively, but there was no difference in mortality. Thus, over half of Medicare patients with confirmed UAP had "atypical" presentations. National educational initiatives may need to redefine the classic presentation of UAP to include atypical presentations to ensure appropriate quality of care.

  15. Atypical meningococcal meningitis with rashless presentation:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunita; Singh Manpreet; Kapoor Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is the major health problem in developing world. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from transient fever and bacteraemia to fulminant disease with death ensuing within hours of the onset of clinical symptoms. The classical clinical manifestations of meningococcal disease have been well described, but atypical presentations if unrecognized, may lead to a delay in treatment and fatal outcome. We here report a case presented with atypical presentation of meningococcal meningitis without classical rash, which was diagnosed and managed successfully.

  16. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M

    2012-02-03

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  17. An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papakostas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity.

  18. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Chen, Xiaohua; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2009-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially severe idiosyncratic adverse reaction usually seen in the context of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Although NMS is historically associated with the classic or 'typical' antipsychotic drugs, it is also a potential adverse effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The widespread use of atypical antipsychotic drugs highlights the need to examine the data relating to the symptomatology, diagnosis, classification and management of NMS with these newer agents. We used MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify NMS case reports and systematic reviews published to June 2008 related to the atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, amisulpride and quetiapine. Case reports and reviews were systematically examined. Our review suggests that, in general, NMS associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs manifests in a typical manner. One notable exception is clozapine-induced NMS, which appears less likely to manifest with extrapyramidal features, including rigidity and tremor. The available literature highlights the divergence of opinion relating to the core diagnostic features of NMS and its conceptualization as a categorical versus dimensional disorder. Both these issues have relevance for the identification of atypical or milder forms of NMS, which are sometimes seen with atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of patients with 'atypical psychosis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuno, An-A; Munakata, Kae; Mori, Kanako; Tanaka, Masashi; Nanko, Shinichiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Umekage, Tadashi; Tochigi, Mamoru; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Tadafumi

    2005-08-01

    Although classical psychopathological studies have shown the presence of an independent diagnostic category, 'atypical psychosis', most psychotic patients are currently classified into two major diagnostic categories, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. 'Atypical psychosis' is characterized by acute confusion without systematic delusion, emotional instability, and psychomotor excitement or stupor. Such clinical features resemble those seen in organic mental syndrome, and differential diagnosis is often difficult. Because patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) sometimes show organic mental disorder, 'atypical psychosis' may be caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in some patients. In the present study whole mtDNA was sequenced for seven patients with various psychotic disorders, who could be categorized as 'atypical psychosis'. None of them had known mtDNA mutations pathogenic for mitochondrial encephalopathy. Two of seven patients belonged to a subhaplogroup F1b1a with low frequency. These results did not support the hypothesis that clinical presentation of some patients with 'atypical psychosis' is a reflection of subclinical mitochondrial encephalopathy. However, the subhaplogroup F1b1a may be a good target for association study of 'atypical psychosis'.

  20. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  1. Arousal modulation of memory and amygdala-parahippocampal connectivity: a PET-psychophysiology study in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahs, Fredrik; Palmquist, Asa Michelgård; Pissiota, Anna; Appel, Lieuwe; Frans, Orjan; Liberzon, Israel; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats

    2011-11-01

    Phobic fear is accompanied by intense bodily responses modulated by the amygdala. An amygdala moderated psychophysiological measure related to arousal is electrodermal activity. We evaluated the contributions of electrodermal activity to amygdala-parahippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during phobic memory encoding in subjects with spider or snake phobia. Recognition memory was increased for phobia-related slides and covaried with rCBF in the amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus. The covariation between parahippocampal rCBF and recognition was related to electrodermal activity suggesting that parahippocampal memory processes were associated with sympathetic activity. Electrodermal activity further mediated the amygdala effect on parahippocampal activity. Memory encoding during phobic fear therefore seems contingent on amygdala's influence on arousal and parahippocampal activity.

  2. First Japanese case of atypical progeroid syndrome/atypical Werner syndrome with heterozygous LMNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-ichiro; Yokoyama, Yoko; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ogino, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomoyasu; Hashizume, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Goto, Makoto; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Atypical progeroid syndrome (APS), including atypical Werner syndrome (AWS), is a progeroid syndrome involving heterozygous mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C. We report the first Japanese case of APS/AWS with a LMNA mutation (p.D300N). A 53-year-old Japanese man had a history of recurrent severe cardiovascular diseases as well as brain infarction and hemorrhages. Although our APS/AWS patient had overlapping features with Werner syndrome (WS), such as high-pitched voice, scleroderma, lipoatrophy and atherosclerosis, several cardinal features of WS, including short stature, premature graying/alopecia, cataract, bird-like face, flat feet, hyperkeratosis on the soles and diabetes mellitus, were absent. In immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopic analyses of the patient's cultured fibroblasts, abnormal nuclear morphology, an increase in small aggregation of heterochromatin and a decrease in interchromatin granules in nuclei of fibroblasts were observed, suggesting that abnormal nuclear morphology and chromatin disorganization may be associated with the pathogenesis of APS/AWS.

  3. Atypical antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: systematic review of randomised trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore R Andrew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used for treatment of mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and considered to have fewer extrapyramidal effects than older antipsychotics. Methods We examined efficacy in randomised trials of bipolar disorder where the presenting episode was either depression, or manic/mixed, comparing atypical antipsychotic with placebo or active comparator, examined withdrawals for any cause, or due to lack of efficacy or adverse events, and combined all phases for adverse event analysis. Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and data combined for analysis where there was clinical homogeneity, with especial reference to trial duration. Results In five trials (2,206 patients participants presented with a depressive episode, and in 25 trials (6,174 patients the presenting episode was manic or mixed. In 8-week studies presenting with depression, quetiapine and olanzapine produced significantly better rates of response and symptomatic remission than placebo, with NNTs of 5–6, but more adverse event withdrawals (NNH 12. With mania or mixed presentation atypical antipsychotics produced significantly better rates of response and symptomatic remission than placebo, with NNTs of about 5 up to six weeks, and 4 at 6–12 weeks, but more adverse event withdrawals (NNH of about 22 in studies of 6–12 weeks. In comparisons with established treatments, atypical antipsychotics had similar efficacy, but significantly fewer adverse event withdrawals (NNT to prevent one withdrawal about 10. In maintenance trials atypical antipsychotics had significantly fewer relapses to depression or mania than placebo or active comparator. In placebo-controlled trials, atypical antipsychotics were associated with higher rates of weight gain of ≥7% (mainly olanzapine trials, somnolence, and extrapyramidal symptoms. In active controlled trials, atypical antipsychotics

  4. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia due to involvement of the hypothalamus and hypothalamus-amygdala linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kodai; Deguchi, Kazushi; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Takata, Tadayuki; Kokudo, Yohei; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia accompanied by decreased CSF orexin level. First episode associated with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction showed bilateral hypothalamic lesions that can cause secondary damage to the orexin neurons. The second episode associated with impaired memory showed a left temporal lesion involving the amygdala. The mechanism remains unknown, but the reduced blood flow in the hypothalamus ipsilateral to the amygdala lesion suggested trans-synaptic hypothalamic dysfunction secondary to the impaired amygdala. A temporal lesion involving the amygdala and hypothalamus could be responsible for hypersomnia due to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  5. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat.

  6. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  7. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. II. Efferents of the ''olfactory amygdala''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-03-20

    The anterior cortical (C1) and posterolateral cortical (C2) nuclei of the amygdala are designated the ''olfactory amygdala'' because they each receive direct projections from the main olfactory bulb. The efferents of these nuclei were traced after stereotaxic placement of 1-5 muCi tritiated proline in the corticomedial amygdala of the male golden hamsters. Following survival times of 12, 24, or 48 hours, 20 micron frozen sections of the brains were processed for light microscopic autoradiography. Efferents from C2 terminate in layers II and III of the olfactory tubercle and in layer Ib of pars ventralis and pars medialis of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Fibers from this nucleus also project to layers I and II of the infralimbic cortex and to the molecular layer of the agranular insular cortex. More posteriorly, fibers from C2 terminate in layer I of the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex, and in the endopiriform nucleus. From C1, efferent fibers travel in the stria terminalis and terminate in the precommissural bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Efferents from C1 also innervate the molecular layer of C2, the amygdalo-hippocampal area, and the adjacent piriform cortex. Neurons in both C1 and C2 project to the molecular layer of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the plexiform layer of the ventral subiculum, and the molecular layer of the lateral entorhinal cortex.

  8. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action.

  9. Amygdala mechanisms of Pavlovian psychostimulant conditioning and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; See, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction often consists of periods of sustained drug abstinence disrupted by periods of relapse and renewed heavy drug use. Prevention of relapse remains the greatest challenge to the successful treatment of drug addiction. Drug-associated cues are a primary trigger for relapse, as they can elicit intense craving for the drug. These cues become associated with the drug reward through Pavlovian learning processes that develop over multiple drug-cue pairings. The amygdala (AMY) is critical for such drug-related learning. Intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry position the AMY to integrate cue and drug-related information and influence drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Animal models of conditioned drug reward, drug use, and relapse have confirmed the necessary role of the AMY for drug conditioned cues to control motivated behavior. Neurons within the AMY are responsive to the primary effects of psychostimulants, and more critically, they also respond to the presentation of drug-associated cues. The mechanisms by which conditioned cues come to influence drug-seeking behavior likely involve long-term plasticity and neuroadaptations within the AMY. A greater understanding of the associative learning mechanisms that depend upon the AMY and related limbic and cortical structures, and the process by which drug cues come to gain control over behavior that maintains the addictive state, will facilitate the development of more effective addiction treatments.

  10. Prefrontal Cortical Kappa Opioid Receptors Attenuate Responses to Amygdala Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Hugo A; Hanks, Ashley N; Scott, Liam; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos; Hughes, Zoë A; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-12-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have been implicated in anxiety and stress, conditions that involve activation of projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although KORs have been studied in several brain regions, their role on mPFC physiology and on BLA projections to the mPFC remains unclear. Here, we explored whether KORs modify synaptic inputs from the BLA to the mPFC using in vivo electrophysiological recordings with electrical and optogenetic stimulation. Systemic administration of the KOR agonist U69,593 inhibited BLA-evoked synaptic responses in the mPFC without altering hippocampus-evoked responses. Intra-mPFC U69,593 inhibited electrical and optogenetic BLA-evoked synaptic responses, an effect blocked by the KOR antagonist nor-BNI. Bilateral intra-mPFC injection of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI increased center time in the open field test, suggesting an anxiolytic effect. The data demonstrate that mPFC KORs negatively regulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the BLA-mPFC pathway and anxiety-like behavior. These findings provide a framework whereby KOR signaling during stress and anxiety can regulate the flow of emotional state information from the BLA to the mPFC.

  11. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M.; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action. PMID:26341938

  12. Amygdala kindling alters protein kinase C activity in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Desai, M A; Klann, E; Winder, D G; Sweatt, J D; Conn, P J

    1992-11-01

    Kindling is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity and a widely used model of epilepsy. Although kindling has been widely studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of this phenomenon are not well understood. We determined the effect of amygdala kindling on protein kinase C (PKC) activity in various regions of rat brain. Kindling stimulation markedly elevated basal (Ca(2+)-independent) and Ca(2+)-stimulated phosphorylation of an endogenous PKC substrate (which we have termed P17) in homogenates of dentate gyrus, assayed 2 h after kindling stimulation. The increase in P17 phosphorylation appeared to be due at least in part to persistent PKC activation, as basal PKC activity assayed in vitro using an exogenous peptide substrate was increased in kindled dentate gyrus 2 h after the last kindling stimulation. A similar increase in basal PKC activity was observed in dentate gyrus 2 h after the first kindling stimulation. These results document a kindling-associated persistent PKC activation and suggest that the increased activity of PKC could play a role in the induction of the kindling effect.

  13. Reduced intrinsic connectivity of amygdala in adults with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamannar eRamasubbu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD have demonstrated enhanced resting-state activity of the amygdala as well as exaggerated reactivity to negative emotional stimuli relative to healthy controls. However, the abnormalities in the intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala in MDD still remain unclear. As the resting-state activity and functional connectivity (RSFC reflect fundamental brain processes, we compared the RSFC of the amygdala between unmedicated MDD patients and healthy controls. Seventy-four subjects, 55 adults meeting the DSM IV criteria for MDD and 19 healthy controls, underwent a resting state 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. An amygdala seed-based low frequency RSFC map for the whole brain was generated for each group. Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed a wide-spread reduction in the intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala with a variety of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, caudate, middle and superior temporal regions, occipital cortex, and cerebellum, as well as increased connectivity with the bilateral temporal poles (p< 0.05 corrected. The increase in the intrinsic connectivity of amygdala with the temporal poles was inversely correlated with symptom severity and anxiety scores. Although the directionality of connections between regions cannot be inferred from temporal correlations, the reduced intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala predominantly with regions involved in emotional processing may reflect impaired bottom-up signaling for top-down cortical modulation of limbic regions leading to abnormal affect regulation in MDD.

  14. Fear of the unknown: uncertain anticipation reveals amygdala alterations in childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa E; Oler, Jonathan A; Fox, Andrew S; McFarlin, Daniel R; Rogers, Gregory M; Jesson, Maria A L; Davidson, Richard J; Pine, Daniel S; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-05-01

    Children with anxiety disorders (ADs) experience persistent fear and worries that are highly debilitating, conferring risk for lifelong psychopathology. Anticipatory anxiety is a core clinical feature of childhood ADs, often leading to avoidance of uncertain and novel situations. Extensive studies in non-human animals implicate amygdala dysfunction as a critical substrate for early life anxiety. To test specific amygdala-focused hypotheses in preadolescent children with ADs, we used fMRI to characterize amygdala activation during uncertain anticipation and in response to unexpected stimuli. Forty preadolescent (age 8-12 years) children, 20 unmedicated AD patients and 20 matched controls completed an anticipation task during an fMRI scan. In the task, symbolic cues preceded fear or neutral faces, such that 'certain' cues always predicted the presentation of fear or neutral faces, whereas 'uncertain' cues were equally likely to be followed by fear or neutral faces. Both AD children and controls showed robust amygdala response to faces. In response to the uncertain cues, AD children had increased amygdala activation relative to controls. Moreover, in the AD children, faces preceded by an 'uncertain' cue elicited increased amygdala activation, as compared with the same faces following a 'certain' cue. Children with ADs experience distress both in anticipation of and during novel and surprising events. Our findings suggest that increased amygdala activation may have an important role in the generation of uncertainty-related anxiety. These findings may guide the development of neuroscientifically informed treatments aimed at relieving the suffering and preventing the lifelong disability associated with pediatric ADs.

  15. Amygdala enlargement in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE without MRI abnormalities (MTLE-NL represent a challenge for definition of underlying pathology and for presurgical evaluation. In a recent study we observed significant amygdala enlargement in 14% of MTLE patients with MRI signs of HS. Areas of gray matter volume (GMV increase could represent structural abnormalities related to the epileptogenic zone or part of a developmental abnormality. Our objective was to look for undetected areas of increased GMV in MTLE-NL using post processing MRI techniques to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition.Methods: We evaluated 66 patients with MTLE-NL on visual analysis and 82 controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM group analysis was performed with VBM8/SPM8 looking for areas of increased GMV. We then performed automatic amygdala volumetry using Freesurfer software and T2 relaxometry to confirm VBM findings.Results: VBM group-analysis demonstrated increased amygdala volume in the MTLE-NL group compared to controls. Individual volumetric analysis confirmed amygdala enlargement (AE in eight (12% patients. Overall, from all patients with AE and defined epileptic focus, four (57% had the predominant increased volume ipsilateral to the epileptic focus. These results were cross-validated by a secondary VBM analysis including subgroups of patients according to the volumetric data. T2 relaxometry demonstrated no amygdala hyperintense signal in any individual with significant amygdala enlargement. There were no clinical differences between patients with and without AE.Discussion: This exploratory study demonstrates the occurrence of AE in 12% of patients with MTLE-NL. This finding supports the hypothesis that there might be a subgroup of patients with MTLE-NL in which the enlarged amygdala could be related to the epileptogenic process. Further studies are necessary but this finding could be of great importance in the understanding of MTLE-NL.

  16. The amygdala as a neurobiological target for ghrelin in rats: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

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    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    Full Text Available Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL and ventromedial (LaVM parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field, intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like behaviors if food is not available.

  17. Amygdala Function and 5-HTT Gene Variants in Adolescent Anxiety and Major Depressive Disorder

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    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Goldman, David; Buzas, Beata; Fromm, Stephen J.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Monk, Christopher S.; Nelson, Eric E.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and amygdala activation have been found in healthy, depressed, and anxious adults. This study explored these gene–brain associations in adolescents by examining predictive effects of serotonin transporter gene variants (S and LG allele carriers vs. LA allele homozygotes) and their interaction with diagnosis (healthy vs. patients) on amygdala responses to emotional faces. Methods Functional magnetic resonance data were collected from 33 healthy adolescents (mean age: 13.71, 55% female) and 31 medication-free adolescents with current anxiety or depressive disorders (or both; mean age: 13.58, 56% female) while viewing fearful, angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions under varying attention states. Results A significant three-way genotype-by-diagnosis-by-face-emotion interaction characterized right amygdala activity while subjects monitored internal fear levels. This interaction was decomposed to map differential gene–brain associations in healthy and affected adolescents. First, consistent with healthy adult data, healthy adolescents with at least one copy of the S or LG allele showed stronger amygdala responses to fearful faces than healthy adolescents without these alleles. Second, patients with two copies of the LA allele exhibited greater amygdala responses to fearful faces relative to patients with S or LG alleles. Third, although weaker, genotype differences on amygdala responses in patients extended to happy faces. All effects were restricted to the fear-monitoring attention state. Conclusions S/LG alleles in healthy adolescents, as in healthy adults, predict enhanced amygdala activation to fearful faces. Contrary findings of increased activation in patients with LALA relative to the S or LG alleles require further exploration. PMID:18950748

  18. Common and Distinct Amygdala-Function Perturbations in Depressed vs Anxious Adolescents

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    Beesdo, Katja; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Monk, Christopher S.; Nelson, Eric E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Goldwin, Michelle A.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Context Few studies directly compare amygdala function in depressive and anxiety disorders. Data from longitudinal research emphasize the need for such studies in adolescents. Objective To compare amygdala response to varying attention and emotion conditions among adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorders, relative to adolescents with no psychopathology. Design Case-control study. Setting Government clinical research institute. Participants Eighty-seven adolescents matched on age, sex, intelligence, and social class: 26 with MDD (14 with and 12 without anxiety disorders), 16 with anxiety disorders but no depression, and 45 without psychopathology. Main Outcome Measures Blood oxygen level–dependent signal in the amygdala, measured by means of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. During imaging, participants viewed facial expressions (neutral, fearful, angry, and happy) while attention was constrained (afraid, hostility, and nose-width ratings) or unconstrained (passive viewing). Results Left and right amygdala activation differed as a function of diagnosis, facial expression, and attention condition both when patients with comorbid MDD and anxiety were included and when they were excluded (group × emotion × attention interactions, P≤.03). Focusing on fearful face–viewing events, patients with anxiety and those with MDD both differed in amygdala responses from healthy participants and from each other during passive viewing. However, both MDD and anxiety groups, relative to healthy participants, exhibited similar signs of amygdala hyperactivation to fearful faces when subjectively experienced fear was rated. Conclusions Adolescent MDD and anxiety disorders exhibit common and distinct functional neural correlates during face processing. Attention modulates the degree to which common or distinct amygdala perturbations manifest in these patient groups, relative to healthy peers. PMID:19255377

  19. Pain-related anxiety-like behavior requires CRF1 receptors in the amygdala

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    Ruppert Katherine A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor CRF1 has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety and depression. The amygdala plays an important role in affective states and disorders such as anxiety and depression. The amygdala is also emerging as a neural substrate of pain affect. However, the involvement of the amygdala in the interaction of pain and anxiety remains to be determined. This study tested the hypothesis that CRF1 receptors in the amygdala are critically involved in pain-related anxiety. Anxiety-like behavior was determined in adult male rats using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. The open-arm preference (ratio of open arm entries to the total number of entries was measured. Nocifensive behavior was assessed by measuring hindlimb withdrawal thresholds for noxious mechanical stimulation of the knee. Measurements were made in normal rats and in rats with arthritis induced in one knee by intraarticular injections of kaolin/carrageenan. A selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (NBI27914 or vehicle was administered systemically (i.p. or into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, by microdialysis. The arthritis group showed a decreased preference for the open arms in the EPM and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Systemic or intraamygdalar (into the CeA administration of NBI27914, but not vehicle, inhibited anxiety-like behavior and nocifensive pain responses, nearly reversing the arthritis pain-related changes. This study shows for the first time that CRF1 receptors in the amygdala contribute critically to pain-related anxiety-like behavior and nocifensive responses in a model of arthritic pain. The results are a direct demonstration that the clinically well-documented relationship between pain and anxiety involves the amygdala.

  20. Intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

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    Besheer, Joyce; Fisher, Kristen R; Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie J M; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-03-17

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) has been implicated in modulating drug seeking behavior and is a target of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Given that the discriminative stimulus (subjective/interoceptive) effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking behavior, we examined the role of ERK(1/2) in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Using drug discrimination procedures, rats were trained to discriminate a moderate intragastric (IG) alcohol dose (1g/kg) versus water (IG). Following an alcohol (1g/kg) discrimination session phosphorylated ERK(1/2) (pERK(1/2)) immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly elevated in the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, we hypothesized that intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) would disrupt expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. However, intra-amygdala or accumbens administration of the MEK/ERK(1/2) inhibitor U0126 (1 and 3μg) had no effect on the discriminative stimulus effects of the training dose of alcohol (1g/kg). Contrary to our hypothesis, intra-amygdala infusion of U0126 (3μg) potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of a low alcohol dose (0.5g/kg) and had no effect following nucleus accumbens infusion. Importantly, site-specific inhibition of pERK(1/2) in each brain region was confirmed. Therefore, the increase in pERK(1/2) IR in the amygdala following systemic alcohol administration may be reflective of the widespread effects of alcohol on the brain (activation/inhibition of brain circuits), whereas the site specific microinjection studies confirmed functional involvement of intra-amygdala ERK(1/2). These findings show that activity of the ERK signaling pathway in the amygdala can influence the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

  1. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity in sheep peripheral tissues.

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    Olivier Andréoletti

    Full Text Available Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was first identified in 1998 in Norway. It is now considered as a worldwide disease of small ruminants and currently represents a significant part of the detected transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE cases in Europe. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were reported in ARR/ARR sheep, which are highly resistant to BSE and other small ruminants TSE agents. The biology and pathogenesis of the Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent in its natural host is still poorly understood. However, based on the absence of detectable abnormal PrP in peripheral tissues of affected individuals, human and animal exposure risk to this specific TSE agent has been considered low. In this study we demonstrate that infectivity can accumulate, even if no abnormal PrP is detectable, in lymphoid tissues, nerves, and muscles from natural and/or experimental Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases. Evidence is provided that, in comparison to other TSE agents, samples containing Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity could remain PrP(Sc negative. This feature will impact detection of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases in the field, and highlights the need to review current evaluations of the disease prevalence and potential transmissibility. Finally, an estimate is made of the infectivity loads accumulating in peripheral tissues in both Atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie cases that currently enter the food chain. The results obtained indicate that dietary exposure risk to small ruminants TSE agents may be higher than commonly believed.

  2. Childhood Learning Disabilities and Atypical Dementia: A Retrospective Chart Review.

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    Alon Seifan

    Full Text Available To further our understanding of the association between self-reported childhood learning disabilities (LDs and atypical dementia phenotypes (Atypical Dementia, including logopenic primary progressive aphasia (L-PPA, Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA, and Dysexecutive-type Alzheimer's Disease (AD.This retrospective case series analysis of 678 comprehensive neuropsychological assessments compared rates of self-reported LD between dementia patients diagnosed with Typical AD and those diagnosed with Atypical Dementia. 105 cases with neuroimaging or CSF data available and at least one neurology follow-up were identified as having been diagnosed by the neuropsychologist with any form of neurodegenerative dementia. These cases were subject to a consensus diagnostic process among three dementia experts using validated clinical criteria for AD and PPA. LD was considered Probable if two or more statements consistent with prior LD were documented within the Social & Developmental History of the initial neuropsychological evaluation.85 subjects (Typical AD n=68, Atypical AD n=17 were included in the final analysis. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, handedness, education and symptom duration, patients with Probable LD, compared to patients without Probable LD, were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with Atypical Dementia vs. Typical AD (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.3-128.4. All three of the L-PPA cases reporting a childhood LD endorsed childhood difficulty with language. By contrast, both PCA cases reporting Probable childhood LD endorsed difficulty with attention and/or math.In people who develop dementia, childhood LD may predispose to atypical phenotypes. Future studies are required to confirm whether atypical neurodevelopment predisposes to regional-specific neuropathology in AD and other dementias.

  3. Ichthyosiform mycosis fungoides with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy

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    Qiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a rare case of variant of mycosis fungoides (MF: ichthyosiform MF with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy. The diagnosis was made based on the following findings: generalized ichthyosis-like eruption, alopecia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, proteinuria, and hematuria, the histological features of the skin biopsy from both ichthyotic and alopecic lesions with immunohistochemical staining, and the renal biopsy examination with immunofluorescence. The histological examination of ichthyotic and alopecic lesions displayed a predominant infiltration of atypical lymphocytes in the upper dermis with the characteristics of epidermotropism and folliculotropism. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that most infiltrated atypical lymphocytes were CD3, CD4, and CD45RO positive, whereas negative for CD5, CD7, CD20, CD30, and CD56. A renal biopsy examination revealed atypical membranous nephropathy with deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, IgA, C1q, and C3. In this case atypical membranous nephropathy was involved, which is very uncommon and has never been presented in the literature to date. Although ichthyosiform MF usually features a relatively favorable course, diffuse alopecia and the renal involvement in this case might indicate aggressive disease and poor prognosis.

  4. Atypical periprosthetic acetabular fracture in long-term alendronate therapy

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    Marongiu, Giuseppe; Capone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bisphosphonates have been commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis, demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction. However, even if are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about atypical fractures related to its prolonged use. Although atypical femoral fracture are more common, case reports demonstrated that even other skeletal areas can be involved by unusual pattern of fracture. We report a atypical acetabular periprosthetic fracture in a 83-year-old female patient after prolonged alendronate treatment for osteoporosis and isolated acetabular revision surgery. The patient underwent to clinical, bioumoral and radiological evaluation and all the history cases were fully reported. We believe this periprosthetic fracture, according to the available data, may have similar underlying pathology to atypical femoral fractures. Awareness of symptoms, in addition to a regular radiographic survey may facilitate early diagnosis and possible prevention of spontaneous periprosthetic fractures, in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy beyond 5 years. The treatment of this atypical periprosthetic fracture should include both surgical than pharmacological therapy to obtained bone healing. PMID:28228784

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

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    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  6. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

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    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H; van der Putten, P Herman; Gee, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6), Leu-NHEt(13), des-Met(14))-Bombesin (6-14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  7. Management of atypical lobular hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ.

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    Clauser, Paola; Marino, Maria A; Baltzer, Pascal A T; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Zuiani, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ are rare proliferative breast lesions, growing inside ducts and terminal ducto-lobular units. They represent a marker of increased risk for breast cancer and a non-obligate precursor of malignancy. Evidence available on diagnosis and management is scarce. They are frequently found incidentally associated with other lesions, but can be visible through mammography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance. Due to the risk of underestimation, surgical excision is often performed. The analysis of imaging and histopathological characteristics could help identifying low-risk cases, for which surgery is not necessary. Chemopreventive agents can be used for risk reduction. Careful imaging follow up is mandatory; the role of breast MRI as screening modality is under discussion.

  8. Amygdala Dopamine Receptors Are Required for the Destabilization of a Reconsolidating Appetitive Memory(1,2).

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    Merlo, Emiliano; Ratano, Patrizia; Ilioi, Elena C; Robbins, Miranda A L S; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Disrupting maladaptive memories may provide a novel form of treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders, but little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the induction of lability, or destabilization, of a retrieved consolidated memory. Destabilization has been theoretically linked to the violation of expectations during memory retrieval, which, in turn, has been suggested to correlate with prediction error (PE). It is well-established that PE correlates with dopaminergic signaling in limbic forebrain structures that are critical for emotional learning. The basolateral amygdala is a key neural substrate for the reconsolidation of pavlovian reward-related memories, but the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in inducing lability of amygdala-dependent memories has not been investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. Intra-amygdala administration of either the D1-selective dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or the D2-selective dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride prevented memory destabilization at retrieval, thereby protecting the memory from the effects of an amnestic agent, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. These data show that dopaminergic transmission within the basolateral amygdala is required for memory labilization during appetitive memory reconsolidation.

  9. Dynamic Changes in Amygdala Psychophysiological Connectivity Reveal Distinct Neural Networks for Facial Expressions of Basic Emotions

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    Diano, Matteo; Tamietto, Marco; Celeghin, Alessia; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; Tatu, Mona-Karina; Bagnis, Arianna; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    The quest to characterize the neural signature distinctive of different basic emotions has recently come under renewed scrutiny. Here we investigated whether facial expressions of different basic emotions modulate the functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain. To this end, we presented seventeen healthy participants (8 females) with facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and emotional neutrality and analyzed amygdala’s psychophysiological interaction (PPI). In fact, PPI can reveal how inter-regional amygdala communications change dynamically depending on perception of various emotional expressions to recruit different brain networks, compared to the functional interactions it entertains during perception of neutral expressions. We found that for each emotion the amygdala recruited a distinctive and spatially distributed set of structures to interact with. These changes in amygdala connectional patters characterize the dynamic signature prototypical of individual emotion processing, and seemingly represent a neural mechanism that serves to implement the distinctive influence that each emotion exerts on perceptual, cognitive, and motor responses. Besides these differences, all emotions enhanced amygdala functional integration with premotor cortices compared to neutral faces. The present findings thus concur to reconceptualise the structure-function relation between brain-emotion from the traditional one-to-one mapping toward a network-based and dynamic perspective. PMID:28345642

  10. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness.

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    Cunningham, William A; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2014-06-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: 'rose-colored glasses' cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it may be happy people will not show this enhanced response, and may even show reduced amygdala activation to negative stimuli. Alternatively, if well-being entails appropriate sensitivity to information, happy people may process any relevant cues-positive or negative-to facilitate appropriate responding. This would mean that happiness is associated with increased amygdala activation to both positive and negative stimuli. Forty-two participants viewed affective stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Happier participants showed greater amygdala responses to positive stimuli. Moreover, no significant relationships were found between happiness and responses to negative stimuli. In other words, for happy people, a tuning toward positive did not come at the cost of losing sensitivity to negativity. This work suggests that trait happiness is associated with a balanced amygdala response to positivity and negativity.

  11. Robust selectivity for faces in the human amygdala in the absence of expressions.

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    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Verosky, Sara C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    There is a well-established posterior network of cortical regions that plays a central role in face processing and that has been investigated extensively. In contrast, although responsive to faces, the amygdala is not considered a core face-selective region, and its face selectivity has never been a topic of systematic research in human neuroimaging studies. Here, we conducted a large-scale group analysis of fMRI data from 215 participants. We replicated the posterior network observed in prior studies but found equally robust and reliable responses to faces in the amygdala. These responses were detectable in most individual participants, but they were also highly sensitive to the initial statistical threshold and habituated more rapidly than the responses in posterior face-selective regions. A multivariate analysis showed that the pattern of responses to faces across voxels in the amygdala had high reliability over time. Finally, functional connectivity analyses showed stronger coupling between the amygdala and posterior face-selective regions during the perception of faces than during the perception of control visual categories. These findings suggest that the amygdala should be considered a core face-selective region.

  12. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects.

  13. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity in men with posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Sripada, Rebecca K.; King, Anthony P.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Wang, Xin; Sripada, Chandra S.; Welsh, Robert C.; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Background Converging neuroimaging research suggests altered emotion neurocircuitry in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotion activation studies in these individuals have shown hyperactivation in emotion-related regions, including the amygdala and insula, and hypoactivation in emotion-regulation regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, few studies have examined patterns of connectivity at rest in individuals with PTSD, a potentially powerful method for illuminating brain network structure. Methods Using the amygdala as a seed region, we measured resting-state brain connectivity using 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging in returning male veterans with PTSD and combat controls without PTSD. Results Fifteen veterans with PTSD and 14 combat controls enrolled in our study. Compared with controls, veterans with PTSD showed greater positive connectivity between the amygdala and insula, reduced positive connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus, and reduced anticorrelation between the amygdala and dorsal ACC and rostral ACC. Limitations Only male veterans with combat exposure were tested, thus our findings cannot be generalized to women or to individuals with non–combat related PTSD. Conclusion These results demonstrate that studies of functional connectivity during resting state can discern aberrant patterns of coupling within emotion circuits and suggest a possible brain basis for emotion-processing and emotion-regulation deficits in individuals with PTSD. PMID:22313617

  14. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Aggleton, John P; Wright, Nicholas F; Rosene, Douglas L; Saunders, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex.

  15. Synergistic and regulatory effects of orbitofrontal cortex on amygdala-dependent appetitive behavior.

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    Roberts, A C; Reekie, Y; Braesicke, K

    2007-12-01

    This paper will review two avenues of our research in marmosets that have focused on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in amygdala-dependent appetitive behavior. The first demonstrates the important contribution of both the OFC and the amygdala to conditioned reinforcement (CRF). The second reveals the regulatory effects of the OFC on amygdala-dependent autonomic and behavioral arousal in appetitive conditioning. The process of CRF is one way in which an environmental cue can guide emotional behavior. As a consequence of its previous relationship with reward, a cue can take on affective value and reinforce behavior. Lesion studies in marmosets are described that show that CRF is dependent upon both the amygdala and OFC. The synergistic interactions between these structures that have been shown to underlie other aspects of reward processing are then considered with respect to CRF. The results are contrasted with those that show the importance of the OFC in suppressing positive affective responses elicited by the amygdala in response to a conditioned stimulus (CS). Specifically, it will be shown that the OFC is involved in the rapid suppression of conditioned autonomic arousal upon CS withdrawal and in the co-ordination of conditioned autonomic and behavioral responses when adapting to changing reward contingencies. It will be argued that, overall, the OFC plays a critical role in the context-dependent regulation of positive affective responding governed by external cues, in keeping with a role in executive control.

  16. Recurrent hypoglycemia increases anxiety and amygdala norepinephrine release during subsequent hypoglycemia

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    Ewan eMcNay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH is a common and debilitating side effect of therapy in patients with both type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. Previous studies in rats have shown marked effects of RH on subsequent hippocampal behavioral, metabolic, and synaptic processes. In addition to impaired memory, patients experiencing RH report alterations in cognitive processes that include mood and anxiety, suggesting that RH may also affect amygdala function. We tested the impact of RH on amygdala function using an elevated plus-maze test of anxiety together with in vivo amygdala microdialysis for norepinephrine (NEp, a widely used marker of basolateral amygdala cognitive processes. In contrast to findings in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex, neither RH nor acute hypoglycemia alone significantly affected plus-maze performance or NEp release. However, animals tested when hypoglycemic who had previously experienced RH had elevated amygdala NEp during plus-maze testing, accompanied by increased anxiety (i.e. less time spent in the open arms of the plus-maze. The results show that RH has widespread effects on subsequent brain function, which vary by neural system.

  17. Linkage of functional and structural anomalies in the left amygdala of reactive-aggressive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, María A; Ostrosky, Feggy; Diaz, Karla; Romero, Cesar; Borja, Karina; Santos, Yusniel; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-12-01

    Amygdala structural and functional abnormalities have been associated to reactive aggression in previous studies. However, the possible linkage of these two types of anomalies has not been examined. We hypothesized that they would coincide in the same localizations, would be correlated in intensity and would be mediated by reactive aggression personality traits. Here violent (n = 25) and non-violent (n = 29) men were recruited on the basis of their reactive aggression. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits were also assessed. Gray matter concentration (gmC) and reactivity to fearful and neutral facial expressions were measured in dorsal and ventral amygdala partitions. The difference between responses to fearful and neutral facial expressions was calculated (F/N-difference). Violent individuals exhibited a smaller F/N-difference and gmC in the left dorsal amygdala, where a significant coincidence was found in a conjunction analysis. Moreover, the left amygdala F/N-difference and gmC were correlated to each other, an effect mediated by reactive aggression but not by CU. The F/N-difference was caused by increased reactivity to neutral faces. This suggests that anatomical anomalies within local circuitry (and not only altered input) may underlie the amygdala hyper-reactivity to social signals which is characteristic of reactive aggression.

  18. Infusions of alpha-2 noradrenergic agonists and antagonists into the amygdala: effects on kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, M R; Corcoran, M E

    1993-12-31

    We reported previously that activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors with infusions of clonidine into the amygdala/pyriform region is sufficient to retard kindling. To characterize further the involvement in kindling of alpha-2 receptors in the amygdala/pyriform, we exposed rats to unilateral intraamygdaloid infusions of a variety of noradrenergic drugs followed by either low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala, to induce rapid kindling, or conventional high-frequency stimulation. Infusions and electrical stimulation were administered once every 48 h. The prophylactic effects of clonidine were blocked by simultaneous infusion of idazoxan, an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, which suggests strongly that these effects were produced at an alpha-2 receptor. Intraamygdaloid infusions of xylazine, another alpha-2 agonist, also significantly retarded low-frequency kindling. Unexpectedly, intraamygdaloid infusions of the alpha-2 antagonists idazoxan, yohimbine, and SK&F 104856 failed to accelerate kindling. Infusion of the alpha-1 antagonist corynanthine also failed to affect kindling. We propose that the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in the amygdala/pyriform region contribute to the prophylactic effects of systemically administered clonidine and that the facilitation of kindling observed after systemic administration of alpha-2 antagonists may be due to blockade of alpha-2 adrenoceptors outside of the amygdala/pyriform region.

  19. Identification of QTLs involved in the development of amygdala kindling in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryoko; Voigt, Birger; Ishimaru, Yuji; Hokao, Ryoji; Chiba, Shigeru; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is useful for modeling human epilepsy development. It has been known that genetic factors are involved in the development of amygdala kindling. The purpose of this study was to identify the loci that are responsible for the development of amygdala kindling. To achieve this, rat strains from a LEXF/FXLE recombinant inbred (RI) strain panel were used. The phenotypes of amygdala kindling-related parameters for seven RI strains and parental LE/Stm and F344/Stm strains were determined. They included the afterdischarge threshold (ADT), the afterdischarge duration (ADD), and the kindling rate, an incidence of development of kindling. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to identify linkage relationships between these phenotypes and 1,033 SNP markers. Although no significant differences in pre-kindling ADT and ADD were observed, a significant difference in the kindling rate was found for the LEXF/FXLE RI strain. Two QTLs for the amygdala kindling rate (Agkr1 and Agkr2) were identified on rat chromosome 2. These findings clearly prove the existence of genetic influences that are involved in kindling development and suggest that substantial genetic components contribute to the progression of partial seizures into generalized seizures.

  20. The amygdala excitatory/inhibitory balance in a valproate-induced rat autism model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available The amygdala is an important structure contributing to socio-emotional behavior. However, the role of the amygdala in autism remains inconclusive. In this study, we used the 28-35 days valproate (VPA-induced rat model of autism to observe the autistic phenotypes and evaluate their synaptic characteristics in the lateral nucleus (LA of the amygdala. The VPA-treated offspring demonstrated less social interaction, increased anxiety, enhanced fear learning and impaired fear memory extinction. Slice preparation and electrophysiological recordings of the amygdala showed significantly enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP while stimulating the thalamic-amygdala pathway of the LA. In addition, the pair pulse facilitation (PPF at 30- and 60-ms intervals decreased significantly. Whole-cell recordings of the LA pyramidal neurons showed an increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC frequency and amplitude. The relative contributions of the AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor to the EPSCs did not differ significantly between groups. These results suggested that the enhancement of the presynaptic efficiency of excitatory synaptic transmission might be associated with hyperexcitibility and enhanced LTP in LA pyramidal neurons. Disruption of the synaptic excitatory/inhibitory (E/I balance in the LA of VPA-treated rats might play certain roles in the development of behaviors in the rat that may be relevant to autism. Further experiments to demonstrate the direct link are warranted.

  1. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  2. [Evoked activity of the cat hypothalamus and amygdala under food motivation and in emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Vanetsian, G L

    2004-12-01

    Amplitude-latency characteristics of auditory evoked potentials (EPs) recorded in bilateral points of the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala were studied under food motivation, in emotional stress (presentation of dogs) and tentative reactions. In the state of hunger, as compared with safety, the latencies of P1, N2 components of EP in hypothalamus, and P1, N2, N3 in amygdala were decreased and their amplitudes were changed. Changes in the left side of both structures were more pronounced. During presentation of dogs, decreases of latencies of all EP components including N1 occurred in hypothalamus and amygdala, changes in hypothalamic potentials were more pronounced on the right side, whereas in the amygdala--on the left side. During tentative responses to emotional-neutral stimuli, the latency of EP increased. It was concluded that sensory reactivity of hypothalamus and amygdala increased in motivational-emotional states. It was supposed that the side of dominance of structure may be related both to the factors of active or passive behavior during fear and the genesis of emotion (motivational or informational).

  3. A network of amygdala connections predict individual differences in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Steven G; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2015-12-01

    In this study we demonstrate that the pattern of an amygdala-centric network contributes to individual differences in trait anxiety. Individual differences in trait anxiety were predicted using maximum likelihood estimates of amygdala structural connectivity to multiple brain targets derived from diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography on 72 participants. The prediction was performed using a stratified sixfold cross validation procedure using a regularized least square regression model. The analysis revealed a reliable network of regions predicting individual differences in trait anxiety. Higher trait anxiety was associated with stronger connections between the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, an area implicated in the generation of emotional reactions, and inferior temporal gyrus and paracentral lobule, areas associated with perceptual and sensory processing. In contrast, higher trait anxiety was associated with weaker connections between amygdala and regions implicated in extinction learning such as medial orbitofrontal cortex, and memory encoding and environmental context recognition, including posterior cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, trait anxiety is not only associated with reduced amygdala connectivity with prefrontal areas associated with emotion modulation, but also enhanced connectivity with sensory areas. This work provides novel anatomical insight into potential mechanisms behind information processing biases observed in disorders of emotion.

  4. Stimulus Intensity-dependent Modulations of Hippocampal Long-term Potentiation by Basolateral Amygdala Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zexuan eLi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing realization that the relationship between memory and stress/emotionality is complicated, and may include both memory enhancing and memory impairing aspects. It has been suggested that the underlying mechanisms involve amygdalar modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP. We recently reported that while in CA1 basolateral amygdala (BLA priming impaired theta stimulation induced LTP, it enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG. However, emotional and stressfull experiences were found to activate synaptic plasticity within the BLA, rasing the possibility that BLA modulation of other brain regions may be altered as well, as it may depend on the way the BLA is activated or is responding. In previous studies BLA priming stimulation was relatively weak (1V, 50 µs pulse duration. In the present study we assessed the effects of two stronger levels of BLA priming stimulation (1V or 2V, 100 µs pulse duration on LTP induction in hippocampal DG and CA1, in anesthetized rats. Results show that 1V-BLA priming stimulation enhanced but 2V-BLA priming stimulation impaired DG LTP; however, both levels of BLA priming stimulation impaired CA1 LTP, suggesting that modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by amygdala is dependent on the degree of amygdala activation. These findings suggest that plasticity induced within the amygdala, by stressful experiences induces a form of metaplasticity that would alter the way the amygdala may modulate memory-related processes in other brain areas, such as the hippocampus.

  5. Anatomy and aging of the amygdala and hippocampus in autism spectrum disorder: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study of Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Clodagh M; Deeley, Q; Daly, E M; Ecker, C; O'Brien, F M; Hallahan, B; Loth, E; Toal, F; Reed, S; Hales, S; Robertson, D M; Craig, M C; Mullins, D; Barker, G J; Lavender, T; Johnston, P; Murphy, K C; Murphy, D G

    2012-02-01

    It has been proposed that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal morphometry and development of the amygdala and hippocampus (AH). However, previous reports are inconsistent, perhaps because they included people of different ASD diagnoses, ages, and health. We compared, using magnetic resonance imaging, the in vivo anatomy of the AH in 32 healthy individuals with Asperger syndrome (12-47 years) and 32 healthy controls who did not differ significantly in age or IQ. We measured bulk (gray + white matter) volume of the AH using manual tracing (MEASURE). We first compared the volume of AH between individuals with Asperger syndrome and controls and then investigated age-related differences. We compared differences in anatomy before, and after, correcting for whole brain size. There was no significant between group differences in whole brain volume. However, individuals with Asperger syndrome had a significantly larger raw bulk volume of total (PAsperger syndrome, had a significant age-related increase in volume (r = 0.486, PAsperger syndrome have significant differences from controls in bulk volume and aging of the amygdala.

  6. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  7. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  8. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  9. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with osteomyelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dubravka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum generally appear on the upper extremities; most frequently they are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including osteomyelofibrosis. A response to systemic steroids is more pronounced than in classical form. Sometimes it may be the first sign of an underlying malignancy. Case report. We reported a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum developed during the course of a myeloid malignancy - osteomyelofibrosis. The lesions occurred after a minor trauma. Painful blistering plaques, with an elevated, bluish-gray border were located on the dorsal aspect of hands. No skin malignancy was found. The lesions resolved rapidly to systemic steroids. Conclusion. Considering the unusual clinical presentation which makes the diagnosis difficult, as well as the fact that atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum can be the first sign of malignancies, especially myeloproliferative ones, recognizing this entity enables timely guiding future investigations toward their prompt detection.

  10. Rare Posterior Pharyngeal Mass: Atypical Marginal Zone Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Güven, Mehmet; Varli, Ali F; Yilmaz, Mahmut S; Alponat, Selin

    2016-03-01

    Cases of posterior pharyngeal masses are quite rare, and are typically derived from schwannoma or encephalocele, or are of vascular or infectious origin. They are clinically significant due to their tendency to cause airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to present a rare atypical marginal hyperplasia case of a posterior pharyngeal wall mass. A 10-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with dyspnea. A plane-surfaced 4 × 3 × 3 cm mass was observed on the posterior pharyngeal wall upon physical examination. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. Following excision of material from the patient's mass, a pathologic diagnosis of atypical marginal zone hyperplasia was made. Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia of the posterior pharyngeal wall has not yet been reported in the literature. Marginal zone hyperplasia associated with a lymphoproliferative disease should be considered when making differential diagnoses of posterior pharyngeal wall masses.

  11. Atypical femur fractures associated with bisphosphonates: from prodrome to resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Sastre-Jala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical fractures related to the prolonged use of bisphosphonates are caused by low energy mechanisms and are characterized by oblique and transverse lines and frequent bilateralism. We present a clinical case of a patient who we believe illustrates, both in clinical and radiological aspects, the new definition of atypical femur fracture related to treatment using bisphosphonates treated conservatively and successfully with discharge and teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h. The appearance of painful symptoms in the upper thigh, especially if bilateral, in patients treated with bisphosphonates for long periods of time, makes it necessary to dismiss bone lesions that might otherwise suggest atypical fracture. In those cases where the fracture is incomplete, restoring bone metabolism through the administration of teriparatide 20 mcg/80 mcl s.c./24h could prevent displaced fractures.

  12. Atypical Imaging Findings in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

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    Zahra Afravi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The incidence of primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL is increasing. Timely diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to proper therapeutic management. There are some atypical imaging findings that may easily be misdiagnosed as other pathologic processes such as infectious and demyelinative diseases. As a result, histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for all suspected lesions."nPatients and Methods: In this research we studied 120 cases of PCNSL over the past 16 years. Some of them had atypical imaging findings, suggesting many differential diagnoses. Having said that, stereotactic biopsy was performed for all cases and the diagnosis was proved."nResults: We selected some interesting cases with atypical imaging findings of PCNSL, which were unlikely to be diagnosed without histopathologic evaluation. "nConclusion: PCNSL must be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for other brain lesions. Histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for prompt management.

  13. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  14. NMDA Receptor- and ERK-Dependent Histone Methylation Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Bidirectionally Regulate Fear Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Jarome, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Jordan; Lubin, Farah D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fear memory formation requires de novo gene transcription in the amygdala. We provide evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in the form of histone lysine methylation in the lateral amygdala (LA) are regulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling and involved in gene transcription changes necessary for fear memory…

  15. The effects of various lesions and knife-cuts on septal and amygdala kindling in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, R J; Paxinos, G; Mosher, J M; Kairiss, E W

    1988-06-28

    Large bilateral aspiration lesions of the hippocampus had no significant effect on septal kindling, whereas large bilateral DC lesions of the pyriform lobe resulted in a small but significant increase in the number of septal stimulations required to complete kindling. Bilateral aspiration lesions of the dorsal hippocampus or large bilateral DC lesions of the ventral hippocampus had no effect on amygdala kindling. Small DC lesions of the stria terminalis significantly facilitated amygdala kindling. Unilateral or bilateral ventral knife-cuts delivered in a coronal plane anterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with anterior pyriform structures, produced a small but nearly significant increase in the number of stimulations required for amygdala kindling. Similar cuts placed posterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with the hippocampus, significantly facilitated kindling. Cuts that were medially placed, to disrupt the ventral amygdala-fugal pathway, had no effect on amygdala kindling. These results show that the hippocampus is not critical for either septal or amygdala kindling. The pyriform lobe structures appear to play a facilitatory role in kindling, but none of the lesions or knife-cuts were capable of blocking or even severely retarding kindling.

  16. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  17. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic......-treated animals displayed several symptoms common to autism, among them impaired social interactions and increased repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, VPA-treated rats were more anxious and exhibited abnormally high and longer lasting fear memories, which were overgeneralized and harder to extinguish....... On the cellular level, the amygdala was hyperreactive to electrical stimulation and displayed boosted synaptic plasticity as well as a deficit in inhibition. We show for the first time enhanced, overgeneralized and resistant conditioned fear memories in an animal model of autism. Such hyperfear could be caused...

  18. Limbic encephalitis: Potential impact of adaptive autoimmune inflammation on neuronal circuits of the amygdala

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    Nico eMelzer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis is characterized by adaptive autoimmune inflammation of the gray matter structures of the limbic system. It has recently been identified as major cause of temporal lobe epilepsy accompanied by progressive declarative – mainly episodic – memory disturbance as well as a variety of rather poorly defined emotional and behavioral changes. While autoimmune inflammation of the hippocampus is likely to be responsible for declarative memory disturbance, consequences of autoimmune inflammation of the amygdala are largely unknown. The amygdala is central for the generation of adequate homoeostatic behavioral responses to emotionally significant external stimuli following processing in a variety of parallel neuronal circuits. Here, we hypothesize, that adaptive cellular and humoral autoimmunity may target and modulate distinct inhibitory or excitatory neuronal networks within the amygdala and thereby strongly impact processing of emotional stimuli and corresponding behavioral responses. This may explain some of the rather poorly understood neuropsychiatric symptoms in limbic encephalitis.

  19. Amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex responses to appearance-based and behavior-based person impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sean G; Gobbini, M I; Engell, Andrew D; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We explored the neural correlates of learning about people when the affective value of both facial appearance and behavioral information is manipulated. Participants were presented with faces that were either rated as high or low on trustworthiness. Subsequently, we paired these faces with positive, negative, or no behavioral information. Prior to forming face-behavior associations, a cluster in the right amygdala responded more strongly to untrustworthy than to trustworthy faces. During learning, a cluster in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) responded more strongly to faces paired with behaviors than faces not paired with behaviors. We also observed that the activity in the dmPFC was correlated with behavioral learning performance assessed after scanning. Interestingly, individual differences in the initial amygdala response to face trustworthiness prior to learning modulated the relationship between dmPFC activity and learning. This finding suggests that the activity of the amygdala can affect the interaction between dmPFC activity and learning.

  20. Volumetric MRI Analysis of the Amygdala and Hippocampus in Subjects with Major Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军; 陈军; 周义成; 张景峰; 杨波; 夏黎明; 王承缘

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the MRI volume of the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with major depression, quantitative MRI of the amygdala and hippocampus were studied in 22 patients with major depression and compared with 13 age-matched controls. The results showed that both groups exhibited similar significant hippocampal asymmetry (left smaller than right). The volume of the bilateral hippocampus was significantly smaller in the major depression group than that in control group. The patients had significant asymmetry of the amygdalar volumes (right smaller than left). No correlation was found between hippocampal volume abnormalities and ill duration. It was concluded that the hippocampus and amygdala within limbic-cortical networks may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depression.

  1. Concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Shu, Jocelyn; Hubbard, Alexa D; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-09-01

    This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine a novel aspect of emotion regulation in adolescent development: whether age predicts differences in both the concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response. In the first, active regulation, phase of the testing session, fMRI data were collected while 56 healthy individuals (age range: 10.50-22.92 years) reappraised aversive stimuli so as to diminish negative responses to them. After a short delay, the second, re-presentation, phase involved passively viewing the aversive images from the reappraisal task. During active regulation, older individuals showed greater drops in negative affect and inverse rostrolateral prefrontal-amygdala connectivity. During re-presentation, older individuals continued to show lasting reductions in the amygdala response to aversive stimuli they had previously reappraised, an effect mediated by rostrolateral PFC. These data suggest that one source of heightened emotionality in adolescence is a diminished ability to cognitively down-regulate aversive reactions.

  2. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  3. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; McDonald, Craig G; Johnson, Luke R

    2011-01-12

    Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram) is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  4. Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0474 TITLE: Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals with Autism ...30th/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0474 Atypical Pupillary  Light  Reflex in Individuals with  Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER...20,  p< .00005 in all instances].  15. SUBJECT TERMS Pupillary light reflex, autism , functional MRI 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  5. Critical appraisal of eculizumab for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Lilian M Pereira; Langman, Craig B

    2016-01-01

    The biology of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome has been shown to involve inability to limit activation of the alternative complement pathway, with subsequent damage to systemic endothelial beds and the vasculature, resulting in the prototypic findings of a thrombotic microangiopathy. Central to this process is the formation of the terminal membrane attack complex C5b-9. Recently, application of a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to C5, eculizumab, became available to treat patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, replacing plasma exchange or infusion as primary therapy. This review focuses on the evidence, based on published clinical trials, case series, and case reports, on the efficacy and safety of this approach.

  6. Atypicality in presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Biswaranjan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is the most serious of acute neurological side effects produced by antipsychotic medication, characterized by hyperthermia, rigidity, altered consciousness and autonomic dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies from 0.4-1.4%. NMS is usually seen in treatment with high potency typical antipsychotics and very rarely with atypical antipsychotics. However, NMS cases have been reported with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. The presentations of NMS have often varied, and we report another atypicality in presentation of NMS due to olanzapine use.

  7. Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Use of Clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo-Florez Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine. In the absence of fever and clinical improvement, the patient is considered to have an atypical presentation of this disease.

  8. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  9. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Cortex-Amygdala Transition Zone in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The transitional zone between the ventral part of the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, named the cortex-amygdala transition zone (CxA), shows two differential features that allow its identification as a particular structure. First, it receives dense cholinergic and dopaminergic innervations as compared to the adjacent piriform cortex and amygdala, and second, it receives projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. In this work we have studied the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the CxA, which are mainly unknown, by using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold and the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextranamine. The results show that the CxA receives a relatively restricted set of intratelencephalic connections, originated mainly by the olfactory system and basal forebrain, with minor afferents from the amygdala. The only relevant extratelencephalic afference originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The efferent projections of the CxA reciprocate the inputs from the piriform cortex and olfactory amygdala. In addition, the CxA projects densely to the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the olfactory tubercle. The extratelencephalic projections of the CxA are very scarce, and target mainly hypothalamic structures. The pattern of connections of the CxA suggests that it is indeed a transitional area between the piriform cortex and the cortical amygdala. Double labeling with choline acetyltransferase indicates that the afferent projection from the basal forebrain is the origin of its distinctive cholinergic innervation, and double labeling with dopamine transporter shows that the projection from the VTA is the source of dopaminergic innervation. These connectivity and neurochemical features, together with the fact that it receives vomeronasal in addition to olfactory information, suggest that the CxA may be involved in processing olfactory information endowed with relevant biological meaning, such as odors

  10. Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Anne Rabinak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is often characterized by aberrant amygdala activation and functional abnormalities in corticolimbic circuitry, as elucidated by functional neuroimaging. These ‘activation’ studies have primarily relied on tasks designed to induce region-specific, and task-dependent brain responses in limbic (e.g., amygdala and paralimbic brain areas through the use of evocative probes such as personalized traumatic script-driven imagery and other negatively valenced emotional stimuli (e.g., threatening faces, aversive scenes, traumatic cues. It remains unknown if these corticolimbic circuit abnormalities exist at baseline or ‘at rest’, in the absence of fear/anxiety-related provocation and outside the context of task demands. Recently, a new approach to studying functional interconnectivity of brain regions derived from ‘resting state’ scans has elucidated systems-level neural network function that may be obscured by activation tasks and may help inform functional interpretations of brain activation patterns. Little is known about whether altered amygdala connectivity patterns exist at rest in PTSD. Therefore the primary aim of the present experiment was to investigate aberrant amygdala functional connectivity patterns in combat-related PTSD patients during resting state. Seventeen Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF veterans with combat-related PTSD (PTSD group and seventeen combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans without PTSD (Combat-Exposed Control [CEC] group underwent an 8-minute resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Using conventional methods to generate connectivity maps, we extracted the time series from an anatomically-derived amygdala ‘seed’ region and conducted voxel-wise correlation analyses across the entire brain to search for group differences (between PTSD and CEC groups in amygdala functional connectivity, which we hypothesized would localize to the medial

  11. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces.

  12. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA and centromedial amygdala (CMA in the brain after 36 h of TSD.Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9 ± 2.3 years (range, 18-28 years were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of TSD.TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]. Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and right precentral gyrus.These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD.

  13. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  14. Blockade of glutamatergic transmission in the primate basolateral amygdala suppresses active behavior without altering social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Wellman, Laurie L; Malkova, Ludise

    2017-04-01

    The amygdala is an integrator of affective processing, and a key component of a network regulating social behavior. While decades of lesion studies in nonhuman primates have shown alterations in social interactions after amygdala damage, acute manipulations of the amygdala in primates have been underexplored. We recently reported (Wellman, Forcelli, Aguilar, & Malkova, 2016) that acute pharmacological inhibition of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) or the central nucleus of the amygdala increased affiliative social interactions in experimental dyads of macaques; this was achieved through microinjection of a GABA-A receptor agonist. Prior studies in rodents have shown similar effects achieved by blocking NMDA receptors or AMPA receptors within the BLA. Here, we sought to determine the role of these receptor systems in the primate BLA in the context of social behavior. In familiar dyads, we microinjected the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7) or the AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) and observed behaviors and social interactions in the immediate postinjection period. In striking contrast with our prior report using GABA agonists, and in contrast with prior reports in rodents using glutamate antagonists, we found that neither NMDA nor AMPA blockade increase social interaction. Both treatments, however, were associated with decreases in locomotion and manipulation and increases in passive behavior. These data suggest that local blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission in BLA is not the functional equivalent of local activation of GABAergic signaling, and raise interesting questions regarding the functional microcircuitry of the nonhuman primate amygdala in the context of social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Margarita; Abellán, Antonio; Legaz, Isabel; Rubenstein, John L R; Puelles, Luis; Medina, Loreta

    2008-01-01

    The amygdala controls emotional and social behavior and regulates instinctive reflexes such as defense and reproduction by way of descending projections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. The descending amygdalar projections are suggested to show a cortico-striato-pallidal organization similar to that of the basal ganglia (Swanson [2000] Brain Res 886:113-164). To test this model we investigated the embryological origin and molecular properties of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdalar subdivisions, which constitute major sources of descending projections. We analyzed the distribution of key regulatory genes that show restricted expression patterns within the subpallium (Dlx5, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx7/8, Lhx9, Shh, and Gbx1), as well as genes considered markers for specific subpallial neuronal subpopulations. Our results indicate that most of the centromedial and extended amygdala is formed by cells derived from multiple subpallial subdivisions. Contrary to a previous suggestion, only the central--but not the medial--amygdala derives from the lateral ganglionic eminence and has striatal-like features. The medial amygdala and a large part of the extended amygdala (including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) consist of subdivisions or cell groups that derive from subpallial, pallial (ventral pallium), or extratelencephalic progenitor domains. The subpallial part includes derivatives from the medial ganglionic eminence, the anterior peduncular area, and possibly a novel subdivision, called here commissural preoptic area, located at the base of the septum and related to the anterior commissure. Our study provides a molecular and morphological foundation for understanding the complex embryonic origins and adult organization of the centromedial and extended amygdala.

  16. The Composition of Business Establishment in Smaller and Larger Communities in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1996 there was a large number of business establishment starts in smaller and larger communities in Canada, indicating significant business establishment development in the post recessionary period of the 1990s. Between 1993 and 1996 smaller communities had a larger ratio of smaller establishments (under 10 employees) to population than larger communities. In today's economy, new establishments tend to have fewer employees (under 10 employees) and are located in the service a...

  17. An Explanation for the Role of the Amygdala in Aesthetic Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that the top-down guidance of feature-based attention is the basis for the involvement of the amygdala in various tasks requiring emotional decision-making (Jacobs et al., 2012a). Aesthetic judgments are correlated with particular visual features and can be considered emotional in nature (Jacobs et al., 2016). Moreover, we have previously shown that various aesthetic judgments result in observers preferentially attending to different visual features (Jacobs et al., 2010). Here, we argue that—together—this explains why the amygdalae become active during aesthetic judgments of visual materials. We discuss potential implications and predictions of this theory that can be tested experimentally. PMID:28303095

  18. A child with myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11) misdiagnosed as atypical opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivenes, Bergitte; Born, Alfred Peter; Ek, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: DYT11 is an autosomal dominant inherited movement disorder characterized by myoclonus and dystonia. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a case with atypical symptoms and with episodes of ataxia and myoclonus preceded by infections. Atypical presentation of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome...

  19. Treatment of atypical trigeminal neuralgia with microvascular decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the methods for achieving pain relief in patients with atypical trigeminal neuralgia (TN using microvascular decompression (MVD. Study Design and Settings: Retrospective study of 26 patients treated during the years 2000 to 2004. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients in whom vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was identified by high definition magnetic resonance tomographic angiography (MRTA were treated with MVD for atypical TN in our department. Clinical presentations, surgical findings and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In this study, single trigeminal division was involved in only 2 patients (8% and two or three divisions in the other 24 patients (92%. Of prime importance is the fact that in 46.2% of the patients, several conflicting vessels were found in association. Location of the conflicts around the circumference of the trigeminal root was supero-medial to the root in 53.5%, supero-lateral in 30.8% and inferior in 15.7%. MVD for atypical TN resulted in complete pain relief in 50% of the patients with complete decompression, partial pain relief in 30.8% and poor pain relief or pain recurrence in 19.2% of the patients without complete decompression postoperatively. Conclusions: Complete decompression of the entire trigeminal root plays an important role in achieving pain relief in patients with atypical TN with MVD.

  20. Atypical pathogens in community acquired pneumonia of Egyptian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deraz TE; El Sahriggy SA; Shaheen MA; Motawea AA; Gomaa HE; Fawzy SH; Mohamed AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diagnosis of atypical pathogens as an aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in chil-dren is a challenge world wide.The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of atypical pathogens as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in Egyptian children.Methods:From 50 children (with age ranged from 2 months to 1 2 years)hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia;respiratory sputum samples were collected by induction or spontaneously.All samples were subjected to conventional cultures and Polymer-ase Chain Reaction(PCR)technique DNA extraction for identification of Mycoplasma,Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila.Results:A definite pathogen was identified in 78% of the studied children;30%typical bacteria,8% candida albicans and atypical bacteria in 40% of the pneumonic children.Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated from 26% of the children while Mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 1 4%, whereas Legionella pneumophilla was not isolated at all.Conclusion:Atypical pathogens are evident as a po-tential aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia in (1 3.3%)of young and (80%)of older Egyptian chil-dren.

  1. Sonographic findings of typical and atypical scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Daniel N; Jensen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This review article illustrates sonographic findings in the setting of accidental and nonaccidental scrotal trauma. Although sonographic findings may be irrespective of the type of trauma, the goals of sonographic evaluation are similar in both atypical and typical mechanisms of scrotal injury. Familiarity with findings such as disruption of testicular integrity or vascularity facilitates prompt diagnosis and plays a critical role in clinical management.

  2. Terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, C.M.; Licht, C.; Muus, P.; Greenbaum, L.A.; Babu, S.; Bedrosian, C.; Bingham, C.; Cohen, D.J.; Delmas, Y.; Douglas, K.; Eitner, F.; Feldkamp, T.; Fouque, D.; Furman, R.R.; Gaber, O.; Herthelius, M.; Hourmant, M.; Karpman, D.; Lebranchu, Y.; Mariat, C.; Menne, J.; Moulin, B.; Nurnberger, J.; Ogawa, M.; Remuzzi, G.; Richard, T.; Sberro-Soussan, R.; Severino, B.; Sheerin, N.S.; Trivelli, A.; Zimmerhackl, L.B.; Goodship, T.; Loirat, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a genetic, life-threatening, chronic disease of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Plasma exchange or infusion may transiently maintain normal levels of hematologic measures but does not treat the underlying systemic disease. METHODS: We

  3. Transposition with atypical coronary pattern: the Aubert technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernández, Ana; González-López, María T; Gil-Jaurena, Juan M

    2017-03-06

    The arterial switch operation is currently the gold standard technique for repair of transposition of the great arteries. Some atypical coronary patterns such as intramural, interarterial, and a unique posterior button are associated with more complexity and surgical risk. We report a successful Aubert operation for transposition of the great arteries associated with a single and interarterial coronary artery arising from a posterior sinus.

  4. Late atypical atrial flutter after ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raquel; Primo, João; Adão, Luís; Gonzaga, Anabela; Gonçalves, Helena; Santos, Rui; Fonseca, Paulo; Santos, José; Gama, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac surgery for structural heart disease (often involving the left atrium) and radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation have led to an increased incidence of regular atrial tachycardias, often presenting as atypical flutters. This type of flutter is particularly common after pulmonary vein isolation, especially after extensive atrial ablation including linear lesions and/or defragmentation. The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old man, with no relevant medical history, referred for a cardiology consultation in 2009 for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. After failure of antiarrhythmic therapy, he underwent catheter ablation, with criteria of acute success. Three years later he again suffered palpitations and atypical atrial flutter was documented. The electrophysiology study confirmed the diagnosis of atypical left flutter and reappearance of electrical activity in the right inferior pulmonary vein. This vein was again ablated successfully and there has been no arrhythmia recurrence to date. In an era of frequent catheter ablation it is essential to understand the mechanism of this arrhythmia and to recognize such atypical flutters.

  5. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  6. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  7. Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, Srinivasan [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrookes Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hills Road, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Polson, Alexander; Griffiths, Meryl [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Morris, Paul; Malata, Charles [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bearcroft, Philip W.P. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We present a case of giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour (OFMT) of soft tissue, occurring in the calf, in a 77-year-old woman. The patient presented with a history of bleeding ulcer over a calf lump that had been present for over 4 years. Clinical presentation, radiological features and histopathologic findings are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    A stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas was made. The aim was to investigate whether this method could discriminate between these two meningeal neoplasms. The difference was significant and it was moreover seen that there was no overlap between the two grou...

  9. Atypical Presentation of Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of Superficial Peroneal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinsa, Baljinder Singh; Lidder, Surjit; Abbasian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare presentation in the foot. An accurate diagnosis is key, with magnetic resonance imaging findings considered definitive. The management is dependent on the symptoms. We present an atypical presentation of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the superficial peroneal nerve and discuss the current published data.

  10. The Cost-Effectiveness of Atypicals in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, Bart; Buskens, Erik; Botteman, Marc; Caleo, Sue; Ingham, Mike; Damen, Joep; de Charro, Frank; van Hout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), recommended atypical antipsychotics over conventional ones for first-line schizophrenia treatment, based on their lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms. Objective: To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of

  11. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    unicortical trephine defects was tested in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia using 3 different membranes. The critical-size defect in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm, because control defects 8 mm in diameter healed spontaneously. However, it is anatomically not possible to create defects larger...... than 8 mm in an adult Copenhagen White rabbit tibia....

  12. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  13. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  14. 78 FR 73383 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... payday lending markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank...

  15. Comparative distribution of relaxin-3 inputs and calcium-binding protein-positive neurons in rat amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio N Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in mediating complex behaviors are being rapidly elucidated using various newly developed and powerful anatomical and molecular techniques, providing insights into the neural basis for anxiety disorders, depression, addiction, and dysfunctional social behaviors. Many of these behaviors and associated physiological processes involve the activation of the amygdala in conjunction with cortical and hippocampal circuits. Ascending subcortical projections provide modulatory inputs to the extended amygdala and its related nodes (or ‘hubs’ within these key circuits. One such input arises from the nucleus incertus (NI in the tegmentum, which sends amino acid- and peptide-containing projections throughout the forebrain. Notably, a distinct population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, and relaxin-3 signaling has been implicated in the modulation of reward/motivation and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rodents via actions within the extended amygdala. Thus, a detailed description of the relaxin-3 innervation of the extended amygdala would provide an anatomical framework for an improved understanding of NI and relaxin-3 modulation of these and other specific amygdala-related functions. Therefore, in this study, we examined the distribution of NI projections and relaxin-3-positive elements (axons/fibers/terminals within the amygdala, relative to the distribution of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin, calretinin and/or calbindin. Anterograde tracer injections into the NI revealed a topographic distribution of NI efferents within the amygdala that was near identical to the distribution of relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers. Highest densities of anterogradely-labeled elements and relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, medial divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and in the endopiriform

  16. Supervised clustering of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish atypical and non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Ballester, Marcos; Cortez, Annie; Gonin, Julie; Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Daraï, Emile; Graesslin, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The risk of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) progressing into endometrioid endometrial cancer ranges from 1% for simple EH without atypia (EHWA) to 46.2% for atypical EH (AEH). Differentiation between both entities is crucial to determine optimal management. As preoperative diagnosis of AEH can be difficult, we aimed to establish clusters of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish EHWA from AEH. We studied 13 immunohistochemical markers (steroid receptors, pro/anti-apoptotic proteins, metalloproteinases (MMP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), CD44 isoforms) known for their role in endometrial pathology. Using supervised clustering, we determined clusters of co-expressed proteins which contributed the most in differentiating EHWA from AEH. From 39 tissue samples (17 EHWA and 22 AEH), we found three clusters of co-expressed proteins: Cluster 1 included two proteins (over-expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and under-expression of progesterone receptor (PR) B in AEH compared to EHWA); Cluster 2: an ER, PR A, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 over-expression and a PR B and TIMP-2 under-expression; Cluster 3: over-expression of ER and MMP-7 and under-expression of PR B and TIMP-2. AEH can be accurately distinguished from EHWA using a supervised clustering of immunohistochemical markers. This promising approach could be useful to improve the preoperative diagnosis of EH.

  17. Understanding A-type supergiants. I. Ultraviolet and visible spectral atlas of A-type supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Verdugo, E; Gómez de Castro, A I

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series whose aim is to perform a systematic study of A-type supergiant atmospheres and winds. Here we present a spectral atlas of 41 A-supergiants observed by us in high and medium resolution in the visible and ultraviolet. The atlas consists of profiles of the H alpha , H beta , H gamma , H delta , H epsilon , Ca II (H and K), Na I (D1 and D2), Mg II/sub 4481/, Mg II uv1 and Fe II uv1, uv2, uv3, uv62, uv63, uv161 lines for 41 stars with spectral types ranging from B9 to A9 and luminosity classes Ia, Iab and Ib, and provides the basic data for a thoughtful study of these stars. The overall characteristics of the sample as well as the data reduction procedures are described. We also present some examples of spectral variability. Figures 1-3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.com. (27 refs).

  18. Relationship between remnant hippocampus and amygdala and memory outcomes after stereotactic surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikova H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hana Malikova,1,2,* Lenka Kramska,3,* Zdenek Vojtech,4,5 Jan Sroubek,6 Jiri Lukavsky,7 Roman Liscak8 1Department of Radiology, Na Homolce Hospital, 2Institute of Anatomy, Second Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, Na Homolce Hospital, 5Department of Neurology, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, 7Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 8Department of Radiation and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Mesial temporal structures play an important role in human memory. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, seizure activity is generated from the same structures. Surgery is the definitive treatment for medically intractable MTLE. In addition to standard temporal lobe microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE is used as an alternative MTLE treatment. While memory impairments after standard epilepsy surgery are well known, it has been shown that memory decline is not a feature of SAHE. The aim of the present study was to correlate the volume of the remnant hippocampus and amygdala in patients treated by SAHE with changes in memory parameters.Materials and methods: Thirty-seven MTLE patients treated by SAHE (ten right, 27 left were included. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations including hippocampal and amygdalar volumetry and neuropsychological evaluation preoperatively and 1 year after surgery.Results: Using Spearman correlation analyses, larger left-sided hippocampal reductions were associated with lower verbal memory performance (ρ=-0.46; P=0.02. On the contrary, improvement of global memory quotient (MQ was positively correlated with larger right-sided hippocampal reduction (ρ=0.66; P=0

  19. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  20. Function of the centromedial amygdala in reward devaluation and open-field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K; Glueck, A C; Annicchiarico, I; Papini, M R

    2015-09-10

    The present research aimed at determining the role played by the amygdala in reward devaluation using transient inactivation induced by lidocaine microinfusions into the centromedial region. Two situations involving reward devaluation were tested in rats: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC). In cSNC, rats exposed to a downshift from 32% to 4% sucrose consume less 4% sucrose than rats always exposed to 4% sucrose. Extensive evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the cSNC situation is accompanied by negative emotion. In ANC, rats consume less 4% sucrose when each session is closely followed by access to 32% sucrose rather than by 4% sucrose. Evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the ANC situation does not involve negative emotions; rather, ANC appears to involve Pavlovian anticipation of the higher value solution. To test the effects of lidocaine microinfusions in a situation known to induce negative emotion, but unrelated to reward devaluation, animals were also exposed to a lighted open field. Centromedial amygdala inactivation reduced the cSNC effect and increased exploratory behavior in the open field, both effects consistent with a reduction in negative emotional state. However, no detectable effects of amygdala inactivation were observed in the ANC situation. These results suggest that, first, the function of the amygdala is not unique to reward devaluation and, second, it is concerned with tagging the devaluation experience with aversive valence.

  1. GABAA-mediated inhibition of basolateral amygdala blocks reward devaluation in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Laurie L; Gale, Karen; Malkova, Ludise

    2005-05-04

    Amygdala ablation disrupts reinforcer "devaluation" in monkeys (Malkova et al., 1997). Here, we tested the hypothesis that transient inactivation of amygdala by the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (MUS), specifically during the period of reward satiation, would have a similar effect. Six pigtail macaques were trained on a visual object discrimination task in which 60 objects were associated with one of two specific food rewards. Subsequently, we evaluated the selective satiation-induced change (devaluation) in object preference in probe sessions. We also examined the effect of the amygdala inactivation during the probe sessions to determine whether the inactivation limited to the testing period (and not during the satiation period) is sufficient to impair the expression of reinforcer devaluation. MUS infusions were aimed at basolateral amygdala (BLA) in a pseudorandomized design; each monkey received MUS or saline either before or after selective satiation with each of the two food rewards (six infusions total). Under the control (saline) condition, the monkeys significantly shifted their preference from objects representing the sated food rewards to those representing the nonsated rewards (30% change). When BLA was inactivated during selective satiation (i.e., MUS infused before satiation), this devaluation effect was blocked. In contrast, MUS infusion after satiation, so that it was present just during the testing period, did not impair the shift in object preference (27% change). Thus, BLA is necessary for the appropriate registration of the change in the reinforcer value but not for the subsequent expression of the devaluation involving its transfer to secondary reinforcers.

  2. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices.

  3. Menstrual cycle-related changes in amygdala morphology are associated with changes in stress sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, L.; Wingen, G.A. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Backstrom, T.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Premenstrual increases in negative mood are thought to arise from changes in gonadal hormone levels, presumably by influencing mood regulation and stress sensitivity. The amygdala plays a major role in this context, and animal studies suggest that gonadal hormones influence its morphology. Here, we

  4. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano K. Jornada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group. RESULTS: When evaluated immediately, 3h, or 24h after injection, ouabain in doses of 10-2 and 10-3 M does not alter BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus. However, when evaluated seven days after injection, ouabain in 10-2 and 10-3 M, showed a significant reduction in BDNF levels in both brain regions evaluated. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we propose that the ouabain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala when assessed seven days after administration, supporting the Na/K ATPase hypothesis for bipolar illness.

  5. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  6. Tolerance to anticonvulsant effects of diazepam, clonazepam, and clobazam in amygdala-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, H C; Tietz, E I; Chiu, T H

    1989-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are effective anticonvulsants, but long-term clinical usefulness is limited by development of tolerance. Tolerance to the actions of three prototype anticonvulsant benzodiazepines (BZDs)--diazepam (DZP), clonazepam (CZP), and clobazam (CLB)--was studied in amygdala-kindled rats. Fully kindled rats were dosed three times daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Amygdala stimulation was given 30 min after drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 of chronic treatment and then three times weekly. During treatment, tolerance was observed as a loss of drug effect to suppress behavioral and EEG manifestations of seizure activity. Seizure activity remained stable in rats treated with vehicle. Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects developed most rapidly during CLB treatment and most slowly during CZP treatment. Tolerance to the motor impairment caused by the drugs developed more rapidly. Assay of the amount of drug in brain extracts, using a BZD receptor assay, showed that tolerance was functional, not metabolic. Doubling the dose did not readily restore full anticonvulsant activity. The response to amygdala stimulation 24 h after treatment was stopped showed no residual BZD effect, but there was a rebound in duration of some seizure measures in rats that had been treated with CLB or DZP. Retesting 48 h after treatment was stopped showed that rats were still tolerant. The amygdala-kindled rat is a reliable and sensitive model for studying long-term actions of anticonvulsant BZDs.

  7. The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  8. Reprint of: The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  9. Facilitation of Memory for Extinction of Drug-Induced Conditioned Reward: Role of Amygdala and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason P.; Packard, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    eThese experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP.…

  10. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  11. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  12. Neonatal Amygdala Lesions and Stress Responsivity in Rats : Relevance to schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    "Stress responsiveness in an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia” Rats bearing lesions of the amygdala made on postnatal day 7 (D7 AMX) model aspects of neurodevelopmental psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia. Adult D7 AMX rats display impaired pre-pulse inhibition, impaired behaviora

  13. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, th

  14. Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Omura, Kazufumi; Constable, R Todd; Canli, Turhan

    2007-04-01

    The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (AC) have been associated with anxiety and mood disorders, for which trait neuroticism is a risk factor. Prior work has not related individual differences in amygdala or subgenual AC activation with neuroticism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate changes in blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and subgenual AC associated with trait neuroticism in a nonclinical sample of 36 volunteers during an emotional conflict task. Neuroticism correlated positively with amygdala and subgenual AC activation during trials of high emotional conflict, compared with trials of low emotional conflict. The subscale of neuroticism that reflected the anxious form of neuroticism (N1) explained a greater proportion of variance within the observed clusters than the subscale of neuroticism that reflected the depressive form of neuroticism (N3). Using a task that is sensitive to individual differences in the detection of emotional conflict, the authors have provided a neural correlate of the link between neuroticism and anxiety and mood disorders. This effect was driven to a greater extent by the anxious relative to the depressive characteristics of neuroticism and may constitute vulnerability markers for anxiety-related disorders.

  15. A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

  16. Human amygdala reactivity is diminished by the beta-noradrenergic antagonist propranolol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlemann, R.; Walter, H.; Rehme, A. K.; Kukolja, J.; Santoro, S. C.; Schmidt, C.; Schnell, K.; Musshoff, F.; Keysers, C.; Maier, W.; Kendrick, K. M.; Onur, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Animal models of anxiety disorders emphasize the crucial role of locus ceruleus-noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) signaling, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interactions in the expression of anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress. Despite clinical evidence for the efficacy

  17. Kindling-Induced Changes in Plasticity of the Rat Amygdala and Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Manja; Siegmund, Herbert; Pape, Hans-Christian; Albrecht, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often accompanied by interictal behavioral abnormalities, such as fear and memory impairment. To identify possible underlying substrates, we analyzed long-term synaptic plasticity in two relevant brain regions, the lateral amygdala (LA) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, in the kindling model of epilepsy. Wistar…

  18. Optogenetic Activation of Presynaptic Inputs in Lateral Amygdala Forms Associative Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Hyung-Su, Kim; Jeong, Yire; Augustine, George J.; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we…

  19. The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S E; Norbury, R; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Mannie, Z M; Harmer, C J; Munafò, M R

    2013-04-01

    The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been widely regarded as a potential genetic risk factor for affective disorders. Consistent with this, this polymorphism has been associated with altered amygdala responses at rest and in response to aversive stimuli. However, the strength of this association remains uncertain. We sought to synthesize existing data on the association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and amygdala activation and ascertain the strength of evidence for this association. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to data from relevant published studies and unpublished data sets to obtain an estimate of the likely magnitude of effect of any association. The large number of studies allowed us to apply a formal test of publication bias, as well as explore the impact of various study-level characteristics on the magnitude of the observed effect size. Our meta-analysis indicated that there is a statistically significant but small effect of 5-HTTLPR on left and right amygdala activity. However, there was considerable between-study heterogeneity, which could not be fully accounted for by the study design and sample characteristics that we investigated. In addition, there was evidence of excess statistical significance among published studies. These findings indicate that the association between the 5-HTTLPR and amygdala activation is smaller than originally thought, and that the majority of previous studies have been considerably under powered to reliably demonstrate an effect of this size.

  20. Amygdala regulates risk of predation in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, June-Seek; Kim, Jeansok J

    2010-12-14

    In a natural environment, foragers constantly face the risk of encountering predators. Fear is a defensive mechanism evolved to protect animals from danger by balancing the animals' needs for primary resources with the risk of predation, and the amygdala is implicated in mediating fear responses. However, the functions of fear and amygdala in foraging behavior are not well characterized because of the technical difficulty in quantifying prey-predator interaction with real (unpredictable) predators. Thus, the present study investigated the rat's foraging behavior in a seminaturalistic environment when confronted with a predator-like robot programmed to surge toward the animal seeking food. Rats initially fled into the nest and froze (demonstrating fear) and then cautiously approached and seized the food as a function of decreasing nest-food and increasing food-robot distances. The likelihood of procuring food increased and decreased via lesioning/inactivating and disinhibiting the amygdala, respectively. These results indicate that the amygdala bidirectionally regulates risk behavior in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment.

  1. Effective amygdala-prefrontal connectivity predicts individual differences in successful emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Baudewig, Juergen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-12-20

    The ability to voluntarily regulate our emotional response to threatening and highly arousing stimuli by using cognitive reappraisal strategies is essential for our mental and physical well-being. This might be achieved by prefrontal brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, IFG) down-regulating activity in the amygdala. It is unknown, to which degree effective connectivity within the emotion-regulation network is linked to individual differences in reappraisal skills. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we examined changes in inter-regional connectivity between the amygdala and IFG with other brain regions during reappraisal of emotional responses and used emotion regulation success as an explicit regressor. During down-regulation of emotion, reappraisal success correlated with effective connectivity between IFG with dorsolateral, dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC). During up-regulation of emotion, effective coupling between IFG with anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventromedial PFC as well as the amygdala correlated with reappraisal success. Activity in the amygdala covaried with activity in lateral and medial prefrontal regions during the up-regulation of emotion and correlated with reappraisal success. These results suggest that successful reappraisal is linked to changes in effective connectivity between two systems, prefrontal cognitive control regions and regions crucially involved in emotional evaluation.

  2. Inhibiton of neurons in the amygdala by dorsal raphe stimulation: mediation through a direct serotonergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R Y; Aghajanian, G K

    1977-01-14

    This study presents data showing that the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has a marked inhibitory influence upon neurons in the amygdala and that this inhibitory effect is mediated by a direct DRN-amygdala serotonergic pathway. The evidence may be briefly summarized as follows:(1) on the same amygdaloid cells, both iontophoresis of serotonin (5-HT) and electrical stimulation of the DRN markedly inhibited spontaneous single unit activities; (2) the latency of DRN-induced inhibition was relatively short and is compatible with the conduction velocities (which were determined by antidromic activation of the 5-HT pathway) of unmyelinated 5-HT fibers; (3) destruction of 5-HT projections by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or pharmacological depletion of 5-HT by parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) prevented the inhibitory responsed to DRN stimulation in the great majority of cells studied; (4) in PCPA-pretreated animals, injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) reversed the PCPA effect, restoring the responses of amygdaloid cells to DRN stimulation. In the amygdala, the presumptive 5-HT antagonists which we tested did not block the inhibitory effects of 5-HT except that intravenously administered LSD blocked the inhibitory responses produced by submaximal DRN stimulation. The implications of these results for the possible functions of 5-HT in the amygdala is discussed.

  3. Are you gonna leave me? Separation anxiety is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kaufmann, Carolin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-02-01

    The core feature of separation anxiety is excessive distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment. So far little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of separation anxiety. Therefore, we investigated functional (amygdala responsiveness and functional connectivity during threat-related emotion processing) and structural (grey matter volume) imaging markers associated with separation anxiety as measured with the Relationship Scale Questionnaire in a large sample of healthy adults from the Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (N = 320). We used a robust emotional face-matching task and acquired high-resolution structural images for morphometric analyses using voxel-based morphometry. The main results were positive associations of separation anxiety scores with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces as well as increased amygdala grey matter volumes. A functional connectivity analysis revealed positive associations between separation anxiety and functional coupling of the amygdala with areas involved in visual processes and attention, including several occipital and somatosensory areas. Taken together, the results suggest a higher emotional involvement in subjects with separation anxiety while watching negative facial expressions, and potentially secondary neuro-structural adaptive processes. These results could help to understand and treat (adult) separation anxiety.

  4. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-02-02

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity.

  5. Modeling a Negative Response Bias in the Human Amygdala by Noradrenergic-Glucocorticoid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukolja, Juraj; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Keysers, Christian; Klingmueller, Dietrich; Maier, Wolfgang; Fink, Gereon R.; Hurlemann, Rene

    2008-01-01

    An emerging theme in the neuroscience of emotion is the question of how acute stress shapes, and distorts, social-emotional behavior. The prevailing neurocircuitry models of social-emotional behavior emphasize the central role of the amygdala. Acute stress leads to increased central levels of norepi

  6. The changing face of emotion: age-related patterns of amygdala activation to salient faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, R.M.; Evans, J.W.; Morris, D.; Lewis, M.D.; Taylor, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related differences in the amygdala and other nodes of face-processing networks in response to facial expression and familiarity. fMRI data were analyzed from 31 children (3.5–8.5 years) and 14 young adults (18–33 years) who viewed pictures of familiar (mothers) an

  7. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  8. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  9. Structural Variation within the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Predict Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

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    Brittany Shane Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that lesions to regions involved in social and emotional cognition disrupt socioemotional processing and memory. We investigated how structural variation of regions involved in socioemotional memory (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], amygdala, as opposed to a region implicated in explicit memory (hippocampus, affected memory for impressions in young and older adults. Anatomical MRI scans for fifteen young and fifteen older adults were obtained and reconstructed to gather information about cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Young adults had greater amygdala and hippocampus volumes than old, and thicker left vmPFC than old, although right vmPFC thickness did not differ across the age groups. Participants formed behavior-based impressions and responded to interpersonally meaningful, social but interpersonally irrelevant, or non-social prompts, and completed a memory test. Results showed that greater left amygdala volume predicted enhanced overall memory for impressions in older but not younger adults. Increased right vmPFC thickness in older, but not younger, adults correlated with enhanced memory for impressions formed in the interpersonally meaningful context. Hippocampal volume was not predictive of social memory in young or older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of structural variation in regions linked to socioemotional processing in the retention of impressions with age, and suggest that the amygdala and vmPFC play an integral role when encoding and retrieving social information.

  10. Back to basics: Making predictions in the orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit.

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    Sharpe, Melissa J; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Underlying many complex behaviors are simple learned associations that allow humans and animals to anticipate the consequences of their actions. The orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala are two regions which are crucial to this process. In this review, we go back to basics and discuss the literature implicating both these regions in simple paradigms requiring the development of associations between stimuli and the motivationally-significant outcomes they predict. Much of the functional research surrounding this ability has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala play very similar roles in making these predictions. However, electrophysiological data demonstrates critical differences in the way neurons in these regions respond to predictive cues, revealing a difference in their functional role. On the basis of these data and theories that have come before, we propose that the basolateral amygdala is integral to updating information about cue-outcome contingencies whereas the orbitofrontal cortex is critical to forming a wider network of past and present associations that are called upon by the basolateral amygdala to benefit future learning episodes. The tendency for orbitofrontal neurons to encode past and present contingencies in distinct neuronal populations may facilitate its role in the formation of complex, high-dimensional state-specific associations.

  11. Abnormal Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Facial Expressions in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

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    Garrett, Amy S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Howe, Meghan E.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Adleman, Nancy E.; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late…

  12. Neuropeptide S-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission enforces subthreshold theta oscillations within the lateral amygdala.

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    Susanne Meis

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide S (NPS receptor system modulates neuronal circuit activity in the amygdala in conjunction with fear, anxiety and the expression and extinction of previously acquired fear memories. Using in vitro brain slice preparations of transgenic GAD67-GFP (Δneo mice, we investigated the effects of NPS on neural activity in the lateral amygdala as a key region for the formation and extinction of fear memories. We are able to demonstrate that NPS augments excitatory glutamatergic synaptic input onto both projection neurons and interneurons of the lateral amygdala, resulting in enhanced spike activity of both types of cells. These effects were at least in part mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. In turn, inhibition of projection neurons by local interneurons was augmented by NPS, and subthreshold oscillations were strengthened, leading to their shift into the theta frequency range. These data suggest that the multifaceted effects of NPS on amygdaloid circuitry may shape behavior-related network activity patterns in the amygdala and reflect the peptide's potent activity in various forms of affective behavior and emotional memory.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Amygdala Activation in Youths with and without Bipolar Disorder

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    Liu, Xinmin; Akula, Nirmala; Skup, Martha; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to characterize brain activity underlying a variety of psychiatric disorders. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that amygdala activation during a face-processing task differed between pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls. We…

  14. Amygdala Kindling in the WAG-Rij Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aker, R.G.; Yananli, H.R.; Gurbanova, A.A.; Özkaynakçi, A.E.; Ates, N.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Onat, F.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: The kindling model in rats with genetic absence epilepsy is suitable for studying mechanisms involved in the propagation and generalization of seizure activity in the convulsive and nonconvulsive components of epilepsy. In the present study, we compared the amygdala kindling rate a

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT AGONISTIC EXPERIENCES ON BEHAVIORAL SEIZURES IN FULLY AMYGDALA KINDLED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BELDHUIS, HJA; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1992-01-01

    Fully amygdala kindled rats were exposed to two different inter-male agonistic experiences in order to study the interaction between epilepsy and acute social stress. Victory experience did not influence the severity of seizure behaviour, whereas a single acute defeat modified both ictal and postict

  16. Effect of different agonistic experiences on behavioural seizures in fully amygdala kindled rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldhuis, Hans J.A.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    Fully amygdala kindled rats were exposed to two different inter-male agonistic experiences in order to study the interaction between epilepsy and acute social stress. Victory experience did not influence the severity of seizure behaviour, whereas a single acute defeat modified both ictal and postict

  17. The amygdala, top-down effects, and selective attention to features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Aleman, Andre; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    While the amygdalar role in fear conditioning is well established, it also appears to be involved in a wide spectrum of other functions concerning emotional information. For example, the amygdala is thought to be involved in guiding spatial attention to emotionally relevant information such as the e

  18. Reduced size of the amygdala in individuals with 47,XXY and 47,XXX karyotypes.

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    Patwardhan, Anil J; Brown, Wendy E; Bender, Bruce G; Linden, Mary G; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-01-01

    The excess of 47,XXX and 47,XXY karyotypes found in cytogenetic screening studies of individuals with schizophrenia has given support for an increased risk of psychiatric illness among men and women with sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). Mesial temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and hippocampus, are thought to be associated with abnormalities of mood and behavior in humans and in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This study focuses on variations in volumes of mesial temporal lobe structures in men and women with SCA. Utilizing an unselected birth cohort of subjects with SCA and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the neuroanatomical consequences of a supernumerary X chromosome on the morphology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Regional and total brain volumes were measured in 10 subjects with 47,XXY, 10 subjects with 47,XXX, and 20 euploid controls. Amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in men with 47,XXY, compared to control men, while the decrease in women with 47,XXX was not as pronounced. Hippocampus volumes were preserved in both groups, compared to same-gender controls. Longitudinal studies of SCA individuals have shown an increased incidence of mild psychopathology and behavioral dysfunction in men with 47,XXY and more overt psychiatric illness in women with 47,XXX, compared to control populations. The alteration in amygdala volumes in individuals with a supernumerary X chromosome may provide a neuroanatomic basis for these findings.

  19. A Model of Amygdala-Hippocampal-Prefrontal Interaction in Fear Conditioning and Extinction in Animals

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    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Orr, Scott P.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that the amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are involved in fear conditioning. However, the functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not clearly understood. Here, we extend existing neural network models of the functional roles of the hippocampus…

  20. Role of Amygdala and Hippocampus in the Neural Circuit Subserving Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

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    Markham, Chris M.; Taylor, Stacie L.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotionally relevant memories using an ethological model of conditioned fear termed conditioned defeat (CD). Temporary inactivation of the ventral, but not dorsal hippocampus (VH, DH, respectively) using muscimol disrupted the acquisition of CD, whereas pretraining VH…

  1. Is the Medial Amygdala Part of the Neural Circuit Modulating Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Chris M.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2008-01-01

    Conditioned defeat is a model wherein hamsters that have previously experienced a single social defeat subsequently exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission in response to a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. While we have previously demonstrated the critical involvement of the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala in the…

  2. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

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    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  3. Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety.

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    Olga T Ousdal

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18. Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  4. Altered effective connectivity network of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state FMRI study.

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    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC. Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Decreased influence from inferior temporal gyrus (ITG to amygdala was found in SAD, while bidirectional influences between amygdala and visual cortices were increased compared to HCs. Clinical relevance of decreased effective connectivity from ITG to amygdala was suggested by a negative correlation of LSAS avoidance scores and the value of Granger causality. Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. This is in support of a disregulation in predescribed modules involved in affect control. The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. The model which is proposed based on our results lends neurobiological support towards cognitive models considering disinhibition and an attentional bias towards negative stimuli as a core feature of the disorder.

  5. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task.

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    Irina A Strigo

    Full Text Available The allocation of attention modulates negative emotional processing in the amygdala. However, the role of passive exposure time to emotional signals in the modulation of amygdala activity during active task performance has not been examined. In two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI experiments conducted in two different groups of healthy human subjects, we examined activation in the amygdala due to cued anticipation of painful stimuli while subjects performed a simple continuous performance task (CPT with either a fixed or a parametrically varied trial duration. In the first experiment (N = 16, engagement in the CPT during a task with fixed trial duration produced the expected attenuation of amygdala activation, but close analysis suggested that the attenuation occurred during the period of active engagement in CPT, and that amygdala activity increased proportionately during the remainder of each trial, when subjects were passively exposed to the pain cue. In the second experiment (N = 12, the duration of each trial was parametrically varied, and we found that amygdala activation was linearly related to the time of passive exposure to the anticipatory cue. We suggest that amygdala activation during negative anticipatory processing depends directly on the passive exposure time to the negative cue.

  6. The densities of calbindin and parvalbumin, but not calretinin neurons, are sexually dimorphic in the amygdala of the guinea pig.

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    Równiak, Maciej; Bogus-Nowakowska, Krystyna; Robak, Anna

    2015-04-16

    In the amygdala, the calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, parvalbumin or calretinin) are useful markers of specific subpopulations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) containing neurons. In the rat and monkey they together mark the vast majority of GABA-containing neurons in this brain region. As GABA involvement in the control of various behaviors in a sex-specific manner and sexual dimorphism of the GABAergic system itself were recently proven, the question is how much dimorphic may be various subpopulations of this system. Thus, the present study investigates for the first time the presence/absence of sexual dimorphism among neurons expressing calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR) which form in the amygdala main subsets of GABAergic system. The results show that in the amygdala of the guinea pig the densities of CB and/or PV expressing neurons are sexually dimorphic with the female>male pattern of sex differences in the basolateral amygdala. In the medial and cortical amygdala respectively CB and PV values are also sexually dimorphic, favoring males. The densities of CR expressing neurons are in the amygdala of the guinea pig sexually isomorphic. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide an evidence that in the amygdala of the guinea pig the densities of neurons expressing CB and/or PV are sexually dimorphic what supports the idea that GABA participates in the mediation of sexually dimorphic functions, controlled by this brain area.

  7. Convergent evidence from multimodal imaging reveals amygdala abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives.

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    Lin Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shared neuropathological features between schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives have potential as indicators of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. We sought to explore genetic influences on brain morphology and function in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. METHODS: Using a multimodal imaging strategy, we studied 33 schizophrenic patients, 55 of their unaffected parents, 30 healthy controls for patients, and 29 healthy controls for parents with voxel-based morphometry of structural MRI scans and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI data. RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients showed widespread gray matter reductions in the bilateral frontal cortices, bilateral insulae, bilateral occipital cortices, left amygdala and right thalamus, whereas their parents showed more localized reductions in the left amygdala, left thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Patients and their parents shared gray matter loss in the left amygdala. Further investigation of the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in the patients showed abnormal functional connectivity with the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral precunei, bilateral dorsolateral frontal cortices and right insula. Their parents showed slightly less, but similar changes in the pattern in the amygdala connectivity. Co-occurrences of abnormal connectivity of the left amygdala with the left orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral frontal cortex and right precuneus were observed in schizophrenic patients and their parents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential genetic influence on structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Such information could help future efforts to identify the endophenotypes that characterize the complex disorder of schizophrenia.

  8. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

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    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  9. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

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    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  10. Amygdala fMRI Signal as a Predictor of Reaction Time

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    Philipp Riedel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reaction times (RT are a valuable measure for assessing cognitive processes. However, RTs are susceptible to confounds and therefore variable. Exposure to threat, for example, speeds up or slows down responses. Distinct task types to some extent account for differential effects of threat on RTs. But also do inter-individual differences like trait anxiety. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated whether activation within the amygdala, a brain region closely linked to the processing of threat, may also function as a predictor of RTs, similar to trait anxiety scores. After threat conditioning by means of aversive electric shocks, 45 participants performed a choice RT task during alternating 30s blocks in the presence of the threat conditioned stimulus CS+ or of the safe control stimulus CS-. Trait anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory and participants were median split into a high- and a low-anxiety subgroup. We tested three hypotheses: 1 RTs will be faster during the exposure to threat compared to the safe condition in individuals with high trait anxiety. 2 The amygdala fMRI signal will be higher in the threat condition compared to the safe condition. 3 Amygdala fMRI signal prior to a RT trial will be correlated with the corresponding RT. We found that, the high-anxious subgroup showed faster responses in the threat condition compared to the safe condition, while the low-anxious subgroup showed no significant difference in RTs in the threat condition compared to the safe condition. Though the fMRI analysis did not reveal an effect of condition on amygdala activity, we found a trial-by-trial correlation between blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal within the right amygdala prior to the CRT task and the subsequent RT. Taken together, the results of this study showed that: Exposure to threat modulates task performance. This modulation is influenced by personality trait. Additionally and most

  11. Multiple anxiogenic drugs recruit a parvalbumin-containing subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

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    Hale, Matthew W; Johnson, Philip L; Westerman, Alex M; Abrams, Jolane K; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    The basolateral amygdala is a nodal structure within a distributed and interconnected network that regulates anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior. Administration of multiple anxiogenic drugs increases cellular responses (i.e., increases c-Fos expression) in a subregion of the basolateral amygdala, but the neurochemical phenotypes of these cells are not known. The basolateral amygdala contains glutamatergic projection neurons and several populations of γ-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing (GABAergic) interneurons, including a population of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons that co-express the excitatory 5-HT(2A) receptor. The role for these PV-expressing GABAergic interneurons in anxiety-states is unclear. In this experiment we examined the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs including the 5-HT(2C/2A) receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the α(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine and the partial inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine allosteric site on the GABA(A) receptor, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142), on c-Fos expression in PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons in subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala. All drugs with the exception of mCPP increased c-Fos expression in PV-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part (BLA). The numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir)/PV-ir GABAergic interneurons in the BLA were positively correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-ir serotonergic neurons in the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and with a measure of anxiety-related behavior. All four drugs increased c-Fos expression in non-PV-ir cells in most of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that were sampled, compared with vehicle-injected controls. Together, these data suggest that the PV/5-HT(2A) receptor expressing GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are part of a DR-basolateral amygdala neuronal circuit modulating

  12. Pleiotropic locus for emotion recognition and amygdala volume identified using univariate and bivariate linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emma E. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Kent, Jack W.; Sprooten, Emma; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Olvera, Rene; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David. C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the amygdala in emotion recognition is well established and separately each trait has been shown to be highly heritable, but the potential role of common genetic influences on both traits has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the pleiotropic influences of amygdala and emotion recognition in a sample of randomly selected, extended pedigrees (N = 858). Using a combination of univariate and bivariate linkage we found a pleiotropic region for amygdala and emotion recognition on 4q26 (LOD = 4.34). Association analysis conducted in the region underlying the bivariate linkage peak revealed a variant meeting the corrected significance level (pBonferroni = 5.01×10−05) within an intron of PDE5A (rs2622497, Χ2 =16.67, p = 4.4×10−05) as being jointly influential on both traits. PDE5A has been implicated previously in recognition-memory deficits and is expressed in subcortical structures that are thought to underlie memory ability including the amygdala. The present paper extends our understanding of the shared etiology between amygdala and emotion recognition by showing that the overlap between the two traits is due, at least in part, to common genetic influences. Moreover, the present paper identifies a pleiotropic locus for the two traits and an associated variant, which localizes the genetic signal even more precisely. These results, when taken in the context of previous research, highlight the potential utility of PDE5-inhibitors for ameliorating emotion-recognition deficits in populations including, but not exclusively, those individuals suffering from mental or neurodegenerative illness. PMID:25322361

  13. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

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    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology.

  14. Sleep debt elicits negative emotional reaction through diminished amygdala-anterior cingulate functional connectivity.

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    Yuki Motomura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Sleep debt reportedly increases emotional instability, such as anxiety and confusion, in addition to sleepiness and psychomotor impairment. However, the neural basis of emotional instability due to sleep debt has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated changes in emotional responses that are elicited by the simulation of short-term sleep loss and the brain regions responsible for these changes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy adult men aged 24.1±3.3 years (range, 20-32 years participated in a within-subject crossover study consisting of 5-day sessions of both sleep debt (4 h for time in bed and sleep control (8 h for time in bed. On the last day of each session, participants underwent polysomnography and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Profile of Mood States questionnaires. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while performing an emotional face viewing task. RESULTS: Restricted sleep over the 5-day period increased the activity of the left amygdala in response to the facial expression of fear, whereas a happy facial expression did not change the activity. Restricted sleep also resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC in proportion to the degree of sleep debt (as indicated by the percentage of slow wave sleep and δ wave power. This decrease was significantly correlated with activation of the left amygdala and deterioration of subjective mood state. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that continuous and accumulating sleep debt that can be experienced in everyday life can downregulate the functional suppression of the amygdala by the vACC and consequently enhance the response of the amygdala to negative emotional stimuli. Such functional alteration in emotional control may, in part, be attributed to the neural basis of emotional instability during sleep debt.

  15. Hippocampal and Amygdala Gray Matter Loss in Elderly Controls with Subtle Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Borgwardt, Stefan; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the idea that hippocampal and amygdala volume loss occur in late phases of neurodegeneration, recent contributions point to the relevance of preexisting structural deficits that are associated with aging and are independent of amyloid deposition in preclinical Alzheimer disease cases. The present work explores GM hippocampal and amygdala volumes in elderly controls displaying the first signs of cognitive decline. 455 subjects (263 females), including 374 controls (228 females) and 81 middle cognitive impairment subjects (35 females), underwent two neuropsychological evaluations (baseline and 18 months follow-up) and a MRI-T1 examination (only baseline). Clinical assessment included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating scale, Hospitalized Anxiety and Depression scale, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease neuropsychological battery and RI-48 Cued Recall Test (RI-48) for episodic memory. Based on their cognitive performance, we defined the controls as stable controls (sCON) and deteriorating controls (dCONs). Analyses included volumetric assessment, shape analyses and linear regressions between GM volume loss and differences in clinical scores between baseline and follow-up. Significant GM volume decrease in hippocampus bilaterally and right amygdala was found in dCON compared to sCON (p right amygdala volumes were measured in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to sCON (p right amygdala volumes precede the first signs of cognitive decline in healthy elderly controls at the pre-MCI state. Left hippocampus volume may also predict short-term changes of overall cognition in these vulnerable cases.

  16. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM.

  17. Endocannabinoids in amygdala and nucleus accumbens mediate social play reward in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Manduca, Antonia; Petrosino, Stefania; Van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Zhou, Yeping; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2012-10-24

    The brain endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in emotional processes. We have previously identified an important role for endocannabinoids in social play behavior, a highly rewarding form of social interaction in adolescent rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endocannabinoid modulation of social play behavior occurs in brain regions implicated in emotion and motivation. Social play increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not in prefrontal cortex or hippocampus of 4- to 5-week-old male Wistar rats. Furthermore, social play increased phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala. Systemic administration of the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 increased social play behavior, and augmented the associated elevation in anandamide levels in the amygdala, but not the NAc. Infusion of URB597 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) increased social play behavior, and blockade of BLA CB1 cannabinoid receptors with the antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A prevented the play-enhancing effects of systemic administration of URB597. Infusion of URB597 into the NAc also increased social play, but blockade of NAc CB1 cannabinoid receptors did not antagonize the play-enhancing effects of systemic URB597 treatment. Last, SR141716A did not affect social play after infusion into the core and shell subregions of the NAc, while it reduced social play when infused into the BLA. These data show that increased anandamide signaling in the amygdala and NAc augments social play, and identify the BLA as a prominent site of action for endocannabinoids to modulate the rewarding properties of social interactions in adolescent rats.

  18. Divergent effects of amygdala glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the regulation of visceral and somatic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2010-02-01

    Elevated amygdala activity and increased responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been observed in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Recently, we demonstrated that corticosterone (Cort) placed on the amygdala induced anxiety-like behavior coupled with decreased thresholds for visceral and somatic pain in rats. Moreover, these studies suggested that the effects of Cort were dependent on both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR); however, the specific contributions of these receptors to the interaction between corticosteroids and the amygdala are still unclear. In the present study, we sought to define the distinct roles of amygdaloid GR and MR in anxiety-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and somatic sensitivity through selective pharmacological activation. Male Fischer 344 rats received bilateral implants on the dorsal margin of the central amygdala containing the GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex), the MR agonist aldosterone (Aldo), or cholesterol as a control. Our results showed that GR or MR activation significantly reduced open arm exploration on the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety-like behavior. Aldo increased the number of abdominal muscle contractions in response to all levels of colorectal distension (CRD). In contrast, Dex only increased visceral sensitivity at noxious levels of CRD. Furthermore, GR but not MR activation reduced somatic pain thresholds measured by the mechanical force required to elicit hindlimb withdrawal. In summary, GR and MR mediated-mechanisms induce anxiety and visceral hypersensitivity, whereas somatic sensitivity involves only GR, suggesting that corticosteroids may enhance visceral and somatic sensation via divergent processes originating in the amygdala and involving specific steroid receptor mechanisms.

  19. Multiple telencephalic and extratelencephalic embryonic domains contribute neurons to the medial extended amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupesh, Munisamy; Legaz, Isabel; Abellán, Antonio; Medina, Loreta

    2011-06-01

    Dysfunctions in emotional control and social behavior are behind human neuropsychiatric disorders, some of which are associated with an alteration of amygdalar development. The medial extended amygdala is a key telencephalic center for control of social behavior, but very little is known about its development. We used in vitro migration assays for analyzing the origin of the neurons of the medial extended amygdala in mouse embryos (E13.5-E16.5). We compared the migration assays with immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry for calbindin and radial glial fibers and with mRNA expression of several genetic markers of distinct forebrain subdivisions. We provide experimental evidence for multiple embryonic origins of the principal neurons of the medial extended amygdala. In particular, we provide novel evidence indicating that a major part of the neurons derives from a caudoventral pallidal subdivision (previously called or included as part of the anterior peduncular area), forming a cell corridor with similar molecular features (expression of Lhx6 and calbindin), connectivity, and function, which relates to reproductive behavior. We also provide novel experimental evidence indicating that the ventral pallium produces some neurons for the medial amygdala, which correlates with data from Lhx9 expression. Our results also confirm that some neurons of the medial extended amygdala originate in the preoptic area (our results indicate that these cells specifically originate in its commissural subdivision) and the supraoptoparaventricular domain of the hypothalamus. Our study helps to set up the foundations for a better understanding of medial amygdalar control of behavior in normal and abnormal conditions.

  20. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... language, which refers to a ``larger participant'' of a market.\\15\\ This statutory language is not limited... 200 million consumers.\\21\\ \\21\\ ANSI-BBB, Identity Theft Prevention and Identity Management...

  1. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  2. Adult-onset Still's disease with atypical cutaneous manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez Garcia, Francisco Javier; Pascual, María; López de Recalde, Mercè; Juarez, Pablo; Morales-Ivorra, Isabel; Notario, Jaime; Jucglà, Anna; Nolla, Joan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) can be very difficult. There are no specific tests available, and diagnosis is usually based on a symptom complex and the well-described typical evanescent rash seen in the majority of patients. However, in recent years, other atypical cutaneous manifestations of AOSD have been reported. These atypical skin eruptions often present in addition to the typical evanescent rash but may also be the only skin manifestation, resulting in delayed diagnosis because of under-recognition. In this study, we present 3 new cases of AOSD with atypical cutaneous manifestations diagnosed during a 30-year period in our department and review 78 additional cases previously reported (PubMed 1990–2016). These 81 patients form the basis of the present analysis. The overall prevalence of atypical cutaneous manifestations in our AOSD population was 14%. These manifestations may appear at any time over the course of the disease, and usually occur in patients who have persistent and severe disease, with a considerable frequency of clinical complications (23%), including serositis, myopericarditis, lung involvement, abdominal pain, neurologic involvement, and reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. The most representative and frequent lesion among the nonclassical skin rashes is the development of persistent pruritic papules and/or plaques. Interestingly, these lesions show a distinctive histological pattern. Other, less frequently observed lesions include urticaria and urticaria-like eruptions, generalized or widespread non-pruritic persistent erythema, vesiculopustular eruptions, a widespread peau d’orange appearance of the skin, and edema of the eyelids mimicking dermatomyositis without any accompanying skin lesion. The great majority of these patients required medium or high doses of glucocorticoids (including intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in some cases) and, in nearly 40%, a more potent or maintenance immunotherapy

  3. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov S.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.

  4. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    OpenAIRE

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which r...

  5. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  6. Magnetic field in atypical prominence structures: Bubble, tornado and eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, P J; Ariste, A López; Labrosse, N; Dalmasse, K; Gelly, B

    2016-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in `atypical' prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in `typical' prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of `atypical' prominences (tornadoes, bubbles and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He I D_3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the Principal Component Analysis inversion method on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more ...

  7. [Treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome with atypical antipsychotic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindø, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Jan Ib

    2002-08-05

    We reviewed articles in English dealing with research into the effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on tic reduction in Tourette's syndrome. In Denmark, there are four registered atypical antipsychotic drugs; clozapine, sulpiride, olanzapine, and risperidone. The topic of interest is the effectiveness and side effects of these drugs as compared to the conventional antipsychotic, pimozide, which is today the preferred pharmacological treatment of Tourette's syndrome among the antipsychotics. The conclusion is that risperidone would be a good first-line antipsychotic drug for the treatment of Tourette's syndrome. It is as effective as pimozide, its side effect profile is overall much more favourable, and unlike pimozide it does not contain the risk of causing heart arrhythmia.

  8. Nightmare-Induced Atypical Midventricular Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Fibbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC is a reversible cardiomyopathy characterized by acute left ventricular segmental dysfunction, whose clinical presentation resembles that of acute myocardial infarction. The syndrome often follows a psychophysical stressful event and is characterized by echocardiographic evidence of akinesia of the left ventricular mid-apical segments. Atypical echocardiographic patterns of TTC have recently been described, often triggered by emotional stressors, rather than physical. In this report, we describe a case of atypical TTC triggered by an unusual stressor (recurrent nightmare in a 45-year-old woman, with peculiar clinical presentation and evolution characterized by persistent loss of consciousness, neurological deterioration, absence of typical symptoms of TTC, and features suggestive of a hysterical crisis.

  9. Nightmare-induced atypical midventricular tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Nannini, Marco; Consoli, Lorenzo; Chechi, Tania; Bribani, Andrea; Fiorentino, Francesca; Chiodi, Leandro; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a reversible cardiomyopathy characterized by acute left ventricular segmental dysfunction, whose clinical presentation resembles that of acute myocardial infarction. The syndrome often follows a psychophysical stressful event and is characterized by echocardiographic evidence of akinesia of the left ventricular mid-apical segments. Atypical echocardiographic patterns of TTC have recently been described, often triggered by emotional stressors, rather than physical. In this report, we describe a case of atypical TTC triggered by an unusual stressor (recurrent nightmare) in a 45-year-old woman, with peculiar clinical presentation and evolution characterized by persistent loss of consciousness, neurological deterioration, absence of typical symptoms of TTC, and features suggestive of a hysterical crisis.

  10. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  11. Multiplicity of A-type and related stars

    CERN Document Server

    North, Pierre L

    2013-01-01

    The origin of chemically peculiar stars remains enigmatic, especially regarding their frequency among their "normal" peers. In addition to magnetic fields and rotation, multiplicity may shed light on the question. We mention the main surveys of the three kinds performed so far of intermediate mass stars, either normal or chemically peculiar, magnetic or not: imaging, spectroscopic, and photometric. We also consider the mulitiplicity of red giant stars, since many of them are descendants of A-type stars, through Mermilliod's radial velocity monitoring of open cluster members. We briefly review the orbital properties of binary systems hosting chemically peculiar stars. Some specific objects of special interest are mentioned as deserving further study. Finally, we recall that some binary systems composed of A-type stars are progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and evoke the potentialities of future surveys like Gaia.

  12. Diagnosis and management of typical and atypical lung carcinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Macerelli, Marianna; Proto, Claudia; Vitali, Milena; Signorelli, Diego; Ganzinelli, Monica; Scanagatta, Paolo; Duranti, Leonardo; Trama, Annalisa; Buzzoni, Roberto; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Pastorino, Ugo; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 20% to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumours originate in the bronchial tree and lungs. According to the 2015 World Health Organization categorization, these tumours are separated into four subtypes characterized by increasing biological aggressiveness: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. Although typical and atypical lung carcinoids account for less than 1-5% of all pulmonary malignancies, the incidence of these neoplasms has risen significantly in recent decades. Surgery is the treatment of choice for loco-regional disease but for advanced lung carcinoids there is no recognized standard of care and successful management requires a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this review is to provide a useful guide for the clinical management of lung carcinoids.

  13. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  14. Identification of the first case of atypical scrapie in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMAMURA, Morikazu; MIYAZAWA, Kohtaro; IWAMARU, Yoshifumi; MATSUURA, Yuichi; YOKOYAMA, Takashi; OKADA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A Corriedale ewe was confirmed as the first atypical scrapie case during an active surveillance program for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants in Japan. The animal was homozygous for the AF141RQ haplotype of PRNP. The animal showed clinical neurological signs possibly due to listeriosis before culling. Western blot analysis showed an unusual multiple banded pattern with a low-molecular fragment at ~7 kDa. Histopathology revealed suppurative meningoencephalitis caused by listeriosis in the brainstem. Fine granular to globular immunostaining of disease-associated prion proteins was mainly detected in the neuropil of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and in the white matter of the spinocerebellar tract. Based on these results, this case was conclusively diagnosed as atypical scrapie with encephalitic listeriosis. PMID:27616556

  15. Ureterolithiasis: classical and atypical findings on unenhanced helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Kuldeep K; El-Dieb, Adam; Vitellas, Kenneth M; Bennett, William F; Bova, James G

    2002-03-01

    Evaluation of patients with acute flank pain using helical computed tomography (CT) is a well-accepted, rapid, and safe procedure in the emergency setting. Various primary and secondary signs are described in the literature for evaluation of these patients. Our purpose is to demonstrate both the classical findings associated with ureteral calculi on unenhanced helical CT and atypical findings and potential pitfalls. We also provide readers with a systematic approach to interpreting unenhanced helical CT scans performed for acute flank pain.

  16. Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia with Trisomy 13: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-yu Hu; Chao-hui Yuan; Kui Tan; Zhen-zhen Chen

    2011-01-01

    ATYPICAL chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML),which shows both myeloproliferative and myeIodysplastic features,is a type of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms.1 Because of the presence of neutrophilic leukocytosis,aCML may resemble chronic myeIogenous leukemia (CML).However,in contrast with CML,aCML does not have the Philadelphia chromosome or the bcr/abl fusion gene.

  17. Atypical cytochrome p450 kinetics: implications for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten model is commonly used to estimate a drug's potential in vivo hepatic clearance based on in vitro data obtained during drug discovery and development. This paradigm assumes that the drug obeys 'typical' enzyme kinetics and thus can be described by this model. However, it is increasingly being recognised that a number of drugs metabolised not only by the cytochrome P450 enzymes but also by other enzymes and transporters can exhibit atypical kinetic profiles, and thus are not accurately modeled with the Michaelis-Menten model. Application of an incorrect model can then lead to mis-estimation of in vitro intrinsic clearance and thus affect the prediction of in vivo clearance. This review discusses several types of atypical kinetic profiles that may be observed, including examples of homotropic cooperativity (i.e. sigmoidal kinetics, biphasic kinetics and substrate inhibition kinetics) as well as heterotropic cooperativity (i.e. activation). Application of the incorrect kinetic model may profoundly affect estimations of intrinsic clearance. For example, incorrectly applying the Michaelis-Menten model to a kinetic profile exhibiting substrate inhibition kinetics will result in an underestimation of Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) and V(max) (maximal velocity), whereas application of the Michaelis-Menten model to sigmoidal kinetic data typically results in an overestimation of Km and V(max) at the lower substrate concentrations that are typically therapeutically relevant. One must also be careful of potential artefactual causes of atypical kinetic profiles, such as enzyme activation by solvents, buffer dependent kinetic profiles, or altered kinetic parameter estimates due to nonspecific binding of the substrate to proteins. Despite a plethora of data on the effects of atypical kinetic profiles in vitro, only modest effects have been noted in vivo (with the exception of substrate dependent inhibition). Thus, the clinical relevance of these phenomena

  18. Childhood atypical meningioma with perineural spread: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Feng-Yu.; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Wu, Chieh-Tsai [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Lin, Kuang-Lin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Meningiomas are uncommon in children. When they occur, they are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. Childhood meningiomas are generally large and commonly associated with cyst formation and an unusual location. Perineural tumor spread, occasionally associated with head and neck malignancies, is very rare in meningiomas. We present the MR findings of an atypical meningioma with perineural spread in a 4.5-year-old girl. (orig.)

  19. Epidemiological and genetical differences between classical and atypical scrapie cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lühken, Gesine; Buschmann, Anne; Brandt, Horst; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin; Erhardt, Georg

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and prion protein (PrP) genetics in scrapie-affected sheep flocks in Germany. For this purpose, 224 German scrapie cases in sheep diagnosed between January 2002 and February 2006 were classified as classical or atypical scrapie and the amino acids at codons 136, 141, 154 and 171 were determined. Likewise, representative numbers of flock mates were genotyped. Significant epidemiological differences were observed betw...

  20. Atypical Pelvic Crescent Fracture Caused by Vertical Shear Force

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The crescent fracture consists of a posterior iliac wing fracture with extension into the sacroiliac joint and a dislocation of the sacroiliac joint. This fracture represents a subset of lateral compression injury. The strong posterior ligaments of sacroiliac joint remain intact and a fracture fragment (crescent shape) involving the posterior superior iliac spines remains firmly attached to the sacrum. We report a patient with atypical pelvic crescent fracture that is mainly influenced by ver...