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Sample records for atypical riboflavin pathway

  1. Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taking riboflavin along with iron, thiamine, and vitamin C by mouth, does not reduce the number or ... 5' Phosphate, Riboflavina, Riboflavine, Vitamin B2, Vitamin G, Vitamina B2, Vitamine B2, Vitamine G.

  2. Overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High cell density cultures of Pichia pastoris grown on methanol tend to develop yellow colored supernatants, attributed to the release of free flavins. The potential of P. pastoris for flavin overproduction is therefore given, but not pronounced when the yeast is grown on glucose. The aim of this study is to characterize the relative regulatory impact of each riboflavin synthesis gene. Deeper insight into pathway control and the potential of deregulation is established by overexpression of the single genes as well as a combined deregulation of up to all six riboflavin synthesis genes. Results Overexpression of the first gene of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RIB1 is already sufficient to obtain yellow colonies and the accumulation of riboflavin in the supernatant of shake flask cultures growing on glucose. Sequential deregulation of all the genes, by exchange of their native promoter with the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (PGAP increases the riboflavin accumulation significantly. Conclusion The regulation of the pathway is distributed over more than one gene. High cell density cultivations of a P. pastoris strain overexpressing all six RIB genes allow the accumulation of 175 mg/L riboflavin in the supernatant. The basis for rational engineering of riboflavin production in P. pastoris has thus been established.

  3. Pathways and Mechanisms Underlying the Photophysics and Photochemistry of Riboflavin induced cornea crosslinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter Remsen

    In this talk, we will describe general pathways involved in the photophysics of a photosensitized process, which can lead to crosslinking due to light excitation of Riboflavin in the cornea. Furthermore, we will elucidate different aspects of reactions that can produce crosslinks, with respect...

  4. Metabolic engineering of riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii through pathway optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-10-14

    The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation of flavinogenic microorganisms and Ashbya gossypii is the main industrial producer of the vitamin. Accordingly, bioengineering strategies aimed at increasing riboflavin production in A. gossypii are highly valuable for industry. We analyze the contribution of all the RIB genes to the production of riboflavin in A. gossypii. Two important metabolic rate-limiting steps that limit the overproduction of riboflavin have been found: first, low mRNA levels of the RIB genes hindered the overproduction of riboflavin; second, the competition of the AMP branch for purinogenic precursors also represents a limitation for riboflavin overproduction. Thus, overexpression of the RIB genes resulted in a significant increase in riboflavin yield. Moreover, both the inactivation and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene, which controls the first step of the AMP branch, also proved to have a positive effect on riboflavin production. Accordingly, a strain that combines both the overexpression of the RIB genes and the underexpression of the ADE12 gene was engineered. This strain produced 523 mg/L of riboflavin (5.4-fold higher than the wild-type), which is the highest titer of riboflavin obtained by metabolic engineering in A. gossypii so far. Riboflavin production in A. gossypii is limited by a low transcription activity of the RIB genes. Flux limitation towards AMP provides committed substrate GTP for riboflavin overproduction without detrimental effects on biomass formation. A multiple-engineered Ashbya strain that produces up to 523 mg/L of riboflavin was generated.

  5. Alternative complement pathway assessment in patients with atypical HUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumenina, Lubka T; Loirat, Chantal; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnes; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2011-02-28

    The atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy leading to end stage renal disease in approximately 60% of patients. Over the last decade, a clear link has been demonstrated between this disease and defective complement regulation. The hallmark of the aHUS is the association with mutations in complement alternative pathway genes. Endothelial damage is related to complement dysregulation, but the exact mechanism is just starting to be elucidated. Screening for and characterization of mutations in the components of the C3 convertase (C3 and FB) or its regulators (FH, FI, MCP, and Thrombomodulin) or anti-FH antibodies has become an indispensable part of the disease's diagnostic. This review will initially summarize current knowledge on the understanding of complement activation and regulation, followed by a description on the genetic analysis as well as the methods used for complement protein quantification. Another part of this review will focus on the mechanisms of action of aHUS-associated mutations. We will emphasize on when and why some mutations lead to protein deficiency, while others result in - to dysfunctional but normally expressed proteins. Finally, we will discuss how the therapy of aHUS patients can be modified according to the functional consequences of each particular genetic defect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomes of rumen bacteria encode atypical pathways for fermenting hexoses to short-chain fatty acids

    KAUST Repository

    Hackmann, Timothy J.

    2017-09-11

    Bacteria have been thought to follow only a few well-recognized biochemical pathways when fermenting glucose or other hexoses. These pathways have been chiseled in the stone of textbooks for decades, with most sources rendering them as they appear in the classic 1986 text by Gottschalk. Still, it is unclear how broadly these pathways apply, given that they were established and delineated biochemically with only a few model organisms. Here we show that well-recognized pathways often cannot explain fermentation products formed by bacteria. In the most extensive analysis of its kind, we reconstructed pathways for glucose fermentation from genomes of 48 species and subspecies of bacteria from one environment (the rumen). In total, 44% of these bacteria had atypical pathways, including several that are completely unprecedented for bacteria or any organism. In detail, 8% of bacteria had an atypical pathway for acetate formation; 21% for propionate or succinate formation; 6% for butyrate formation; and 33% had an atypical or incomplete Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. This study shows that reconstruction of metabolic pathways-a common goal of omics studies-could be incorrect if well-recognized pathways are used for reference. Further, it calls for renewed efforts to delineate fermentation pathways biochemically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments.

  8. Interactions between Melanin Enzymes and Their Atypical Recruitment to the Secretory Pathway by Palmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Srijana; Xu, Xinping; Lin, Xiaorong

    2016-11-22

    Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered "atypical" secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS) Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in A. fumigatus Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism. Subcellular compartmentalization is increasingly recognized as an important aspect of fungal secondary metabolism. It facilitates sequential enzymatic reactions, provides

  9. Atypical PKC-iota Controls Stem Cell Expansion via Regulation of the Notch Pathway

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    In Kyoung Mah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of stem/progenitor cells available can profoundly impact tissue homeostasis and the response to injury or disease. Here, we propose that an atypical PKC, Prkci, is a key player in regulating the switch from an expansion to a differentiation/maintenance phase via regulation of Notch, thus linking the polarity pathway with the control of stem cell self-renewal. Prkci is known to influence symmetric cell division in invertebrates; however a definitive role in mammals has not yet emerged. Using a genetic approach, we find that loss of Prkci results in a marked increase in the number of various stem/progenitor cells. The mechanism used likely involves inactivation and symmetric localization of NUMB, leading to the activation of NOTCH1 and its downstream effectors. Inhibition of atypical PKCs may be useful for boosting the production of pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or possibly even primordial germ cells by promoting the stem cell/progenitor fate.

  10. Interactions between Melanin Enzymes and Their Atypical Recruitment to the Secretory Pathway by Palmitoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijana Upadhyay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered “atypical” secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs in A. fumigatus. Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism.

  11. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a patient with an atypically located accessory pathway in the left lateral mitral annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Fernández-López, Xesús A; González-Melchor, Laila; García-Seara, Javier; Martínez-Sande, Jose Luis; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) is an uncommon form of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia due to an accessory pathway characterized by slow and decremental retrograde conduction. The majority of accessory pathways in PJRT are located in the posteroseptal zone. Few cases of atypical location have been described. We report a case of PJRT in a 72-year-old woman in whom the accessory pathway was located in the left lateral region and treated by radiofrequency catheter ablation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenquan; Xu, Zhibo; Li, Yifan; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2014-07-16

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is used commercially as an animal feed supplement and food colorant. E. coli is a robust host for various genetic manipulations and has been employed for efficient production of biofuels, polymers, amino acids, and bulk chemicals. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the metabolic capacity of E. coli for the riboflavin production by modification of central metabolism, riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fermentation conditions. The basic producer RF01S, in which the riboflavin biosynthesis genes ribABDEC from E. coli were overexpressed under the control of the inducible trc promoter, could accumulate 229.1 mg/L of riboflavin. Further engineering was performed by examining the impact of expression of zwf (encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gnd (encodes 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum and pgl (encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase) from E. coli on riboflavin production. Deleting pgi (encodes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and genes of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway successfully redirected the carbon flux into the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpressing the acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase) reduced the acetate accumulation. These modifications increased riboflavin production to 585.2 mg/L. By further modulating the expression of ribF (encodes riboflavin kinase) for reducing the conversion of riboflavin to FMN in RF05S, the final engineering strain RF05S-M40 could produce 1036.1 mg/L riboflavin in LB medium at 37°C. After optimizing the fermentation conditions, strain RF05S-M40 produced 2702.8 mg/L riboflavin in the optimized semi-defined medium, which was a value nearly 12-fold higher than that of RF01S, with a yield of 137.5 mg riboflavin/g glucose. The engineered strain RF05S-M40 has the highest yield among all reported riboflavin production

  13. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beztsinna, N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411277928; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from

  14. Extensive Identification of Bacterial Riboflavin Transporters and Their Distribution across Bacterial Species.

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    Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado

    Full Text Available Riboflavin, the precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide, is an essential metabolite in all organisms. While the functions for de novo riboflavin biosynthesis and riboflavin import may coexist in bacteria, the extent of this co-occurrence is undetermined. The RibM, RibN, RfuABCD and the energy-coupling factor-RibU bacterial riboflavin transporters have been experimentally characterized. In addition, ImpX, RfnT and RibXY are proposed as riboflavin transporters based on positional clustering with riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP genes or conservation of the FMN riboswitch regulatory element. Here, we searched for the FMN riboswitch in bacterial genomes to identify genes encoding riboflavin transporters and assessed their distribution among bacteria. Two new putative riboflavin transporters were identified: RibZ in Clostridium and RibV in Mesoplasma florum. Trans-complementation of an Escherichia coli riboflavin auxotroph strain confirmed the riboflavin transport activity of RibZ from Clostridium difficile, RibXY from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, ImpX from Fusobacterium nucleatum and RfnT from Ochrobactrum anthropi. The analysis of the genomic distribution of all known bacterial riboflavin transporters revealed that most occur in species possessing the RBP and that some bacteria may even encode functional riboflavin transporters from two different families. Our results indicate that some species possess ancestral riboflavin transporters, while others possess transporters that appear to have evolved recently. Moreover, our data suggest that unidentified riboflavin transporters also exist. The present study doubles the number of experimentally characterized riboflavin transporters and suggests a specific, non-accessory role for these proteins in riboflavin-prototrophic bacteria.

  15. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  16. Riboflavina: uma vitamina multifuncional Riboflavin: a multifunctional vitamin

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    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin, a component of the B2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated with different diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Riboflavin is thought to contribute to oxidative stress through its capacity to produce superoxide but, interestingly, it can also promote the reduction of hydroperoxides. This peculiar and multifunctional behavior allows riboflavin to take part in various biochemical pathways as a nucleophile and an electrophile, turning it into a versatile and important biological compound.

  17. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  18. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Shengjun Nie

    Full Text Available As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2 protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+ scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

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    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  20. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atypical depression Overview Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  1. An atypical canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) expression during odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guobin; Yuan, Guohua; Ye, Wenduo; Cho, Ken W Y; Chen, YiPing

    2014-11-07

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays an essential role in early tooth development, evidenced by disruption of BMP signaling leading to an early arrested tooth development. Despite being a central mediator of BMP canonical signaling pathway, inactivation of Smad4 in dental mesenchyme does not result in early developmental defects. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) and Smad4 in the regulation of the odontogenic gene Msx1 expression in the dental mesenchyme. We showed that the canonical BMP signaling is not operating in the early developing tooth, as assessed by failed activation of the BRE-Gal transgenic allele and the absence of phospho-(p)Smad1/5/8-Smad4 complexes. The absence of pSmad1/5/8-Smad4 complex appeared to be the consequence of saturation of Smad4 by pSmad2/3 in the dental mesenchyme as knockdown of Smad2/3 or overexpression of Smad4 led to the formation of pSmad1/5/8-Smad4 complexes and activation of canonical BMP signaling in dental mesenchymal cells. We showed that Smad1/5 but not Smad4 are required for BMP-induced expression of Msx1 in dental mesenchymal cells. We further presented evidence that in the absence of Smad4, BMPs are still able to induce pSmad1/5/8 nuclear translocation and their binding to the Msx1 promoter directly in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results demonstrate the functional operation of an atypical canonical BMP signaling (Smad4-independent and Smad1/5/8-dependent) pathway in the dental mesenchyme during early odontogenesis, which may have general implication in the development of other organs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. An Atypical Canonical Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Signaling Pathway Regulates Msh Homeobox 1 (Msx1) Expression during Odontogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guobin; Yuan, Guohua; Ye, Wenduo; Cho, Ken W. Y.; Chen, YiPing

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays an essential role in early tooth development, evidenced by disruption of BMP signaling leading to an early arrested tooth development. Despite being a central mediator of BMP canonical signaling pathway, inactivation of Smad4 in dental mesenchyme does not result in early developmental defects. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) and Smad4 in the regulation of the odontogenic gene Msx1 expression in the dental mesenchyme. We showed that the canonical BMP signaling is not operating in the early developing tooth, as assessed by failed activation of the BRE-Gal transgenic allele and the absence of phospho-(p)Smad1/5/8-Smad4 complexes. The absence of pSmad1/5/8-Smad4 complex appeared to be the consequence of saturation of Smad4 by pSmad2/3 in the dental mesenchyme as knockdown of Smad2/3 or overexpression of Smad4 led to the formation of pSmad1/5/8-Smad4 complexes and activation of canonical BMP signaling in dental mesenchymal cells. We showed that Smad1/5 but not Smad4 are required for BMP-induced expression of Msx1 in dental mesenchymal cells. We further presented evidence that in the absence of Smad4, BMPs are still able to induce pSmad1/5/8 nuclear translocation and their binding to the Msx1 promoter directly in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results demonstrate the functional operation of an atypical canonical BMP signaling (Smad4-independent and Smad1/5/8-dependent) pathway in the dental mesenchyme during early odontogenesis, which may have general implication in the development of other organs. PMID:25274628

  3. The superfamily keeps growing: Identification in trypanosomatids of RibJ, the first riboflavin transporter family in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, Darío E; Vanrell, María Cristina; Romano, Patricia S; Pereira, Claudio A; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Bonomi, Hernán R; Carrillo, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites). Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2) pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors. While metazoans obtain riboflavin from the diet through RFVT/SLC52 transporters, the riboflavin transport mechanisms in trypanosomatids still remain unknown. Here, we show that riboflavin is imported with high affinity in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata and Phytomonas Jma using radiolabeled riboflavin transport assays. The vitamin is incorporated through a saturable carrier-mediated process. Effective competitive uptake occurs with riboflavin analogs roseoflavin, lumiflavin and lumichrome, and co-factor derivatives FMN and FAD. Moreover, important biological processes evaluated in T. cruzi (i.e. proliferation, metacyclogenesis and amastigote replication) are dependent on riboflavin availability. In addition, the riboflavin competitive analogs were found to interfere with parasite physiology on riboflavin-dependent processes. By means of bioinformatics analyses we identified a novel family of riboflavin transporters (RibJ) in trypanosomatids. Two RibJ members, TcRibJ and TbRibJ from T. cruzi and T. brucei respectively, were functionally characterized using homologous and/or heterologous expression systems. The RibJ family represents the first riboflavin transporters found in protists and the third eukaryotic family known to date. The essentiality of riboflavin for trypanosomatids, and the structural/biochemical differences that RFVT

  4. The superfamily keeps growing: Identification in trypanosomatids of RibJ, the first riboflavin transporter family in protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío E Balcazar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease, Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness, Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis, and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites. Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2 pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD cofactors. While metazoans obtain riboflavin from the diet through RFVT/SLC52 transporters, the riboflavin transport mechanisms in trypanosomatids still remain unknown.Here, we show that riboflavin is imported with high affinity in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata and Phytomonas Jma using radiolabeled riboflavin transport assays. The vitamin is incorporated through a saturable carrier-mediated process. Effective competitive uptake occurs with riboflavin analogs roseoflavin, lumiflavin and lumichrome, and co-factor derivatives FMN and FAD. Moreover, important biological processes evaluated in T. cruzi (i.e. proliferation, metacyclogenesis and amastigote replication are dependent on riboflavin availability. In addition, the riboflavin competitive analogs were found to interfere with parasite physiology on riboflavin-dependent processes. By means of bioinformatics analyses we identified a novel family of riboflavin transporters (RibJ in trypanosomatids. Two RibJ members, TcRibJ and TbRibJ from T. cruzi and T. brucei respectively, were functionally characterized using homologous and/or heterologous expression systems.The RibJ family represents the first riboflavin transporters found in protists and the third eukaryotic family known to date. The essentiality of riboflavin for trypanosomatids, and the structural/biochemical differences

  5. Genetics Home Reference: riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... riboflavin (also called vitamin B 2 ) across the cell membrane. Riboflavin cannot be made by the body, so ... of these molecules is in the production of energy for cells. FAD and FMN are also involved in the ...

  6. Emerging roles for riboflavin in functional rescue of mitochondrial β-oxidation flavoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bárbara J; Olsen, Rikke K; Bross, Peter; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2010-01-01

    Riboflavin, commonly known as vitamin B2, is the precursor of flavin cofactors. It is present in our typical diet, and inside the cells it is metabolized to FMN and FAD. As a result of their rather unique and flexible chemical properties these flavins are among the most important redox cofactors present in a large series of different enzymes. A problem in riboflavin metabolism or a low intake of this vitamin will have consequences on the level of FAD and FMN in the cell, resulting in disorders associated with riboflavin deficiency. In a few number of cases, riboflavin deficiency is associated with impaired oxidative folding, cell damage and impaired heme biosynthesis. More relevant are several studies referring reduced activity of enzymes such as dehydrogenases involved in oxidative reactions, respiratory complexes and enzymes from the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The role of this vitamin in mitochondrial metabolism, and in particular in fatty acid oxidation, will be discussed in this review. The basic aspects concerning riboflavin and flavin metabolism and deficiency will be addressed, as well as an overview of the role of the different flavoenzymes and flavin chemistry in fatty acid β-oxidation, merging clinical, cellular and biochemical perspectives. A number of recent studies shedding new light on the cellular processes and biological effects of riboflavin supplementation in metabolic disease will also be overviewed. Overall, a deeper understanding of these emerging roles of riboflavin intake is essential to design better therapies.

  7. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Bacteria that cause atypical pneumonia include: Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae . It often affects people younger than age 40. Pneumonia due ...

  8. Atypical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ertekin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical depression is defined as a specifier of major depressive disorder. Columbia criteria for atypical depression are commonly used to make a diagnosis. Female sex, onset at early age, chronic course, and higher rate of comorbidity (especially anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder is noteworthy in atypical depression. Although, the atypical depression seems to support the familial genetic transition, there is not any specific study supporting these data. In the treatment of atypical depression, monoamine oxidase inhibitors are reported to be more effective than tricyclic antidepressants. In recent studies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also proven to be efficient.

  9. Anti-Aging Effect of Riboflavin Via Endogenous Antioxidant in Fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y-X; Ruan, M-H; Luan, J; Feng, X; Chen, S; Chu, Z-Y

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of riboflavin on aging in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Experimental study. Naval Medical Research Institute. Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. After lifelong supplement of riboflavin, the lifespan and the reproduction of fruit flies were observed. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to mimic oxidative stress damage to fruit flies and the survival time was recorded. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese containing SOD (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) and lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. Riboflavin significantly prolonged the lifespan (Log rank χ2=16.677, Panti-oxidative stress pathway involving enhancing the activity of SOD1 and CAT and inhibiting LF accumulation. Riboflavin deserves more attention for slowing human aging.

  10. Anterograde conduction to the His bundle during right ventricular overdrive pacing distinguishes septal pathway atrioventricular reentry from atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Koichi; Kumar, Saurabh; Stevenson, William G; Epstein, Laurence M; John, Roy M; Tedrow, Usha B; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F

    2015-04-01

    Distinguishing orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (ORT) using a retrograde septal accessory pathway (AP) from atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) may be challenging. Specifically, excluding the presence and participation of an AP may require multiple diagnostic maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative value of commonly used right ventricular (RV) pacing maneuvers, including identification of anterograde His-bundle activation with entrainment, to differentiate ORT using a retrograde septal AP from atypical AVNRT. From March 2009 to June 2014, 56 patients (28 female; age 43.9 ± 17.4 years) who underwent electrophysiologic study and ablation for supraventricular tachycardia (26 ORT using septal AP and 30 atypical AVNRT) that exhibited a concentric atrial activation pattern and a septal ventriculoatrial interval >70 ms were analyzed. Overdrive pacing maneuvers or ventricular extrastimuli failed on at least 1 occasion to correctly identify a septal AP. Overall, 16 ORT patients and 26 AVNRT patients had successful RV entrainment, and 12 (75%) ORT patients showed anterograde His capture (11 patients) and/or anterograde septal ventricular capture (3 patients). None of the patients with atypical AVNRT showed anterograde conduction to the His bundle with entrainment. RV pacing maneuvers are useful to exclude an AP in patients with AVNRT having concentric atrial activation sequence and a septal ventriculoatrial interval >70 ms; however, none are consistently diagnostic. When observed in this patient population, anterograde His-bundle or septal ventricular capture during RV entrainment was diagnostic for ORT using a septal AP. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamic and Probabilistic Metabolic Control Analysis of Riboflavin (Vitamin B₂) Biosynthesis in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, Markus; Mack, Matthias; Röder, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we applied a coupled in silico thermodynamic and probabilistic metabolic control analysis methodology to investigate the control mechanisms of the commercially relevant riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. Under the investigated steady-state conditions, we found that several enzyme reactions of the pathway operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium (transformed Gibbs energies of reaction below about -17 kJ mol(-1)). Using the obtained thermodynamic information and applying enzyme elasticity sampling, we calculated the distributions of the scaled concentration control coefficients (CCCs) and scaled flux control coefficients (FCCs). From the statistical analysis of the calculated distributions, we inferred that the control over the riboflavin producing flux is shared among several enzyme activities and mostly resides in the initial reactions of the pathway. More precisely, the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activity, and therefore the bifunctional RibA protein of Bacillus subtilis because it catalyzes this activity, appears to mainly control the riboflavin producing flux (mean FCCs = 0.45 and 0.55, respectively). The GTP cyclohydrolase II activity and RibA also exert a high positive control over the riboflavin concentration (mean CCCs = 2.43 and 2.91, respectively). This prediction is consistent with previous findings for microbial riboflavin overproducing strains.

  12. Improved riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detail research on the control strategies of carbon and nitrogen source was investigated for riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii. The effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources on riboflavin biosynthesis were first employed respectively which revealed that glucose and yeast extract were the optimal medium ...

  13. Riboflavin-responsive complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Scholte (Hans); H.F.M. Busch (Herman); H.D. Bakker (Henk); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); I.E.M. Luyt-Houwen (I. E M); L.P. Kuyt (L.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThree patients from a large consanguineous family, and one unrelated patient had exercise intolerance since early childhood and improved by supplementation with a high dosage of riboflavin. This was confirmed by higher endurance power in exercise testing. Riboflavin had been given

  14. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Riboflavin shall meet the specifications given in... may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 73.450 Section 73.450 Food and Drugs...

  15. Improved riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... A detail research on the control strategies of carbon and nitrogen source was investigated for riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii. The effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources on riboflavin biosynthesis were first employed respectively which revealed that glucose and yeast extract were the.

  16. Bioproduction of riboflavin: a bright yellow history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, José Luis; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Lozano-Martinez, Patricia; Díaz-Fernández, David; Buey, Rubén M; Jiménez, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals that must be obtained from the diet. To ensure an optimal supply, riboflavin is used on a large scale as additive in the food and feed industries. Here, we describe a historical overview of the industrial process of riboflavin production starting from its discovery and the need to produce the vitamin in bulk at prices that would allow for their use in human and animal nutrition. Riboflavin was produced industrially by chemical synthesis for many decades. At present, the development of economical and eco-efficient fermentation processes, which are mainly based on Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii strains, has replaced the synthetic process at industrial scale. A detailed account is given of the development of the riboflavin overproducer strains as well as future prospects for its improvement.

  17. Atypical Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which is also used to treat insomnia Vortioxetine (Trintellix) Side effects may occur with antidepressants, including atypical ... traz_imtb_ins.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2016. Trintellix (prescribing information). Deerfield, Ill.: Takeda Pharmaceuticals; 2016. http:// ...

  18. Riboflavin synthase of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Protein dynamics revealed by 19F NMR protein perturbation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushman Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the transformation of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine into riboflavin in the last step of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway. Gram-negative bacteria and certain yeasts are unable to incorporate riboflavin from the environment and are therefore absolutely dependent on endogenous synthesis of the vitamin. Riboflavin synthase is therefore a potential target for the development of antiinfective drugs. Results A cDNA sequence from Schizosaccharomyces pombe comprising a hypothetical open reading frame with similarity to riboflavin synthase of Escherichia coli was expressed in a recombinant E. coli strain. The recombinant protein is a homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits as shown by sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. The protein sediments at an apparent velocity of 4.1 S at 20°C. The amino acid sequence is characterized by internal sequence similarity indicating two similar folding domains per subunit. The enzyme catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine at a rate of 158 nmol mg-1 min-1 with an apparent KM of 5.7 microM. 19F NMR protein perturbation experiments using fluorine-substituted intermediate analogs show multiple signals indicating that a given ligand can be bound in at least 4 different states. 19F NMR signals of enzyme-bound intermediate analogs were assigned to ligands bound by the N-terminal respectively C-terminal folding domain on basis of NMR studies with mutant proteins. Conclusion Riboflavin synthase of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a trimer of identical 23-kDa subunits. The primary structure is characterized by considerable similarity of the C-terminal and N-terminal parts. Riboflavin synthase catalyzes a mechanistically complex dismutation of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine affording riboflavin and 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione. The 19F NMR data suggest large scale dynamic mobility in the trimeric protein which may play an important

  19. Solvent Effect on the Photolysis of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Bano, Raheela; Hafeez, Ambreen

    2015-10-01

    The kinetics of photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in water (pH 7.0) and in organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate) has been studied using a multicomponent spectrometric method for the assay of RF and its major photoproducts, formylmethylflavin and lumichrome. The apparent first-order rate constants (k obs) for the reaction range from 3.19 (ethyl acetate) to 4.61 × 10(-3) min(-1) (water). The values of k obs have been found to be a linear function of solvent dielectric constant implying the participation of a dipolar intermediate along the reaction pathway. The degradation of this intermediate is promoted by the polarity of the medium. This indicates a greater stabilization of the excited-triplet states of RF with an increase in solvent polarity to facilitate its reduction. The rate constants for the reaction show a linear relation with the solvent acceptor number indicating the degree of solute-solvent interaction in different solvents. It would depend on the electron-donating capacity of RF molecule in organic solvents. The values of k obs are inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium as a result of diffusion-controlled processes.

  20. Occurrence and significance of riboflavin deficiency in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Bates, C J

    1987-01-01

    Few studies have explored the importance of riboflavin deficiency in premature infants. Infants receiving human milk during the first 2 weeks become biochemically riboflavin-deficient, partly through photodegradation of riboflavin during the banking and delivery of human milk. Animal studies have shown that the metabolic lesions of riboflavin deficiency in sucking neonates differ in important ways from those seen later after weaning. Techniques are described for non-invasive study of functional riboflavin requirements by premature infants. It appears prudent to supplement human milk-fed babies with at least 300 micrograms riboflavin/day; but the potential danger of over supplementation in infants exposed to phototherapy is discussed.

  1. Incremental growth of an upper crustal, A-type pluton, Argentina: Evidence of a re-used magma pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Rocher, Sebastián; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Memeti, Valbone; Paterson, Scott; Galindo, Carmen; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Carboniferous igneous activity in the Sierra de Velasco (NW Argentina) led to the emplacement of several magmas bodies at shallow levels (< 2 kbar). One of these, the San Blas intrusive complex formed over millions of years (≤ 2-3 m.y.) through three periods of magma additions that are characterized by variations in magma sources and emplacement style. The main units, mostly felsic granitoids, have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages within the error range. From older to younger (based on cross-cutting relationships) intrusive units are: (1) the Asha unit (340 ± 7 Ma): a tabular to funnel-shaped intrusion emplaced during a regional strain field dominated by WSW-ENE shortening with contacts discordant to regional host-rock structures; (2) the San Blas unit (344 ± 2 Ma): an approximate cylindrical-shaped intrusion formed by multiple batches of magmas, with a roughly concentric fabric pattern and displacement of the host rock by ductile flow of about 35% of shortening; and (3) the Hualco unit (346 ± 6 Ma): a small body with a possible mushroom geometry and contacts concordant to regional host-rock structures. The magma pulses making up these units define two groups of A-type granitoids. The first group includes the peraluminous granitic rocks of the Asha unit generated mostly by crustal sources (εNdt = - 5.8 and εHft in zircon = - 2.9 to - 4.5). The second group comprises the metaluminous to peraluminous granitic rocks of the youngest units (San Blas and Hualco), which were formed by a heterogeneous mixture between mantle and crustal sources (εNdt = + 0.6 to - 4.8 and εHft in zircon = + 3 to - 6). Our results provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of an intrusive complex formed from multiple non-consanguineous magma intrusions that utilized the same magmatic plumbing system during downward transfer of host materials. As the plutonic system matures, the ascent of magmas is governed by the visco-elastic flow of host rock that for younger batches include

  2. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  3. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coping Other mental health disorders such as anxiety Suicide from feelings of depression Prevention There's no sure way to prevent depression. ... the association between oversleeping and overeating in atypical depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2015;78:52. Koyuncu A, et al. Relationship ...

  4. Riboflavin Accumulation and Molecular Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Bifunctional GTP Cyclohydrolase II/3,4-Dihydroxy-2-Butanone 4-Phosphate Synthase, Lumazine Synthase, and Riboflavin Synthase in Different Organs of Lycium chinense Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh Tuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (vitamin B2 is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide—essential cofactors for a wide variety of enzymes involving in numerous metabolic processes. In this study, a partial-length cDNA encoding bifunctional GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (LcRIBA, 2 full-length cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (LcLS1 and LcLS2, and a full-length cDNA encoding riboflavin synthase (LcRS were isolated from Lycium chinense, an important traditional medicinal plant. Sequence analyses showed that these genes exhibited high identities with their orthologous genes as well as having the same common features related to plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes. LcRIBA, like other plant RIBAs, contained a DHBPS region in its N terminus and a GCHII region in its C-terminal part. LcLSs and LcRS carried an N-terminal extension found in plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes unlike the orthologous microbial genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 4 riboflavin biosynthetic genes were constitutively expressed in all organs examined of L. chinense plants with the highest expression levels found in the leaves or red fruits. LcRIBA, which catalyzes 2 initial reactions in riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, was the highest transcript in the leaves, and hence, the richest content of riboflavin was detected in this organ. Our study might provide the basis for investigating the contribution of riboflavin in diverse biological activities of L. chinense and may facilitate the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crop plants.

  5. The study of riboflavin requirement in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, A A; Classen, H L

    1998-01-01

    Riboflavin status indices in tissues (brain, liver, heart) and blood plasma, and performance parameters were studied in male and female broiler chickens in response to a wide range of dietary supplementation of riboflavin in order to establish the requirement for riboflavin in fast growing modern broilers. The birds fed riboflavin supplemented diets were increasing their body weight at a higher rate than those fed the unsupplemented diet, but this was apparent only during the first stage of growth (days 1 to 21). Supplementation of 2 mg riboflavin per kg was sufficient to support the maximum growth rate. Feed consumption was not affected by different levels of dietary supplementation of riboflavin. The supplementation of riboflavin in the diet increased (p FAD, followed by FMN and riboflavin. Overall, the dietary riboflavin supplementation had highly significant (p effects on tissue FAD, FMN, and riboflavin status, but the effect of supplementation was clearly pronounced only at days 7 and 14, and thereafter the status of FAD, FMN, and riboflavin in the tissues did not differ between unsupplemented and supplemented birds. Neither FAD, FMN, and riboflavin nor GSSG-RED activity correlate with the level of supplementation. Saturation levels of riboflavin in the blood plasma and tissues, corresponded with dietary riboflavin levels of supplementation at 1 to 2 mg per kg. Based on the performance and biochemical data, the dietary requirement of riboflavin for fast growing broilers should be set at a level of 5 mg/kg. The currently recommended allowance of 3.6 mg riboflavin per kg of ration is not sufficient for modern breeds of broiler chickens.

  6. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... homeostatic riboflavin levels at whole animal level all through its life. A possible regulation of rft-2 expression at mRNA levels at whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. Abundance of rft-2 transcript was upregulated in riboflavin-deficient conditions (10 nM), ...

  8. Intrastromal application of riboflavin for corneal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Theo G; Fischinger, Isaak; Senfft, Tim; Schmidinger, Gerald; Seiler, Theo

    2014-06-10

    To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of corneal crosslinking (CXL) by injecting the photomediator riboflavin into the corneal stroma via intrastromal channels. Five groups of pig corneas, nine each, were compared regarding stress-strain relationship and UV-absorption. Group 1 had intrastromal channels floated with riboflavin 0.5%-solution followed by UVA-irradiation (3 mW/cm(2) for 30 minutes); group 2 was handled like group 1, but were irradiated with 9 mW/cm(2) for 10 minutes; group 3 was treated according to the Dresden protocol (epi-off, 9 mW/cm(2) for 10 minutes); group 4 had the identical channel system, no riboflavin but identical irradiation; group 5 with native corneas served as a control group. The intrastromal channels were created with a femtosecond laser. The stress-strain relations were measured in corneal strips using a uniaxial material tester at strains up to 12%. The UV-transmission of the corneas was measured in groups 1, 3, and 5. The stress needed for a 10% strain was significantly increased by 82% in the corneas treated with the Dresden protocol compared with native cornea (P = 0.0005). With intrastromal application of riboflavin the significant increase was 87% (P = 0.0005) in group 1 and 64% (P = 0.007) in group 2. The channel formation alone did not alter biomechanics (P = 0.923). The corneal UVA-transmission was 2.4% after intrastromal riboflavin application, 8.9% after the treatment according to the Dresden protocol, and 57.9% in native corneas. The experiments demonstrate the intrastromal application of riboflavin by means of intrastromal channels a feasible "epi-on" approach for CXL. More experimental data are needed before clinical testing. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. [Atypical odontalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, Jens Christoph

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its first description by the English surgeon JOHN HUNTER more than 200 years ago, atypical odontalgia (AO), or phantom tooth pain, is not universally known among dentists. AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction. In the absence of pathological clinical or radiological findings, the diagnosis is made by exclusion. After a thorough patient education about the condition, pharmacological and psychological pain management is required. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are contraindicated.

  10. Update on riboflavin and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Naghashpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Riboflavin plays an important role in myelin formation, and its deficiency is implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature concerning the health benefits of riboflavin on MS. The literature recorded within four main databases, including relevant clinical trials, experimental, and case-control studies from 1976 to 2017 were considered. Both human and animal studies were included for review, with no restrictions on age, gender, or ethnicity.  Experimental studies demonstrated that riboflavin deficiency triggers neurologic abnormalities related to peripheral neuropathies such as demyelinating neuropathy. Moreover, randomized controlled trials (RCT and case-control studies in which MS patients received riboflavin supplementation or had higher dietary riboflavin intake showed improvements in neurological motor disability. Riboflavin is a cofactor of xanthine oxidase and its deficiency exacerbates low uric acid caused by high copper levels, leading to myelin degeneration. The vitamin additionally plays a significant role in the normal functioning of glutathione reductase (GR as an antioxidant enzyme, and conditions of riboflavin deficiency lead to oxidative damage. Riboflavin promotes the gene and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the CNS of an animal model of MS, suggesting that BDNF mediates the beneficial effect of riboflavin on neurological motor disability. Research to date generally supports the role of riboflavin in MS outcomes. However, further observational and interventional studies on human populations are warranted to validate the effects of riboflavin.

  11. Root responses of Medicago truncatula plants grown in two different iron deficiency conditions: changes in root protein profile and riboflavin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2011-05-06

    Iron deficiency is a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in one-third of the world's agricultural areas, especially those with high soil CaCO(3). In the present work, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomic approach was combined with a study on the riboflavin synthesis pathway, including qPCR and riboflavin determination, to investigate Fe-deficiency responses in Medicago truncatula plants grown with and without CaCO(3). Iron deficiency caused a de novo accumulation of DMRLs and GTPcII, proteins involved in riboflavin biosynthesis, as well as marked increases in root riboflavin concentrations and in the expression of four genes from the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway. Two novel changes found were the increased accumulation of proteins related to N recycling and protein catabolism. Other identified changes were consistent with previously found increases in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and stress-related processes. All effects were more marked in the presence of CaCO(3). Our results show that the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated at the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels under both Fe-deficiency treatments, especially in the presence of CaCO(3). Results also indicate that N recycling occurs in M. truncatula upon Fe deficiency, possibly constituting an additional anaplerotic N and C source for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, carboxylates, and others.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5695 - Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 582.5695 Section 582.5695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Clear Cell Adenofibroma, Atypical Proliferative (Borderline Tumor, and Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic Features of Tumors with Endometriosis or Adenofibromatous Components Support Two Related Pathways of Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Zhao, Lee Shu-Fune Wu, Ross Barner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathologic features of 472 ovarian epithelial clear cell neoplasms (4 adenofibromas [AFs], 41 atypical proliferative [borderline] tumors [APTs], and 427 carcinomas [CAs] were studied in order to elucidate the morphologic steps involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors and determine whether clear cell CA is a type I or type II tumor in the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis. Thirty-three percent of the CAs had an adenofibromatous background [CA(AF+], and 67% did not [CA(AF-]. Endometriosis was found in all types of tumors, but tumors arising in endometriotic cysts were more frequent with CA(AF-s (p<0.0001. The subset of women with CA(AF-s with endometriosis were younger (p<0.0001, their tumors were more frequently cystic (p<0.0001, they more commonly had a mixed carcinoma component of non-clear cell type (p=0.006, and they were more frequently oxyphilic (p=0.015 compared with CA(AF+s. The architecture of the former tumors was more commonly papillary compared to tubulocystic in the latter (p=0.0006. Atypical endometriosis was more common in CA(AF-s than in AFs, APTs, and CC(AF+s [p=0.004]. The subset of CA(AF-s without endometriosis presented more frequently in advanced stage (>I and were higher grade compared to CA(AF+s or CA(AF- with endometriosis (p-values, <0.0001 to 0.0071. All AFs and APTs were stage I compared to 79% of CA(AF+s. An increase in mean tumor size correlated with each respective tumor category from AF (6.8 cm to CA(AF+ [12.9 cm]. Notable nuclear atypia was absent in all AFs but was focally present in 27% of APTs and in the adenofibromatous background of 24% of the CA(AF+s. An increase in the proportion of carcinoma in the CA(AF+s correlated with an increase in grade and advanced stage. In summary, ovarian clear cell CA appears to develop along two pathways, both of which are related to endometriosis. We speculate that, in one, epithelial atypia arises in an endometriotic cyst and then evolves into clear cell

  14. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; de Pereda, José María; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Herein, we report the functional and structural characterization of the IMPDH enzyme from the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. Our data show that the overexpression of the IMPDH gene increases the metabolic flux through the guanine pathway and ultimately enhances 40 % riboflavin production with respect to the wild type. Also, IMPDH disruption results in a 100-fold increase of inosine excretion to the culture media. Our results contribute to the developing metabolic engineering toolbox aiming at improving the production of metabolites with biotechnological interest in A. gossypii.

  15. Photophysics and photochemistry of Riboflavin-induced corneal Cross-Linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas

    In this talk, we will describe general pathways involved in the photophysics of a photosensitized process, which can lead to crosslinking due to light excitation of Riboflavin in the cornea. Furthermore, we will show the contribution of singlet molecular oxygen O2(a1Δg) to this phenomena and show...... difficulties of the measurement in porcine corneas in respect to neat solutions. We will also discuss the mechanism which involves the formation of singlet oxygen as one of the triggering species....

  16. Corneal distribution of riboflavin prior to collagen cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Anders P; Hjortdal, Jesper; Breitenbach, Thomas; Ivarsen, Anders

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the distribution of riboflavin in the corneal stroma, under varying concentrations and application time. In 54 porcine eyes, the central corneal epithelium was removed, and 0.035, 0.1, or 0.2% riboflavin-5-phosphate (in 20% Dextran T-500) was applied for 10, 20, or 30 min (3 x 6 corneas in each of the 3 groups). Trephined corneal buttons were examined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. Stromal riboflavin distribution and concentration was determined by measuring riboflavin fluorescence in optical sections at 10 microm intervals through the entire cornea. The procedure was repeated in 7 human corneal donor grafts using 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate for 20 or 30 min. In porcine corneas, fluorescence intensity peaked within the first 50 microm followed by a steep decline to baseline. Increasing the riboflavin concentration from 0.1 to 0.2% did not increase stromal depth propagation, although a higher concentration in the anterior 200 microm was observed. Reducing the riboflavin application time from 30 to 20 min had no impact on corneal depth propagation or total riboflavin uptake. However, a 10-min further reduction of the application time caused a significantly reduced riboflavin uptake. In all human corneas, fluorescence peaked within the anterior 50 microm, followed by a steep decline to baseline over the next 200 microm; similar to the observations in porcine corneas. The human corneas imbibed more riboflavin compared to the porcine corneas. In human and porcine corneas, riboflavin does not appear to fully load the corneal stroma using the current clinical procedure. Instead, the uptake appears to be limited to the anterior approximately 200 microm. Changes in application time and riboflavin concentration have only little influence on stromal depth diffusion.

  17. Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma after intracameral injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the enrichment of riboflavin in the corneal stroma after intracameral injection to research the barrier ability of the corneal endothelium to riboflavin in vivo.METHODS:The right eyes of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Different concentrations riboflavin-balanced salt solutions (BSS were injected into the anterior chamber (10 with 0.5%, 10 with 1%, and 10 with 2%. Eight corneal buttons of 8.5 mm in diameter from each group were dissected at 30min after injection and the riboflavin concentrations in the corneal stroma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after removing the epithelium and endothelium. The other two rabbits in every group were observed for 24h and sacrificed. As a comparison, the riboflavin concentrations from 16 corneal stromal samples were determined using HPLC after instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-BSS solution for 30min on the corneal surface (8 without epithelium and 8 with intact epithelium.RESULTS: The mean riboflavin concentrations were 11.19, 18.97, 25.08, 20.18, and 1.13 µg/g for 0.5%, 1%, 2%, de-epithelialzed samples, and the transepithelial groups, respectively. The color change of the corneal stroma and the HPLC results showed that enrichment with riboflavin similar to classical de-epithelialized corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL could be achieved by intracameral1% riboflavin-BSS solution after 30min; the effect appeared to be continuous for at least 30min.CONCLUSION:Riboflavin can effectively penetrate the corneal stroma through the endothelium after an intracameral injection in vivo, so it could be an enhancing method that could improve the corneal riboflavin concentration in transepithelial CXL.

  18. An intronic variation in SLC52A1 causes exon skipping and transient riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosegaard, Signe; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann; Flyvbjerg, Karen Freund; Bliksrud, Yngve Thomas; Gregersen, Niels; Dembic, Maja; Annexstad, Ellen; Tangeraas, Trine; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Andresen, Brage S

    2017-11-02

    Vitamin B2, riboflavin is essential for cellular function, as it participates in a diversity of redox reactions central to human metabolism, through its role as precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are electron carriers. The electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH), uses FAD as cofactor. The ETF and ETFDH are forming the electron transport pathway for many mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism. A variation in either ETF or ETFDH causes multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD), but genetic variations in the riboflavin metabolism or transportation of riboflavin can also cause MADD. The most common variations are located in the riboflavin transporter 2 (RFVT2) and 3 (RFVT3), that are highly expressed in brain and intestinal tissues, respectively. Deficiency of riboflavin transporter 1 (RFVT1), encoded by the SLC52A1 gene, highly expressed in the placenta, has only been reported once. We here report a case of transient MADD, caused by a heterozygous intronic variation, c.1134+11G>A, in the SLC52A1 gene encoding RFVT1. This variation creates a binding site for the splice inhibitory hnRNP A1 protein and causes exon 4 skipping. Riboflavin deficiency and maternal malnutrition during pregnancy might have been the determining factor in the outcome of this case. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole body by riboflavin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was inocu- lated with 104 or 105 parasites/mL and riboflavin treated with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (40-160 J/mL red blood cells [mLRBCs]). Parasite genome integrity was assessed by quantitative amplification inhibition assays, and P. falciparum viability was monitored in vitro. Results Riboflavin alone did ...

  20. Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during respiratory infection in riboflavin deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijlal, S; Lakshmi, A V; Bamji, M S

    1999-12-01

    Studies in children and mice have shown that respiratory infection alters riboflavin metabolism, resulting in increased urinary loss of this vitamin. This could be due to mobilization of riboflavin from the liver to blood because liver Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) levels were lowered in the mice during infection. To understand the functional implications of lowered hepatic FAD levels during respiratory infection, flavoprotein functions such as oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation of the liver mitochondria were examined during infection in mice. Weanling mice were fed either riboflavin-restricted or control diet for 18 days and then injected with a sublethal dose of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During infection, the state 3 respiratory rate with palmitoyl-L-carnitine and glutamate were significantly lowered (27-29%) in the riboflavin-restricted group, whereas in the control group 10% reduction was observed with palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrate. A 22% reduction in the respiratory control ratio with palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrate was observed during infection in the riboflavin-restricted group. The beta-oxidation of palmitoyl-L-carnitine was significantly lowered (29%) in the riboflavin-restricted infected group. The results of the study suggest that the effects of infection on vital physiologic functions were more pronounced in the riboflavin-restricted mice than in the control mice. (c) Elsevier Science Inc. 1999.

  1. Riboflavin production during growth of Micrococcus luteus on pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, G.K. (Environmental Chemistry Lab., Dow Elanco, Midland, MI (United States)); O' Loughlin, E.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Micrococcus luteus produced 29 {mu}M riboflavin during growth on 6.5 mM pyridine but not during growth on other substrates. On the basic of the results of radiolabelling studies, riboflavin was not directly synthesized from pyridine. Pyridine may interfere with riboflavin biosynthesis or elicit a general stress response in M. luteus. The optimum concentration of pyridine for both growth of the organism and pyridine degradation was 13 mM. Above 25 mM, pyridine temporarily inhibited growth, pyridine degradation, oxygen uptake, and pigment production.

  2. Effects of metal chelator, sodium azide, and superoxide dismutase on the oxidative stability in riboflavin-photosensitized oil-in-water emulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JaeHwan; Decker, Eric A

    2011-06-08

    The effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined using lipid hydroperoxides and headspace volatile analyses. The influences of a metal chelator, sodium azide, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on oxidation pathways were tested to gain a better understanding of the role of transition metals, singlet oxygen, and superoxide anion, respectively. Emulsions with riboflavin and visible light irradiation had significantly higher lipid hydroperoxides and volatiles (p activity of metals through their ability to produce lipid hydroperoxides and superoxide anion.

  3. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -3 (hR VFT-3), are identified and characterized in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, studies pertaining to functional contribution of rft-2 in maintaining body homeostatic riboflavin levels and its regulation are very limited. In this study, the ...

  4. Kinetic modeling of riboflavin biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis under production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, Markus; Neumann, Susanne; Röder, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    To study the network dynamics of the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and to identify potential bottlenecks in the system, an ordinary differential equation-based model was constructed using available literature data for production strains. The results confirmed that the RibA protein is rate limiting in the pathway. Under the conditions investigated, we determined a potential limiting order of the remaining enzymes under increased RibA concentration (>0.102 mM) and therefore higher riboflavin production (>0.045 mmol g(CDW)(-1) h(-1) and 0.0035 mM s(-1), respectively). The reductase activity of RibG and lumazine synthase (RibH) might be the next most limiting steps. The computational minimization of the enzyme concentrations of the pathway suggested the need for a greater RibH concentration (0.251 mM) compared with the other enzymes (RibG: 0.188 mM, RibB: 0.023 mM).

  5. Isolation and identification of a riboflavin producer yeast from Nectarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Daneshazari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Many microorganisms like fungi , bacteria and yeasts, have a natural ability to produce vitamins included vitamin B2 or riboflavin. In this regard, the present study was performed to isolation and screening for riboflavin producing yeasts from various sources of soil, leaf and fruit s.   Materials and method s: samples of leaf , soil and fruits were prepared for the presence of yeasts and by its ability to produce riboflavin . After purification and enrichment of samples , in order to assay riboflavin production, spectrometry , thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used . Finally, the best selected isolate was identified using conventional morphological , biochemical and molecular techniques .   Results : In this study , 26 yeast strains were isolated from environmental samples, that 6 isolates showed the ability to produce riboflavin . Identification results of the best selected isolate by biochemical and phenotypic characteristics revealed that this isolate is related to Clavispora lusitaniae and considering isolation of it from nectarine, has named it Clavispora lusitaniae strain N3 (Gene accession no: JQ586258 .   Discussion and conclusion : Although only one of the six producing strains was studied and identified , observation of ability to produce among 23% of strains showed necessity for further investigation. And according to the result of absence of viewing report about production by investigated strain, it can be said that Iran has potentiality for isolation of yeasts and is capable of producing riboflavin.

  6. Observation of oscillatory surface reactions of riboflavin, trolox, and singlet oxygen using single carbon nanotube fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Fatih; Boghossian, Ardemis A; Sen, Selda; Ulissi, Zachary W; Zhang, Jingqing; Strano, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Single-molecule fluorescent microscopy allows semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the adsorption and desorption of single adsorbate molecules as a stochastic modulation of emission intensity. In this study, we identify and assign the signature of the complex decomposition and reaction pathways of riboflavin in the presence of the free radical scavenger Trolox using DNA-wrapped SWCNT sensors dispersed onto an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coated surface. SWCNT emission is quenched by riboflavin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but increases upon the adsorption of Trolox, which functions as a reductive brightening agent. Riboflavin has two parallel reaction pathways, a Trolox oxidizer and a photosensitizer for singlet oxygen and superoxide generation. The resulting reaction network can be detected in real time in the vicinity of a single SWCNT and can be completely described using elementary reactions and kinetic rate constants measured independently. The reaction mechanism results in an oscillatory fluorescence response from each SWCNT, allowing for the simultaneous detection of multiple reactants. A series-parallel kinetic model is shown to describe the critical points of these oscillations, with partition coefficients on the order of 10(-6)-10(-4) for the reactive oxygen and excited state species. These results highlight the potential for SWCNTs to characterize complex reaction networks at the nanometer scale.

  7. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (RF, also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented.

  8. A possible anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect of irradiated riboflavin in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Zambuzzi, Willian Fernando; de Souza, Ana Carolina Santos; da Silva, Rodrigo Augusto; Machado, Daisy; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin is a potent photosensitizer as well as part of the vitamin B complex. Recently we demonstrated that the products generated by irradiation of riboflavin have potential as anti-leukaemic therapy. The possible action, however, of the riboflavin photoproducts in solid cancers has not been

  9. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scurachio, R. S.; Mattiucci, F.; Santos, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    riboflavin solvation shell upon caffeine metabolite binding to riboflavin. The caffeine metabolites 1-methyl uric acid and 1,7-dimethyl uric acid were shown by transient absorption laser flash photolysis to be efficient as quenchers of triplet riboflavin with second-order rate constant of 1.4 108 L mol− 1 s...

  10. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Priti Arun; Rajan Jain; Vaibhav Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  11. Riboflavin alleviates cardiac failure in Type I diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common and serious comorbidity of diabetes. Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. The ability of antioxidants to inhibit injury has raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatment for diabetic heart diseases. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and animals and it is an important food additive. Riboflavin, a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, enhances the oxidative folding and subsequent secretion of proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of riboflavin in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ (70 mg /kg. Riboflavin (20 mg/kg was orally administered to animals immediately after induction of diabetes and was continued for eight weeks. Rats were examined for diabetic cardiomyopathy by left ventricular (LV remadynamic function. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein level. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CTGF level was measured by Western blot in all rats at the end of the study. In the untreated diabetic rats, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP rate of pressure rose (+dp/dt, and rate of pressure decay (−dp/dt were depressed while left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP was increased, which indicated the reduced left ventricular contractility and slowing of left ventricular relaxation. The level of SOD decreased, CTGF and HO-1 protein expression and MDA content rose. Riboflavin treatment significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic rats, there were persistent increases in significant activation of SOD and the level of HO-1 protein, and a decrease in the level of CTGF. These results suggest

  12. Establishing Corneal Cross-Linking With Riboflavin and UV-A in the Mouse Cornea In Vivo: Biomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Arthur; Kling, Sabine; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Richoz, Olivier; Tabibian, David; Randleman, J Bradley; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    To establish corneal cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and UV-A in in the mouse cornea in vivo and to develop tools to measure the biomechanical changes observed. A total of 55 male C57BL/6 wild-type mice (aged 5 weeks) were divided into 14 groups. Standard CXL parameters were adapted to the anatomy of the mouse cornea, and riboflavin concentration (0.1%-0.5%) and fluence series (0.09-5.4 J/cm²) were performed on the assumption of the endothelial damage thresholds. Untreated and riboflavin only corneas were used as controls. Animals were killed at 30 minutes and at 1 month after CXL. Corneas were harvested. Two-dimensional (2D) biomechanical testing was performed using a customized corneal holder in a commercially available stress-strain extensometer/indenter. Both elastic and viscoelastic analyses were performed. Statistical inference was performed using t-tests and specific mathematical models fitted to the experimental stress-strain and stress-relaxation data. Adjusted P values by the method of Benjamini and Hochberg are reported. For all CXL treatment groups, stress-relaxation showed significant differences (P biomechanical effect successfully measured. This could create opportunities to study molecular pathways of CXL in transgenic mice.

  13. Identification of 6-aminochrysene photoproducts and study of the effect of a humic acid and riboflavin on its photolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kui; Hwang, Huey-min; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the photosensitizer riboflavin (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 μM) and a river humic acid (0, 20, 40, 80 ppm) on the photolysis of 6-aminochrysene (6AC) in 10 mM PBS solution (pH 7.0) was studied. The presence of riboflavin significantly enhanced photolysis rate of 6AC. The photo-transformation half-life of 6AC was 1 min or 36 min respectively in the presence or absence of riboflavin. The humic acid inhibited the photo-transformation rate of 6AC. The photo-transformation half-lives of 6AC were 37, 56, 92 min at 20, 40, 80 ppm humic acid, respectively. By using LC-MS, the main 6AC photoproduct identified was 5,6-chrysene-quinone along with some minor products. Both 6AC and 5,6-chrysene-quinone exhibited photoinduced cytotoxicity. A photochemical transformation pathway for 6AC was derived. PMID:14644571

  14. Structural and functional insights into Saccharomyces cerevisiae riboflavin biosynthesis reductase RIB7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Lv

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 (ScRIB7 is a potent target for anti-fungal agents because of its involvement in the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway as a NADPH-dependent reductase. However, the catalytic mechanism of riboflavin biosynthesis reductase (RBSRs is controversial, and enzyme structure information is still lacking in eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB7 at 2.10 Å resolution and its complex with NADPH at 2.35 Å resolution. ScRIB7 exists as a stable homodimer, and each subunit consists of nine central β-sheets flanked by five helices, resembling the structure of RIB7 homologues. A conserved G(76-X-G(78-Xn-G(181-G(182 motif is present at the NADPH pyrophosphate group binding site. Activity assays confirmed the necessity of Thr79, Asp83, Glu180 and Gly182 for the activity of ScRIB7. Substrate preference of ScRIB7 was altered by mutating one residue (Thr35 to a Lysine, implying that ScRIB7 Thr35 and its corresponding residue, a lysine in bacteria, are important in substrate-specific recognition.

  15. Beneficial effect of the antioxidant riboflavin on gene expression of extracellular matrix elements, antioxidants and oxidases in keratoconic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Isabella M Y; McGhee, Charles N J; Sherwin, Trevor

    2014-07-01

    Keratoconus manifests as a conical protrusion of the cornea and is characterised by stromal thinning. This causes debilitating visual impairment which may necessitate corneal transplantation. Therapeutic targets related to disease mechanisms are currently lacking, as the pathobiology remains unclear. Many pathological features may be manifestations of defects in wound healing and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated functions. In a wide range of tissue and cell types, antioxidant exposure has beneficial effects on both of these pathways. This study investigated the effect of treatment with the antioxidant riboflavin on wound healing and ROS-associated functions in keratoconus. Stromal cells were isolated from human central keratoconic (n = 3) and normal (n = 3) corneas. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA. The gene expression of 22 genes involved in repair (eight normal and four repair-type extracellular matrix constituents) and ROS-associated processes (eight antioxidants and two ROS-synthesising oxidases) was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This was also performed on keratoconic stromal cells treated in vitro with riboflavin (n = 3). In stromal cells from untreated keratoconic corneas (compared with untreated normal corneas), there was an up-regulation of 7/12 extracellular matrix elements. Four of eight antioxidants and two of two oxidases were also increased. In treated keratoconic corneas (compared with untreated keratoconic corneas), six out of eight normal extracellular matrix constituents were up-regulated and two of four repair-type molecules were reduced. An increase was also observed in seven out of eight antioxidants and there was a diminution in two out of two oxidases. Riboflavin encourages the synthesis of a normal extracellular matrix and reduces reactive oxygen species levels in keratoconus. This supports the occurrence of wound healing and ROS-associated abnormalities in keratoconus

  16. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  17. Oxidative stress and the effect of riboflavin supplementation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... The results show that there is oxidative stress in malaria infection and that chloroquine supplementation with riboflavin could ... quine treatment is reported to increase oxidative stress indices in experimental ... centrifuged (1500 g for 10 min) at room temperature for plasma and stored at -20°C until analysed ...

  18. Amphiphilic Phospholipid-Based Riboflavin Derivatives for Tumor Targeting Nanomedicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beztsinna, Nataliia; Tsvetkova, Yoanna; Bartneck, Matthias; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Bestel, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential vitamin for cellular metabolism. Recent studies have shown that RF is internalized through RF transporters, which are highly overexpressed by prostate and breast cancer cells, as well as by angiogenic endothelium. Here, we present an optimized synthesis protocol for

  19. Research Report: Determination of Riboflavin Content in Goat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed to determine riboflavin content in goat and cow whole milk. The present method involves acidification of the milk to precipitate bulk of the proteins and centrifugation affording a supernatant, which was diluted with 2% acetic acid to a constant volume.

  20. Role of riboflavin and thiamine in induced resistance against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two inducer chemicals, that is, riboflavin (B2) and thiamine (B1) on the induction of systemic resistance in soybean against charcoal rot disease as well as biochemical changes associated with these treatments in soybean plants was investigated. Under greenhouse condition, the dose effect of 0.1 to 15 mM ...

  1. Scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinking is a formation of chemical bonds between large molecules. It makes material stronger. Corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA has been successfully used in keratectasia treatment since 2003. There are some presuppositions of the scleral crosslinking successful using in the progressive myopia, characterized by thinning and mechanical strength decrease of the sclera, as well as in corneal ectasia. Experimental investigations showed an increase in the mechanical strength of the sclera after crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA in vitro. At the same time there were no changes in the thickness of the sclera. Achieved biomechanical effect was constant over a time with interval during up to 8 months in rabbits in vivo. Scleral structure changes after crosslinking were studied with light, electron and atomic force microscopy. Dense collagen bundle at the same time with fibers diameter increase was observed. The spatial pattern of fibrils within crosslinked scleral tissue was tangled and running in different directions. Some authors found such side effects of the procedure as damage of the retina and cornea on the irradiation side because of the high irradiance and thinning of the sclera as a result of dehydration. The optimal duration of riboflavin instillation (20 minutes and irradiation with 3 mW/cm² (40 minutes were determined in the experiments. It was shown in vivo, that crosslinking of the sclera with riboflavin and UVA prevented the growth of the rabbit eyes in occlusion-induced myopia. There are several data about successful clinical using of the scleral crosslinking. However, only 6 patients (12 eyes were observed, procedure parameters are not clear, follow-up period was only 6 months. Thus, now there are many unsolved questions about efficacy and safety of the scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA. Experimental results encourage for a new method of the progressive myopia treatment will be

  2. Atypical swallowing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, C; Prevedello, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Farronato, G

    2014-06-01

    Atypical swallowing is a myofunctional problem consisting of an altered tongue position during the act of swallowing. High incidence in population, multifactorial etiology and the recurring connection with the presence of malocclusions made it a topic of strong interest and discussion in science. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the current orientation on the topic of atypical swallowing, trying in particular to answer two questions: 1) what kind of connection is there between atypical swallowing and malocclusion; 2) what kind of therapy should be used to solve it. This review was conducted on the Medline database [www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/pubmed] searching for the keywords "atypical swallowing" and "tongue thrust". We examined all the documents from the year 1990 onwards, excluding the ones about syndromic cases of the central motor system. The causal relation between the two problems seems to be biunique: some authors affirm that this oral habit starts as a compensation mechanism for a preexisting malocclusion (especially in case of open-bite); other texts show that it has a tendency to exacerbate cases of malocclusion; it is also proven that a non-physiological tongue thrust can negatively influence the progress of an ongoing orthodontic therapy. Thereby, the best therapeutic approach seems to be a multidisciplinary one: beside orthodontics, which is necessary to correct the malocclusion, it is essential to set up a myofunctional rehabilitation procedure to correct the oral habit, therefore granting long time permanent results. There is also proof of a substantial difference between the results obtained from early (deciduous or primary mixed dentition) or later treatments. The biunique causal relation between atypical swallowing and malocclusion suggests a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, orthodontic and myofunctional, to temporarily solve both problems. An early diagnosis and a prompt intervention have a significantly positive influence on the

  3. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Hsie, Zong-Jhe; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of riboflavin on nanoscale zero-valent iron reactivity during the degradation of carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2014-02-18

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of riboflavin on the reactivity of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) during three reaction cycles of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation. The degradation kinetics of CT by NZVI without riboflavin (0.556 ± 0.044 h(-1)) was 1.5 times higher than that with riboflavin (0.370 ± 0.012 h(-1)) in the first cycle. Riboflavin was rapidly reduced (65.0 ± 7.0 h(-1)) by NZVI during CT degradation, resulting in the slow degradation kinetics of CT in the first cycle due to competition for electrons from NZVI between riboflavin and CT. These results indicate that riboflavin is not effective as an electron shuttle for reduction of CT by NZVI. On the other hand, the degradation kinetics of CT by NZVI without riboflavin decreased to 0.122 ± 0.033 h(-1) in the third cycle, while that with riboflavin was significantly enhanced (0.663 ± 0.005 h(-1)). The results from X-ray analyses and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the decline in reactivity of NZVI without riboflavin in the third cycle resulted from continuous Fe(0) oxidation to iron oxides on the NZVI surface. In contrast, riboflavin enhanced the reactivity of NZVI by reductive dissolution of passive iron oxides on NZVI surface by reduced riboflavin. The experimental results suggest that riboflavin can play a pivotal role in the prolongation of NZVI reactivity in long-term in situ and ex situ applications of NZVI.

  5. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  6. Voltammetric evidences for the interaction of riboflavin with cadmium in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Jabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the interaction of riboflavin with cadmium (Cd in aqueous media was studied by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and chronocoulometry. It was found that Cd exhibits a 1:1 complex with riboflavin in aqueous KCl solution to bind between O(24 and N(12 positions of riboflavin depicted from the semi-empirical computation. The overall stability constant (logβ = 9.95 of the complex obtained from differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric data is a good agreement for the formation of a very stable Cd–riboflavin complex in aqueous media.

  7. Riboflavin deficiency in infants and children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, M; Lopez, R; Cooperman, J M

    1976-08-01

    Thirty-one infants and children with cardiac disease were randomly selected to determine whether riboflavin deficiency is more prevalent among those with cardiac disease than among a group of comparable socioeconomic status without cardiac disease. Riboflavin studies were initiated since it is a representative member of the B complex and a specific and sensitive biochemical method is available to detect deficiency of this vitamin. The method involves the determination of the degree of saturation of erythrocyte glutathione reductase. Twenty-seven of the subjects had congenital heart disease and four had rheumatic heart disease. Eleven of the 31 had evidence of riboflavin deficiency, a significantly higher prevalence than among the group without cardiac disease. The deficiency existed among those with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. There was a greater tendency for the vitamin deficiency to occur among those with congestive heart failure. These studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies may be more prevalent among infants and children with cardiac disease than was previously thought.

  8. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of 8-amino-riboflavin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A.; Zirak, P. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Mack, M. [Institut fuer Technische Mikrobiologie, Hochschule Mannheim, Paul-Wittsack-Str. 10, D-68163 Mannheim (Germany); Ghisla, S. [Universitaet Konstanz, Fakultaet fuer Biologie, P.O. Box 5560-M644, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2009-10-16

    The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2-5 ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.

  9. Atypical femoral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Sandro; Chiarello, Eugenio; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Cadossi, Matteo; Luciani, Deianira; Mazzotti, Antonio; Donati, Davide Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the most widely used therapy for osteoporosis. Recently, a relationship between long-term treatment with BPs and a subset of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) from below the lesser trochanter to the sovracondilar line has been described. Many etiopathogenetic theories have been invoked to explain AFFs: reduced bone turnover and increased osteoblast bone apposition with accumulation of microdamage and decreased bone toughness with subsequent increased risk of mi...

  10. Atypical odontalgia--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seena B; Boros, Audrey L; Kumar, Satish K S

    2012-09-01

    Atypical odontalgia is a commonly misdiagnosed condition that frequently leads to unnecessary dental treatments such as extraction and endodontic therapy. These treatments often worsen the pain. Despite greater recognition and understanding of this condition, proper diagnosis and treatment remains a challenge. It is believed that atypical odontalgia is a neuropathic condition. This article updates the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of atypical odontalgia, and provides appropriate diagnostic and management approaches for this condition.

  11. Riboflavin carrier protein-targeted fluorescent USPIO for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayapaul, J.; Arns, S.; Lederle, W.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Comba, P.; Gätjens, J.; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Riboflavin (Rf) and its metabolic analogs flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are essential for normal cellular growth and function. Their intracellular transport is regulated by the riboflavin carrier protein (RCP), which has been shown to be over-expressed by

  12. Studies on estrification and sulphonation of riboflavin in the environment of highly concentrated sulphuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Wojciech; Brzezińska, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    The article presents investigations of riboflavin reactions in aqueous solutions of sulphuric acid. Analysis of UV/VIS, 1H NMR spectra and TLC indicates that at the beginning of the reaction ester of riboflavin were obtained and then sulphonation reaction took place. From the analysis of UV/VIS spectra the kinetics of the reaction was calculated, using own computer program.

  13. Inhibition of riboflavin metabolism in rat tissues by chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J; Huang, Y P; Rivlin, R S

    1981-05-01

    Prompted by recognition of the similar structures of riboflavin (vitamin B(2)), phenothiazine drugs, and tricyclic antidepressants, our studies sought to determine effects of drugs of these two types upon the conversion of riboflavin into its active coenzyme derivative, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in rat tissues. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative, and imipramine and amitriptyline, both tricyclic antidepressants, each inhibited the incorporation of [(14)C]riboflavin into [(14)C]FAD in liver, cerebrum, cerebellum, and heart. A variety of psychoactive drugs structurally unrelated to riboflavin were ineffective. Chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline in vitro inhibited hepatic flavokinase, the first of two enzymes in the conversion of riboflavin to FAD. Evidence was obtained that chlorpromazine administration for a 3- or 7-wk period at doses comparable on a weight basis to those used clinically has significant effects upon riboflavin metabolism in the animal as a whole: (a) the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase, an FAD-containing enzyme used as an index of riboflavin status physiologically, was elevated, a finding compatible with a deficiency state, (b) the urinary excretion of riboflavin was more than twice that of age- and sex-matched pair-fed control rats, and (c) after administration of chlorpromazine for a 7-wk period, tissue levels of flavin mononucleotide and FAD were significantly lower than those of pair-fed littermates, despite consumption of a diet estimated to contain 30 times the recommended dietary allowance. The present study suggests that certain psychotropic drugs interfere with riboflavin metabolism at least in part by inhibiting the conversion of riboflavin to its coenzyme derivatives, and that as a consequence of such inhibition, the overall utilization of the vitamin is impaired.

  14. Riboflavin status, MTHFR genotype and blood pressure: current evidence and implications for personalised nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, E; McNulty, H; Hughes, C; Strain, J J; Ward, M

    2016-08-01

    Clinical deficiency of the B-vitamin riboflavin (vitamin B2) is largely confined to developing countries; however accumulating evidence indicates that suboptimal riboflavin status is a widespread problem across the developed world. Few international data are available on riboflavin status as measured by the functional biomarker, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient, considered to be the gold standard index. One important role of riboflavin in the form of flavin dinucleotide is as a co-factor for the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Homozygosity for the common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR, affecting over 10 % of the UK and Irish populations and up to 32 % of other populations worldwide, has been associated with an increased risk of CVD, and more recently with hypertension. This review will explore available studies reporting riboflavin status worldwide, the interaction of riboflavin with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the potential role of riboflavin in personalised nutrition. Evidence is accumulating for a novel role of riboflavin as an important modulator of blood pressure (BP) specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, with results from a number of recent randomised controlled trials demonstrating that riboflavin supplementation can significantly reduce systolic BP by 5-13 mmHg in these genetically at risk adults. Studies are however required to investigate the BP-lowering effect of riboflavin in different populations and in response to doses higher than 1·6 mg/d. Furthermore, work focusing on the translation of this research to health professionals and patients is also required.

  15. Molecular rational for riboflavin and CoQ10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    dissertation on 10/07-2013. Riboflavin Responsive Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD), is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of energy metabolism. In most cases, RR-MADD is caused by variations in the gene encoding the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF...... a chaperone-like effect on the ETF-QO protein helping the ETF-QO protein to fold correctly, hereby increasing the activity of the protein. Furthermore, studies showed that RR-MADD patient cells show indications of increased oxidative stress and that treatment of the patient cells with CoQ10 can reduce...

  16. Neurological manifestations of atypical celiac disease in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Çiğdem Genç; Aksoy, Erhan; Aksoy, Ayşe; Yüksel, Deniz; Özbay, Ferda

    2017-09-01

    Various typical and atypical neurological manifestations can be seen as the initial symptoms of celiac disease (CD). We suggest that gluten toxicity is the most suspicious triggering risk factor for probable pathophysiological pathways of neurological involvement in atypical CD. The medical charts of 117 patients diagnosed with atypical CD were retrieved from a tertiary center in Ankara, Turkey. Eight patients reported as having neurologic manifestations as initiating symptoms were evaluated in detail. The initial neurological manifestations of CD in our study included atypical absence, which was reported first in this study, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, severe axial hypotonia and down phenotype, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, mild optic neuritis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and short duration headaches. Seizures mostly emphasizing atypical absence could be the initial presentation manifestation of CD, first described in this literature. Gluten toxicity could be one of the most powerful triggering factors for developing epilepsy in CD. Learning disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, short duration headaches, mild optic neuritis, encephalopathy, and DS could also be the initial neurological manifestations of atypical CD. A gluten-restricted diet may improve neurological complaints, epileptic discharges, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. All we found may be a small part of the full range of neurological disorders of unknown origin related to CD. Clinical suspicion should be the rule for accurate diagnosis of the disease.

  17. Oxygen tension and riboflavin gradients cooperatively regulate the migration of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 revealed by a hydrogel-based microfluidic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beum Jun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis is a model bacterial strain for studies of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs. It has two extracellular electron transfer pathways: 1 shuttling electrons via an excreted mediator riboflavin; and 2 direct contact between the c-type cytochromes at the cell membrane and the electrode. Despite the extensive use of S. oneidensis in bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells and biosensors, many basic microbiology questions about S. oneidensis in the context of BES remain unanswered. Here, we present studies of motility and chemotaxis of S. oneidensis under well controlled concentration gradients of two electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized form of riboflavin (flavin+ using a newly developed microfluidic platform. Experimental results demonstrate that either oxygen or flavin+ is a chemoattractant to S. oneidensis. The chemotactic tendency of S. oneidensis in a flavin+ concentration gradient is significantly enhanced in an anaerobic in contrast to an aerobic condition. Furthermore, either a low oxygen tension or a high flavin+ concentration considerably enhances the speed of S. oneidensis. This work presents a robust microfluidic platform for generating oxygen and/or flavin+ gradients in an aqueous environment, and demonstrates that two important electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized riboflavin, cooperatively regulate S. oneidensis migration patterns. The microfluidic tools presented as well as the knowledge gained in this work can be used to guide the future design of BESs for efficient electron production.

  18. Atypical Presentation of Neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Anand

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of neurospyhilis with atypical manifestation have been reported. Of these four cases presented as acute neurological illness and showed variable recovery after antisyp′iiilitic therapy. One of these cases had parinaud sip which was unaffected by treatment One case presented as dementia and gave poor response to therapy. In only one of these five cases was reagin in CSF demonstrated. Lange′s colloidal gold test was negative in all. As such failure to demonstrate reagin in CSF does not rule out the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. In an antibiotic era patients may inadvertently receive some antibiotics prior to presentation to a clinician and therefore are unlikely to present with typical neurological and laboratory findings.

  19. [Atypical bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Christian

    2009-04-20

    Some epidemiologic data reveal how difficult detecting atypic bipolar disorders is: 9 years of progression before the diagnosis is properly established and a specific treatment is initiated, and intervention of 4 to 5 different specialists. Incomplete symptomatology, impulsive actions, periodic alcohol abuse, compulsive buying behaviors, acute delusional episodes, medicolegal actions and comorbidities can hide or modify bipolar symptomatology. Bipolarity should be systematically screened for in case of substance abuse (40 to 60 percent of bipolar disorders), anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders etc.) and feeding disorders. In these various situations, history taking and clinical examination will help to detect signs of bipolarity: reaction to antidepressants, inefficiency, paradoxical worsening, development of behavior disorders and mood changes. Besides screening for thymic disorders, the examination will be completed by history taking of thymic disorders, suicide, toxic abuse, anxiety disorders, personal history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood, depression or postpartum psychosis in women, as well as premenstrual depressive manifestations.

  20. Atypical odontalgia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Harish; Pedersen, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Since persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body, dentists are more likely to encounter these rather complex cases in their practices. This article is a review and update on atypical odontalgia (AO). AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction, or it may be of idiopathic origin. Details concerning its characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and treatment are made. The aim of this article is to help the clinician with the diagnosis and management of AO. The prognosis for AO is most often only fair, and the administration of tricyclic antidepressants often resolves symptoms. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are not recommended.

  1. ATYPICAL KAWASAKI DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovski, Ljiljana; Milankov, Olgica; Vislavski, Melanija; Savić, Radojica; Bjelica, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis which occurs primarily in children under the age of 5. The etiology of the disease is still unknown. Diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki disease are fever and at least four of the five additional clinical signs. Incomplete Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in case of all children with unexplained fever for more than 5 days, associated with 2 or 3 of the main clinical findings of Kawasaki disease. The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease is based on echocardiographic findings indicating the involvement of the coronary arteries. Cardiac complications, mostly coronary artery aneurysm, can occur in 20% to 25% of untreated patients and in 4% of treated patients. CASE REPORT. In this report we present a case of atypical Kawasaki disease in a 3.5-month-old infant. As soon as the diagnosis was made, the patient received high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, with the initial introduction of ibuprofen, then aspirin with a good clinical response. Due to the presence of aneurysm of coronary arteries, further therapy involved aspirin and clopidogrel over the following 3 months, and then only aspirin for 2 years. There was a gradual regression of the changes in the coronary blood vessels to the normalization of the echocardiographic findings after 2 years. Kawasaki disease is the second most common vasculitis of childhood, so it should be included in the differential diagnosis for any child with a prolonged unexplained fever. Atypical Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in cases when not all clinical criteria are present but coronary abnormalities are documented.

  2. Atypical depression: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łojko D

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Łojko,1 Janusz K Rybakowski1,2 1Department of Adult Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better

  3. Atypical depression: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojko, Dorota; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-01-01

    The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better specification of diagnostic criteria and description of clinical picture, a genome-wide association study of AD, and establishing updated treatment recommendations for this clinical phenomenon should be

  4. Medium composition influence on Biotin and Riboflavin production by newly isolated Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Tiemi Suzuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins as Biotin and Riboflavin are required by living organisms, not only for growth but also for metabolite production, and the feed market classifies them as growth promoters. Since Brazil will soon be one of the world's biggest animal protein producers, feed production is a large consumer of vitamins and micronutrients. The industry requires 10 mg riboflavin/0.2 mg biotin per kilogram of feed; a ratio of 40 ~ 50:1. Although few studies have been conducted specifically on riboflavin production using factorial design and surface response method as an optimization strategy, it is a common practice in biotechnology with many research reports available. However, there are no reports on the use of statistical design for biotin production. This study set out to evaluate medium composition influence on biotin and riboflavin production using a statistical design. There are no studies relating biotin and riboflavin production by Candida sp LEB 130. In this preliminary study to improve the simultaneous production of biotin and riboflavin, the maximum riboflavin/biotin ratio of 8.3 µg/mL was achieved with medium component concentrations of: sucrose 30 g/L, KH2PO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 1 g/L and ZnSO4 0.5mL/L.

  5. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurachio, R S; Mattiucci, F; Santos, W G; Skibsted, L H; Cardoso, D R

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine metabolites were found to bind riboflavin with dissociation constant in the millimolar region by an exothermic process with positive entropy of reaction, which was found by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy to occur predominantly by hydrogen bonding with water being released from riboflavin solvation shell upon caffeine metabolite binding to riboflavin. The caffeine metabolites 1-methyl uric acid and 1,7-dimethyl uric acid were shown by transient absorption laser flash photolysis to be efficient as quenchers of triplet riboflavin with second-order rate constant of 1.4 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1) and 1.0 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1), respectively, in aqueous solution of pH6.4 at 25°C and more efficient than the other caffeine metabolite 1,7-dimethyl xanthine with second-order rate constant of 4.2 10(7)Lmol(-1)s(-1). Caffeine was in contrast found to be non-reactive towards triplet riboflavin. Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraoperative corneal thickness change and clinical outcomes after corneal collagen crosslinking: Standard crosslinking versus hypotonic riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Elan; Hersh, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    To determine intraoperative changes in corneal thickness and outcomes of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) using 2 intraoperative regimens: riboflavin-dextran or hypotonic riboflavin. Cornea and refractive surgery practice, Teaneck, New Jersey, USA. Prospective randomized case series. Eyes with keratoconus or corneal ectasia were treated. All eyes received preloading with riboflavin 0.1% in 20% dextran. During ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study arms; that is, riboflavin-dextran or hypotonic riboflavin. Intraoperative pachymetry was measured before and after the corneal epithelium was removed, after initial riboflavin loading, and after UVA light exposure. Patients were evaluated for maximum keratometry (K), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity, corneal thickness, and endothelial cell count (ECC). Forty-eight eyes were treated. After removal of the epithelium and riboflavin loading, the mean pachymetry was 430 μm and 432 μm in the standard group and hypotonic group, respectively. Immediately after 30-minute UVA administration, the mean pachymetry was 302 μm and 342 μm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative maximum K change, UDVA, corneal thickness, or ECC between the 2 groups. The cornea thinned substantially during the CXL procedure. The use of hypotonic riboflavin rather than riboflavin-dextran during UVA administration decreased the amount of corneal thinning during the procedure by 30%, from 128 μm to 90 μm. However, there were no significant differences in clinical efficacy or changes in ECC or function between groups postoperatively. In general, corneal thinning during CXL did not seem to compromise the safety of the endothelium. Dr. Hersh is a consultant to Avedro, Inc. Dr. Rosenblat has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier

  7. Prevalence of childhood Riboflavin deficiency and nutritional status; a study in rural area in Kerman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabai Sh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of riboflavin deficiency is high in women and children in developing countries and the deficiency almost invariably occurs in combination with deficiencies of other water soluble vitamins. The objective of this study was the assessment of riboflavin status of rural school children in Kerman province and its relationship with riboflavin, protein and energy intake. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 327 primary school children were randomly selected by the stratified multistage cluster sampling method. Variables for classifications were sex and socio-economic status (according to the educational level. This study was conducted by the Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry of School of Public Health in Tehran University in the winter of 2001. A twenty-four hour recall questionnaire was completed by and 5 cc of venous blood was taken from each student. Riboflavin status was assessed by measuring the glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGR – AC of the red blood cells. Chi-Square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests were used to determine correlations. Student’s t–test was used to show the differences in the mean of EGR – AC between the classifications of independent factors. Results: The relationship between riboflavin status and its independent variables including the status of riboflavin, protein and calorie intake were assessed. Outputs of the study indicated that 39.7% of the boys and 43.6% of the girls (41.8% together were marginally riboflavin deficient. Furthermore, 37.7% of the boys, 33.4% of the girls (35.4% together were frankly riboflavin deficient. An average of 67.2% of the children (70.1% boys, 63.7% girls had enough intake of riboflavin, and 76.2% of the children (79.9%, boys, 72.5% girls had adequate intake of protein. However, only 22% of the children (24.5% boys, 19.3% girls had sufficient caloric intake. Outputs of this dietary evaluation reveal that there is a relationship

  8. Electrospun polyvinyl-alcohol nanofibers as oral fast-dissolving delivery system of caffeine and riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug delivery systems were prepared by electrospinning using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the filament-forming polymer and drug carrier. Caffeine and riboflavin were used as the model drugs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction...... that PVA/caffeine and PVA/riboflavin nanofibrous mats had almost the same dissolution time (about 1.5 s) and wetting time (about 4.5 s). The release measurements indicated that drugs can be released in a burst manner (caffeine to an extent of 100% and riboflavin to an extent of 40% within 60 s) from...

  9. Atypical manifestations of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Balaji, Krishan; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is an illness with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and severe illness affects nearly all organ systems. Serious and potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of acute leptospirosis are caused by both direct tissue invasion by spirochaetes and by the host immune responses. In its severe form, leptospirosis can cause multi-organ dysfunction and death in a matter of days. Therefore it is critical to suspect and recognize the disease early, in order to initiate timely treatment. While the classical presentation of the disease is easily recognized by experienced clinicians practising in endemic regions, rarer manifestations can be easily missed. In this systematic review, we summarize the atypical manifestations reported in literature in patients with confirmed leptospirosis. Awareness of these unusual manifestations would hopefully guide clinicians towards early diagnosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 'INDOTEST' in atypical hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, F; Nuti, A; Cafforio, G; Lucetti, C; Logi, C; Cipriani, G; Orlandi, G; Bonuccelli, U

    2008-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is an indomethacin-responsive headache characterized by a chronic, strictly unilateral, side-locked without side-shifting, persistent headache. We report three cases of HC with atypical features in which an acute administration of indomethacin 50 mg IM (INDOTEST) was performed. In all three cases INDOTEST predicted chronic responsiveness to indomethacin. Thus, in cases of HC with atypical features, INDOTEST could help for a correct diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  12. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  13. Nutritional Health of Indonesian Adolescent Girls: the role of riboflavin and vitamin A on iron status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, D.

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries, adolescent girls often have anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of riboflavin or vitamin A as determinant of anemia and iron deficiency in Indonesian adolescent girls.

  14. A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Riboflavin for Enhancement of Ultramarathon Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Valentino, Taylor R; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Hassid, Brandon V

    2017-12-01

    Riboflavin is known to protect tissue from oxidative damage but, to our knowledge, has not been explored as a means to control exercise-related muscle soreness. This study investigated whether acute ingestion of riboflavin reduces muscle pain and soreness during and after completion of a 161-km ultramarathon and improves functional recovery after the event. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants of the 2016 161-km Western States Endurance Run were assigned to receive a riboflavin or placebo capsule shortly before the race start and when reaching 90 km. Capsules contained either 100 mg of riboflavin or 95 mg of maltodextrin and 5 mg of 10% ß-carotene. Subjects provided muscle pain and soreness ratings before, during, and immediately after the race and for the 10 subsequent days. Subjects also completed 400-m runs at maximum speed on days 3, 5, and 10 after the race. For the 32 (18 in the riboflavin group, 14 in the placebo group) race finishers completing the study, muscle pain and soreness ratings during and immediately after the race were found to be significantly lower (p = .043) for the riboflavin group. Analysis of the 400-m run times also showed significantly faster (p < .05) times for the riboflavin group than the placebo group at post-race days 3 and 5. Both groups showed that muscle pain and soreness had returned to pre-race levels by 5 days after the race and that 400-m run times had returned to pre-race performance levels by 10 days after the race. This preliminary work suggests that riboflavin supplementation before and during prolonged running might reduce muscle pain and soreness during and at the completion of the exercise and may enhance early functional recovery after the exercise.

  15. Studying the Adsorption Process of Riboflavin on Silver-Deposited Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Akhond

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption characteristics of riboflavin onto silver-deposited iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Ag/Fe3O4 have been described. Characterization of the synthesized Ag/Fe3O4 nanoparticles was achieved by FTIR spectra, TEM image and XRD pattern. The influence of several experimental parameters such as nanoparticles dosage, pH of the sample solution, different orientations of the riboflavin molecules toward Ag/Fe3O4 surface, riboflavin concentration, contact time of the reagents, temperature, ionic strength and presence of halide anions were studied. Experimental data indicated that Ag/Fe3O4 nanoparticles adsorb more than 90% of riboflavin under the optimum experimental conditions of the adsorbent dosage of 4.0 mg, a pH of 6.0, and a contact time of 2.0 min, when an initial riboflavin concentration of 0.02 mM is used. The results revealed that the presence of halide anions lower the adsorption of riboflavin on the surface of nanoparticles due to dissolution of the silver layer of the nanoparticles. It was found that the adsorption isotherm is best fitted to Dubinin-Radushkevich and Freundlich models and kinetic model followed a pseudo-second-order adsorption rate.

  16. Induced biofilm cultivation enhances riboflavin production by an intertidally derived Candida famata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Thawrani, Dheeraj; Banerjee, Priyam; Gachhui, Ratan; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the investigation was to ascertain if surface attachment of Candida famata and aeration enhanced riboflavin production. A newly designed polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conico-cylindrical flask (CCF) holding eight equidistantly spaced rectangular strips mounted radially on a circular disk allowed comparison of riboflavin production between CCFs with hydrophobic surface (PMMA-CCF), hydrophilic glass surface (GS-CCF), and 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask (EF). Riboflavin production (mg/l) increased from 12.79 to 289.96, from 54.44 to 238.14, and from 36.98 to 158.71 in the GS-CCF, EF, and PMMA-CCF, respectively, when C. famata was grown as biofilm-induced cultures in contrast to traditional planktonic culture. Production was correlated with biofilm formation and planktonic growth was suppressed in cultivations that allowed higher biofilm formation. Enhanced aeration increased riboflavin production in hydrophilic vessels. Temporal pattern of biofilm progression based on two-channel fluorescence detection of extracellular polymeric substances and whole cells in a confocal laser scanning microscope followed by application of PHLIP and ImageJ volume viewer software demonstrated early maturity of a well-developed, stable biofilm on glass in contrast to PMMA surface. A strong correlation between hydrophilic reactor surface, aeration, biofilm formation, and riboflavin production was established in C. famata. Biofilm culture is a new-found means to improve riboflavin production by C. famata.

  17. The effects of dietary niacin and riboflavin on voluntary intake and metabolism of ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, L; Rusi, M

    1979-11-01

    The effects of dietary deficiency and excess of niacin and riboflavin on voluntary drinking of 10% (v/v) ethanol were studied in male rats. The effectiveness of dietary deficiency and excess of both niacin and riboflavin on tissue levels of these vitamins was demonstrated by measurements of urinary N1-methylnicotinamide and blood glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity. A high-niacin diet containing 75 mg niacin/kg food decreased ethanol intake by about 36% compared to the control diet containing 15 mgniacin/kg. Niacin or riboflavin deficiency and a high-riboflavin diet containing 40 mg rtary levels of niacin or riboflavin did not influence on ethanol elimination rate or levels of blood acetaldehyde during ethanol oxidation. Therefore, blood acetaldehyde was not responsible for the decreased ethanol intake of rats fed with a high-niacin diet. It was concluded that the increased ethanol intake caused by dietary deprivation of B-vitamin complex found in earlier studies is not a result of deficiency of niacin or riboflavin but niacin may be involved in the decrease in ethanol drinking, which follows dietary B-vitamin complex supplementation.

  18. Corneal resistance to shear force after UVA-riboflavin cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Anders P; Ivarsen, Anders; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2013-07-26

    We evaluated whether UVA-riboflavin collagen cross-linking (CXL) increases transverse stromal shear moduli ex vivo, whether the shear moduli are greater in the anterior compared to the posterior stroma, and whether the shear moduli are affected by CXL. The resistance to unidirectional transverse shear of human (n = 18) and porcine (n = 42) corneas was measured in a custom engineered biaxial biomechanical setup at different hydrations. The corneas were separated into untreated, riboflavin solution-treated, and CXL-treated groups. The depth dependency of shear moduli within groups was assessed in femtosecond laser cut sheets. Dry weights were obtained for solids correction. In porcine full-thickness buttons and 300 μm anterior sheets, a significantly increased unidirectional transverse shear modulus was detected in riboflavin-treated and CXL-treated groups compared to the respective untreated groups. There was no significant difference in shear modulus between riboflavin- and CXL-treated groups. In all groups, the shear moduli were greater in the anterior sheets compared to posterior sheets. Similar results were detected in human corneas. A method for unidirectional transverse shear resistance measurement was developed. The shear moduli were greater in the anterior compared to the posterior sheets. Increase in shear moduli was observed in the riboflavin and CXL groups compared to the untreated group, indicating that the immediate effects of the riboflavin or CXL treatment may be due partly to ground substance/dextran-5-phosphate interaction.

  19. Disulfide bonds in egg-white riboflavin-binding protein. Chemical reduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, A

    1982-01-01

    All eight disulfide bonds in the apo-form of egg white riboflavin-binding protein were easily reduced by 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. These bonds exhibited nearly the same reactivity, thus they appeared to be exposed in the native structure, or 'superficial'. The cleavage of protein disulfides resulted in a loss of riboflavin-binding capacity. A correlation between these two related processes, analysed by kinetic and statistical methods, suggested a single bond to be essential for binding of riboflavin by the apoprotein. In the riboflavin-apoprotein complex the disulfides were rather poorly reducible but they still constituted a single reactivity class. The essential bond was not protected against modification, suggesting it was located out of the riboflavin-binding site. A postulated subunit structure of riboflavin-binding protein was not confirmed. The cleavage of disulfides caused some aggregation of the protein molecules. Only dimers and high polymers were formed, the former being relatively stable. Hydrophobic forces were probably involved in the formation of dimers.

  20. Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity - a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Buchala, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2013-08-28

    Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, as a precursor of the coenzymes FAD and FMN, has an indirect influence on many metabolic processes and determines the proper functioning of several systems, including the immune system. In the human population, plasma riboflavin concentration varies from 3·1 nM (in a moderate deficiency, e.g. in pregnant women) to 10·4 nM (in healthy adults) and 300 nM (in cases of riboflavin supplementation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of riboflavin concentration on the activity and viability of macrophages, i.e. on one of the immunocompetent cell populations. The study was performed on the murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultured in medium with various riboflavin concentrations (3·1, 10·4, 300 and 531 nM). The results show that riboflavin deprivation has negative effects on both the activity and viability of macrophages and reduces their ability to generate an immune response. Signs of riboflavin deficiency developed in RAW 264.7 cells within 4 d of culture in the medium with a low riboflavin concentration (3·1 nM). In particular, the low riboflavin content reduced the proliferation rate and enhanced apoptotic cell death connected with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The riboflavin deprivation impaired cell adhesion, completely inhibited the respiratory burst and slightly impaired phagocytosis of the zymosan particles. In conclusion, macrophages are sensitive to riboflavin deficiency; thus, a low riboflavin intake in the diet may affect the immune system and may consequently decrease proper host immune defence.

  1. Evaluating in vivo delivery of riboflavin with coulomb-controlled iontophoresis for corneal collagen cross-linking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Kowalczuk, Laura; Savoldelli, Michèle; Klein, Christophe; Ladraa, Sophia; Naud, Marie-Christine; Aguilar, Mariela C; Parel, Jean-Marie; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2014-04-28

    To evaluate the efficacy of coulomb-controlled iontophoresis (CCI) for delivery of riboflavin prior to corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). The eyes of 20 8-week-old Lewis rats, subject to epithelium-ON (epi-ON, n = 20 eyes) or epithelium-OFF (epi-OFF, n = 20 eyes) conditions, were used to evaluate the in vivo delivery of two riboflavin solutions: 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextran T500 solution (riboflavin-dextran) and 0.1% riboflavin 5'-phosphate (riboflavin-phosphate). After systemic intramuscular anesthesia, 0.25 mL of the photosensitizing agent was delivered by either instillation or CCI (2.11 mA/cm(2) for 4 or 10 minutes) into either epithelial condition. The CCI probe on the eye without current served as control. Confocal microscopy of flat-mounted corneas was used to analyze intracorneal penetration and fluorometry was used to quantify riboflavin in the aqueous within 30 minutes of treatment. Instillation and CCI allowed for uniform delivery of riboflavin-dextran throughout the stroma after epithelial debridement. Transepithelial delivery of riboflavin-dextran was not efficacious. Riboflavin-phosphate was successfully delivered in both epithelium conditions. Complete saturation of the cornea was achieved using CCI after removing the epithelium, the epi-ON case allowed for limited diffusion. Increasing the time from 4 to 10 minutes greatly increased the amount of riboflavin detected in the cornea and aqueous humor. Coulomb-controlled iontophoresis is an effective technique for transepithelial delivery of riboflavin-phosphate into the cornea. This drug delivery method would allow clinicians to significantly shorten the time required for the CXL procedure, with or without epithelial debridement. Whether efficient crosslinking can be achieved through an intact epithelium remains to be demonstrated.

  2. National atypical mycobacteria survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Infections with atypical mycobacteria in Australia during 2000 occurred at a rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000 population. The main sites of disease were the respiratory tract, soft tissue, and the lymphatics. The Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common group of mycobacteria isolated from respiratory, lymphatic sites, and blood. The rapidly growing mycobacteria, predominantly the M. fortuitum-M. abscessus-M. chelonae group were the most common soft tissue infections. Atypical mycobacteria were isolated from significant numbers of sputum 'smear positive' patients, requiring further tests to exclude M. tuberculosis. Geographical differences were observed for some Mycobacterium species, notably the isolation of M. haemophilum from Western Australia, and M. ulcerans from Victoria and Queensland. Newer molecular techniques, while improving precision and accuracy of identification, raise additional questions about the ecology of the atypical mycobacteria and their role in disease.

  3. Pachymetry changes during corneal crosslinking: effect of closed eyelids and hypotonic riboflavin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, Gerald; Pachala, Mojtaba; Prager, Franz

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pachymetry changes during standard corneal crosslinking (CXL) and the effect of closed eyelids and hypotonic riboflavin in thin corneas. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Comparative case series. Eyes with progressive keratoconus had standard epithelium-off CXL. In Group 1, a lid speculum was used during the procedure. In Group 2, the lids were closed during saturation with riboflavin. In Group 3, hypotonic riboflavin was used. In Groups 1 and 2, swelling was performed with hypotonic riboflavin if pachymetry was less than 400 μm. The thinnest corneal pachymetry (TCP) was measured preoperatively, after epithelium removal, and every 10 minutes thereafter. Thirty-five eyes were evaluated. After epithelium removal, the mean TCP was 401 μm ± 15 (SD), 411 ± 35 μm, and 400 ± 24 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In Group 1, the TCP decreased to 355 ± 23 μm after the first 30 minutes. In Group 2, the TCP remained stable throughout the saturation phase. In Group 3, the TCP increased. During the irradiation phase, a reduction in pachymetry occurred in all groups. Thinnest corneal pachymetry readings less than 400 μm were found in all eyes irrespective of the protocol. Corneal desiccation with riboflavin with 20% dextran can be avoided when removing the lid speculum during saturation with riboflavin. The use of hypotonic riboflavin solution increased corneal pachymetry, although the final TCP remained unchanged. To increase endothelial safety, new isooncotic solutions are needed. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Corneal Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UVA in Keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiskup, F; Terai, N; Veliká, V; Spörl, E

    2016-08-01

    Changes in the biomechanical properties of the human cornea play an important role in the pathogenesis of corneal ectatic diseases. Many different pathological conditions in the cornea may reduce its biomechanical resistance. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has emerged as a promising technique to slow or even to stop the progression of ectasia. In this procedure, riboflavin (vitamin B2) is administered in conjunction with ultraviolet A light (UVA, 365 nm). This interaction causes the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to additional covalent bonds between collagen molecules, with consequent biomechanical stiffening of the cornea. Although this method is not yet accepted as an evidence-based treatment of corneal ectasia, the results of prospective, randomised studies of CXL used in the treatment of this pathological entity show significant changes in the properties of corneal tissue. This procedure is currently the only aetiopathogenetic treatment of ectatic eyes that can delay or stop the process of cornea destabilisation, reducing the necessity for keratoplasty. Despite promising results, CXL is associated with issues that include long-term safety and duration of the stabilising effect. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Riboflavin photoactivation by upconversion nanoparticles for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydukov, E. V.; Mironova, K. E.; Semchishen, V. A.; Generalova, A. N.; Nechaev, A. V.; Khochenkov, D. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Lebedev, O. I.; Zvyagin, A. V.; Deyev, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya.

    2016-10-01

    Riboflavin (Rf) is a vitamin and endogenous photosensitizer capable to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UV-blue irradiation and kill cancer cells, which are characterized by the enhanced uptake of Rf. We confirmed its phototoxicity on human breast adenocarcinoma cells SK-BR-3 preincubated with 30-μM Rf and irradiated with ultraviolet light, and proved that such Rf concentrations (60 μM) are attainable in vivo in tumour site by systemic intravascular injection. In order to extend the Rf photosensitization depth in cancer tissue to 6 mm in depth, we purpose-designed core/shell upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, NaYF4:Yb3+:Tm3+/NaYF4) capable to convert 2% of the deeply-penetrating excitation at 975 nm to ultraviolet-blue power. This power was expended to photosensitise Rf and kill SK-BR-3 cells preincubated with UCNPs and Rf, where the UCNP-Rf energy transfer was photon-mediated with ~14% Förster process contribution. SK-BR-3 xenograft regression in mice was observed for 50 days, following the Rf-UCNPs peritumoural injection and near-infrared light photodynamic treatment of the lesions.

  6. Riboflavin/ultraviolet a crosslinking of the paracentral cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tobias; Schumacher, Silvia; Fankhauser, Franz; Seiler, Theo

    2013-02-01

    The depth of corneal crosslinking (CXL) does not seem homogeneous within the treatment area but shows a reduction toward the periphery of the cornea. This study was undertaken to investigate this reduction effect and to look for possible solutions. Ten corneas were investigated by means of an optical coherence tomography system (SS-100; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) 1 month after standard CXL (epithelium off, 0.1% riboflavin for 30 minutes, ultraviolet A radiation 365 nm, 3 mW/cm). The depth of the demarcation line was measured as a function of the radial distance from the apex. These curves were compared with a theoretical curve derived from a standard model of photopolymerization. The CXL depth 3 mm away from the center decreases on average to 65% of the central depth (range: 52%-78%). Polymerization theory predicts this decay, however, underestimates the effect. The intended depth of CXL using current light sources is achieved only within the central area of the cornea. To provide CXL to the peripheral cornea, the ultraviolet beam either should have an improved intensity profile or may have to be decentered.

  7. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  8. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has since the mid-1980's been known to distinguish atypical, aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) from the endemic type in Africa (1). In our series at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, we recorded 44 patients with AAKS, 35 of them male and 9 female, giving ...

  9. Atypical odontalgia: phantom tooth pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R E; Stewart, C M

    1991-10-01

    The findings in 30 cases diagnosed as atypical odontalgia are presented. The clinical characteristics of these cases are compared with other cases reported in the literature. Three cases are described in detail. Patient understanding and treatment with tricyclic antidepressants are discussed together with medication side effects and interactions. The importance of deferring invasive procedures is emphasized.

  10. Effect of respiratory infection on tissue riboflavin and flavin enzymes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P A; Lakshmi, A V; Suresh, P; Bamji, M S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection on red blood cell and liver riboflavin levels and a few flavin enzymes were examined to verify our earlier hypothesis based on human experience that upper respiratory infections result in mobilization of riboflavin from tissues into blood, resulting in a rise in red blood cell riboflavin and an increased saturation of erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR) with its coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD; reduction in EGR activation coefficient, AC, values). Thirty-six-day-old male mice fed a diet marginally sufficient in riboflavin were injected with a single sublethal dose of K. pneumoniae. Batches of control, deficient infected and deficient uninfected animals were killed during the peak period of infection and after recovery. Infection brought about a significant rise in basal EGR activity due to greater saturation with coenzyme FAD and a concomitant reduction in EGR-AC values. On recovery, basal EGR activity decreased, and EGR-AC values increased to levels beyond control values, suggesting riboflavin deficiency. In the liver, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase showed a significant decrease and pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase activity a significant increase. Both the enzymes normalized after recovery. D-amino acid oxidase activity did not change.

  11. Medium-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic agent in children with migraine: A preliminary placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K.J. Bruijn (Jacques); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Locher (Heiko); N. Dijkstra (Natascha); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Riboflavin seems to have a promising effect on migraine in adults. The present study examines whether riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine in children. Objective: To investigate whether riboflavin in a dosage of 50 mg/day has a prophylactic effect on migraine

  12. Transient multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency in a newborn female caused by maternal riboflavin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiong, M A; Sim, K G; Carpenter, K

    2007-01-01

    riboflavin deficient and showed a typical MADD profile on plasma acylcarnitine testing. A possible genetic defect in riboflavin transport of metabolism in the mother is postulated to be the cause of the transient MADD seen in the infant. Sequencing of the SLC16A12, RFK and FLAD1 genes encoding key enzymes...

  13. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  14. Biofunctionalized zinc oxide field effect transistors for selective sensing of riboflavin with current modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joshua A; Kim, Sang N; Bayraktaroglu, Burhan; Leedy, Kevin; Chávez, Jorge L; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Stone, Morley O

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET), covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene) to the 3' terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  15. Amphiphilic Phospholipid-Based Riboflavin Derivatives for Tumor Targeting Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, Nataliia; Tsvetkova, Yoanna; Bartneck, Matthias; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Bestel, Isabelle

    2016-09-21

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential vitamin for cellular metabolism. Recent studies have shown that RF is internalized through RF transporters, which are highly overexpressed by prostate and breast cancer cells, as well as by angiogenic endothelium. Here, we present an optimized synthesis protocol for preparing tailor-made amphiphilic phospholipid-based RF derivatives using phosphoramidite chemistry. The prepared RF amphiphile-RfdiC14-can be inserted into liposome formulations for targeted drug delivery. The obtained liposomes had a hydrodynamic size of 115 ± 5 nm with narrow size distribution (PDI 0.06) and a zeta potential of -52 ± 3 mV. In vitro uptake studies showed that RfdiC14-containing liposomes were strongly internalized in HUVEC, PC3, and A431 cells, in a specific and transporter-mediated manner. To assess the RF targeting potential in vivo, an amphiphile containing PEG spacer between RF and a lipid was prepared-DSPE-PEG-RF. The latter was successfully incorporated into long-circulating near-infrared-labeled liposomes (141 ± 1 nm in diameter, PDI 0.07, zeta potential of -33 ± 1 mV). The longitudinal μCT/FMT biodistribution studies in PC3 xenograft bearing mice demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics profile of DSPE-PEG-RF-functionalized liposomes compared to control. The subsequent histological evaluation of resected tumors revealed higher degree of tumor retention as well as colocalization of targeted liposomes with endothelial cells emphasizing the targeting potential of RF amphiphiles and their utility for the lipid-containing drug delivery systems.

  16. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... and magnetic resonance imaging data and obtained follow-up (FU) information on 77 of these patients over a mean duration of 4 years. The AIIDLs presented as a single lesion in 72 (80 %) patients and exhibited an infiltrative (n = 35), megacystic (n = 16), Baló (n = 10) or ring-like (n = 16) lesion appearance...... in 77 (86 %) patients. Additional multiple sclerosis (MS)-typical lesions existed in 48 (53 %) patients. During FU, a further clinical attack occurred rarely (23-35 % of patients) except for patients with ring-like AIIDLs (62 %). Further attacks were also significantly more often in patients...

  17. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Koranne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  18. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (C...

  19. Atypical odontalgia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Harish; Koratkar, Sonal

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain is not uncommon; however, reaching a definitive diagnosis in these cases can be a complex challenge. Dentists are most likely to face this situation, because persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body. However, the complexities and diagnostic challenges mean that misdiagnosing neuropathic pain is common. This article presents a case of atypical odontalgia and illustrates the complexities involved when diagnosing the condition.

  20. Atypical Centrioles During Sexual Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer eAvidor-Reiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL. We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the zombie centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

  1. Atypical Antipsychotics and Inverse Agonism at 5-HT2 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Laura C.; Clarke, William P.; Berg, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    It is now well accepted that receptors can regulate cellular signaling pathways in the absence of a stimulating ligand, and inverse agonists can reduce this ligand-independent or “constitutive” receptor activity. Both the serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have demonstrated constitutive receptor activity in vitro and in vivo. Each has been identified as a target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Further, most, if not all, atypical antipsychotic drugs have inverse agonist properties at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. This paper describes our current knowledge of inverse agonism of atypical antipsychotics at 5-HT2A/2C receptor subtypes in vitro and in vivo. Exploiting inverse agonist properties of antipsychotic drugs may provide new avenues for drug development. PMID:26044975

  2. Riboflavin content of coelomocytes in earthworm (Dendrodrilus rubidus) field populations as a molecular biomarker of soil metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plytycz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.plytycz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Lis-Molenda, Urszula; Cygal, Malgorzata; Kielbasa, Edyta; Grebosz, Anna [Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Duchnowski, Michal [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Andre, Jane; Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Main Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The effect of Pb + Zn on coelomocyte riboflavin content in the epigeic earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus inhabiting three metalliferous soils and one reference soil was measured by flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry. A reciprocal pollutedreversibleunpolluted worm transfer experiment (4-week exposure) was also performed. High proportions of autofluorescent eleocytes were counted in worms from all localities, but intense riboflavin-derived autofluorescence was detectable only in reference worm eleocytes. Other findings were: (i) fluorophore(s) other than riboflavin is/are responsible for eleocyte autofluorescence in residents of metalliferous soils; (ii) riboflavin content was reduced in the eleocytes of worms transferred from unpolluted to metal-polluted soil; (iii) the riboflavin content of D. rubidus eleocytes is a promising biomarker of exposure; (iv) COII mitochondrial genotyping revealed that the reference population is genetically distinct from the three mine populations; (v) metal exposure rather than genotype is probably the main determinant of inter-population differences in eleocyte riboflavin status. - Soil metal pollution reduces riboflavin content of earthworm eleocytes.

  3. Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Optic neuritis (ON is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or "typical" ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to "atypical" causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision.

  4. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampik, D.; Ralla, B.; Keller, S.; Hirschberg, M.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Geerling, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive

  5. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: A historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation of A. gossypii as an industrial riboflavin producer. Although there is still room for optimizing riboflavin production, the recent years have seen an abundant advance in the exploration of A. gossypii for other biotechnological applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins, single cell oil and flavour compounds. Here, we will address the biotechnological potential of A. gossypii beyond riboflavin production by presenting (a) a physiological and metabolic perspective over this fungus; (b) the molecular toolbox available for its manipulation; and (c) commercial and emerging biotechnological applications for this industrially important fungus, together with the approaches adopted for its engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Riboflavin fermentation of molasses with agro-industrial nitrogenous by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, T.S.; Ravikumar, S.; Baradarajan, A.; Satyanarayana, M.

    1980-01-01

    Riboflavin production with Eremothecium ashbyii was investigated with molasses as the Ca source. Pretreatment of molasses by steam, chemical, and active Ca methods improved yields while ion-exchange and inversion were inhibitory. Of the low-grade N sources, lentils, sesame oil seed cake, and beef washings favored flavinogenesis.

  7. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin With Current Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    is a physiological indicator also known as vitamin B2, and has a well studied aptamer sequence [33]. We use the riboflavin binding aptamer with the...of Salmonella Infantis with carbon nanotube field effect transistors. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2008, 24, 279-283. 15. Kuang, Z.; Kim, S.; Crookes

  8. Riboflavin synthesis genes are linked with the lux operon of Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; O'Kane, D J; Meighen, E A

    1994-01-01

    Four genes immediately downstream of luxG in the Photobacterium phosphoreum lux operon (ribEBHA) have been sequenced and shown to be involved in riboflavin synthesis. Sequence analyses and complementation of Escherichia coli riboflavin auxotrophs showed that the gene products of ribB and ribA are 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate (DHBP) synthetase and GTP cyclohydrolase II, respectively. By expression of P. phosphoreum ribE in E. coli using the bacteriophage T7 promoter-RNA polymerase system, ribE was shown to code for riboflavin synthetase, which catalyzes the conversion of lumazine to riboflavin. Increased thermal stability of RibE on expression with RibH indicated that ribH coded for lumazine synthetase. The organization of the rib genes in P. phosphoreum is quite distinct, with ribB and ribA being linked but separated by ribH, whereas in E. coli, they are unlinked and in Bacillus subtilis, RibB and RibA functions are coded by a single gene. Images PMID:8144477

  9. Limitation of collagen cross-linking with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution: failure in an extremely thin cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, Farhad

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of failure of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus after preoperative stromal swelling with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution in an extremely thin cornea. CXL was performed using the protocol established for the treatment of thin corneas. Preoperative minimal thickness after abrasion was 268 μm and increased to 406 μm after swelling with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution. Despite CXL, a distinct progression of up to 1.9 diopters was observed at 3 months after the procedure on the anterior corneal surface. At 6 months after CXL, progression had increased to 2.3 diopters. Although swelling with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution was effective and led to a preoperative thickness of more than 400 μm, the increase in biomechanical resistance was not sufficient to arrest the progression of the disease. Little is known about the minimal stromal thickness required for effective CXL to occur. Although swelling with hypoosmolar riboflavin solution over 400 μm and safety of the procedure can be achieved in even thinner corneas, the outcome of this case suggests that a minimal preoperative stromal thickness of 330 μm needs to be respected for a successful CXL procedure.

  10. Intraoperative OCT Pachymetry in Patients Undergoing Dextran-Free Riboflavin UVA Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechichi, Miguel; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Daya, Sheraz; Mencucci, Rita; Lanza, Michele; Meduri, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess intraoperative corneal pachymetry in patients undergoing accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking with a dextran-free riboflavin solution. Prospective, non-comparative, multicenter interventional study. Thirty patients with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the study from the Siena Crosslinking Center™ in Siena, Italy and the Eye Center in Catanzaro, Italy. The mean age was 26.9 ± 6.5 years. Patients underwent pulsed light accelerated crosslinking (PL-ACXL) by KXL I UV-A source (Avedro Inc., Waltham, MS, USA) with 8 min (1 s on/1 s off) of UV-A exposure, 30 mW/cm(2) and an energy dose of 7.2 J/cm(2). Corneal stroma was soaked with a dextran-free 0.1% riboflavin solution plus hydroxyl-propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (VibeX Rapid, Avedro). Intraoperative corneal thickness was preoperatively (PRE-OP) evaluated by corneal optical coherence tomography (iVUE Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) after epithelium removal (EPI-R), after 10 min of riboflavin soaking (RS) and after UV-A irradiation (IR). Statistical analysis was conducted using a Wilcoxon test and SPSS v16.0. A p-value of collagen crosslinking by using dextran free HPMC 0.1% riboflavin solution.

  11. Photochemical eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by blue light activation of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdoumi, Karim; Goodrich, Ray; Bäckman, Anders

    2017-08-01

    To compare elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by exposure of blue light alone and with riboflavin. A reference strain of MRSA was cultured and diluted in PBS with and without riboflavin (0.01%). Fifteen microlitre was added on a microscope slide, creating a fluid layer with a thickness of around 400 microns. Both of the bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light, and the effect between exposure with and without riboflavin was compared. Evaluation involved two different wavelengths (412 and 450 nm) of blue light with a lower (5.4 J/cm(2) ) and higher dose (approximately 28.5 J/cm(2) ). The effect of 412 nm light was also evaluated for a thicker fluid layer (1.17 mm). After exposure, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each solution. All measurements were repeated eight times. The reductions in bacteria were similar for both wavelengths. With riboflavin, a statistically significant elimination was observed for both 412 and 450 nm (p blue light for both 412 and 450 nm blue light. This indicates that blue light could be considered for possible implementation in deep corneal infections. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  13. Atypical temporomandibular joint pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Charles G; Wold, Courtney C; Stoll, Ethan M; Dolwick, M Franklin

    2014-12-01

    Atypical temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain can consist of an unusual intensity, location or set of pain descriptors that do not match what is traditionally observed for TMJ capsular pain, disc displacements or arthritic conditions. Presented in this case report is an atypical pain report regarding a unilateral TMJ pain as the chief complaint. An overview of typical vs atypical TMJ pain is also reviewed to highlight unusual signs and symptoms so that the clinician can identify these atypical presentations and pursue further diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...... of atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification.......Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...

  15. Is atypical odontalgia a psychological problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, S B; Solberg, W K

    1993-05-01

    Several authors have asserted that psychological factors are the underlying cause of atypical odontalgia. However, objective evidence is lacking to support this claim. In this study, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to assess psychological functioning of an atypical odontalgia population. Means of the standard scores for each Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale were within normal ranges. Standard scores for atypical odontalgia profiles compared with standard scores for a chronic headache group (matched for age, sex, and chronicity) were similar and scales for both groups were within normal ranges. These findings fail to support psychological dysfunction as a primary condition associated with patients suffering from atypical odontalgia.

  16. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Krarup; Garcia, Javier; Væth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    , photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light...... on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli...

  17. [Atypical courses of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, W

    1979-04-01

    For the investigation of the question of atypical forms of course selected findings of a multicentric electronic data processing investigation carried out on 1,000 patients with manifest rheumatoid arthritis were attracted. In these cases differences of the clinical symptomatology in the sexes were the result, at a different moment of the beginning and concerning serological findings. The latter was concerned clearly by the titres of rheumatoid factors, only suggestively cases with antinuclear factors. These differences, however, were not regarded as special forms in the sense of separated disease units. They rather represent only statistically provable deviations, the borderlines of which are by far transgressed by individual characteristics.

  18. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampik, Daniel; Ralla, Bernhard; Keller, Sabine; Hirschberg, Markus; Friedl, Peter; Geerling, Gerd

    2010-08-01

    Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive results of excimer laser procedures ex vivo. Corneal epithelium was removed from enucleated porcine eyes, and CXL was performed with riboflavin 0.1% and UVA radiation (365 nm, 3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Control eyes received epithelial abrasion only. Diffusion of riboflavin through the cornea was assessed by using infrared-excited, two-photon microscopy of riboflavin autofluorescence, combined with second-harmonic generation of fibrillar collagen. During phototherapeutic keratectomy, corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence pachymetry. During LASIK for myopia, the flap thickness of microkeratome cuts was measured and the induced refractive change assessed by Placido topography. Data were analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test and Student's t-test. Multiphoton imaging showed a rapid (30-minute) and even distribution of riboflavin throughout the corneal stroma. No difference in ablation rate was measured in treated and untreated corneas (P = 0.90). Mean flap thickness was increased by 44% in cross-linked corneas (P refractive change was reduced in CXL-treated eyes by 20.1% (P refractive change after LASIK for myopia. Although the laser ablation rate is unaffected, CXL results in an increased flap thickness. This study suggests the need for adjustment of microkeratome and laser parameters for LASIK after CXL and indirectly endorses the theory of a direct stiffening effect of CXL.

  19. Riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation for the prevention of progressive myopia in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Wu, Miaoqin; Zhang, Luyi; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lan; He, Jinjing

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of riboflavin combined with whole-body ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of sclera in a guinea pig model to control the progression of myopia. Experimental groups were administered 0.1% riboflavin solution with or without vitamin C by gavage from 3 days before myopic modeling and during the modeling process. Guinea pigs underwent 30 min of whole-body UVA irradiation after each gavage for 2 weeks. For control groups, guinea pigs were administered vitamin C and underwent either whole-body UVA irradiation without 0.1% riboflavin solution or whole-body fluorescent lamp irradiation with or without 0.1% riboflavin solution. Resultantly, myopia models were established with an increased axial length and myopic diopter. Compared with myopic eyes in the control groups, the net increase in axial length, diopter and strain assessment decreased significantly, and the net decrease in sclera thickness, ultimate load, and stress assessment decreased significantly in experimental groups. MMP-2 expression showed a lower net increase, while TIMP-2 expression showed a lower net decrease. In addition, hyperplasia of scleral fibroblasts was more active in myopic eyes of experimental groups. Overall, our results showed that oral administration of riboflavin with whole-body UVA irradiation could increase the strength and stiffness of sclera by altering the biochemical and biomechanical properties, and decreases in axial elongation and myopic diopter are greater in the guinea pig myopic model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Riboflavin-UV--a crosslinking for fixation of biosynthetic corneal collagen implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Kerstin; Neuhann, Raphael; Ullmann, Andrea; Plank, Katharina; Baumann, Michael; Ritter, Roland; Griffith, May; Lohmann, Chris P; Kobuch, Karin

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate riboflavin-UV-A crosslinking as an alternative suture-free fixation method for biosynthetic corneal collagen implants. A range of cell-free corneal implants consisting of recombinant human collagen type III were examined. In vitro, the implants were crosslinked with different riboflavin solutions and irradiations. Ex vivo, the biosynthetic corneal implants were placed on the anterior cornea of porcine and rabbit eyes after performing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with a trephine, femtosecond laser, or excimer laser. UV-A crosslinking was performed with isotonic or hypotonic riboflavin at either standard or rapid procedure. The corneas were excised, fixed in PFA 4%, and embedded in paraffin. Crosslinking effects on the implants and the adhesion between implant and corneal bed were evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, and histologically. After the crosslinking procedure, the implants showed different degrees of thinning. The accuracy of cutting the corneal bed was highest with the excimer laser. Good adhesion of the implant in the corneal bed could be demonstrated in OCT images. This was more accurate in porcine eyes than in rabbit eyes. Histologically, crosslinks between implant and corneal stroma were demonstrated. There was no difference between standard and rapid crosslinking procedures. Riboflavin-UV-A crosslinking as a fixation method for biosynthetic corneal collagen implants was demonstrated to be promising. It can reduce suture-related complications such as haze formation and surface irregularity. Stability of the implants, especially shrinkage after riboflavin-UV-A crosslinking, needs to be further evaluated. Biostability, integration, and long-term outcome are further evaluated in in vivo animal experiments.

  1. Resonance energy transfer based electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence sensing of riboflavin using graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); The Phytochemistry Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau of Qinghai Province, College of Pharmacy, Qinghai Nationalities University, Xining, Qinghai 810007 (China); Ma, Qin; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Caihe; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Chen, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China)

    2017-06-22

    Graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) are rarely used in the field of electrochemiluminescence. In this paper, g-CNQDs have a strong and stable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal generated in the presence of co-reactant K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ECL signal of g-CNQDs was quenched by the mechanism of resonance energy transfer (RET) between donor g-CNQDs and receptor riboflavin (RF) that is proved by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence emission spectroscopy analysis technology. Therefore, we achieved detection of the riboflavin content in the drug tablets of vitamin B{sub 2} using ECL and FL. The determination results of ECL showed that the riboflavin content of the drug vitamin B{sub 2} (VB{sub 2}) tablets was consistent with the fluorescence (FL) analysis, with wider linear range of 0.02–11 μM and lower minimum detection limit of 0.63 nM (S/N = 3) than FL. Hence, the riboflavin content in human serum was further detected using ECL. The relative standard deviation is less than 6.5%, with an acceptable recovery of 95.33%–104.22%, which means that this sensor has potential applications in the actual sample analysis. As a new ECL luminary, g-CNQDs have opened a new field for the development and application of ECL sensor. - Highlights: • G-CNQDs proposed as a new luminophore for ECL. • ECL signal was strong and stable in the presence of co-reactant K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. • Based on the resonance energy transfer between g-CNQDs and riboflavin. • ECL has wider linear range and lower detection limit than FL.

  2. Keratocyte apoptosis after corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin/UVA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Spoerl, Eberhard; Wilsch, Michaela; Seiler, Theo

    2004-01-01

    Combined riboflavin/UVA treatment inducing collagen cross-links in the cornea has been shown to increase the biomechanical rigidity of the cornea and has been used successfully in the treatment of progressive keratoconus. The current study was undertaken to investigate the possible cytotoxic effect of combined riboflavin/UVA treatment on corneal keratocytes in vivo. Thirty-four New Zealand white rabbits were treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution and surface UVA irradiances ranging from 0.75 to 4 mW/cm2 (1.35- 7.2 J/cm2) for 30 minutes. The animals were euthanized either 4 (n = 6) or 24 (n = 28) hours postoperatively. Four additional control eyes underwent epithelial debridement alone. The corneas of the enucleated eyes were evaluated in routine histologic sections. In addition, the TUNEL technique and transmission electron microscopy were used for the detection of keratocyte apoptosis. In the control eyes with corneal epithelial debridement only, apoptotic keratocytes were found in the anterior 50 microm of the corneal stroma 4 hours postoperatively. However, riboflavin/UVA-induced apoptosis was only visible in the rabbit eyes enucleated 24 hours postoperatively. In these eyes, we found apoptosis of keratocytes down to a variable stromal depth depending on the applied UVA irradiance. A cytotoxic UVA irradiance for keratocytes in the range of 0.5-0.7 mW/cm2 could be deduced. Riboflavin/UVA treatment leads to a dose-dependent keratocyte damage that can be expected in human corneas down to a depth of 300 microm using a surface UVA dose of 5.4 J/cm2. Future studies should be done to examine the keratocyte repopulation and exclude possible adverse sequelae of keratocyte loss like stromal scarring or thinning.

  3. Laser-induced corneal cross-linking upon photorefractive ablation with riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilovskiy, Igor M; Kasimov, Elmar M; Sultanova, Ayten I; Burtsev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the biomechanical effect of the laser-induced cross-linking resulting from photorefractive ablation of the cornea with riboflavin. Excimer laser ablation studies were performed ex vivo (32 eyes of 16 rabbits) by phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) and in vivo (24 eyes of 12 rabbits) by transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK), with and without riboflavin saturation of the stroma. Then, we performed corneal optical coherence tomography on 36 eyes of 18 patients with varying degrees of myopia at different times after the TransPRK was performed with riboflavin saturation of the stroma. Biomechanical testing of corneal samples saturated with riboflavin revealed cross-linking effect accompanied by the increase in tensile strength and maximum strength. PTK showed increase in tensile strength from 5.1±1.4 to 7.2±1.6 MPa (P=0.001), while Trans-PRK showed increase in tensile strength from 8.8±0.9 to 12.8±1.3 MPa (P=0.0004). Maximum strength increased from 8.7±2.5 to 12.0±2.8 N (P=0.005) in PTK and from 12.8±1.6 to 18.3±1.2 N (P=0.0004) in TransPRK. Clinical optical coherence tomography studies of the biomicroscopic transparent cornea at different times after TransPRK showed increased density in the surface layers of the stroma and membrane-like structure beneath the epithelium. Photorefractive ablation of the preliminary corneal stroma saturation with riboflavin causes the effect of laser-induced cross-linking, which is attended with an increase in corneal tensile strength, maximum strength, increased density in the surface layers of the stroma, and formation of a membrane-like structure beneath the epithelium after TransPRK.

  4. Glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activities in riboflavin-deficient rats infected with Plasmodium berghei malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelekan, D A; Thurnham, D I

    1998-03-01

    Riboflavin deficiency interferes with the growth and multiplication of malaria parasites as well as the host response to malaria. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of riboflavin deficiency on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GPx) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei malaria. Riboflavin in its co-enzyme form, FAD, is required by glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1) to regenerate GSH and GSH is an important cellular antioxidant both in its own right and also as a substrate for the enzyme GPx. Weanling rats were deprived of riboflavin for 8 weeks before intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(6) P. berghei parasites. Control animals were weight-matched to the respective riboflavin-deficient group. At 10 d post-infection, parasite counts were higher in the weight-matched control group than the riboflavin-deficient group (P = 0.004). GPx activity was higher in erythrocytes of rats parasitized with P. berghei than comparable non-infected rats regardless of riboflavin status (P diets adequate in riboflavin (weight-matched controls) whether parasitized or not, but the difference was not significant. Neither riboflavin deficiency nor malaria had any effect on erythrocyte SOD activity. It was concluded that riboflavin deficiency has no marked effect on erythrocyte GPx or SOD activity in the rat.

  5. Blink reflexes in patients with atypical odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; List, Thomas; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To use the human blink reflex (BR) to explore possible neuropathic pain mechanisms in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO). In 13 AO patients, the BR was elicited using a concentric electrode and recorded bilaterally with surface electromyographic (EMG) electrodes on both orbicularis oculi muscles. Electrical stimuli were applied to the skin above branches of the V1, V2, and V3 nerves and to the V branch contralateral to the painful branch. Sensory and pain thresholds were determined. The BR examination of the painful V branch was repeated during a capsaicin pain-provocation test. The data were analyzed with nonparametric statistics. The BR responses (R2 and R3) evoked by stimulation of V3 were significantly smaller than the BR responses evoked by stimulation of V1 and V2 (P .569), and the BR (R2 and R3) was not significantly modulated by experimental pain (P > .080). The sensory thresholds were significantly lower on the painful side compared to the nonpainful side (P = .014). The pain thresholds were not different between sides (P > .910). No major differences between the V nociceptive pathways on the right and left sides were found in a relatively small group of AO patients. Future studies that compare BRs in AO patients and healthy volunteers are needed to provide further knowledge on the pain mechanisms in AO.

  6. Dual-Targeting Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus FMN Riboswitch Disrupt Riboflavin Homeostasis in an Infectious Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Mann, Paul A; Xiao, Li; Gill, Charles; Galgoci, Andrew M; Howe, John A; Villafania, Artjohn; Barbieri, Christopher M; Malinverni, Juliana C; Sher, Xinwei; Mayhood, Todd; McCurry, Megan D; Murgolo, Nicholas; Flattery, Amy; Mack, Matthias; Roemer, Terry

    2017-05-18

    Riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding RNA structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. As such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. Recently, we identified ribocil-C, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we provide a mechanistic characterization of the antibacterial effects of ribocil-C as well as of roseoflavin (RoF), an antimetabolite analog of RF, among medically significant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis. We provide genetic, biophysical, computational, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence that ribocil-C and RoF specifically inhibit dual FMN riboswitches, separately controlling RF biosynthesis and uptake processes essential for MRSA growth and pathogenesis. Such a dual-targeting mechanism is specifically required to develop broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial agents targeting RF metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Child

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    Y. T. Udaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT is a rare malignant intracranial neoplasm more commonly diagnosed in young children. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with a long standing history of slowly progressive weight loss, fatigue, and weakness over 1.5 years whose magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneous enhancing dorsally exophytic lower brainstem mass. Examination revealed extreme cachexia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, dysphagia, dysarthria, bilateral dysmetria, and global weakness without ambulation. The protracted history and neuroimaging features were most suggestive of a low grade glioma. However, pathology revealed a hypercellular tumor with large hyperchromatic nucleoli and loss of INI-1 staining on immunohistochemistry consistent with a diagnosis of an ATRT. The child died shortly after surgery due to complications from his brainstem infiltrative disease. This case illustrates the diverse presentation of ATRT in childhood that can clinically and radiographically mimic that of low grade glioma.

  8. Constrictive Pericarditis Associated with Atypical Antipsychotics

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    Kuan-chin Jean Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful surgical intervention in a case of constrictive pericarditis after long-term use of atypical antipsychotics. Pericarditis developed in our patient with a longstanding history of schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics. Pericardiectomy was undertaken, and the patient's presenting symptom of shortness of breath resolved subsequently with an uneventful postoperative course.

  9. Bridging the Gaps in the Study of Typical and Atypical Cognitive Development: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan A.; Madigan, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development" examine the cognitive development of children who are following typical and atypical developmental pathways. The articles offer a mixture of theory-based considerations, reviews of the literature, and new empirical data addressing fundamental aspects of…

  10. Atypical Cyclic Sulfides, Garlicnins G, I, and J, Extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Cheng; El-Aasr, Mona; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Newly characterized, atypical sulfides, garlicnins G (1), I (2), and J (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic bulbs, Allium sativum. Their production pathways are regarded as different from those of cyclic sulfoxides, 3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives such as onionins A1-A3, garlicnins B1-B4 and C1-C3.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of simulated solar disinfection against bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens and its enhancement by riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2010-09-01

    Riboflavin significantly enhanced the efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) at 150 watts per square meter (W m(-2)) against a variety of microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Fusarium solani, Candida albicans, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites (>3 to 4 log(10) after 2 to 6 h; P < 0.001). With A. polyphaga cysts, the kill (3.5 log(10) after 6 h) was obtained only in the presence of riboflavin and 250 W m(-2) irradiance.

  12. Role of Corneal Epithelium in Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A Mediated Corneal Cross-Linking Treatment in Rabbit Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangchen Tao; Haiqun Yu; Yong Zhang; Zhiwei Li; Vishal Jhanji; Shouxiang Ni; Ya Wang; Guoying Mu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Methods. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4?mm???10?mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. Results. UVA ir...

  13. Laser-induced corneal cross-linking upon photorefractive ablation with riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilovskiy IM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Igor M Kornilovskiy,1 Elmar M Kasimov,2 Ayten I Sultanova,2 Alexander A Burtsev1 1Department of Eye Diseases, Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Pirogov Medical Surgical Centre”, Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia; 2Department of Eye Diseases, Zarifa Aliyeva National Ophthalmology Center, Ministry of Health, Baku, Azerbaijan Aim: To estimate the biomechanical effect of the laser-induced cross-linking resulting from photorefractive ablation of the cornea with riboflavin.Methods: Excimer laser ablation studies were performed ex vivo (32 eyes of 16 rabbits by phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK and in vivo (24 eyes of 12 rabbits by transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK, with and without riboflavin saturation of the stroma. Then, we performed corneal optical coherence tomography on 36 eyes of 18 patients with varying degrees of myopia at different times after the TransPRK was performed with riboflavin saturation of the stroma.Results: Biomechanical testing of corneal samples saturated with riboflavin revealed cross-linking effect accompanied by the increase in tensile strength and maximum strength. PTK showed increase in tensile strength from 5.1±1.4 to 7.2±1.6 MPa (P=0.001, while TransPRK showed increase in tensile strength from 8.8±0.9 to 12.8±1.3 MPa (P=0.0004. Maximum strength increased from 8.7±2.5 to 12.0±2.8 N (P=0.005 in PTK and from 12.8±1.6 to 18.3±1.2 N (P=0.0004 in TransPRK. Clinical optical coherence tomography studies of the biomicroscopic transparent cornea at different times after TransPRK showed increased density in the surface layers of the stroma and membrane-like structure beneath the epithelium.Conclusion: Photorefractive ablation of the preliminary corneal stroma saturation with riboflavin causes the effect of laser-induced cross-linking, which is attended with an increase in corneal tensile strength, maximum strength, increased density in the surface layers of the stroma, and formation of

  14. [Riboflavin photoprotection with cross-linking effect in photorefractive ablation of the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilovskiy, I M; Sultanova, A I; Burtsev, A A

    2016-01-01

    Photorefractive ablation is inevitably accompanied by oxidative stress of the cornea and weakening of its biomechanical and photoprotective properties. To validate the expediency of riboflavin use in photorefractive ablation for photoprotection of the cornea and cross-linking. The effects of riboflavin use in photorefractive ablation was first studied in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments performed on 56 eyes of 28 rabbits, and then on 232 eyes of 142 patients with different degrees of myopia. Biomechanical testing of corneal samples was performed with Zwick/RoellВZ 2.5/TN1S tensile-testing machine. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Femto-LASIK) were performed on Wavelight-Allegretto200, MEL-80, and WaveLight-EX500 excimer laser systems and also VisuMax and WaveLight-FS200 femtosecond lasers. For preliminary examinations, an appropriate set of diagnostic tools was used. In vivo experiments have proved that, in the absence of conservative therapy, riboflavin is able to produce both photoprotective and cross-linking effects to the cornea. Corneal syndrome was thus reduced and re-epithelialization after TransPRK accelerated. Biomechanical testing of corneal samples revealed an increase in tolerated load from 12.9±1.4 N to 18.3±1.2 N (p=0.0002) and tensile strength from 8.6±1.7 MPa to 12.4±1.7 MPa (p=0.007). Clinical studies conducted in a group of patients with mild to moderate myopia have also confirmed the photoprotective effect of riboflavin at months 1-12 after TransPRK. There were no significant differences in uncorrected visual acuity (ranged from 0.80±0.16 to 0.85±0.15) and corrected visual acuity at baseline (0.83±0.14). Evaluation of the optical and refractive effect achieved after Femto-LASIK with riboflavin photoprotection in the fellow eye has shown that this technique is not inferior to the traditional one as to its refractive accuracy, but provides better

  15. Assessment of fungal viability after long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation combined with riboflavin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Renata T; Carvalho, Fabio R S; Khan, Yasin A; Hirai, Flavio; Campos, Mauro S; McDonnell, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a technique that combines riboflavin administration with long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation, was primarily developed to increase the biomechanical strength of collagen fibrils of the cornea to avoid the progression of keratoconus. Recently, this method has been proposed to treat selected cases of infectious keratitis. To test the protocol used for progressive keratoconus in infectious keratitis, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani, strains were exposed to irradiation using a wavelength of 365 nm at a power density of 3 mW/cm(2) for 30 min in the presence of riboflavin photosensitizer. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of fungal viability used plate cultures and an automated trypan blue dye exclusion method respectively. Fungal cell diameter was also assessed in all groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the triplicate values of each experimental condition. Experimental findings of photodynamic therapy applied to the cell inactivation of both yeasts and filamentous fungi were compared with control groups. Qualitative results were corroborated with quantitative findings which showed no statistical significance between challenged samples (experimental groups) and the control group (p-value = 1). In comparison with a control group of live cells, statistical significance was observed when riboflavin solution alone had an effect on the morphologic size of filamentous fungi, while ultraviolet light irradiation alone showed a slight decrease in the cell structure of C. albicans. The impact of long-wave ultraviolet combined with riboflavin photosensitizer showed no antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. solani. The significant decrease in cell morphology of both filamentous fungi and yeasts submitted to photosensitizing riboflavin and exposure to ultraviolet light, respectively, may be promising in the development and standardization of alternatives for fungal cell

  16. Investigations of riboflavin photolysis via coloured light in the nitro blue tetrazolium assay for superoxide dismutase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Wei; Chen, Liang-Yü; Chou, Chan-Wei; Liang, Ji-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Determination of the superoxide dismutase activity is an important issue in the fields of biochemistry and the medical sciences. In the riboflavin/nitro blue tetrazolium (B2/NBT) method, the light sources used for generating superoxide anion radicals from light-excited riboflavin are normally fluorescent lamps. However, the conditions of B2/NBT experiments vary. This study investigated the effect of the light source on the light-excitation of riboflavin. The effectiveness of the photolysis was controlled by the wavelength of the light source. The spectra of fluorescent lamps are composed of multiple colour lights, and the emission spectra of fluorescent lamps made by different manufacturers may vary. Blue light was determined to be the most efficient for the photochemical reaction of riboflavin in visible region. The quality of the blue light in fluorescent lamps is critical to the photo-decomposition of riboflavin. A blue light is better than a fluorescent lamp for the photo-decomposition of riboflavin. The performance of the B2/NBT method is thereby optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical manifestations of tinea faciei

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    Mittal R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 58 paitents of tinea faciei was conducted. Twenty five (43.1% patients had history of photosensitivity. Twenty eight (48.2% patients were applying topical steroids, 2 (3.4% patients were on 10 mg of prednisolone daily. Associated tinea of other sites were observed in 14 (24.13%. 23 (39.6% patients had typical circinate, arcuate, annular plaques with raised margin showing vesiculo-pustules. Atypical manifestations were in the form of arcuate plaques on the pinna in 4 patients, erythematous plaques full of vesiculo-pustules without central clearing in 3. Thirty two (55.17% patients had plaques with broad edges and indistinct central clearing. In 2 patients lesions resembled discoid lupus erythematosus. Skin scrapings for fungus was positive in 36 (62.06% cases. All patients responded to systemic griseofulvin 10mg/kg with 1% clotrimazole topicaly in 4-8 weeks.

  18. Atypical presentations of celiac disease

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    Balasa Adriana Luminita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the association of celiac disease in 81 children with autoimmune disease and genetic syndromes over a two years periods (January 2014 to July 2016 in Pediatric Clinic in Constanta. Because the extraintestinal symptoms are an atypical presentation of celiac disease we determined in these children the presence of celiac disease antibodies: Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgA and IgA total serum level as a screening method followeds in selective cases by Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgG, anti-endomysial antibodies, deamidated gliadin antibodies IgA and IgG and intestinal biopsia. In our study 8 patients had been diagnosed with celiac disease with extraintestinal symptoms, of which 4 with type 1 diabetes, 1 patient with ataxia, 2 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and 1 patient with Down syndrome that associate also autoimmune thyroiditis, alopecia areata, enamel hypoplasia.

  19. Riboflavin cross-linking of collagen porous scaffolds for periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seciu A-M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis treatment using occlusive membranes presented variable efficacy due to their rapid degradation in the complex biologic environment of the damaged periodontium. The aim of this study was to prepare novel composites based on collagen, chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin, and to establish the optimal parameters for their photochemical cross-linking using riboflavin and UV exposure. The degree of cross-linking, biodegradability and density of all scaffold variants were investigated. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated in a culture of gingival fibroblasts by MTT assay and light microscopy. The results indicated that the higher the cross-linking degree, the lower was the scaffold biodegradation. Cell culture studies showed that composite scaffolds were favorable for cellular survival. In conclusion, the cross-linking method using riboflavin and UV exposure resulted in stable and biocompatible collagen-based composite scaffolds that could be used for periodontitis treatment.

  20. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-13

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecule, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G • U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G • U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  1. Pseudoarthrosis in atypical femoral fracture: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, S; Bottai, V; Dell'Osso, G; De Paola, G; Ghilardi, M; Guido, G

    2013-11-01

    Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment; they have a high frequency of delayed healing. The authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy. Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment even if, in the literature, there is no clarity on the exact pathogenetic mechanism. The Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research described the major and minor features to define atypical fractures and recommends that all the five major features must be present while minor features are not necessary. Another controversial aspect regarding the atypical femoral fractures is the higher frequency of the delayed healing that can be probably related to a suppressed bone turnover caused by a prolonged period of bisphosphonates treatment. This concept could be corroborated by the Spet Tc exam. In the case of a pseudoarthrosis, there is not a standardization of the treatment. In this report, the authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy; the patient was studied with clinical, bioumoral end SPECT-Tc exam of both femurs. Many studies show the relationship between bisphosphonates and the presence of atypical fractures. These fractures should be monitored more closely due to the risk of nonunion and they require considering an initial treatment with pharmacological augmentation to reduce the complications for the patient and the health care costs.

  2. Riboflavin cross-linking of collagen porous scaffolds for periodontal regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Seciu A-M.; Gaspar A.; Stefan L.M.; Moldovan L.; Craciunescu O.; Zarnescu O.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis treatment using occlusive membranes presented variable efficacy due to their rapid degradation in the complex biologic environment of the damaged periodontium. The aim of this study was to prepare novel composites based on collagen, chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin, and to establish the optimal parameters for their photochemical cross-linking using riboflavin and UV exposure. The degree of cross-linking, biodegradability and density of all scaffold variants were investigated....

  3. Mutations in AIFM1 cause an X-linked childhood cerebellar ataxia partially responsive to riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Eyal, E; Zhu, X; Ruzzo, E K; Marek-Yagel, D; Sagiv, Doron; Anikster, Y; Reznik-Wolf, H; Pras, E; Oz Levi, D; Lancet, D; Ben-Zeev, B; Nissenkorn, A

    2017-09-15

    AIFM1 encodes a mitochondrial flavoprotein with a dual role (NADH oxidoreductase and regulator of apoptosis), which uses riboflavin as a cofactor. Mutations in the X-linked AIFM1 were reported in relation to two main phenotypes: a severe infantile mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and an early-onset axonal sensorimotor neuropathy with hearing loss. In this paper we report two unrelated males harboring AIFM1 mutations (one of which is novel) who display distinct phenotypes including progressive ataxia which partially improved with riboflavin treatment. For both patients trio whole exome sequencing was performed. Validation and segregation were performed with Sanger sequencing. Following the diagnosis, patients were treated with up to 200 mg riboflavin/day for 12 months. Ataxia was assessed by the ICARS scale at baseline, and 6 and 12 months following treatment. Patient 1 presented at the age of 5 years with auditory neuropathy, followed by progressive ataxia, vermian atrophy and axonal neuropathy. Patient 2 presented at the age of 4.5 years with severe limb and palatal myoclonus, followed by ataxia, cerebellar atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, sensorineural hearing loss, hyporeflexia and cardiomyopathy. Two deleterious missense mutations were found in the AIFM1 gene: p. Met340Thr mutation located in the FAD dependent oxidoreductase domain and the novel p. Thr141Ile mutation located in a highly conserved DNA binding motif. Ataxia score, decreased by 39% in patient 1 and 20% in patient 2 following 12 months of treatment. AIFM1 mutations cause childhood cerebellar ataxia, which may be partially treatable in some patients with high dose riboflavin. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Riboflavines, Quinoxalinones and Benzodiazepines through Chemoselective Flow Based Hydrogenations

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    Marcus Baumann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust chemical routes towards valuable bioactive entities such as riboflavines, quinoxalinones and benzodiazepines are described. These make use of modern flow hydrogenation protocols enabling the chemoselective reduction of nitro group containing building blocks in order to rapidly generate the desired amine intermediates in situ. In order to exploit the benefits of continuous processing the individual steps were transformed into a telescoped flow process delivering selected benzodiazepine products on scales of 50 mmol and 120 mmol respectively.

  5. Long-term results of cornea collagen cross-linking with riboflavin for keratoconus

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    Vinay Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA light (CXL is the only method designed to arrest the progression of keratoconus. Visual improvement generally starts 3 months after treatment. Reduction is coma seen on aberrometry in early postoperative phase is also responsible for the improvement in visual acuity. In the light of currently available data we can thus say that CXL is a safe procedure that is successful in arresting keratoconus.

  6. Riboflavin and ultraviolet a collagen crosslinking of the cornea for the treatment of keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Håkan; Malmsjö, Malin; Mortensen, Jes; Ohrström, Arne

    2010-01-01

    To describe riboflavin and ultraviolet light (UV) collagen crosslinking as an effective treatment for infectious keratitis. A 25-year-old previously healthy female contact lens user was diagnosed with unilateral severe keratitis with unclear pathogenesis, although the clinical presentation suggested acanthamoeba as the infectious agent. A 4-mm diameter, annular, semi-opaque infiltrate was found on the paracentral parts of the cornea in the left eye (OS). Laboratory examinations for bacteria, herpes simplex, and acanthamoeba were performed, but no specific pathogen could be detected. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation was 20/1000. Treatment was initialized with broad-spectrum antibiotics also covering acanthamoeba. During the first month of treatment the keratitis progressed and the corneal thickness diminished. Therefore, treatment with riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking was initiated. After riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking therapy, there was a rapid decrease of pain and necrotic material. Reepithelialization of the cornea started within a few days and was complete within a month. After 2 months, the wound had healed completely. Nine months after the UV treatment, BCVA was 20/30. This case illustrates the positive effects of riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking on presumed infectious keratitis with a satisfactory final visual outcome. This may be a promising new treatment for keratitis, although this remains to be elucidated in detail in future studies. Until more data are available this treatment should only be considered in therapy-refractive keratitis or ulceration and not in the first line of defence since it may have cytotoxic side effects.

  7. Evaluation of coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pathogen inactivation in blood products using riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV light represents a proactive approach to blood safety, not only for known infectious agents but also for new ones or not yet recognized as threats to the blood supply. This method inactivates a virus, bacteria, fungus, or protozoan pathogen from the blood product without damaging its function or shelf-life. The aim of the study was to study the influence of photoinactivation using riboflavin on the concentration of coagulation factors and coagulation inhibitors in plasma that was treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 30 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 h from the moment of collection. They were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 min. The samples for examining were taken before (K - control units and after illumination (I - illuminated units. Results. Comparing the middle values of coagulation factors in the control and illuminated units we noticed their statistically significant decrease in illuminated units (p < 0.001, but the activity of coagulation ones was still in the reference range. The most sensitive coagulation factors to photoinactivation were FVIII, FIX and FXI (21.99%, 20.54% and 17.26% loss, respectively. Anticoagulant factors were better preseved than coagulation factors. Conclusion. Plasma separated from whole blood donation within 6 h, treated with riboflavin and UV light within 6 h from separation and frozen at temperature below -30ºC within 24 h, shows good retention of pro- and anticoagulation activity.

  8. Photo-dynamics of roseoflavin and riboflavin in aqueous and organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirak, P. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-03-30

    Roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin) and riboflavin in aqueous and organic solvents are studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence decay kinetics. Solvent polarity dependent absorption shifts are observed. The fluorescence quantum yields are solvent dependent. For roseoflavin the fluorescence decay shows a bi-exponential dependence (ps to sub-ps time constant, and 100 ps to a few ns time constant). The roseoflavin photo-dynamics is explained in terms of fast intra-molecular charge transfer (diabatic electron transfer) from the dimethylamino electron donor group to the pteridin carbonyl electron acceptor followed by intra-molecular charge recombination. The fast fluorescence component is due to direct locally-excited-state emission, and the slow fluorescence component is due to delayed locally-excited-state emission and charge transfer state emission. The fluorescence decay of riboflavin is mono-exponential. The S{sub 1}-state potential energy surface is determined by vibronic relaxation and solvation dynamics due to excited-state dipole moment changes (adiabatic optical electron transfer).

  9. Supplementation with Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) for Migraine Prophylaxis in Adults and Children: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Heshmati, Javad; Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a unilateral and pulsating headache associated with nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Low vitamin B2 can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and may have an effect on migraine pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to carry out a review of existing evidence regarding the effects of riboflavin (vitamin B2) supplementation on migraine prophylaxis in adults and children. We searched the databases of PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Springer between 1990 and December 2013. Key words included vitamin B2, riboflavin, migraine, vomiting headache, and prevention. We limited our search to human studies in the English language. Review articles and abstracts from symposiums and conferences were excluded. Finally, eleven eligible articles were found: seven involved studies with adults and four involved studies with children. The results indicated that supplementation with vitamin B2 in adults can play a positive role in reducing the frequency and duration of migraine attacks with no serious side effects. It seems that riboflavin is a safe and well-tolerated option for preventing migraine symptoms in adults, however, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations regarding vitamin B2 as an adjunct therapy in adults and children with migraine.

  10. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  11. Development of a sensitive and selective Riboflavin sensor based on carbon ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, Afsaneh, E-mail: safavi@chem.susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, Norouz; Ershadifar, Hamid; Tajabadi, Fariba [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-03

    The electrochemical properties of Riboflavin adsorbed on carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A film with a surface coverage of up to 3.3 x 10{sup -9} mol cm{sup -2} was formed after 10 min exposure time. Electron transfer coefficient and rate constant of electron transfer across the modified electrode were found to be 0.43 and 3.03 s{sup -1}, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the determination of Riboflavin. Two linear working ranges of 0.8-110 nM and 0.11-1.0 {mu}M were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.996, respectively. The experimental detection limit was obtained as 0.1 nM. The relative standard deviation for five replicate analyses was 4.7%. Other soluble vitamins had no significant interferences and the electrode was used for the determination of Riboflavin in pharmaceutical products, nutrition and beverages.

  12. Correlating rheological properties and printability of collagen bioinks: the effects of riboflavin photocrosslinking and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantides, Nicole; Wang, Louis; Pruiksma, Tylar; Siemiatkoski, Joseph; Dugopolski, Caroline; Shortkroff, Sonya; Kennedy, Stephen; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-07-05

    Collagen has shown promise as a bioink for extrusion-based bioprinting, but further development of new collagen bioink formulations is necessary to improve their printability. Screening these formulations by measuring print accuracy is a costly and time consuming process. We hypothesized that rheological properties of the bioink before, during, and/or after gelation can be used to predict printability. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin photocrosslinking and pH on type I collagen bioink rheology before, during, and after gelation and directly correlated these findings to the printability of each bioink formulation. From the riboflavin crosslinking study, results showed that riboflavin crosslinking increased the storage moduli of collagen bioinks, but the degree of improvement was less pronounced at higher collagen concentrations. Dots printed with collagen bioinks with riboflavin crosslinking exhibited smaller dot footprint areas than those printed with collagen bioinks without riboflavin crosslinking. From the pH study, results showed that gelation kinetics and final gel moduli were highly pH dependent and both exhibited maxima around pH 8. The shape fidelity of printed lines was highest at pH 8-9.5. The effect of riboflavin crosslinking and pH on cell viability was assessed using bovine chondrocytes. Cell viability in collagen gels was found to decrease after blue light activated riboflavin crosslinking but was not affected by pH. Correlations between rheological parameters and printability showed that the modulus associated with the bioink immediately after extrusion and before deposition was the best predictor of bioink printability. These findings will allow for the more rapid screening of collagen bioink formulations.

  13. Comparison of Riboflavin and Toluidine Blue O as Photosensitizers for Photoactivated Disinfection on Endodontic and Periodontal Pathogens In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Krarup Nielsen

    Full Text Available Photoactivated disinfection has a strong local antimicrobial effect. In the field of dentistry it is an emerging adjunct to mechanical debridement during endodontic and periodontal treatment. In the present study, we investigate the effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and blue LED light for activation, and compare it to photoactivated disinfection with the widely used combination of toluidine blue O and red light. Riboflavin is highly biocompatible and can be activated with LED lamps at hand in the dental office. To date, no reports are available on the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection using riboflavin/blue light on oral microorganisms. Planktonic cultures of eight organisms frequently isolated from periodontal and/or endodontic lesions (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherischia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Propionibacterium acnes were subjected to photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light and toluidine blue O/red light, and survival rates were determined by CFU counts. Within the limited irradiation time of one minute, photoactivated disinfection with riboflavin/blue light only resulted in minor reductions in CFU counts, whereas full kills were achieved for all organisms when using toluidine blue O/red light. The black pigmented anaerobes P. gingivalis and P. intermedia were eradicated completely by riboflavin/blue light, but also by blue light treatment alone, suggesting that endogenous chromophores acted as photosensitizers in these bacteria. On the basis of our results, riboflavin cannot be recommended as a photosensitizer used for photoactivated disinfection of periodontal or endodontic infections.

  14. [Neurological manifestations in atypical Kawasaki disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guzmán, Edgar; Gámez-González, Luisa Berenise; Rivas-Larrauri, Francisco; Sorcia-Ramírez, Giovanni; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Atypical Kawasaki disease is defined as that where there are signs and symptoms not corresponding to the classical criteria for this nosological entity. Children with atypical Kawasaki disease may present with acute abdominal symptoms, meningeal irritation, pneumonia or renal failure. We describe 4 children with ages ranging from 2 to 12 years who had atypical Kawasaki disease, with neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms as part of the systemic presentation of the disease. Treatment consisted of immunoglobulin and corticosteroids with good evolution. KD is a systemic vasculitis that can involve many territories. Atypical manifestations can mislead the clinician and delay diagnosis. Pediatricians and sub-specialists should be aware of these neurological manifestations in order to provide adequate and opportune treatment.

  15. Atypical CT findings in bacterial meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, I.J.; Dillon, W.P.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Danziger, A.; Rechthand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography has become a valuable imaging modality in the evaluation and management of most intracerebral infections. We report two cases of intracranial infections with atypical CT findings, and attempt to correlate these findings with the pathophysiology.

  16. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  17. Atypical odontalgia. Its aetiology and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, R I; Schnurr, R F

    1993-12-01

    Atypical odontalgia is a chronic pain disorder in which persistent pain develops in clinically normal teeth. Its possible aetiology and long-term prognosis are discussed. Suggested management regimes are reviewed.

  18. Atypical Neurological Manifestations Of Hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pal P K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A part from the well-established syndrome of motor paralysis, hypokalemia may present with atypical neurological manifestations, which are not well documented in literature. Methods: We treated 30 patients of hypokalemia whose neurological manifestations improved after corrections of hypokalemia. A retrospective chart review of the clinical profile was done with emphasis on the evolution of symptoms and occurrence of unusual manifestations. Results: Twenty-eight patients had subacute quadriparesis with duration of symptoms varying from 10hrs to 7 days and two had slowly progressive quadriparesis. Fifty percent of patients had more than one attack of paralysis. Early asymmetric weakness (11, stiffness and abnormal posture of hands (7, predominant bibrachial weakness (4, distal paresthesias (4, hemiparesthesia (1, hyperreflexia(4, early severe weakness of neck muscles (3, chorea (1, trismus (1,and, retention of urine (1 were the unusual features observed. The means level of serum potassium on admission was 2.1+0.6mEq/L.and the serum creatine kinase was elevated in 14 out of 17 patients. All patients except two had complete recovery.

  19. Atypical presentations of neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system classically characterized by acute, severe episodes of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. The identification of an autoantibody exclusively detected in NMO patients against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 has allowed identification of cases beyond the classical phenotype. Brain lesions, once thought as infrequent, can be observed in NMO patients, but lesions have different characteristics from the ones seen in multiple sclerosis. Additionally, some AQP-4 antibody positive patients may present with a variety of symptoms not being restricted to optic neuritis and acute myelitis during the first attack or in a relapse. Examples are not limited to, but may include patients only with brain and/or brainstem lesions, narcolepsy with hypothalamic lesions or patients with intractable hiccups, nausea and vomiting. The prompt identification of NMO patients with atypical presentations may benefit these patients with institution of early treatment to reduce disability and prevent further attacks.

  20. Biopsychosocial aspects of atypical odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramella, A; Paroli, M; Lonia, L; Bosco, M; Poli, P

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower A β , A δ , and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to A β (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), A δ (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction.

  1. [Clinical features of atypical refractory anemia (RA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, A; Jinnai, I; Kusumoto, S; Shiramatsu, F; Bessho, M; Saito, M; Hirashima, K

    1991-08-01

    Twenty-three patients with bicytopenia or pancytopenia were retrospectively studied. The patients with underlying disorders, blast count of more than 5% on bone marrow (BM) aspirate, blast count of more than 1% on peripheral blood or ringed sideroblast count of more than 15% on BM aspirate were excluded. According to Yoshida's criteria, 23 patients were classified into 6 subtypes [AA (aplastic anemia)1: typical AA, AA2: atypical AA, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome)3: typical RA (refractory anemia, MDS4-6: atypical RA], and AA1 7 cases; AA2 2 cases; MDS3 5 cases; MDS4 1 case; MDS5 2 cases; MDS6 6 cases. To clarify the clinical features of atypical RA group (MDS4-6), we investigated ferrokinetics, RBC life span, karyotype, serum Epo (erythropoietin) concentration, response to therapy and prognosis. Results were as follows: 1) all three RA patients who were younger than 30 years old were included in atypical RA group, 2) in ferrokinetics study PID (plasma iron disappearance time) values of MDS4 and MDS6 patients ranged between those of AA1 and those of MDS3 patients (5 of 7 patients), 3) two cases who developed leukemia belonged to typical RA group, 4) patients with atypical RA showed response to therapy and their prognosis were better than those with typical RA. These observations suggest that atypical RA have different clinical features from typical RA.

  2. Role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A mediated corneal cross-linking treatment in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiangchen; Yu, Haiqun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhiwei; Jhanji, Vishal; Ni, Shouxiang; Wang, Ya; Mu, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4 mm × 10 mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. UVA irradiation alone did not enhance the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (3.15 ± 0.56 mpa, 1.00 ± 0.09 mpa) or without (3.53 ± 0.85 mpa, 0.94 ± 0.21 mpa) the corneal epithelium, compared to specimens in the control group (4.30 ± 0.68 mpa, 1.03 ± 0.24 mpa). However, UVA irradiation combined with riboflavin significantly increased the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (5.27 ± 1.09 mpa, 1.23 ± 0.23 mpa, P cornea in UVA+riboflavin and "epithelium-off" group were 35.9% and 15.4% higher compared to the UVA+riboflavin and "epithelium-on" group, respectively (P biomechanical properties of the cornea with and without epithelial removal. However, corneas without epithelium seem to benefit more compared to corneas with the epithelium.

  3. Retinol and Riboflavin Supplementation Decreases the Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Pregnant Women Taking Iron and Folic Acid Supplements 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiguo, M.; Schouten, E.G.; Zhang, F.Z.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, F.; Jiang, D.C.; Sun, Y.Y.; Han, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and

  4. Genome Sequence of EU-Unauthorized Genetically Modified Bacillus subtilis Strain 2014-3557 Overproducing Riboflavin, Isolated from a Vitamin B2 80% Feed Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid; Wuyts, Véronique; Gau, Céline; Pirovano, Walter; Costessi, Adalberto; Philipp, Patrick; Roosens, Nancy H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper announces the genome sequence and annotation of the genetically modified (GM) Bacillus subtilis strain 2014-3557 overproducing riboflavin (vitamin B2). This GM-strain is unauthorized in the European Union. Nevertheless, it has been isolated from a lot of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 80% feed grade imported to Europe from China.

  5. Genome Sequence of EU-Unauthorized Genetically Modified Bacillus subtilis Strain 2014-3557 Overproducing Riboflavin, Isolated from a Vitamin B2 80% Feed Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Wuyts, Véronique; Gau, Céline; Pirovano, Walter; Costessi, Adalberto; Philipp, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper announces the genome sequence and annotation of the genetically modified (GM) Bacillus subtilis strain 2014-3557 overproducing riboflavin (vitamin B2). This GM-strain is unauthorized in the European Union. Nevertheless, it has been isolated from a lot of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 80% feed grade imported to Europe from China. PMID:25858836

  6. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  7. Reassessing risk models for atypical hyperplasia: age may not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Emanuele; Coopey, Suzanne B; Griffin, Molly; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Buckley, Julliette M; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Garber, Judy E; Smith, Barbara L; Gadd, Michele A; Specht, Michelle C; Guidi, Anthony; Hughes, Kevin S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age at diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia ("atypia", ductal [ADH], lobular [ALH], or severe ADH) on the risk of developing subsequent invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Using standard survival analysis methods, we retrospectively analyzed 1353 women not treated with chemoprevention among a cohort of 2370 women diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia to determine the risk relationship between age at diagnosis and subsequent breast cancer. For all atypia diagnoses combined, our cohort showed a 5-, 10-, and 15-year risk of invasive breast cancer or DCIS of 0.56, 1.25, and 1.30, respectively, with no significant difference in the (65,75] year age group. For women aged (35,75] years, we observed no significant difference in the 15-year risk of invasive breast cancer or DCIS after atypical hyperplasia, although the baseline risk for a 40-year-old woman is approximately 1/8 the risk of a 70-year-old woman. The risks associated with invasive breast cancer or DCIS for women in our cohort diagnosed with ADH, severe ADH, or ALH, regardless of age, were 7.6% (95% CI 5.9-9.3%) at 5 years, 25.1% (20.7-29.2%) at 10 years, and 40.1% (32.8-46.6%) at 15 years. In contrast to current risk prediction models (e.g., Gail, Tyrer-Cuzick) which assume that the risk of developing breast cancer increases in relation to age at diagnosis of atypia, we found the 15-year cancer risk in our cohort was not significantly different for women between the ages of 35 (excluded) and 75. This implies that the "hits" received by the breast tissue along the "high-risk pathway" to cancer might possibly supersede other factors such as age.

  8. Effect of cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A on the chemical bonds and ultrastructure of human sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Lee, Hui-Jae; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lim, Jin Ik; Choi, Samjin; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effect of the cross-linking with riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the chemical bonds and ultrastructural changes of human sclera tissues using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Raman spectroscopy of the normal and cross-linked human sclera tissue revealed different types of the riboflavin-UVA and collagen interactions, which could be identified from their unique peaks, intensity, and shape. Raman spectroscopy can prove to be a powerful tool for examining the chemical bond of collagenous tissues at the molecular level. After riboflavin-UVA treatment, unlike a regular parallel arrangement of normal collagen fibrils, the AFM image revealed interlocking arrangements of collagen fibrils. The observed changes in the surface topography of the collagen fibrils, as well as in their chemical bonds in the sclera tissue, support the formation of interfibrilar cross-links in sclera tissues.

  9. ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS USE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Potočnik-Dajčman

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Classical antipsychotics – neuroleptics are one of the most frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs in child psychiatry. Atypical antipsychotics are used for the same indications – psychotic (schizophrenia as well as unpsychotic disorders (pervasive developmental disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorders and tics disorders. It is surprising that the studies on their use with regard to this age group are rather rare. They are carried out on a small number of samples and only exceptionally double blind. This article summarizes published clinical experience with atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents. A short overview of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and side effects is given. Schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders are major indications for use of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents, but they have also been successfully used for other disorders such as aggressive behaviour, tics and anorexia nervosa.Conclusions. With better side-effect profile, some of the atypical antipsychotics are expected to be doctrinally recognised as the first-line treatment for childhood schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. However, more long-term studies carried out on a larger sample are needed. Atypical antipsychotics are already used in everyday practice as first-line treatment of childhood and adolescents schizophrenia.

  10. Atypical odontalgia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Marcello; Lobo, Silvia Lobo; Ceneviz, Caroline; Zawawi, Khalid; Al-Badawi, Emad; Maloney, George; Mehta, Noshir

    2003-01-01

    To review previous reports of cases of atypical odontalgia to examine its epidemiological and clinical characteristics and to explore the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease. Atypical odontalgia is one of many painful conditions that affect the oral cavity and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis. A search of the literature was performed for all cases of atypical odontalgia reported from 1966 to the present. The typical clinical presentation of atypical odontalgia that has been reported involves pain in a tooth in the absence of any sign of pathology; the pain may spread to areas of the face, neck, and shoulder. The existing literature suggests that this condition occurs in 3% to 6% of the patients who undergo endodontic treatment, with high female preponderance and a concentration of cases in the fourth decade of life. Deafferentation seems to be the most likely mechanism to initiate the pain, but psychological factors, alteration of neural mechanisms, and even an idiopathic mechanism have been implicated. Not all reported cases were preceded by trauma to the teeth or gums. The treatment of choice is a tricyclic antidepressant, alone or in combination with a phenothiazine. The outcome is usually fair, with many patients obtaining complete relief from pain. Especially in the absence of overt pathology, particular attention should be paid to avoiding any unnecessary and potentially dangerous dental intervention on the teeth. Atypical odontalgia is surprisingly common, of uncertain origin, and potentially treatable.

  11. Pathogen reduction of fresh plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: effects on plasma coagulation proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Valerie S; Drummond, Olive; Morrison, Alex; McMillan, Loraine; MacGregor, Ian R; Prowse, Chris V

    2009-10-01

    Treatment with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light reduces the pathogens present in blood components. This study assessed changes to the coagulation proteins that had occurred during this treatment of fresh plasma units before freezing. Twenty fresh plasma units (230 +/- 30 mL) were treated by the Mirasol process (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) and frozen within 8 hours of donation. Plasma units were combined with 35 mL of a 500 micromol/L riboflavin solution in an illumination bag to achieve a final concentration of approximately 60 micromol/L riboflavin. The bag was placed in the Mirasol illuminator and exposed to UV light (6.24 J/mL). Samples were frozen before and after treatment. Recoveries observed were 67.7 +/- 3.9% Factor (F)XI, 68.5 +/- 3.3% FVIII:C, 78.8 +/- 4.5% fibrinogen, 78.9 +/- 4.1% FV, 79.0 +/- 4.2% FVII, 79.0 +/- 8.6% F IX, 79.7 +/- 2.6% FX, and 85.0 +/- 3.7% FII. Von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen, VWF:ristocetin cofactor, and ADAMTS13 recoveries were 87.0 +/- 7.1, 85.5 +/- 6.6, and 73.3 +/- 15.2%, respectively, while that of protein C was 83.6 +/- 2.6%. A loss of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers was observed in most units. Recoveries for protein S, antithrombin, and plasmin inhibitor were greater than 90%. The mean FVIII:C concentration, after treatment, was 0.76 +/- 0.17 IU/mL. As with other pathogen reduction technologies, the Mirasol process resulted in some loss of coagulation factor activity. For most Mirasol-treated units and for most of the tested factors this is unlikely to have clinical impact, but trials are required to demonstrate this.

  12. Riboflavin/UVA collagen cross-linking-induced changes in normal and keratoconus corneal stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hayes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of Ultraviolet-A collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar and iso-osmolar riboflavin solutions on stromal collagen ultrastructure in normal and keratoconus ex vivo human corneas. METHODS: Using small-angle X-ray scattering, measurements of collagen D-periodicity, fibril diameter and interfibrillar spacing were made at 1 mm intervals across six normal post-mortem corneas (two above physiological hydration (swollen and four below (unswollen and two post-transplant keratoconus corneal buttons (one swollen; one unswollen, before and after hypo-osmolar cross-linking. The same parameters were measured in three other unswollen normal corneas before and after iso-osmolar cross-linking and in three pairs of swollen normal corneas, in which only the left was cross-linked (with iso-osmolar riboflavin. RESULTS: Hypo-osmolar cross-linking resulted in an increase in corneal hydration in all corneas. In the keratoconus corneas and unswollen normal corneas, this was accompanied by an increase in collagen interfibrillar spacing (p<0.001; an increase in fibril diameter was also seen in two out of four unswollen normal corneas and one unswollen keratoconus cornea (p<0.001. Iso-osmolar cross-linking resulted in a decrease in tissue hydration in the swollen normal corneas only. Although there was no consistent treatment-induced change in hydration in the unswollen normal samples, iso-osmolar cross-linking of these corneas did result in a compaction of collagen fibrils and a reduced fibril diameter (p<0.001; these changes were not seen in the swollen normal corneas. Collagen D-periodicity was not affected by either treatment. CONCLUSION: The observed structural changes following Ultraviolet-A cross-linking with hypo-osmolar or iso-osmolar riboflavin solutions are more likely a consequence of treatment-induced changes in tissue hydration rather than cross-linking.

  13. Application of UVA-riboflavin crosslinking to enhance the mechanical properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark; Coyle, Aron

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogels derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) have become increasing popular in recent years, particularly for use in tissue engineering. One limitation with ECM hydrogels is that they tend to have poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues they are trying to replicate. To address this problem, a UVA (ultraviolet-A) riboflavin crosslinking technique was applied to ECM hydrogels to determine if it could be used to improve their elastic modulus. Hydrogels fabricated from corneal, cardiac and liver ECM were used in this study. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using a spherical indentation technique. The microstructure of the hydrogels and the cytotoxic effect of crosslinking on cell seeded hydrogels were also evaluated. The combination of UVA light and riboflavin solution led to a significant increase in elastic modulus from 6.8kPa to 24.7kPa, 1.4kPa to 6.9kPa and 0.9kPa to 1.6kPa for corneal, cardiac and liver ECM hydrogels respectively. The extent of this increase was dependent on a number of factors including the UVA exposure time and the initial hydrogel concentration. There were also a high percentage of viable cells within the cell seeded hydrogels with 94% of cells remaining viable after 90min exposure to UVA light. These results suggest that UVA-riboflavin crosslinking is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties of ECM hydrogels without resulting in a significant reduction of cell viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Hypoosmolar Riboflavin Solution in Keratoconic Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the 12-month outcomes of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with a hypoosmolar riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation in thin corneas. Methods. Eight eyes underwent CXL using a hypoosmolar riboflavin solution after epithelial removal. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, manifest refraction, the mean thinnest corneal thickness (MTCT, and the endothelial cell density (ECD were evaluated before and 6 and 12 months after CXL. Results. The MTCT was 413.9 ± 12.4 μm before treatment and reduced to 381.1 ± 7.3 μm after the removal of the epithelium. After CXL, the thickness decreased to 410.3 ± 14.5 μm at the last follow-up. Before treatment, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 58.7 ± 3.5 diopters and slightly decreased (57.7 ± 4.9 diopters at 12 months. The mean CDVA was 0.54 ± 0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution before treatment and increased to 0.51 ± 0.21 logarithm at the last follow-up. The ECD was 2731.4 ± 191.8 cells/mm2 before treatment and was 2733.4 ± 222.6 cells/mm2 at 12 months after treatment. Conclusions. CXL with a hypoosmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising method for keratoconic eyes with the mean thinnest corneal thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium.

  15. Wound healing in the rabbit cornea after corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Iomdina, Elena; Dittert, Dag-Daniel; Herbst, Hermann

    2007-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the wound healing process of the first 6 weeks after photodynamic cross-linking treatment in the rabbit cornea, using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA. After removal of the central epithelium, the right corneas of 8 Chinchilla rabbits were cross-linked with a photosensitizing 0.1% riboflavin solution and UVA light (370 nm; irradiance, 3 mW/cm(2); dose, 5.4 J/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Two animals were euthanized 3 days, 7 days, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. The corneas of the enucleated eyes were evaluated using 4-microm light microscopic sections with routine stains and avidin-biotin complex immunostaining with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin. By day 3 after treatment, complete apoptotic damage and loss of the endothelial cells and the stromal keratocytes were found in the irradiated area through the entire thickness of the stroma. There was marked stromal edema (850 +/- 66 vs. 332 +/- 43 microm in the untreated controls; P neutrophils. By day 7, the endothelium was already intact again, and keratocyte repopulation of the posterior stroma was noted. By week 4, the keratocyte repopulation of the anterior stroma was observed with some acellular areas between. By week 6, the cytoarchitecture of the cornea seemed normal again. By weeks 4 and 6, alpha-actin-positive keratocytes were identified, especially in the periphery of the irradiated area. After riboflavin/UVA cross-linking of rabbit cornea, a complete cell loss occurs in the irradiation area with an irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2). The cytotoxic damage is repaired by repopulation after approximately 4-6 weeks. A combination of cross-linking with other procedures such as the implantation of intracorneal rings should be performed only after a sufficient time interval of approximately 2 months, allowing cellular regeneration.

  16. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serer, María I.; Bonomi, Hernán R. [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guimarães, Beatriz G. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Rossi, Rolando C. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Klinke, Sebastián, E-mail: sklinke@leloir.org.ar [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-05-01

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one molecule of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C{sub 3} symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.

  17. Detection and Assay of Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) in Alkaline Borate Buffer with UV/Visible Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzatt, Ronald; Wol, Tasloach

    2014-01-01

    The detection and assay of vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) was accomplished under aqueous conditions using sodium borate buffering at pH 7.52 conditions. The absorbance spectrum of riboflavin was determined at different pH values utilizing several buffers. The buffer at pH at 7.52 is followed by accurate and sensitive assay of riboflavin by spectrophotometer at 440 nm wavelength. Where indicated an origin solution (stock) was employed by dissolving sufficient vitamin to make a stock solution of 1.403 × 10(-4) molar concentrations. Measurements of various aqueous solutions containing riboflavin were accomplished that included aqueous test samples, vitamin capsules/tablets, and water vitamin mixtures. A standard curve extended from 7.97 × 10(-7) molar to 1.23 × 10(-4) molar (a 154x folds spread in concentration). The equation of the line was y = 12545x (intercept at origin) with Pearson r correlation of 1.000 (R (2) = 1.000). Concentration of riboflavin assayed ranged from 3.00 × 10(-4) gram per liter (0.30 ppm) to 0.0463 gram per liter (46.35 ppm). The B vitamin riboflavin can be assayed by UV/VIS spectrophotometer at 440 nm in aqueous media and using sodium borate buffer at pH 7.52. The assay can reach as low as 0.30 parts per million with high levels of accuracy and sensitivity.

  18. Structural basis of ligand interaction with atypical chemokine receptor 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martin; Wang, Liwen; van Gils, Noortje; Stephens, Bryan S.; Zhang, Penglie; Schall, Thomas J.; Yang, Sichun; Abagyan, Ruben; Chance, Mark R.; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines drive cell migration through their interactions with seven-transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors on cell surfaces. The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) binds chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 and signals exclusively through β-arrestin-mediated pathways, without activating canonical G-protein signalling. This receptor is upregulated in numerous cancers making it a potential drug target. Here we collected over 100 distinct structural probes from radiolytic footprinting, disulfide trapping, and mutagenesis to map the structures of ACKR3:CXCL12 and ACKR3:small-molecule complexes, including dynamic regions that proved unresolvable by X-ray crystallography in homologous receptors. The data are integrated with molecular modelling to produce complete and cohesive experimentally driven models that confirm and expand on the existing knowledge of the architecture of receptor:chemokine and receptor:small-molecule complexes. Additionally, we detected and characterized ligand-induced conformational changes in the transmembrane and intracellular regions of ACKR3 that elucidate fundamental structural elements of agonism in this atypical receptor.

  19. Structural basis of ligand interaction with atypical chemokine receptor 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Martin; Wang, Liwen; van Gils, Noortje; Stephens, Bryan S.; Zhang, Penglie; Schall, Thomas J.; Yang, Sichun; Abagyan, Ruben; Chance, Mark R.; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M.

    2017-01-18

    Chemokines drive cell migration through their interactions with seven-transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors on cell surfaces. The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) binds chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 and signals exclusively through β-arrestin-mediated pathways, without activating canonical G-protein signalling. This receptor is upregulated in numerous cancers making it a potential drug target. Here we collected over 100 distinct structural probes from radiolytic footprinting, disulfide trapping, and mutagenesis to map the structures of ACKR3:CXCL12 and ACKR3:small-molecule complexes, including dynamic regions that proved unresolvable by X-ray crystallography in homologous receptors. The data are integrated with molecular modelling to produce complete and cohesive experimentally driven models that confirm and expand on the existing knowledge of the architecture of receptor:chemokine and receptor:small-molecule complexes. Additionally, we detected and characterized ligand-induced conformational changes in the transmembrane and intracellular regions of ACKR3 that elucidate fundamental structural elements of agonism in this atypical receptor.

  20. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taninee Sahakitrungruang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11β-hydroxylase [P450c11β], 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates.

  1. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11β-hydroxylase [P450c11β], 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase) account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates. PMID:25883920

  2. Ultraviolet A: Visible spectral absorbance of the human cornea after transepithelial soaking with dextran-enriched and dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Pucci, Giuseppe; Barberi, Riccardo; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the stromal concentration of 2 commercially available transepithelial riboflavin 0.1% solutions in human donor corneas with the use of spectrophotometry. University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. Experimental study. The absorbance spectra of 12 corneal tissues were measured in the 330 to 700 nm wavelength range using a purpose-designed spectrophotometry setup before and after transepithelial corneal soaking with a 15% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6) or a hypotonic dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6). Both ophthalmic solutions contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trometamol as enhancers. In addition, 4 deepithelialized corneal tissues underwent stromal soaking with a 20% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution and were used as controls. All the riboflavin solutions were applied topically for 30 minutes. The stromal concentration of riboflavin was quantified by analysis of absorbance spectra of the cornea collected before and after application of each solution. The mean stromal riboflavin concentration was 0.012% ± 0.003% (SD), 0.0005% ± 0.0003% (P < .001), and 0.004% ± 0.001% (P < .01) in tissues soaked with 20% dextran-enriched, 15% dextran-enriched, and hypotonic dextran-free solutions, respectively. The difference of stromal riboflavin concentration between the 2 transepithelial solutions was statistically significant (P < .01). Dextran-enriched solutions required complete corneal deepithelialization to permit effective stromal soaking with riboflavin. Nevertheless, riboflavin in hypotonic dextran-free solution with enhancers permeates across stroma through an intact epithelium. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhizosphere ecology of lumichrome and riboflavin, two bacterial signal molecules eliciting developmental changes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakora, Felix D; Matiru, Viviene N; Kanu, Alfred S

    2015-01-01

    Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Reported studies have revealed major developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations (5 nM) in plants, which include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots. But higher lumichrome concentration (50 nM) depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. While the mechanisms remain unknown, it is possible that lumichrome released by rhizobia induced the biosynthesis of classical phytohormones that caused the observed developmental changes in plants. We also showed in earlier studies that applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells (0.2 OD600) to roots of monocots and dicots for 44 h produced identical effects, which included decreased stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration in Bambara groundnut, soybean, and maize, increased stomatal conductance and transpiration in cowpea and lupin, and elevated root respiration in maize (19% by rhizobia and 20% by lumichrome). Greater extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and indole acetic acid by N2-fixing rhizobia over non-fixing bacteria is perceived to be an indication of their role as symbiotic signals. This is evidenced by the increased concentration of lumichrome and riboflavin in the xylem sap of cowpea and soybean plants inoculated with infective rhizobia. In fact, greater xylem concentration of lumichrome in soybean and its correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves was found to result in dramatic developmental changes than in cowpea. Furthermore, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia are also known to function as (i) ecological cues for sensing environmental stress, (ii) growth factors for microbes, plants, and humans, (iii

  4. Corneal biomechanical properties from two-dimensional corneal flap extensiometry: application to UV-riboflavin cross-linking.

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Sabine; Ginis, H.; Marcos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Corneal biomechanical properties are usually measured by strip extensiometry or inflation methods. We developed a two-dimensional (2D) flap extensiometry technique, combining the advantages of both methods, and applied it to measure the effect of UV-Riboflavin cross-linking (CXL). Corneal flaps (13 pig/8 rabbit) from the de-epithelialized anterior stroma (96 μm) were mounted on a custom chamber, consisting of a BK7 lens, a reflective retina, and two reservoirs (filled with Riboflavin and sili...

  5. The Flavin Content of Clovers Relative to Symbiosis with a Riboflavin-requiring Mutant of Rhizobium trifoli1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, C. E.; Schwinghamer, E. A.; Thorne, S. W.; Bergersen, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    A riboflavin-requiring auxotroph of Rhizobium trifolii (T1/D-hisr-15) formed ineffective root nodules on red clover and on two cultivars of subterranean clover, but produced almost fully effective nodules on several other cultivars of subterranean clover. Fluorescence and bioassay measurements of the flavin content of the roots and shoots of these cultivars revealed no differences between cultivars which could be correlated with the differences in symbiotic response. The concentration of flavin in nodules formed by the auxotroph (in the absence of riboflavin), by the effective parent strain (T1), or by a partly effective mutant (penicillin-resistant) of T1 was roughly proportional to the effectiveness of the nodules. Effective nodules contained 20 times as much flavin, and ineffective nodules 3 to 4 times as much flavin as non-nodulated root tissue. Approximately 20 to 30% of the flavins in both root and nodule tissue was flavin adenine dinucleotide and 70 to 80% was riboflavin + flavin mononucleotide. Most of the flavin adenine dinucleotide in macerated nodules was associated with host cell fragments, and none was detected in a cell-free fraction. Bacteroids accounted for approximately 20% of flavins in effective nodules and also contained more riboflavin + flavin mononucleotide than cultured rhizobial cells. The total flavin content of noninoculated roots increased from about 1.2 nmoles to 1.7 nmoles flavin/g of tissue after 3 days' exposure to 80 μm riboflavin. Exposure of only the upper or lower portion of preinoculated roots indicated negligible translocation, as effective nodulation occurred only on parts of the root in direct contact with riboflavin. Plants grown in a medium containing combined nitrogen (100 or 300 μm nitrogen added as (NH4)2SO4), but no added riboflavin showed an increased root flavin content (about 2.1 nmoles flavin/g tissue) and a partly effective response when inoculated with the mutant. Nitrogen also promoted some upward translocation

  6. Weight change after an atypical antipsychotic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas; Renner, Bernard T; Bengtson, Michael A; Wilcox, Brian M; Acholonu, Wilfred W

    2003-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotics successfully treat schizophrenia and other conditions, with a lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects than other agents used in treatment of these disorders. However, some atypical antipsychotics are associated with weight gain. To quantify the impact on weight and identify atypical antipsychotics causing the least amount of weight gain among patients switched from risperidone to olanzapine and olanzapine to risperidone. Patients included in the study (n = 86) were > or =18 years and had received > or =2 prescriptions for risperidone or olanzapine for > or =60 days, switched to the other atypical antipsychotic, and were dispensed > or =2 prescriptions for at least 60 days after the index date. Age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were retrospectively abstracted from automated databases containing patient-specific prescription and vital sign information. At the time of their switch, the average patient age was 53.2 years (range 25-83). The average weight change in patients switched to olanzapine (n = 47) was +2.3 kg (p = 0.01) and the BMI change was +0.8 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02). The average percent body weight change was +2.8% and the BMI change was +3.0%. The average weight change after patients switched to risperidone (n = 39) was -0.45 kg (p = 0.69) and BMI change was -0.2 kg/m2 (p = 0.64). The average percentage weight change was -0.4% and BMI change was -0.5%. Practitioners' concern regarding weight changes after switching atypical antipsychotics seems warranted and patients should be provided consistent, ongoing weight monitoring. Further investigations should examine whether weight changes associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment further jeopardize this already at-risk population for severe comorbid conditions such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes.

  7. NF- κB Essential Modulator Deficiency Leading to Disseminated Cutaneous Atypical Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Braue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NF- κB essential modulator (NEMO is a kinase integral to the macrophage TNF-α pathway, which leads to the intracellular destruction of Mycobacteria species. Defects in the NEMO pathway lead to a spectrum of diseases, including but not limited to ectodermal dysplasia, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, and incontinentia pigmenti. In addition, paucity of NEMO can lead to the inability to mount a proper immune response against opportunistic pyogenic and mycobacterial infections, leading to dissemination to various organ systems. This manuscript will discuss the numerous clinical manifestations of NEMO deficiency, the differential diagnosis for atypical mycobacterial infections in immunocompetent adults, and feature a case report of rare isolated susceptibility to disseminated atypical mycobacteria due to a mutation in the first exon of the NEMO gene.

  8. Atypical radiological findings in cerebral hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzagmout, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Chakour, Khalid; Chaoui, Mohammed E

    2011-07-01

    Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions. The diagnosis is usually based on a pathognomonic CT pattern. Exceptionally, the image is atypical raising suspicion of many differential diagnoses such as intracerebral infectious, vascular lesions, or tumors. We report 2 atypical cases of cerebral hydatid cysts diagnosed in a 21, and a 24-year-old woman. The CT scan results suggest oligodendroglioma in the first case and brain abscess in the second. An MRI was helpful in the diagnosis of the 2 cases. Both patients underwent successful surgery with a good outcome. The hydatid nature of the cyst was confirmed by histology in both cases.

  9. Pediatric Melanoma and Atypical Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraman Kumar, Radhika; Messina, Jane L; Reed, Damon; Navid, Fariba; Sondak, Vernon K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is uncommon in the pediatric age range, but is increasing in frequency and often presents with atypical features compared to the classic ABCDE criteria common to adult melanoma cases. Moreover, many melanocytic neoplasms in childhood pose diagnostic challenges to the pathologist, and sometimes cannot be unequivocally classified as benign nevi or melanoma. This chapter addresses the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with melanoma and atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including the roles of and unresolved questions surrounding sentinel lymph node biopsy, completion lymphadenectomy, adjuvant therapy, and treatment of advanced disease.

  10. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one...... of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from 49 to 67...

  11. Effect of UVA/Riboflavin Collagen Crosslinking on Biomechanics of Artificially Swollen Corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Jayaram, Sandeep M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relation between corneal hydration and stiffening effects of the UVA/riboflavin collagen crosslinking treatment and to investigate how artificially swelling the cornea prior to this treatment procedure affects tensile property improvement. Porcine corneas were collagen crosslinked in vitro at different hydration levels using a number of hypoosmolar and isoosmolar riboflavin solutions. Thickness of the specimens prior to crosslinking was taken as a proxy for their hydration and was used to divide them into different thickness groups. A Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) machine was used to perform mechanical tensile tests. The hydration of specimens during the mechanical tests was kept similar to the hydration at which they were crosslinked. The recorded force was used to calculate the maximum tensile stress and tangent modulus as a function of thickness (hydration) prior to collagen crosslinking treatment. Collagen crosslinking with either a hypoosmolar or isoosmolar solution significantly increased corneal tensile modulus (P crosslinking showed significantly softer tensile properties compared with those that were crosslinked at lower hydration (P degree of tensile property improvement was hydration dependent, the stiffness of samples crosslinked at higher hydration was not significantly different than the stiffness of those crosslinked at lower hydration when the hydration was kept similar in the mechanical experiments. Swelling porcine corneas to the different extents prior to collagen crosslinking treatment does not significantly change the amount of biomechanical improvement if tensile properties are measured at similar hydration.

  12. Corneal Thickness During Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Isotonic Riboflavin Solution without Dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik Oltulu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To monitor the corneal thickness change during the dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution-aided corneal collagen crosslinking procedure in keratoconus patients. Materials and Methods: Corneal thickness measurements during the corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL treatment for progressive keratoconus were evaluated. The corneal thickness measurements were obtained with ultrasonic pachymetry device at five different time points: 0, 15, and 30 minutes after epithelial removal and 15 and 30 minutes after the initiation of UVA irradiation. Results: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with progressive keratoconus were included in the study. The thinnest pachymetric values obtained at the 0, 15, and 30 minute measurements after corneal deepithelisation were 409.38±10.43 µm (383-435 µm, 434.56±17.68 µm (400-485 µm, and 457.44±21.78 µm (428-516 µm, respectively. Pachymetric values obtained at 15 and 30 minutes after UVA application to the cornea were 471.69±23.38 µm (439-526 µm and 482.63±23.69 µm (436-524 µm, respectively. The gradual increase was found to be statistically significant when each measurement was compared with the previous values (p<0.001. Conclusion: We found that the corneal thickness was not decreased during the CXL with dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution; on the contrary, corneal thickness was increased regularly during the procedure. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 272-4

  13. Keratoconus corneal architecture after riboflavin/ultraviolet A cross-linking: Ultrastructural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Paladini, Iacopo; Mencucci, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Study to investigate the effects of collagen cross-linking on the ultrastructural organization of the corneal stroma in the human keratoconus cornea (KC). Methods Three normal, three keratoconus (KC1, KC2, KC3), and three cross-linked keratoconus (CXL1, CXL2, CXL3) corneas were analyzed. The KC corneas were treated with a riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) treatment (CXL) method described by Wollensak et al. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed 6 months after treatment. All samples were processed for electron microscopy. Results The riboflavin-UVA-treated CXL corneal stroma showed interlacing lamellae in the anterior stroma followed by well-organized parallel running lamellae. The lamellae contained uniformly distributed collagen fibrils (CFs) decorated with normal proteoglycans (PGs). The CF diameter and interfibrillar spacing in the CXL cornea were significantly increased compared to those in the KC cornea. The PG area in the CXL corneas were significantly smaller than the PGs in the KC cornea. The epithelium and Bowman’s layer were also normal. On rare occasions, a thick basement membrane and collagenous pannus were also observed. Conclusions Corneal cross-linking leads to modifications of the cornea stroma. The KC corneal structure showed a modification in the CF diameter, interfibrillar spacing, and PG area. This resulted in a more uniform distribution of collagen fibrils, a key feature for corneal transparency. PMID:23878503

  14. THE EFFECTS OF RIBOFLAVIN AND METHYLENE BLUE ON NOCICEPTION AND VISCERAL PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Alexa, Teodora; Dondaş, A; Crăcană, Irina-Mihaela; Bădescu, Magda; Bohotin, Cătălina

    2015-01-01

    Methylene Blue (MB) can prevent electron leaking, increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and reduce ROS overproduction under pathological conditions, currently being trace evidence that it can alter pain perception in humans by local administration during certain surgical procedures. Riboflavin or vitamin B2 (B2) constitutes a part of the vitamin B group, which in recent studies shows a growing implication in the treatment of some pathology that imply pain management. To investigate the effect of one dose of Riboflavin and Methylene Blue on nociception and visceral pain in mice. A total of 48 BALB/c male mice were divided into 3 groups: MB Group, B2 Group and C Group. MB (5 mg/kg b.w.), B2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) or an equivalent volume of saline was administered intraperitoneally. Mice were tested before (baseline) and after drugs administration over a 4h period. Nociception was evaluated by means of Hot Plate Test (HPT) and TFT (Tail Flick Test). Visceral pain was evaluated 2h after administration. Four hours after MB administration we recorded an analgesic effect on the hot plate test (p nociception.

  15. On-line sample preparation for the determination of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotides in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, G M; Kometa, N

    1994-05-01

    An on-line sample preparation method is described for the determination of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in milk and cereal samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The on-line system consists of microwave extraction followed by dialysis and trace enrichment with a C18 mini-column. Sample preparation was minimal, with milk samples being directly introduced into the system and cereal only needing to be ground prior to analysis. Results were obtained for a range of samples and these were found to be in agreement with the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method and a previously reported HPLC method. Recoveries were between 94 and 106% for a range of different samples and the relative standard deviation for ten samples was in the range 1.2-2.0%. During the microwave extraction all the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) was converted into FMN and 15% of FMN was converted into riboflavin. The full analysis time on the ground samples was about 20 min.

  16. Oxidative Stress at High Temperatures in Lactococcus lactis Due to an Insufficient Supply of Riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Solem, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed q...... and improved fitness at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen.......Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed...... quickly. Raising the temperature to 37°C resulted in severe growth inhibition and only slow removal of dissolved oxygen. Under these conditions, an abnormally low intracellular ratio of [ATP] to [ADP] (1.4) was found (normally around 5), which indicates that the cells are energy limited. By adding...

  17. Influence of concentration on the radiolytic decomposition of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Albarrán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin loss during irradiation has been claimed as a critical area in food irradiation technology, especially that of thiamine (B1, which has been considered as the most sensitive to radiation. Although it has been suggested that no vitamin deficiency could result from consuming irradiated food, a long debate on the loss of vitamins and other nutrients during food irradiation has been maintained by the lack of experimental studies monitoring decomposition rates at different concentrations and doses. Since thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine are labile vitamins, this study has focused on their radiolytic decomposition in dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of air. The decomposition process was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a nonlinear function of the dose. Of these three compounds, the decomposition was higher for thiamine than for riboflavin and even less in pyridoxine.

  18. [Effects of use of riboflavin and ultraviolet light for pathogen inactivation on quality of platelet concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojković, Zoran; Antić, Ana; Stojanović, Miodrag

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation in blood and blood products is one of the major means to achieve a zero risk blood supply and improve transfusion safety. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) activated by ultraviolet (UV) light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of pathogens photoinactivation using riboflavin and UV rays on the biochemical and functional characteristics of platelet concentrates prepared from "buffy coat". The examination included 80 platelet concentrates prepared from "buffy coat", which was separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. Concentrates were pooled, filtered and separated unton two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 examined units (pooled platelet concentrates). Examined units of the platelets were treated by riboflavin (35 mL) and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm) on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA) in approximate duration of 6 min. A total of 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control units. The samples for examining were taken from the control and examined units initially (K0, I0), after the addition of saline (K1) and riboflavin (I1), after illumination (I2), first day of storage (K3, I3) and the fifth day of storage (K4, I4). The following parameters were measured: platelet count and platelet yield, residual erythrocyte and leukocyte count, pH, pO2, pCO2 and bacterial contamination. All the measured parameters showed a statistically significant decrease comparing to K0 and I0; all the results of the first day of platelet storage showed statistically significant decrease comparing to K1 and I1, and all the results of the fifth day of platelet storage (K4, I4) showed a statistically significant decrease comparing to K1 and K3 and to I1 and I3. There was no

  19. Disentangling the Emerging Evidence around Atypical Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Clark, Emma M

    2012-01-01

    Atypical femur fractures are rare but a growing concern, as they are more common in patients who use bisphosphonates. The best radiology-based studies have had access to only short-term exposure data, while the studies using prescription databases with substantial long-term data did not have access...

  20. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  1. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  2. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  3. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  4. Atypical fractures on long term bisphosphonates therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussein, W

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce fractures risk in patients with osteoporosis. A new pattern of fractures is now being noted in patients on prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. We report a case of an atypical femoral fracture with preceding pain and highlight the characteristics of these fractures.

  5. Atypical visuomotor performance in children with PDD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9–12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome),

  6. Lymph node dissection in atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Salih; Kan, Özgür; Dai, Ömer; Taşkın, Elif A; Koyuncu, Kazibe; Alkılıç, Ayşegül; Güngör, Mete; Ortaç, Fırat

    2017-09-01

    The rate of concomitant endometrial carcinoma in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia is high. We aimed to investigate the role of lymphadenectomy in deciding adjuvant treatment in patients with concomitant atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia were enrolled in this retrospective study. Lymph node dissection was performed in only some patients who gave informed consent if their surgeon elected to do so, or if the intraoperative findings necessitated. The final histopathologic evaluations of surgical specimens were compared with endometrial biopsy results. Eighty eligible patients were evaluated. Seventy-two (90%) patients had complex hyperplasia with atypia, and 8 (10%) patients had simple hyperplasia with atypia. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed to all patients; 37 also underwent lymph node dissection. Lymph node dissection was extended to the paraaortic region in 9 of 37 patients. The concomitant endometrial carcinoma rate was 50%. Two patients had lymph node metastasis. Among 40 cases of carcinoma, 17 had deep myometrial invasion and/or cervical or ovarian involvement or grade 2 tumors with superficial myometrial invasion on hysterectomy specimens; 27.5% of all carcinomas were stage Ib or higher. The concomitant endometrial carcinoma rate was high in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Nearly half of these patients had risk factors for extrauterine spread. Lymph node dissection might be helpful to decide adjuvant treatment.

  7. Non-diabetic atypical necrobiosis lipoidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available One 8 year female child had asymptomatic, anaesthetic, hypohidrotic, atrophic, yellowish, waxy plaque on the front of left thigh since 2 months. No nerve thickening was observed clinically or histopathologically. Hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, epidermal atrophy, degeneration of collagen, mononuclear granulomas and perivascular mononuclear infiltrate confirmed the clinical diagnosis of atypical necrobiosis lipoidica.

  8. Th,e Diagnosis of Atypical Varicella*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion from generalized herpes simplex or variola virus infections. Atypical varicella may show widespread bullous or haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and visceral involvement may occur with lesions in practically every tissue of the body. A feature of varicella is the affinity for epithelial tissues and the early involvement of the ...

  9. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  10. latrogenic Pulpal Injury Masquerading as Atypical Odontalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Praveena Tantradi

    2011-01-01

    Several pain conditions may mimic atypical odontalgia (AO). Diagnosis of AO is made by ruling out other pain conditions. It is said that the most difficult diagnoses to rule out are pulpal pain condition. This report presents a case of iatrogenic pulpal injury mimicking AO.

  11. latrogenic Pulpal Injury Masquerading as Atypical Odontalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Tantradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pain conditions may mimic atypical odontalgia (AO. Diagnosis of AO is made by ruling out other pain conditions. It is said that the most difficult diagnoses to rule out are pulpal pain condition. This report presents a case of iatrogenic pulpal injury mimicking AO.

  12. Atypical Food Packaging Affects The Persuasive Impact of Product Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, M.L.; Fransen, P.W.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product salience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  13. Atypical food packaging affects the persuasive impact of product claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product sal- ience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  14. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the anxiety or mood disorders were associated with atypical patterns of use. Atypical patterns of drug use were not associated with increased risk for a lifetime substance use disorder. Conclusion: Atypical patterns of drug use initiation seem more prevalent in South Africa compared to other countries. The early use ...

  15. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide and the risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, H.P.M.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ottenkamp, J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of studies on folic acid, little evidence is available concerning other nutrients in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Fatty acids play a central role in embryonic development, and the B-vitamins riboflavin and nicotinamide are co-enzymes in lipid metabolism.

  17. Effects of methodological variation on assessment of riboflavin status using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marilyn H E; Bradley, Angela; Mushtaq, Sohail; Williams, Elizabeth A; Powers, Hilary J

    2009-07-01

    Riboflavin status is usually measured as the in vitro stimulation with flavin adenine dinucleotide of the erythrocyte enzyme glutathione reductase, and expressed as an erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC). This method is used for the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) of the UK. In the period between the 1990 and 2003 surveys of UK adults, the estimated prevalence of riboflavin deficiency, expressed as an EGRAC value > or = 1.30, increased from 2 to 46 % in males and from 1 to 34 % in females. We hypothesised that subtle but important differences in the detail of the methodology between the two NDNS accounted for this difference. We carried out an evaluation of the performance of the methods used in the two NDNS and compared against an 'in-house' method, using blood samples collected from a riboflavin intervention study. Results indicated that the method used for the 1990 NDNS gave a significantly lower mean EGRAC value than both the 2003 NDNS method and the 'in-house' method (P FAD used in the assay and the duration of the period of incubation of FAD with enzyme. The details of the EGRAC method should be standardised for use in different laboratories and over time. Additionally, it is proposed that consideration be given to re-evaluating the basis of the EGRAC threshold for riboflavin deficiency.

  18. The effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet light pathogen reduction technology in eliminating Trypanosoma cruzi from leukoreduced whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Alcover, M Magdalena; Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of this technology for the elimination of T. cruzi parasites in artificially contaminated whole blood units (WBUs) and thus for decreasing the risk of T. cruzi transfusion transmission. The contaminated WBUs were leukoreduced by filtration and treated with riboflavin and UV light. The level of pathogen reduction was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a viability assay. The RNA (cDNA) quantification of the parasites showed a more than 99% reduction of viable T. cruzi parasites after leukoreduction and a complete reduction (100%) after the riboflavin and UV light treatment. Riboflavin and UV light treatment and leukoreduction used in conjunction appears to eliminate significant amounts of viable T. cruzi in whole blood. Both strategies could complement other blood bank measures already implemented to prevent the transmission of T. cruzi via blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine and Riboflavin in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Andre´s, P.; Escuder-Gilabert, L.; Martín-Biosca, Y.; Sagrado, S.; Medina-Herna´ndez, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, as familiar consumer products, have been widely used in laboratory courses to help promote student interest, as well as to connect lecture concepts with laboratory work. Energy drinks contain B vitamins: pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) of which amounts are high enough to be of concern. In this work, a fast and…

  20. Corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking with UV-A irradiation and hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz Amaral Nassaralla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the thinnest corneal thickness changes during and after corneal collagen cross-linking treatment with ultraviolet-A irradiation, using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in thin corneas. METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients were included in this study. After epithelium removal, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was instilled to the cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes. Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution was then applied every 20 seconds for 5 minutes or until the thinnest corneal thickness reached 400 µm. Ultraviolet-A irradiation was performed for 30 minutes. During irradiation, iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops were applied every 5 minutes. Ultrasound pachymetry was performed at approximately the thinnest point of the cornea preoperatively, after epithelial removal, after iso-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after hypo-osmolar riboflavin instillation, after ultraviolet-A irradiation, and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Mean preoperative thinnest corneal thickness was 380 ± 11 µm. After epithelial removal it decreased to 341 ± 11 µm, and after 30 minutes of iso-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, to 330 ± 7.6 µm. After hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin drops, mean thinnest corneal thickness increased to 418 ± 11 µm. After UVA irradiation, it was 384 ± 10 µm. At 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, it was 372 ± 10 µm, 381 ± 12.7, and 379 ± 15 µm, respectively. No intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo-osmolar 0.1% riboflavin solution seems to be effective for swelling thin corneas. The swelling effect is transient and short acting. Corneal thickness should be monitored throughout the procedure. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required in order to make meaningful conclusions regarding safety.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of riboflavin responsiveness in patients with ETF-QO variations and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Nanna; Frerman, Frank E; Corydon, Thomas J; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter; Gregersen, Niels; Olsen, Rikke K J

    2012-08-01

    Riboflavin-responsive forms of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (RR-MADD) have been known for years, but with presumed defects in the formation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor rather than genetic defects of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). It was only recently established that a number of RR-MADD patients carry genetic defects in ETF-QO and that the well-documented clinical efficacy of riboflavin treatment may be based on a chaperone effect that can compensate for inherited folding defects of ETF-QO. In the present study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms and the genotype-phenotype relationships for the riboflavin responsiveness in MADD, using a human HEK-293 cell expression system. We studied the influence of riboflavin and temperature on the steady-state level and the activity of variant ETF-QO proteins identified in patients with RR-MADD, or non- and partially responsive MADD. Our results showed that variant ETF-QO proteins associated with non- and partially responsive MADD caused severe misfolding of ETF-QO variant proteins when cultured in media with supplemented concentrations of riboflavin. In contrast, variant ETF-QO proteins associated with RR-MADD caused milder folding defects when cultured at the same conditions. Decreased thermal stability of the variants showed that FAD does not completely correct the structural defects induced by the variation. This may cause leakage of electrons and increased reactive oxygen species, as reflected by increased amounts of cellular peroxide production in HEK-293 cells expressing the variant ETF-QO proteins. Finally, we found indications of prolonged association of variant ETF-QO protein with the Hsp60 chaperonin in the mitochondrial matrix, supporting indications of folding defects in the variant ETF-QO proteins.

  2. Biomechanical Strengthening of the Human Cornea Induced by Nanoplatform-Based Transepithelial Riboflavin/UV-A Corneal Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Cristina; Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; De Santo, Maria Penelope

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stiffening effect induced by nanoplatform-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking protocol using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twelve eye bank donor human sclerocorneal tissues were investigated using a commercial atomic force microscope operated in force spectroscopy mode. Four specimens underwent transepithelial corneal cross-linking using a hypotonic solution of 0.1% riboflavin with biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin plus enhancers (trometamol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and UV-A irradiation with a 10 mW/cm2 device for 9 minutes. After treatment, the corneal epithelium was removed using the Amoils brush, and the Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma was quantified as a function of scan rate by AFM. The results were compared with those collected from four specimens that underwent conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking and four untreated specimens. The average Young's modulus of the most anterior stroma after the nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking treatments was 2.5 times (P corneal cross-linking procedures (P corneal cross-linking treatments, ranging from an average of 2.4 ± 0.3 μm in untreated samples to an average of 1.2 ± 0.1 μm and 1.8 ± 0.1 μm after nanoplatform-based transepithelial and conventional cross-linking, respectively. The present nanotechnology-based transepithelial riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking was effective to improve the biomechanical strength of the most anterior stroma of the human cornea.

  3. Immunofluoresence of rabbit corneas following collagen cross-linking treatment with Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Salomon; He, Jiucheng; Li, Na; Bazan, Haydee E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess ultrastructural modifications in keratocytes and inflammatory cell response in rabbit corneas after riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure using immunoflurescence microscopy. Methods Twenty adult New Zealand albino rabbits weighing 2.0 to 3.0 kg were used in this study. Two rabbits served as controls. The animals had their epithelia removed and were cross-linked with riboflavin 0.1% solution (10mgs riboflavin-5-phosphate in 10ml 20% dextran-T-500) applied every 3 minutes for 30 minutes, and exposed to UVA (360 nm, 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes. Four rabbits were humanely euthanized at each time point of 1, 3 and 11 days and at 3 and 5 weeks after the procedure. Immunohistochemestry studies of thin sections of each cornea were performed using TUNEL staining, Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD-3, myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies and DAPI counterstaining. In another experiment six additional rabbits were treated as above, and after 10 days of cross-linking, 5 μl of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (1μg/ml) was injected in the mid stroma. Results Cross-linked corneas showed early stromal edema. By 5 weeks, complete resolution of the edema and a pronounced highly organized anterior 200 μm fluorescent zone was observed. TUNEL staining showed keratocyte death by both necrosis and apoptosis between day 1 and 3 after cross-linking. At day 1 the limbal area close to the cross linking zone showed some inflammatory cells as well as α-SMA positive cells, indicative of the presence of myofibroblasts. By day 3 some myofibroblasts had migrated to the area beneath the cross linked stroma. Between day 3 and 5 weeks there was an increase in α-SMA staining in the area surrounding the cross linked stroma. The area of cross linking remained acellular up to 5 weeks. Conclusions Collagen cross-linking results in early edema, keratocyte apoptosis and necrosis, appearance of inflammatory cells in the surrounding area of treatment and transformation of

  4. Scleral wound healing with cross-link technique using riboflavin and ultraviolet A on rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno NA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadyr A Damasceno,1 Nadia C Miguel,2 Marcelo Palis Ventura,3 Miguel Burnier Jr,4 Marcos P Avila,5 Eduardo F Damasceno3 1Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, 2Laboratory of Neurohistology and Cell Ultrastructure, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; 4Ophthalmology Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Ophthalmology Department, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiania, Brazil Purpose: The aim of study was to evaluate the cross-link using riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA for improving scleral wound healing.Materials and methods: This was an experimental study involving four New Zealand rabbits (eight eyes. Therapy procedure was chosen for the right eye and control procedure for the left one. UVA irradiation of 365 nm with a surface irradiance of 3 mW/cm2 and a photosensitizer of riboflavin drops were applied for 30 minutes on the right eye at 2 mm from the limbus. Sclerotomy incision was performed at 2 mm from the limbus in both right (on the cross-link-treated area and left eye. Then, 30 days after surgery, a morphological analysis and histological staining with hematoxylin–eosin and picrosirius red were performed, and the sclerotomy cicatrization of right and left eyes was compared. The variables investigated were as follows: sclerotomy incision pictures and measurements were made using the ImageJ Software. Scleral thickness was measured (employing the anterior optical coherence tomography and the digital caliper. Collagen fiber density stained with picrosirius red staining was measured using the Image Pro Plus software.Results: The morphological analysis showed that in all samples, the right eye presented sclerotomy closure, and in two eyes, among them, there were no visible edges of the sclerotomies incision. The left eye presented sclerotomy closure and incision edges

  5. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...... to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-¿ and PKC-¿ have interchangeable functions in these processes....

  6. Relationship between atypical depression and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Binbay, Zerrin; Yüksel, Cağrı; Deveci, Erdem; Tükel, Raşit

    2015-01-30

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of atypical and non-atypical depression comorbidity on the clinical characteristics and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 247 patients with SAD were enrolled: 145 patients with a current depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar) with atypical features, 43 patients with a current depressive episode with non-atypical features and 25 patients without a lifetime history of depressive episodes were compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical features, comorbidity rates, and severity of SAD, depression and functional impairment. Thirty four patients with a past but not current history of major depressive episodes were excluded from the comparisons. 77.1% of current depressive episodes were associated with atypical features. Age at onset of SAD and age at initial major depressive episode were lower in the group with atypical depression than in the group with non-atypical depression. History of suicide attempts and bipolar disorder comorbidity was more common in the atypical depression group as well. Atypical depression group has higher SAD and depression severity and lower functionality than group with non-atypical depression. Our results indicate that the presence of atypical depression is associated with more severe symptoms and more impairment in functioning in patients with SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dityrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and radical formation from tyrosine residues on milk proteins with globular and flexible structures as a result of riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Trine K; Nielsen, Jacob H; Brown, Bronwyn E

    2011-01-01

    Riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidative damage to protein Tyr residues has been examined to determine whether protein structure influences competing protein oxidation pathways in single proteins and protein mixtures. EPR studies resulted in the detection of Tyr-derived o-semiquione radicals...... proteins, BSA and β-lactoglobulin. In contrast, samples with β-casein gave higher yields of dityrosine than samples containing BSA and β-lactoglobulin. These results indicate that the flexible structure of β-casein favors radical-radical termination of tyrosyl radicals to give dityrosine, whereas the less...... flexible structure of globular proteins decreases the propensity for tyrosyl radicals to dimerize, with this resulting in higher yields of DOPA and its secondary radical....

  8. Primary atypical sacral meningioma- not always benign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadra, A.K.; Casey, A.T.H.; Saifuddin, A.; Briggs, T.W. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    We present a case of an atypical recurrent meningioma of the sacrum with pulmonary metastasis in a 31-year-old man. He presented with deep-seated buttock pain and urinary hesitancy for 3 months. MRI revealed a lesion occupying the central and left side of the sacral canal at the S1-S2 level. Surgical excision of the lesion via a posterior approach was undertaken, and the patient became symptom-free post-operatively. Histology confirmed atypical meningioma. Eight months later he re-presented with similar symptoms, and MRI confirmed local recurrence. The patient underwent left hemisacrectomy. Six months later he again presented with low back pain and MRI confirmed a second local recurrence. A CT scan of the chest showed multiple lung metastases. The patient died of a severe chest infection 18 months later. (orig.)

  9. Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Intrathoracic Sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Chung, Myung Hee; Song, Sun Wha; Kim, Hyo Lim; Baik, Jun Hyun; Han, Dae Hee [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Jun [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyo Young [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. The radiological findings associated with sarcoidosis have been well described. The findings include symmetric, bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy, with or without concomitant parenchymal abnormalities (multiple small nodules in a peribronchovascular distribution along with irregular thickening of the interstitium). However, in 25% to 30% of cases, the radiological findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists, which cause difficulty for making a correct diagnosis. Many atypical forms of intrathoracic sarcoidosis have been described sporadically. We have collected cases with unusual radiological findings associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis (unilateral or asymmetric lymphadenopathy, necrosis or cavitation, large opacity, ground glass opacity, an airway abnormality and pleural involvement) and describe the typical forms of the disorder as well. The understanding of a wide range of the radiological manifestations of sarcoidosis will be very helpful for making a proper diagnosis.

  10. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  11. Age-Related Long-Term Functional Results after Riboflavin UV A Corneal Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Caporossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a comparative prospective long-term functional analysis after Riboflavin UV A corneal cross-linking (CXL in three different age groups of patients affected by progressive keratoconus (KC. Methods. Functional analysis comprised paediatric patients (≤18 years included 152 eyes (29.5%; intermediate group (19–26 years 286 eyes (55.4%, and adults (≥27 years 78 eyes (15.1%. CXL was performed according to the Siena protocol by using the Vega CBM (Caporossi-Baiocchi-Mazzotta X linker (CSO, Florence, Italy at Siena University by the same authors. Pre- and post-op examinations included UCVA, BSCVA, corneal topography, and surface aberrometry (CSO Eye Top, Florence, Italy, at 48 months followup. Results. At 48 months followup paediatrics, intermediate, and adult patients showed a mean gain in UCVA of +0.2, +0.14 and +0.12 Snellen lines. BSCVA gained by a mean of +0.21, +0.2, and +0.1 Snellen lines. Kmax was reduced by a mean value of −0.9 D, −0.6 D, and −0.5 D, respectively. Coma values improved by a mean of −0.45 μm, −0.91 μm, and −0.19 μm, respectively. Treatment ensured a long-term keratoconus stabilization in over 90% of treated patients. Conclusion. According to our long-term comparative results, epithelium-off Riboflavin UV A cross-linking should be the first choice therapy of progressive KC, particularly in paediatric age and patients under 26 years.

  12. Hydration behavior of porcine cornea crosslinked with riboflavin and ultraviolet A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Aurich, Henning; Pham, Duy-Thoai; Wirbelauer, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To examine the influence of a new crosslinking treatment on corneal swelling properties that correlate with the degree of crosslinking. Department of Ophthalmology, Vivantes-Klinikum Neukölln, Berlin, Germany. Twenty freshly enucleated porcine eyes were crosslinked by applying the photosensitizer riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA) light (370 nm, 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes. After the eyes were treated and incubated for 24 hours in a moist chamber, 15 eyes were examined by biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT); 5 eyes were examined by light microscopy. Five control eyes were included. Using light microscopy, a characteristic swelling pattern with 3 zones was identified in the crosslinked porcine cornea: an anterior intensely crosslinked zone of 242 microm, an intermediate partially crosslinked zone of 238 microm (hydration factor 2.2), and a noncrosslinked posterior zone of 1355 microm (hydration factor 2.7). A condensed OCT signal was demonstrated in the treated portion of the anterior stroma to a depth of 520 microm with a pronounced line at 540 microm, correlating with the combined anterior and intermediate layers after hydration in the histological analysis. In the nonhydrated state of the crosslinked cornea, the anterior zone was deduced to be 242 microm; the intermediate zone, 109 microm; and the posterior zone, 501 microm. Therefore, the maximum depth of the crosslinking effect was 351 microm. Collagen crosslinking using riboflavin and UVA led to a significant change in the swelling behavior of the anterior stroma, confirming prior findings that the crosslinking effect is strongest in the anterior half of the stroma. Crosslinked cornea did not induce a specific signal on OCT, and OCT is therefore not suited for clinical controls of the crosslinking effect.

  13. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light for pathogen reduction of murine cytomegalovirus in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Shawn D; Saakadze, Natia; Bowen, Richard; Newman, James L; Karatela, Sulaiman; Gordy, Paul; Marschner, Susanne; Roback, John; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Two studies were performed to test the effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light treatment (Mirasol PRT, Terumo BCT) against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The first study utilized immune-compromised mice to measure the reduction of cell-free MCMV. A second study used a murine model to evaluate the ability of Mirasol PRT to prevent transfusion-transmitted (TT)-MCMV infection. Human plasma was inoculated with MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. The viral titer was measured using an infectious dose 50% assay in nude mice. Mice were euthanized on Day 10 posttransfusion, and their spleens were tested for the presence of MCMV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mirasol PRT was also evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing TT-MCMV in platelets (PLTs) stored in PLT additive solution. PLTs were inoculated with either cell-associated MCMV or cell-free MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. Mice were transfused with treated or untreated product and were euthanized 14 days posttransfusion. Blood and spleens were assayed for MCMV DNA by real-time-PCR. Using nude mice to titer MCMV, a modest 2.1-log reduction was observed in plasma products after Mirasol PRT treatment. TT-MCMV was not observed in the mouse transfusion model when either cell-free or cell-associated MCMV was treated with Mirasol PRT; MCMV transmission was uniformly observed in mice transfused with untreated PLTs. These results suggest that using riboflavin and UV light treatment may be able to reduce the occurrence of transmission of human CMV from infectious PLTs and plasma units. © 2014 AABB.

  14. Atypical retroperitoneal extension of iliopsoas bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, B.; Cloots, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Cliniques St. Luc, Rue St Luc 8, 5004, Bouge, Namur (Belgium)

    2003-05-01

    We report two rare cases of iliopsoas bursitis extending into the retroperitoneal space. The first lesion contained much gas, mimicking a retroperitoneal abscess, and the second was responsible for atypical inguinal pain. The diagnosis was made by contrast-enhanced CT in both cases and arthrography in the first case. Iliopsoas bursitis in these two patients, it is hypothesized, extended into the retroperitoneum, at least in part, by way of intraneural or perineural structures. (orig.)

  15. Congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm: Atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bamous

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm is a rare condition caused by dysplasia of the atrial muscles. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy, with a 5-month history of cough and in sinus rhythm. Transthoracic echocardiography and computerized tomographic angiography confirmed the aneurysm of the left atrial appendage which was resected through median sternotomy on cardiopulmonary bypass. This case is presented not only for its rarity but also for its atypical clinical presentation.

  16. Recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulas, I G; Price, M; Andrew, J E; Kountakis, S E

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) of the preauricular area that recurred after Mohs micrographic surgery. AFX is a benign cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumor that is most commonly found in elderly patients. Although these tumors are benign, they may mimic spindle cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma on histologic examination. AFX tumors rarely recur or metastasize. Wide excision is recommended for the achievement of the best results.

  17. Atypical Localized Rheumatoid Nodule: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KORHAN BARIS BAYRAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodules can be seen in about 30% of patiens with rheumatoid arthritis. They are occasionally localized subcutaneous, but they can rarely seen in visceral organs. Their appearance can be confused with many clinical conditions when they have atypical localizations. To exclude the presence of a malignancy, these lesions should always be investigated. We aimed to discuss a patient with rheumatoid nodule localized in close neighborhood of hyoid bone, presumed as malignancy.

  18. An atypical case of segmental spinal dysgenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zana, Elodie; Chalard, Francois; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Mazda, Keyvan [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Paris (France)

    2005-09-01

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a complex closed dysraphism. The diagnostic criteria are: lumbar or thoracolumbar vertebral dysgenesis causing kyphosis, focal spinal cord narrowing without exiting roots, deformity of the lower limbs and paraplegia or paraparesis. We present a newborn who showed atypical features of bifocal spinal cord narrowing, without any vertebral abnormality at the proximal level. This seems to be a variant of this rare entity, whose early diagnosis is important, as surgical stabilisation of the spine is required. (orig.)

  19. Atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Truc

    Full Text Available The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.

  20. Atypical pharmacologies at β-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2008-01-01

    β-Adrenoceptors are one of the most widely studied groups of G-protein-coupled receptors but continue to provide surprises and insights that have general relevance to pharmacology. Atypical pharmacologies have been described for ligands formerly (and still) described as antagonists acting at β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors that involve ligand-directed signalling and possibly allosteric interactions at the receptors. In the article by Ngala et al., in this issue of the Br J Pharmacol, another example of atypical interactions with β-adrenoceptors is described, this time for agonists. Some of the responses to BRL37344 and clenbuterol can be explained in terms of actions at β2-adrenoceptors, whereas others such as the increased glucose uptake and palmitate oxidation observed with pM concentrations of BRL37344 may involve interactions with other (possibly allosteric) sites. Atypical pharmacologies of ligands acting at β-adrenoceptors have already indicated new ways in which ligands can interact with G-protein-coupled receptors and these mechanisms are likely to have important consequences for future drug development. PMID:18641673

  1. Atypical caudate anatomy in children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Cindass, Renford; Corey, Dave M

    2013-04-01

    A temporal motor defect in speech preparation and/or planning may contribute to the development of stuttering. This defect may be linked to a dysfunctional cortical-subcortical network at the level of the striatum. To determine whether structural differences exist and whether group differences are associated with stuttering severity or manual laterality, the caudate was measured in 14 children who stutter (CWS) and in a control group of right-handed boys, ages 8-13 years. There was a statistically significant hemisphere by group effect for caudate volume. CWS had reduced right caudate volume and atypical leftward asymmetry compared to controls. Nine of the 13 CWS with atypical caudate asymmetry had atypical manual laterality. These anomalies may represent a vulnerability that perturbs speech planning/preparation and contributes to inefficiencies in action-perception coupling that may be an indicator of stuttering susceptibility. These results suggest that right-handed boys who stutter may have a defect in the feedforward cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical networks.

  2. Familial aggregation and heritability of the melancholic and atypical subtypes of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Femke; Cui, Lihong; Hickie, Ian B; Roca, Catherine; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zarate, Carlos A; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2016-11-01

    The heterogeneity of mood disorders has been a challenge to our understanding of their underlying biologic and genetic pathways. This report examines the specificity of the familial aggregation of atypical and melancholic subtypes of depression and their clinical correlates in a large community based family study of affective spectrum disorders. The sample includes 457 probands and their directly interviewed adult first degree relatives from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Family Study of Affective Spectrum Disorder. Depression subtypes were based on best estimate diagnoses using information from semi-structured diagnostic interviews by experienced clinical interviews and multiple family history reports. Atypical depression in probands was significantly associated with the atypical subtype of depression in relatives (OR 1.75 [95%CI 1.02-3.02], p=0.04), independent of proband and relative comorbid disorders. Melancholic depression in probands was not associated with melancholic depression in relatives (OR 1.25 [95%CI 0.62-2.55], p=.53). The familial heritability of the atypical subtype was 0.46 (95%CI 0.21-0.71), whereas that of the melancholic subtype was 0.33 (95%CI 0.21-0.45). Melancholic depression was associated with greater severity in terms of treatment, global functioning, suicide attempts, comorbid disorders, and an earlier age at onset of depression. The subsample of interviewed relatives necessary to assess specific subtypes of depression reduced the power to detect the specificity of mood disorder subtypes. The results indicate that the atypical subtype should be incorporated in future treatment, genetic and other etiologic studies of major depression. Findings further suggest that melancholic subtype may be an indicator of clinical severity of depression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Role of Corneal Epithelium in Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A Mediated Corneal Cross-Linking Treatment in Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchen Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Methods. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4 mm × 10 mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. Results. UVA irradiation alone did not enhance the maximal stress and Young’s modulus of corneal specimens with (3.15 ± 0.56 mpa, 1.00 ± 0.09 mpa or without (3.53 ± 0.85 mpa, 0.94 ± 0.21 mpa the corneal epithelium, compared to specimens in the control group (4.30 ± 0.68 mpa, 1.03 ± 0.24 mpa. However, UVA irradiation combined with riboflavin significantly increased the maximal stress and Young’s modulus of corneal specimens with (5.27 ± 1.09 mpa, 1.23 ± 0.23 mpa, P<0.05 or without (7.16 ± 1.88 mpa, 1.42 ± 0.16 mpa, P<0.05 corneal epithelium when compared to the control group. The maximal stress and Young’s modulus of cornea in UVA+riboflavin and “epithelium-off” group were 35.9% and 15.4% higher compared to the UVA+riboflavin and “epithelium-on” group, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions. Our study shows that UVA+riboflavin treatment significantly affects the biomechanical properties of the cornea with and without epithelial removal. However, corneas without epithelium seem to benefit more compared to corneas with the epithelium.

  4. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Curtis

    Full Text Available Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS. Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA. The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in

  5. The Extracellular Domain of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Elicits Atypical Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rat and Macaque Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alan D.; Taslim, Najla; Reece, Shaun P.; Grebenciucova, Elena; Ray, Richard H.; Rosenbaum, Matthew D.; Wardle, Robert L.; Van Scott, Michael R.; Mannie, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS). Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6–7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in spinal cord

  6. A dynamic metabolic flux analysis of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, with riboflavin as a by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Kasbi, Mayssa; Chen, Jingkui; Peres, Sabine; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-12-01

    The present study reveals that supplementing sodium acetate (NaAc) strongly stimulates riboflavin production in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with xylose as carbon source. Riboflavin production increased from undetectable concentrations to ∼0.2 g L -1 (0.53 mM) when supplementing 60 mM NaAc. Of interest, solvents production and biomass yield were also promoted with fivefold acetone, 2.6-fold butanol, and 2.4-fold biomass adding NaAc. A kinetic metabolic model, developed to simulate ABE biosystem, with riboflavin production, revealed from a dynamic metabolic flux analysis (dMFA) simultaneous increase of riboflavin (ribA) and GTP (precursor of riboflavin) (PurM) synthesis flux rates under NaAc supplementation. The model includes 23 fluxes, 24 metabolites, and 72 kinetic parameters. It also suggested that NaAc condition has first stimulated the accumulation of intracellular metabolite intermediates during the acidogenic phase, which have then fed the solventogenic phase leading to increased ABE production. In addition, NaAc resulted in higher intracellular levels of NADH during the whole culture. Moreover, lower GTP-to-adenosine phosphates (ATP, ADP, AMP) ratio under NaAc supplemented condition suggests that GTP may have a minor role in the cell energetic metabolism compared to its contribution to riboflavin synthesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transpupillary thermotherapy for atypical central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ryosuke Kawamura1,2, Hidenao Ideta1, Hideyuki Hori1, Kenya Yuki2, Tsuyoshi Uno1, Tatsurou Tanabe1, Kazuo Tsubota2, Tsutomu Kawasaki11Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Keio University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC has been traditionally treated with laser photocoagulation. We thought that transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT utilizing a lower temperature than that of conventional laser photocoagulation might minimize permanent retinal and choroidal damage. Studies suggest that undesirable effects on vision due to TTT are minimal even if it is applied to foveal and/or parafoveal lesions when TTT requires a larger irradiation spot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TTT in the management of atypical CSC.Methods: We defined atypical CSC as bullous retinal detachment with diffuse or several leakages, severe leakage with fibrin formation under serous retinal detachment, or leakage within a pigment epithelium detachment. Eight consecutive patients with atypical CSC underwent visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography to evaluate the results of transpupillary thermotherapy. Retreatment of atypical CSC was based on ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. TTT was performed on the leaking spots shown in fluorescein angiography, with a power of 50–250 mW, spot size of 500–1200 µm, and exposure time of 13–60 seconds to minimize retinal damage.Results: In five of eight affected eyes, serous detachments completely resolved within 1 month after the initial TTT. One eye had persistent subretinal fluid and required a second TTT treatment. Two eyes showed no resolution of CSC and were treated by conventional photocoagulation. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA ranged from 20/600 to 20/20 (mean, 20/40; median, 20/30. Final BCVA

  8. Atypical depression and non-atypical depression: Is HPA axis function a biomarker? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario F; Bocharova, Mariia; Agustini, Bruno; Young, Allan H

    2017-10-06

    The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i.e. hypo-function, of the HPA-axis, similarly to PTSD. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise existing studies addressing the abnormalities of the HPA-axis in melancholic and/or atypical depression. We conducted a systematic review in the literature by searching MEDLINE, PsycINFO, OvidSP and Embase databases until June 2017. The following search items were used: "hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal" OR "HPA" OR "cortisol" OR "corticotropin releasing hormone" OR "corticotropin releasing factor" OR "glucocorticoid*" OR "adrenocorticotropic hormone" OR "ACTH" AND "atypical depression" OR "non-atypical depression" OR "melancholic depression" OR "non-melancholic depression" OR "endogenous depression" OR "endogenomorphic depression" OR "non-endogenous depression". Search limits were set to include papers in English or German language published in peer-reviewed journals at any period. All studies were scrutinized to determine the main methodological characteristics, and particularly possible sources of bias influencing the results reported. We selected 48 relevant studies. Detailed analysis of the methodologies used in the studies revealed significant variability especially regarding the samples' definition comparing the HPA axis activity of melancholic patients to atypical depression, including healthy controls. The results were subdivided into 4 sections: (1) 27 studies which compared melancholic OR endogenous depression vs. non

  9. The ribB FMN riboswitch from Escherichia coli operates at the transcriptional and translational level and regulates riboflavin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle; Langer, Simone; Hobl, Birgit; Schwarz, Julia; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Mack, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    FMN riboswitches are genetic elements that, in many bacteria, control genes responsible for biosynthesis and/or transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). We report that the Escherichia coli ribB FMN riboswitch controls expression of the essential gene ribB coding for the riboflavin biosynthetic enzyme 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (RibB; EC 4.1.99.12). Our data show that the E. coli ribB FMN riboswitch is unusual because it operates at the transcriptional and also at the translational level. Expression of ribB is negatively affected by FMN and by the FMN analog roseoflavin mononucleotide, which is synthesized enzymatically from roseoflavin and ATP. Consequently, in addition to flavoenzymes, the E. coli ribB FMN riboswitch constitutes a target for the antibiotic roseoflavin produced by Streptomyces davawensis. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  11. Conservative treatment of keratoconus by riboflavin-uva-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, C; Traversi, C; Baiocchi, S; Sergio, P; Caporossi, T; Caporossi, A

    2006-01-01

    To assess corneal tissue modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus as well as regeneration of epithelium and subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo HRT II system confocal microscopy in humans. Ten patients with progressive keratoconus were treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen, involving assessment of ultrastructural modifications of the corneal epithelium and subepithelial nerve plexus by HRT II system confocal microscopy. Treatment included instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextrane solution 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. Radiant energy was 3 mW/cm 2 or 5.4 Joule/cm 2 and the source was dual UVA (370 nm) light-emitting LED. The protocol included the operation followed by antibiotic medication and eye dressing with a soft therapeutic contact lens. Changes in epithelium and subepithelial and stromal nerve plexus were assessed by HRT II system confocal microscopy in vivo. After 5 days of soft contact lens wearing, corneal epithelium has a regular morphology and density. Disappearance of subepithelial stromal nerve fibers was observed in the central irradiated area where, 1 month after the operation, initial reinnervation was microscopically observed. No changes in nerve fibers were observed in the peripheral untreated with a clear lateral transition between the two areas. Six months after the operation, the anterior subepithelial stroma was recolonized by nerve fibers with restoration of corneal sensitivity. HRT II system confocal microscopy confirms corneal epithelium restore and re-innervation after riboflavin-UVA-induced collagen cross-linking directly in vivo in humans.

  12. Structural response of human corneal and scleral tissues to collagen cross-linking treatment with riboflavin and ultraviolet A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Hui-Jae; Cheong, Youjin; Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-09-01

    High success rates in clinical trials on keratoconic corneas suggest the possibility of efficient treatment against myopic progression. This study quantitatively investigated the in vitro ultrastructural effects of a photooxidative collagen cross-linking treatment with photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA light in human corneo-scleral collagen fibrils. A total of 30.8 × 2 mm corneo-scleral strips from donor tissue were sagittally dissected using a scalpel. The five analytic parameters namely fibril density, fibril area, corneo-scleral thickness, fibril diameter, and fibril arrangement were investigated before and after riboflavin-UVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment. Collagen cross-linking effects were measured at the corneo-scleral stroma and were based on clinical corneal cross-linking procedures. The structural response levels were assessed by histology, digital mechanical caliper measurement, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Riboflavin-UVA-catalyzed collagen cross-linking treatment led to an increase in the area, density, and diameters of both corneal (110, 112, and 103 %) and scleral (133, 133, and 127 %) stromal collagens. It also led to increases in corneal (107 %) and scleral (105 %) thickness. Collagen cross-linking treatment through riboflavin-sensitized photoreaction may cause structural property changes in the collagen fibril network of the cornea and sclera due to stromal edema and interfibrillar spacing narrowing. These changes were particularly prominent in the sclera. This technique can be used to treat progressive keratoconus in the cornea as well as progressive myopia in the sclera. Long-term collagen cross-linking treatment of keratoconic and myopic progression dramatically improves weakened corneo-scleral tissues.

  13. Scleral cross-linking by riboflavin and blue light application in young rabbits: damage threshold and eye growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Körber, Nicole; Koch, Christian; Karl, Anett; Penk, Anja; Huster, Daniel; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Francke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Scleral cross-linking (SXL) by riboflavin and light application has been introduced as a possible treatment to increase scleral tissue stiffness and to inhibit excessive axial elongation of highly myopic eyes. We evaluated an ocular tissue damage threshold for blue light irradiation, and used SXL treatment to induce eye growth inhibition. The sclera of 3-week-old rabbits (39 pigmented and 15 albino rabbits) were treated with different blue light intensities (450 ± 50 nm) and riboflavin. Alterations and a damage threshold were detected in ocular tissues by means of light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The influence of SXL on the eye growth was examined in 21 young rabbits and was measured by using A-scan ultrasonography, micrometer caliper, and for selected eyes additionally by MR imaging. Light microscopic examinations demonstrated degenerative changes in ocular tissue after irradiation with blue light intensities above 400 mW/cm(2) (with and without riboflavin application). Therefore, that light intensity was defined as the damage threshold. Tissue alteration in retina, choroid, and sclera and activation of retinal microglia cells and Müller cells could be earlier observed at blue light intensities of 150 and 200 mW/cm(2). Albino rabbits were less sensitive to this SXL treatment. A significant reduction of the eye growth could be detected by SXL treatment with the minimal efficient blue light intensity of 15 mW/cm(2) and maintained stable for 24 weeks. SXL with riboflavin and blue light intensities below a defined damage threshold can induce a long lasting growth inhibitory effect on young rabbit eyes. Therefore, SXL might be a realistic approach to inhibit eye elongation in highly myopic eyes.

  14. Intracranial Tuberculoma Presenting as Atypical Eclampsia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam, Sendhil Coumary; Murugesan, Sharmila; Pradeep, Sunitha; John, Lopamudra; Kolluru, Vasavi

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of eclampsia before 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 48 hours of delivery in the absence of typical signs of hypertension and or proteinuria is termed as atypical eclampsia. Atypical or non-classic eclampsia will have some symptoms of eclampsia but without the usual proteinuria or hypertension. All patients with atypical onset should undergo neurological evaluation to rule out neurologic causes of seizures. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare and serious form of disease secondary to hae...

  15. Atypical meningioma and extensive calvarium defects in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Enver [Department of Paediatrics, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Yavuz, Cevdet [Department of Neurosurgery, Duzce Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey); Ustundag, Nil [Department of Pathology, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Konuralp-Duzce (Turkey)

    2003-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with a massive atypical meningioma and calvarial defect. Skull radiographs and cranial CT showed an extensive lytic bone lesion at the vertex. MRI demonstrated a large mass invading the calvarium and sagittal sinus. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the resected mass was atypical meningioma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NF1 associated with atypical meningioma and massive calvarial defect in a child. (orig.)

  16. Association of the plasma and tissue riboflavin levels with C20orf54 expression in cervical lesions and its relationship to HPV16 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixingzi Aili

    Full Text Available Riboflavin deficiency can cause a variety of metabolic problems that lead to skin and mucosal disorders. Limited evidence suggests that high intake of riboflavin may reduce overall risks of cancer. However, association of this deficiency with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions are still not definitively known. In this study, we characterized the relationship between plasma and tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 protein expression in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC as well as the relationship of these levels with human papillomavirus virus 16, 18 (HPV16/18 infections. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to measure blood riboflavin levels in patients with CIN and CSCC, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine tissue riboflavin levels in patients with CSCC and matched normal mucous epithelia. The expression of C20orf54 in fresh CSCC and matched tissues were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. And it was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CIN and CSCC. An HPV genotyping chip was used to analyze HPV infection and typing. The results showed that patients with CIN and CSCC had decreased plasma riboflavin levels as compared with normal controls. There was also significantly decreased riboflavin in tissues from CSCC patients, when compared with normal cervical epithelia. C20orf54 expression were significantly up-regulated in CSCC compared to matched control on both mRNA and protein level. Tissue riboflavin levels were significantly lower in HPV16/18 positive tissue compared with HPV16/18-negative tissue, and an inverse association was found between tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 mRNA and protein expression in CSCC. Additionally, C20orf54 was significantly correlated with tumor stages. In conclusion, C20orf54 tend to play a protective role in Uyghur cervical

  17. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  18. Riboflavin-induced oxidation in fish oil-in-water emulsions: Impact of particle size and optical transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-12-15

    The influence of particle size and optical properties on the stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions to riboflavin-induced oxidation by blending different combinations of small (d=44nm) and large (d=216nm) lipid droplets was examined. Emulsion turbidity increased with increasing mean droplet diameter due to greater light scattering by larger particles. The influence of droplet size on the stability of the emulsions to riboflavin-induced lipid oxidation during storage at 20 or 37°C was measured. At 37°C, the rate of lipid hydroperoxide formation increased with decreasing droplet diameter, but there were no significant differences in propanal concentrations. At 20°C, both peroxide and propanal values indicated that the rate of oxidation increased with decreasing droplet size. These data show that riboflavin was more effective at promoting oxidation in nanoemulsions containing small droplets because light was able to penetrate more easily and generate reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prooxidative and antioxidative properties of β-carotene in chlorophyll and riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of β-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of β-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 μM, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that β-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 μM β-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although β-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, β-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in β-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the β-carotene concentration, which indicates that β-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE MIMIC OF [Mn(SALENOAc] COMPLEX COMPOUND NON-ENZYMATICALLY IN VITRO THROUGH RIBOFLAVIN PHOTOREDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusi Deawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex compound of [Mn(salenOAc] can serve as mSOD and its activity has been determined non-enzymatically in vitro through riboflavin photoreduction. The complex was synthesized from Mn(OAc2.4H2O and H2salen. Based on the elemental analysis, the C=56.69%; H=4.21%; and N=7.52% content are corresponding to the chemical formula of MnC18H17N2O4. The functional groups and ionic species in the complex have been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and ESI-MS. SOD activity was determined by mixing complex at various concentrations with riboflavin and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT, then the mixture was lighted with 20 Watt tungsten lamp for 15 minutes in a closed box. Then the reduced NBT absorptions were measured at λ 560 nm. The difference of absorbance between standard and sample solutions (without and with riboflavin, respectively was multiplied by 100% to obtain %inhibition of each various sample concentration against NBT. SOD activity was obtained from IC50 data defined as a 50% inhibition of the plot curve of % inhibition to the concentration of the complex. The result obtained for this compound is IC50 = 2.7 ± 0.05 µM as well as enzymatic method. Therefore, this method can be used to determine the SOD activity by giving more stability and accuracy of IC50 value.

  1. Effects of riboflavin deficiency and clofibrate treatment on the five acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, K; Draye, J P; Van Hoof, F; Sherratt, H S

    1988-09-01

    Rats were maintained on a riboflavin-deficient diet or on a diet containing clofibrate (0.5%, w/w). The activities of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA) and the branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA) involved in the degradation of branched-chain acyl-CoA esters derived from branched-chain amino acids were assayed in liver mitochondrial extracts prepared in the absence and presence of exogenous FAD. These activities were low in livers from riboflavin-deficient rats (11, 28, 16, 6 and less than 2% of controls respectively) when prepared in the absence of exogenous FAD, and were not restored to control values when prepared in 25 microM-FAD (29, 47, 28, 7 and 17%). Clofibrate feeding increased the activities of butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenases (by 48, 116 and 98% of controls respectively), but not, by contrast, the activities of isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenases (62 and 102% of controls respectively). The mitochondrial fractions from riboflavin-deficient and from clofibrate-fed rats oxidized palmitoylcarnitine in State 3 at rates of 32 and 163% respectively of those from control rats.

  2. Intraoperative corneal thickness monitoring during corneal collagen cross-linking with isotonic riboflavin solution with and without dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltulu, Refik; Şatirtav, Günhal; Donbaloğlu, Meryem; Kerimoğlu, Hürkan; Özkağnici, Ahmet; Karaibrahimoğlu, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking procedures performed with isoosmolar riboflavin solution with 20% dextran and without dextran in corneal ectatic diseases. The patients in this study were analyzed in 2 groups: group 1 receiving riboflavin solution containing 20% dextran and group 2 receiving dextran-free riboflavin solution. Corneal thickness measurements were obtained with ultrasonic pachymetry at 6 different time points: preoperatively and at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after epithelial removal and initiation of ultraviolet A irradiation. Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with progressive keratoconus were included in the study. In group 1 (n = 13), the mean preoperative thinnest pachymetric readings were 469.3 ± 8.5 μm, which decreased to 423.8 ± 8.9 μm after deepithelization and further decreased to 385.9 ± 10.9 μm at 15 minutes. The corneal thickness assumed a steady course at the 30-, 45-, and 60-minute measurements (378.9 ± 9.8 μm, 384.5 ± 10.5 μm, and 396.7 ± 9.4 μm, respectively). The initial change was statistically significant (P corneas.

  3. Corneal collagen cross-linking with and without epithelial removal: a contralateral study with 0.5% hypotonic riboflavin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Zhou, Wen; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2014-01-01

    Our main purpose was to compare safety and efficacy in the treatment of progressive keratoconus with "epithelium-on" and "epithelium-off" corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Our secondary purpose was to evaluate efficacy of CXL when hypotonic 0.5% riboflavin is used as photosensitizer. One eye of 20 patients with bilateral progressive keratoconus was randomly treated for "epithelium-on" CXL (group 1) while the fellow eye underwent "epithelium-off" CXL (group 2). Hypotonic 0.5% riboflavin was used in both groups. Visual acuity, refraction, corneal topography, and wavefront aberrometry were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 6, and 12 months. Specular microscopy was performed on 10 patients preoperatively and after 12 months. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a patient questionnaire. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly in both groups. Refraction, topography, and aberrometry showed nonsignificant changes from the preoperative status throughout the 12-month follow-up in both groups. Moreover, the outcomes between the groups were comparable at all follow-up points. Endothelial cell-count was stable. Postoperative pain length was shorter in group 1 (P hypotonic 0.5% riboflavin were equally safe and effective in stabilization of keratoconus. Topography and aberrometry outcomes in both groups failed to show any significant improvements. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01181219.

  4. An Aromatic Cap Seals the Substrate Binding Site in an ECF-Type S Subunit for Riboflavin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpowich, Nathan K.; Song, Jinmei; Wang, Da-Neng

    2016-06-13

    ECF transporters are a family of active membrane transporters for essential micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace metals. Found exclusively in archaea and bacteria, these transporters are composed of four subunits: an integral membrane substrate-binding subunit (EcfS), a transmembrane coupling subunit (EcfT), and two ATP-binding cassette ATPases (EcfA and EcfA'). We have characterized the structural basis of substrate binding by the EcfS subunit for riboflavin from Thermotoga maritima, TmRibU. TmRibU binds riboflavin with high affinity, and the protein–substrate complex is exceptionally stable in solution. The crystal structure of riboflavin-bound TmRibU reveals an electronegative binding pocket at the extracellular surface in which the substrate is completely buried. Analysis of the intermolecular contacts indicates that nearly every available substrate hydrogen bond is satisfied. A conserved aromatic residue at the extracellular end of TM5, Tyr130, caps the binding site to generate a substrate-bound, occluded state, and non-conservative mutation of Tyr130 reduces the stability of this conformation. Using a novel fluorescence binding assay, we find that an aromatic residue at this position is essential for high-affinity substrate binding. Comparison with other S subunit structures suggests that TM5 and Loop5-6 contain a dynamic, conserved motif that plays a key role in gating substrate entry and release by S subunits of ECF transporters.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of an atypical conventional antipsychotic in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness of an atypical conventional antipsychotic in South Africa: An economic evaluation of quetiapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of patients partially responsive to previous antipsychotics.

  6. Viral pneumonias: Typical and atypical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoff-Bleck, M.; Bleck, J.S.; Schirg, E.

    1987-10-01

    The clinical and radiological features of viral pneumonias are summarized and discussed. Although viral infections of the lung belong to atypical pneumonias they demonstrate not always the radiographic pattern of an interstitial pneumonia. Characteristic radiographic findings are quite rare. In most cases the microbial etiology cannot be predicted from chest radiographs. The appearance varies depending on the virulence of the organism and the resistence of the host. In this regard knowledge of epidemiological data as well as patients condition and underlying disease is of utmost importance. Differentiation between community- and hospital-acquired infection may be very helpful.

  7. Gorlin’s syndrome: Atypical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay N. Agrawal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. The condition appears to have complete penetrance and variable expressivity, which makes clinilcal presentation among families variable. All known BCNS carry mutations in PATCHED gene. A 65 years old male patient presented with complaints of characteristic skin lesions on his face, back, palms since early adulthood. The lesions were pigmented nodules with characteristic border. The histopathology showed characteristic features suggestive of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC. This case was atypical due to appearance of lesions quite later in life.

  8. Wilson’s disease: Atypical imaging features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Y Vishnu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a genetic movement disorder with characteristic clinical and imaging features. We report a 17- year-old boy who presented with sialorrhea, hypophonic speech, paraparesis with repeated falls and recurrent seizures along with cognitive decline. He had bilateral Kayser Flescher rings. Other than the typical features of Wilson’s disease in cranial MRI, there were extensive white matter signal abnormalities (T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities and gyriform contrast enhancement which are rare imaging features in Wilson's disease. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose Wilson’s disease when atypical imaging features are present.

  9. Bisphosphonates and Atypical Fractures of Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Yli-Kyyny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed medicines for the treatment of osteoporosis and have generally been regarded as well-tolerated and safe drugs. Since 2005, there have been numerous case reports about atypical fractures of the femur linked to long-term treatment of osteoporosis with bisphosphonates. Some attempts to characterize pathophysiology and epidemiology of these fractures have been published as well. However, as the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR concluded in their task force report, the subject warrants further studies.

  10. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, E.J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [Dept. of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  11. Atypical odontalgia--a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, D N; Polonowita, A D

    2012-06-01

    Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a chronic orofacial pain condition of unclear pathophysiology, often presenting as toothache or pain at an extraction site. Idiopathic, psychogenic, vascular, and neuropathic causes have been proposed. In view of demonstrable somatosensory changes, and responses to management proposed for other forms of neuropathic pain, the best current evidence supports a neuropathic hypothesis. It is proposed that certain individuals with as-yet-undefined genetic vulnerability can develop AO when exposed to certain risk factors, including invasive dental treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of AO can be challenging, but can be aided by a multidisciplinary approach. Two cases of differing complexity are presented in this paper.

  12. [Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

    2013-01-01

    The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Treatment of atypically-localized cavernous hemangioma in abdomen with atypical pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cavernous hemangiomas of the liver rarely require treatment. Surgery is one of the options in selected cases and abdominal pain is one of the indications. In patients complaining from persistent abdominal pain, if intraabdominal atypical-localized mass was seen in examinations, hemangioma should be remembered in differential diagnosis.

  14. Investigation of the influence of riboflavin-UV induced crosslinking on the cornea in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Anisimov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Morphological examination of the efficiency of the influence of various doses of riboflavin-UV induced crosslinking on the state of the corneal stroma in experimental animals.Methods: In the work were used rabbits males breed Chinchilla mass of 1.5-2.0 kg. the experiment was conducted on 20 eyes of 10 animals, which performed the routine crosslinking. Experimental animals, depending on the power UV-laser irradiation, were divided into 4 groups: the animals of the 1 group with the minimum intensity of radiation (30 minutes, 0.27 J, animals 2 group with medium intensity of radiation (15 minutes, 0.34 J, animals 3 groups with high intensity of radiation (30 minutes, 0.34 J, the control group 4 (without UV-radiation. Date of dynamic observation of the experimental animals was 5 days, after which the animals were taken out of the experiment. Morphological investigations were carried out by means of light and electron microscopy.Results: In groups of experimental animals with the impact of riboflavin UV-radiation in the stroma of the cornea were found the appearance of the areas of cross-stitched collagen fibers and fibrils. In the zone of the crosslinking were found activated keratoblasts.Near the membranes of these cells the contents of the vacuoles are released and filaments finish building of the collagen fibers. the epithelium of the corneas of all experimental animals recovered fully, with no morphological signs of endothelial damage has been found. Electron-microscopic investigation of stroma of corneas of the experimental animals of the control group after the experiment showed the presence of keratocytes in an inactive form and collagen fibers of stroma, packed in the form of plates or beams with a characteristic orientation.Conclusion: Studies have shown that UV-irradiation of the cornea leads to the appearance of linking between the fibers of collagen and actively synthesizing cells in the stroma of the cornea, which points to a

  15. Investigation of the influence of riboflavin-UV induced crosslinking on the cornea in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Anisimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Morphological examination of the efficiency of the influence of various doses of riboflavin-UV induced crosslinking on the state of the corneal stroma in experimental animals.Methods: In the work were used rabbits males breed Chinchilla mass of 1.5-2.0 kg. the experiment was conducted on 20 eyes of 10 animals, which performed the routine crosslinking. Experimental animals, depending on the power UV-laser irradiation, were divided into 4 groups: the animals of the 1 group with the minimum intensity of radiation (30 minutes, 0.27 J, animals 2 group with medium intensity of radiation (15 minutes, 0.34 J, animals 3 groups with high intensity of radiation (30 minutes, 0.34 J, the control group 4 (without UV-radiation. Date of dynamic observation of the experimental animals was 5 days, after which the animals were taken out of the experiment. Morphological investigations were carried out by means of light and electron microscopy.Results: In groups of experimental animals with the impact of riboflavin UV-radiation in the stroma of the cornea were found the appearance of the areas of cross-stitched collagen fibers and fibrils. In the zone of the crosslinking were found activated keratoblasts.Near the membranes of these cells the contents of the vacuoles are released and filaments finish building of the collagen fibers. the epithelium of the corneas of all experimental animals recovered fully, with no morphological signs of endothelial damage has been found. Electron-microscopic investigation of stroma of corneas of the experimental animals of the control group after the experiment showed the presence of keratocytes in an inactive form and collagen fibers of stroma, packed in the form of plates or beams with a characteristic orientation.Conclusion: Studies have shown that UV-irradiation of the cornea leads to the appearance of linking between the fibers of collagen and actively synthesizing cells in the stroma of the cornea, which points to a

  16. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  17. [Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojković, Zoran; Antić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) activated by ultraviolet (UV) light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C) and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL) and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm) on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA) in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG) and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1) or post illumination (EG2). Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (%) we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 +/- 4.52 vs. 63.20 +/- 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002), while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L) in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 +/- 0.94 vs. 31.94 +/- 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002), but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT system, Caridian BCT, U.S.A.) keeps all the characteristics of conventional plasma

  18. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  19. Damage threshold in adult rabbit eyes after scleral cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Körber, Nicole; Karl, Anett; Koch, Christian; Schuldt, Carsten; Penk, Anja; Liu, Qing; Huster, Daniel; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Francke, Mike

    2015-10-01

    Several scleral cross-linking (SXL) methods were suggested to increase the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue and therefore, to inhibit axial eye elongation in progressive myopia. In addition to scleral cross-linking and biomechanical effects caused by riboflavin and light irradiation such a treatment might induce tissue damage, dependent on the light intensity used. Therefore, we characterized the damage threshold and mechanical stiffening effect in rabbit eyes after application of riboflavin combined with various blue light intensities. Adult pigmented and albino rabbits were treated with riboflavin (0.5 %) and varying blue light (450 ± 50 nm) dosages from 18 to 780 J/cm(2) (15 to 650 mW/cm(2) for 20 min). Scleral, choroidal and retinal tissue alterations were detected by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Biomechanical changes were measured by shear rheology. Blue light dosages of 480 J/cm(2) (400 mW/cm(2)) and beyond induced pathological changes in ocular tissues; the damage threshold was defined by the light intensities which induced cellular degeneration and/or massive collagen structure changes. At such high dosages, we observed alterations of the collagen structure in scleral tissue, as well as pigment aggregation, internal hemorrhages, and collapsed blood vessels. Additionally, photoreceptor degenerations associated with microglia activation and macroglia cell reactivity in the retina were detected. These pathological alterations were locally restricted to the treated areas. Pigmentation of rabbit eyes did not change the damage threshold after a treatment with riboflavin and blue light but seems to influence the vulnerability for blue light irradiations. Increased biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue could be achieved with blue light intensities below the characterized damage threshold. We conclude that riboflavin and blue light application increased the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue at

  20. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain' most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of 'orofacial pain' are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of 'orofacial pain' remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of 'atypical odontalgia'. 'Atypical odontalgia' is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. 'Atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia' can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain.

  1. Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Admou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD becomes increasingly common in physician’s daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8 of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc., biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc., and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.. Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD.

  2. Neuromyelitis optica: atypical clinical and neuroradiological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Alessandra; Mariani, Silvia; Anselmi, Monica; Catalucci, Alessia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    The extreme variability of clinical and MRI findings in the suspicion of Devic's disease always requires the detection of specific antibodies (AQP4). MRI scans were performed with a high-field MRI scanner (1.5T General Electric Signa Horizon): the MRI protocol of the brain employed axial DP, T2, T1, FLAIR and DWI weighted images (wi) and coronal T2-wi. After intravenous administration of contrast medium axial and sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were repeated. The spine protocol employed after contrast medium included sagittal T2-wi, T2-wi with fat suppression and T1-wi. In May 2004, a 64-year-old healthy Caucasian woman began to suffer loss of motor and thermal sensitivity in the left lower limb. MRI showed non-specific areas of abnormal signal intensity on the deep left frontal and right frontoparietal white matter with no pathological enhancement after contrast medium and a small intramedullary area of altered signal at metameric level C2-C4 with a diagnosis of post-viral transverse myelitis. The patient had two similar episodes years later so the neurologist decided to search for circulating IgG AQP4 with the definitive diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. In this case, compared to a clinical presentation of atypical deficit neurological involvement, the neuroradiological results of a progressive diffuse involvement of the white matter were atypical. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. [Treatment with bisphosphonates and atypical fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivacow, Francisco R; Sarli, Marcelo; Buttazzoni, Mirena

    2009-01-01

    In the last twenty five years aminobisphosphonates have became the drugs of choice for the treatment of osteoporosis. They strongly inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and reduce the incidence of new fractures in patients with established osteoporosis, but their long half-life and their chronic effects on bone physiology are a matter of concern. Theoretically a harmful consequence of a prolonged inhibition of bone remodeling could be the microdamage accumulation, and paradoxically the occurrence of new and atypical fractures. Until now, few cases of these unusual fractures have been reported in the international literature. All these patients shared some common characteristics, apart from the chronic use of bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis. The more frequent is the atypical location of the fractures. Since the majority happened in one or both femoral shafts, others bones such as sacrum, ischium, ribs and pubic rami could be affected. The fractures were atraumatic or caused by minimal trauma and, in some cases, it was preceded by a prodromal pain in the affected area. All cases had biochemical or histomorphometric evidence of low bone turnover. The aim of this paper is to report three new cases of patients that fulfill with the diagnostic criteria of this new entity, two of them with femoral shaft fractures and the remainder with a pelvis one.

  4. [Atypical odontalgia - a little known phantom pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, J C

    2001-02-01

    Atypical odontalgia (AO) was described in the dental literature more than 200 years ago, and it is included in most taxonomies and textbooks of pain. Nonetheless, it remains one of the most frequently misdiagnosed intraoral pain conditions. Due to similarities with phantom pain, AO is also referred to as "phantom tooth pain". AO is characterized by persistent throbbing pain in or around a former or present permanent tooth (preferably molars and premolars). Clinical and radiographic examination, however, does not reveal any organic cause of the pain. The complaints associated with AO usually begin after deafferentiation of primary afferent trigeminal nerve fibers, e. g., after pulp extirpation, apicectomy, or extraction of a tooth. AO is a diagnosis by exclusion. Patients and dentists must be aware of the fact that the therapeutic options are limited. AO is primarily managed with topically or systemically administered pharmacological agents. Unnecessary and harmful procedures around teeth and jaws must be avoided by all means. A concept was recently proposed which aims to unify a group of four types of orofacial pain under the term "idiopathic orofacial pain" (Woda & Pionchon 1999, 2000). These pain conditions - AO, atypical facial pain, burning mouth syndrome ("stomatodynia"), and subgroups of temporomandibular disorders ("idiopathic facial arthromyalgia") - are characterized by unknown etiology, but common clinical characteristics. It is to be hoped that the suggested classification will stimulate reflection on these enigmatic orofacial pain disorders.

  5. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: current therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Ginn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs are rare central nervous system tumors that comprise approximately 1-2% of all pediatric brain tumors; however, in patients less than three years of age this tumor accounts for up to 20% of cases. ATRT is characterized by loss of the long arm of chromosome 22 which results in loss of the hSNF5/INI-1 gene. INI1, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is important in maintenance of the mitotic spindle and cell cycle control. Overall survival in ATRT is poor with median survival around 17 months. Radiation is an effective component of therapy but is avoided in patients younger than three years of age due to long term neurocognitive sequelae. Most long term survivors undergo radiation therapy as a part of their upfront or salvage therapy, and there is a suggestion that sequencing the radiation earlier in therapy may improve outcome. There is no standard curative chemotherapeutic regimen, but anectdotal reports advocate the use of intensive therapy with alkylating agents, high dose methotrexate, or therapy that includes high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue. Due to the rarity of this tumor and the lack of randomized controlled trials it has been challenging to define optimal therapy and advance treatment. Recent laboratory investigations have identified aberrant function and/or regulation of cyclin D1, aurora kinase, and insulin-like growth factor pathways in ATRT. There has been significant interest in identifying and testing therapeutic agents that target these pathways.

  6. Corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A. Part II. Clinical indications and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiskup, Frederik; Spoerl, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Changes in the biomechanical properties of the human cornea play an important role in the pathogenesis of corneal ectatic diseases. A variety of conditions in primary acquired (keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration) or secondary induced (iatrogenic keratectasia after excimer refractive laser surgery) corneal ectatic disorders lead to reduced biomechanical resistance. Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) has emerged as a promising technique to slow or even to stop the progression of these corneal ectatic pathologies. In this procedure, riboflavin (vitamin B2) is administered in conjunction with ultraviolet A light (UVA, 365 nm). This interaction causes the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of additional covalent bonds between collagen molecules, with consequent biomechanical stiffening of the cornea. Although this method is not yet accepted as an evidence-based medicine modality for the treatment of corneal primary or secondary ectasias, the results of prospective, randomized studies of CXL used in the treatment of these pathologic entities show significant changes in the properties of corneal tissue. This procedure is currently the only etiopathogenetic approach in ectatic eyes that can delay or stop the process of cornea destabilization, reducing the necessity for keratoplasty. Despite promising results, CXL is associated with issues that include long-term safety and duration of the stabilizing effect. Combination of CXL with vision-improving procedures, such as topography-guided custom ablation and implantation of intracorneal ring segments of phakic intraocular lenses, may expand the indications for this procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coregulation of lux genes and riboflavin genes in bioluminescent bacteria of Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nack-Do; Lee, Chan Yong

    2004-09-01

    Investigation of the expression of the riboflavin (rib) genes, which are found immediately downstream of luxG in the lux operon in Photobacterium phosphoreum, provides more information relevant to the evolution of bioluminescence, as well as to the regulation of supply of flavin substrate for bacterial bioluminescence reactions. In order to answer the question of whether or not the transcriptions of lux and rib genes are integrated, a transcriptional termination assay was performed with P. phosphoreum DNA, containing the possible stem-loop structures, located in the intergenic region of luxF and luxE (OmegaA), of luxG and ribE (OmegaB), and downstream of ribA (OmegaC). The expression of the CAT (Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase) reporter gene was remarkably decreased upon the insertion of the stem-loop structure (OmegaC) into the strong lux promoter and the reporter gene. However, the insertion of the structure (OmegaB) into the intergenic region of the lux and the rib genes caused no significant change in expression from the CAT gene. In addition, the single stranded DNA in the same region was protected by the P. phosphoreum mRNA from the S1 nuclease protection assay. These results suggest that lux genes and rib genes are part of the same operon in P. phosphoreum. Copyright 2004 The Microbiological Society of Korea

  8. Stability-Indicating Photochemical Method for the Assay of Riboflavin: Lumichrome Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating photochemical method for the assay of riboflavin (RF in photodegraded samples and aged vitamin preparations has been developed. It is based on photochemical conversion of RF to lumichrome (LC in alkaline solution under controlled conditions of light intensity, temperature, pH, time of exposure, and distance. Under these conditions about two-thirds of RF is converted to LC and on the basis of the RF : LC ratio the concentration of RF can be determined in degraded solutions. The method involves the extraction of photolyzed solutions of RF (pH 2.0 with chloroform and determination of LC along with lumiflavin (LF by a two-component spectrometric method at 356 and 445 nm. The method has been validated and the results of the assay of RF in photodegraded solutions compare well with those of the standard USP fluorimetric method. The recovery of the method is 99–101% and the precision is within 2%. The method is stability-indicating and can be applied to the assay of RF in photodegraded solutions and aged vitamin preparations. The method is specific compared to that of the USP fluorimetric method in which the degraded LC may interfere with the fluorescence emission of RF.

  9. CASE REPORT CASE Atypical tuberculosis of the knee joint CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report demonstrates the MRI findings of atypical tuberculosis. (TB) of the knee joint, caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Osteoarticular. TB caused by atypical mycobacteria is rare; instead, it is predomi- nantly a synovial disease affecting the tendon sheaths rather than bone. Predisposing factors are ...

  10. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the proportion of cases of community· acquired pneumonia caused by 'atypical' bacteria, inclUding the recently discovered Chlamydia pneumoniae, and to compare the clinical, radiographic and laboratory features of patients with and without 'atypical' bacteria. Methods. A prospective serological ...

  11. Comparing the side effect profile of the Atypical Antipsychotics | Alao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post clozapine, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of four newer atypical antipsychotics; risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Because of their dual serotonin and dopamine receptor blocking abilities, atypical antipsychotics have greater efficacy ...

  12. An atypical presentation of myositis ossificans | Bultheel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An atypical presentation of myositis ossificans. M Bultheel, JH Kirby, JT Viljoen, PL Viviers. Abstract. In the following case study an atypical presentation of myositis ossificans (MO) in the superior anterolateral thigh of a young soccer player is discussed. This case demonstrates that MO can present without obvious history of ...

  13. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two most common organisms were C. pneumoniae (20,7%) and L. pneumophila (8,7%). There. were no differences in the clinical and radiographic features of patients with and without 'atypical' bacteria. Clinicians prescribed erythromycin or tetracyclines with equal frequency in the two groups. Conclusions. 'Atypical' ...

  14. CPD: Atypical pathogens and challenges in community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a fluoroquinolone with ...

  15. [Atypical cerebellar neurocytoma resembling a hemangioblastoma. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista Martínez, Olalla; Rivas López, Luis Alfredo; Pombo Otero, Jorge Francisco; Amaro Cendón, Santiago; Bravo García, Christian; Villa Fernández, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through August 2013, 105 cases of intracranial extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) had been described; 6% were located in cerebellum and 22% were atypical EVN. A rare morphologic form of neurocytoma, atypical EVN has had only 24 cases reported to date. Its prognosis is poorer than the typical central neurocytoma. This case report describes an atypical cerebellar EVN, a form that has not been reported yet, hence the interest of this article. We emphasise its cystic nature and mural nodule, in an infrequent presentation. EVN are low-incidence tumours that we need to take into consideration when making the differential diagnosis of cystic cerebellar lesions with mural nodule. Given that the prognosis of atypical EVNs depends on the atypical nature and on the grade of resection, medical follow up has to be more constant, due to the greater degree of recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of riboflavin in decolourisation of Congo red and bioelectricity production using Shewanella oneidensis-MR1 under MFC and non-MFC conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Ola M; Fapetu, Segun; Kyazze, Godfrey; Keshavarz, Tajalli

    2017-03-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria can exchange electrons extracellularly and hold great promise for their use in simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity production. This study investigated the role of riboflavin, an electron carrier, in the decolourisation of Congo red in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism. The contribution of the membrane-bound protein MtrC to the decolourisation process was also investigated. Within the range of riboflavin concentrations tested, 20 µM was found to be the best with >95% of the dye (initial concentration 200 mg/L) decolourised in MFCs within 50 h compared to 90% in the case where no riboflavin was added. The corresponding maximum power density was 45 mW/m(2). There was no significant difference in the overall decolourisation efficiencies of Shewanela oneidensis MR-1 ΔMtrC mutants compared to the wild type. However, in terms of power production the mutant produced more power (Pmax 76 mW/m(2)) compared to the wild type (Pmax 46 mW/m(2)) which was attributed to higher levels of riboflavin secreted in solution. Decolourisation efficiencies in non-MFC systems (anaerobic bottles) were similar to those under MFC systems indicating that electricity generation in MFCs does not impair dye decolourisation efficiencies. The results suggest that riboflavin enhances both decolourisation of dyes and simultaneous electricity production in MFCs.

  17. Sensory atypicalities in dyads of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glod, Magdalena; Riby, Deborah M; Honey, Emma; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-03-01

    Sensory atypicalities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the relationship between sensory atypicalities in dyads of children with ASD and their parents has not been investigated. Exploring these relationships can contribute to an understanding of how phenotypic profiles may be inherited, and the extent to which familial factors might contribute towards children's sensory profiles and constitute an aspect of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Parents of 44 children with ASD and 30 typically developing (TD) children, aged between 3 and 14 years, participated. Information about children's sensory experiences was collected through parent report using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Information about parental sensory experiences was collected via self-report using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile. Parents of children with ASD had significantly higher scores than parents of TD children in relation to low registration, over responsivity, and taste/smell sensory processing. Similar levels of agreement were obtained within ASD and TD parent-child dyads on a number of sensory atypicalities; nevertheless significant correlations were found between parents and children in ASD families but not TD dyads for sensation avoiding and auditory, visual, and vestibular sensory processing. The findings suggest that there are similarities in sensory processing profiles between parents and their children in both ASD and TD dyads. Familial sensory processing factors are likely to contribute towards the BAP. Further work is needed to explore genetic and environmental influences on the developmental pathways of the sensory atypicalities in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 531-538. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  19. Extensive hypertrophic lupus erythematosus: Atypical presentation

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    Tarun Narang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus (LE is a disease with a wide spectrum of cutaneous and systemic manifestations. Clinical features of patients with LE show a great variation, and for this reason it is difficult to develop a unifying concept of this disease. Our objective is to present a case of hypertrophic LE with atypical morphology and extensive involvement, who responded favorably to isotretinoin. Diagnosis of hypertrophic lupus erythematosus (HLE was confirmed by characteristic histopathological findings. Combination therapy with isotretinoin and hydroxychloroquine resulted in flattening and repression of previously refractory skin lesions. Sometimes, HLE lesions may present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. In long standing lesions, squamous cell carcinoma may arise. Therefore, HLE requires adequate therapy with clinical and histopathological follow up.

  20. Brugada Syndrome with atypical characteristics: Case report

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    Hatem Ari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brugada Syndrome (BrS is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by persistent or transient ST-segment elevation in the right precordial electrocardiography (ECG leads and a high incidence of sudden death and life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with structurally normal hearts. The syndrome generally manifests in men during adulthood. The ECG manifestations can be overt or concealed. We report a case of BrS whose type 1 ECG pattern during febrile state converted to type 2 ECG after alleviation of fever with atypical characteristics (78-year-old woman with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia on holter monitoring, a history of the sudden infant death of her child, and without inducible ventricular arrhythmia by programed ventricular stimulation [PVS].

  1. Atypical Bacteria and Macrolides in Asthma

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    Xepapadaki Paraskevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are common pathogens causing acute illness in both the upper and lower airways. Several observations are supportive of a possible causative role of these pathogens in asthma; however, more evidence is required before this becomes meaningful in clinical practice. Atypical bacteria can enhance airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, both of which have been associated with exacerbations in patients with preexisting asthma. It is less clear whether the above mechanisms might also be responsible for the development of asthma. Difficulties in accurately diagnosing these infections contribute to such uncertainty. In the present report, evidence of the involvement of Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma infection in the development and the progression of asthma are reviewed.

  2. Atypical Radiological Manifestation of Pulmonary Metastatic Calcification

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    Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul Hwan; Ham, Soo Youn; Oh, Yu Whan [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a condition of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, and this is secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism without any prior soft tissue damage. The predisposing factors for this condition include chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia and increased tissue alkalinity. The most common radiologic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities in the upper lung zone. These opacities reflect the deposition of calcium salts in the pulmonary interstitium. We present here a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient who recovered from pneumonia with sepsis and whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) images demonstrated localized parenchymal airspace calcification that was limited to the bilateral lower lobes. These lower lobes had been involved with pneumonic consolidation without calcification, as seen on the previous CT scan. In summary, we report here on an atypical presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification that showed dense airspace consolidation localized to the bilateral lower lobes in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and pneumonia.

  3. Refractory Rheumatic Disorder: Atypical Postpregnancy Osteoporosis

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    Cindy Mourgues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report on a young patient with severe osteoporosis that was initially revealed when she presented with polyarthralgia during her second pregnancy. Postpartum, the pain increased and her X-ray did not show any abnormalities. A bone scintigraphy was performed. It indicated an inflammatory rheumatic disorder. Six months after partum, an investigation of right coxalgia revealed a spontaneous basicervical fracture. Given the persistent polyarthralgia, the patient underwent a new scintigraphy, which revealed areas of what looked to be old rib and L1 fractures. A subsequent full body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed signal abnormalities that could indicate multiple lower limb bone fractures. Despite exhaustive biological, radiological, and histological testing, no secondary cause for the osteoporosis was found. The patient was started on teriparatide. We finally concluded that, despite the atypical presentation, the patient was suffering from postpregnancy osteoporosis. It is possible that the frequency of occurrence of this still poorly understood disease is underestimated.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ATYPICAL CLUBFOOT BY PONSETI METHOD

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    V. F. Blandinsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From May 2006 to August 2009 analyzed 28 clinical observations (34 feet for children aged from 7 days to 1.5 years with severe atypical congenital clubfoot (Pirani 5,6 points, treated by the method of I. Ponseti. The average number of gypsum one foot to the full correction was - 6.3. It was written 38 achillotomy. Dates from the beginning of gypsum to achillotomy averaged - 34 days. All of the children undergoing treatment with us after the removal of plaster, dressed brace, fixing the foot fixed in position 45° abduction and 15° of flexion of the back and encouraged them to carry up to 3-4 years. All the children in this group achieved a complete correction of foot deformities without performing tenoligamentocapsulotomy. Results of treatment were evaluated according to the classification C. Pirani. Average score was 1.1 points. Follow-up was an average of 1 year 35 days.

  5. Atypical Celiac Disease Resistant to Thyroxine Replacement

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    Oguzhan Aksu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease, an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in susceptible individuals upon ingestion of gluten containing diet, is closely associated with other autoimmune endocrine disorders, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease. Celiac disease and hypothyroidism ( especially due to Hashimoto disease cooccurence is frequently mentioned in the literature. The relationship between celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease was first described three decades ago. Patients usually have the classical presentation of diarrhoea and steatorrhoea but hypothyroidism with weight loss and increased dose requirement of L Thyroxine are two well recognised presentations of celiac disease in hypothyroidism. It is known that these cases are resistant to thyroxine replacement. Herein we presented a 35 year old female patient with atypical celiac disease and needed an extremely high dose of thyroxine such as 1600 mcg/day for treatment.

  6. Atypical odontalgia - pathophysiology and clinical management.

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    Baad-Hansen, L

    2008-01-01

    Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a chronic form of dental pain without signs of pathology. Several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the pathophysiology. AO has been proposed to be psychogenic, vascular, neuropathic or idiopathic. The scientific evidence supporting or rejecting these hypotheses are reviewed in this paper. At this time, the best supported hypothesis is that AO is a neuropathic pain condition. Relevant differential diagnoses, such as odontogenic pain, sinusitis, trigeminal neuralgia among others, are presented and the evidence regarding possible management strategies is reviewed. A treatment algorithm for AO is proposed based on the rather scarce scientific evidence available and inspired by a similar treatment algorithm for peripheral neuropathic pain. The proposed strategy involves an interdisciplinary approach including patient education, psychological counselling, topical and systemic medication and, importantly, avoidance of invasive treatments like surgery and endodontics. Two illustrative cases are presented.

  7. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in Atypical Patients.

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    Whyte, Noelle; Sullivan, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    When patients who are thin present with knee pain, it can be easy to overlook the possibility of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Although 80% of patients with a "slip" are obese, thin children are not immune to this problem. Endocrinopathies, especially hypothyroidism, can be associated with SCFE. This article describes guidelines for evaluating patients for a slip and highlights some important considerations for the atypical SCFE. Patients with open growth plates with thigh or knee pain should routinely have a hip examination as part of the evaluation. Plain radiographs, with an emphasis on obtaining a frog lateral image, are usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of SCFE. Patients diagnosed with SCFE should be immediately referred to an orthopedic surgeon because treatment for this condition is always surgical. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Samia Regiane; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report that the mechanism of action of antidepressants involves the facilitation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain in the 1960s, the leading hypothesis about the neurobiology of depression has been the so called "monoaminergic hypothesis". However, a growing body of evidence from the last two decades also supports important involvement of non-monoaminergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. They are able to modulate neural signaling mediated by the main conventional neurotransmitters systems in the brain, including the monoaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling systems. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of these atypical neurotransmitters in the neurobiology of depression, and in the antidepressant effects are presented here. The evidence is discussed on basis of their ability to modulate different neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic ones. A better comprehension of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the neurobiology depression could provide new avenues for the development of novel non-monoamine based antidepressants.

  9. A case of atypical progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Spaccavento S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simona Spaccavento, Marina Del Prete, Angela Craca, Anna Loverre IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Cassano Murge, Bari, Italy Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that PSP can present clinically as an atypical dementing syndrome dominated by a progressive apraxia of speech (AOS and aphasia. Aim: We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of PSP, using a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, and the disease response to various pharmacological treatments. Methods: A 72-year-old right-handed male, with 17 years education, who first presented with aphasia, AOS, depression, apathy, and postural instability at 69 years; a complete neuropsychological evaluation, tapping the different cognitive domains, was performed. Results: Testing revealed a moderate global cognitive deficit (Mini-Mental State Examination test score =20, low memory test scores (story recall, Rey’s 15-word Immediate and Delayed Recall, and poor phonemic and semantic fluency. The patient’s language was characterized by AOS, with slow speech rate, prolonged intervals between syllables and words, decreased articulatory accuracy, sound distortions, and anomia. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability, were reported. The neurological examination revealed supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, poor face miming, and a mild balance deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed only widespread cortical atrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated left > right frontotemporal cortical abnormalities. After 6 months, a further neuropsychological assessment showed a progression in cognitive deficits, with additional attention deficits. The patient reported frequent falls, but the neurological deficits remained unchanged. Neuroimaging tests showed the same brain involvement. Conclusion: Our case highlights the heterogeneity of the clinical features in

  10. [Atypical scurvy associated with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, R; Gabrielli, A; Laffitte, E; Kherad, O

    2017-02-01

    Scurvy, or "Barlow's disease", is a widely described disease involving cutaneous and mucosal lesions resulting from vitamin C deficiency. Herein, we report a case of scurvy in a 48-year-old woman that was unusual in its atypical cutaneous-mucosal presentation as well as its association with anorexia nervosa. A 48-year-old woman treated for depression for several years was admitted to hospital for her impaired general state of health. Over the last year, she had presented palmoplantar rash and episodes of perimalleolar oedema. The clinical examination showed the patient to have wasting syndrome, with a BMI of 11.9kg/m2, lower-limb oedema, palmoplantar fissures, geographic tongue, telogen effluvium and purpuric petechiae on her right knee. However, no gingival bleeding was noted and there was no loss of tooth enamel. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal. Blood tests revealed extremely low vitamin C levels without any other associated deficiencies, as well as laboratory signs of cytolysis and anicteric cholestasis without inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of anorexia nervosa was made by psychiatrists, despite the unusual age of onset. Favorable clinical outcome was rapidly achieved via a one-month course of vitamin C supplements at a daily dose of 1g. The absence of classical buccal-dental symptoms and the presence of keratotic dermatosis with fissures and ulcers on the hands and feet are atypical in scurvy; however, this diagnosis was confirmed by the existence of purpura evoking capillary fragility, the patient's drastically low vitamin C level and the rapid subsidence of symptoms following treatment with oral vitamin C alone. Anorexia nervosa was doubtless the cause of deficiency. This situation is rare and a systematic review of the literature in Medline via PubMed showed that only three reports of scurvy associated with mental anorexia have been published since 1975. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

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    Andréoletti, Olivier; Orge, Leonor; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Beringue, Vincent; Litaise, Claire; Simon, Stéphanie; Le Dur, Annick; Laude, Hubert; Simmons, Hugh; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Costes, Pierrette; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Lacroux, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was first identified in 1998 in Norway. It is now considered as a worldwide disease of small ruminants and currently represents a significant part of the detected transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) cases in Europe. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were reported in ARR/ARR sheep, which are highly resistant to BSE and other small ruminants TSE agents. The biology and pathogenesis of the Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent in its natural host is still poorly understood. However, based on the absence of detectable abnormal PrP in peripheral tissues of affected individuals, human and animal exposure risk to this specific TSE agent has been considered low. In this study we demonstrate that infectivity can accumulate, even if no abnormal PrP is detectable, in lymphoid tissues, nerves, and muscles from natural and/or experimental Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases. Evidence is provided that, in comparison to other TSE agents, samples containing Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity could remain PrPSc negative. This feature will impact detection of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases in the field, and highlights the need to review current evaluations of the disease prevalence and potential transmissibility. Finally, an estimate is made of the infectivity loads accumulating in peripheral tissues in both Atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie cases that currently enter the food chain. The results obtained indicate that dietary exposure risk to small ruminants TSE agents may be higher than commonly believed. PMID:21347349

  12. Association between paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, R P; Glynn, C J

    1999-12-01

    Paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial pain are both fairly common conditions that produce pain in the face of different character. Trigeminal neuralgia is sharp and shooting, brought on by facial movement, change of temperature and by touching the face at a specific point (the trigger point). Atypical facial pain is dull and unrelenting and its site is ill-defined. Trigeminal neuralgia is generally more common in older people, and affects women slightly more than men, and atypical facial pain generally affects younger people, with women predominating. The pains should never be confused. We have noticed that many patients with trigeminal neuralgia have additional symptoms of atypical facial pain and so we reviewed the records of the Pain Relief Unit retrospectively. Of the 83 patients identified with trigeminal neuralgia where records were adequate, 35 (42%) also had atypical facial pain. Five of these had developed it before the onset of trigeminal neuralgia and could be examples of pretrigeminal neuralgia. There were eight patients in the series with multiple sclerosis, of whom two also had atypical facial pain. There seemed to be no relationship between the development of atypical facial pain and the interventions used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is important that both conditions are identified and treated individually.

  13. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

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    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  14. Collagen cross-linking in early keratoconus with riboflavin in a femtosecond laser-created pocket: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel femtosecond laser-assisted technique for intrastromal administration of riboflavin and higher fluence ultraviolet a (UVA) light in collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus. Ten eyes with early keratoconus were treated with CXL and followed for a mean of 26 months (range: 18 to 36 months). Using a femtosecond laser, a 100-microm deep, 7-mm diameter intrastromal pocket was created. Two 0.1-mL doses of 0.1% riboflavin solution were infused into the pocket and the cornea was irradiated with 7 mW/cm2 UVA light of mean 370 nm wavelength for 15 minutes. Mean uncorrected visual acuity improved from 20/40.5 to 20/32.5 best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was unchanged at 20/20, mean sphere was reduced by 0.50 diopters (D), mean cylinder was reduced by 0.90 D, and maximum mean keratometry (K) reduced from 48.7 to 47.90 D. No ectasia progression (defined as increase in K over 3-month follow-up) and no statistically significant change in endothelial cell count was noted during follow-up. The mean thinnest corneal thickness appeared to initially reduce but the mean returned to at least the preoperative level by 18 months. All patients returned to full activities within 1 day postoperative. No adverse effects were noted in any of the cases studies. This novel epithelium-sparing, rapid soak-and-treat method of intrastromal riboflavin instillation and higher fluence UVA light for CXL appears to be safe and effective. No negative biomechanical effect (ectasia/epithelial ingrowth) was noted due to the femtosecond laser-created pocket. Because minimal epithelial injury occurs using this technique, postoperative pain appears to be significantly reduced.

  15. Lumichrome and riboflavin are two novel symbiotic signals eliciting developmental changes in both monocot and dicot plant species

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    Felix Dapare Dakora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations (5 nM include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots. However, higher lumichrome concentration (50 nM depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. Applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells (0.2 OD600 to roots of monocots and dicots for 44 h produced identical effects, which included decreased stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration in Bambara groundnut, soybean and maize, increased stomatal conductance and transpiration in cowpea and lupin, and elevated root respiration in maize (19% by rhizobia and 20% by lumichrome. Extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and IAA was greater in N2-fixing rhizobia than non-fixing bacteria, indicating their role as symbiotic signals. Xylem concentration of lumichrome in cowpea and soybean was greater in plants inoculated with infective rhizobia and treated with lumichrome (61.2 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, followed by uninoculated plants receiving lumichrome (41.12 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, and lowest in uninoculated, lumichrome-free plants (26.8 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap. Overall, soybean showed greater xylem concentration of lumichrome and a correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves relative to cowpea. As a result, soybean exhibited dramatic developmental changes than cowpea. Taken together, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia function as environmental cues for sensing stress. The fact that exogenous application of ABA to plant roots caused the same effect as lumichrome on stomatal functioning suggests molecular cross-talk in plant response to environmental

  16. High doses of riboflavin and the elimination of dietary red meat promote the recovery of some motor functions in Parkinson's disease patients

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    C.G. Coimbra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal riboflavin status in the absence of a dietary deficiency was detected in 31 consecutive outpatients with Parkinson's disease (PD, while the classical determinants of homocysteine levels (B6, folic acid, and B12 were usually within normal limits. In contrast, only 3 of 10 consecutive outpatients with dementia without previous stroke had abnormal riboflavin status. The data for 12 patients who did not complete 6 months of therapy or did not comply with the proposed treatment paradigm were excluded from analysis. Nineteen PD patients (8 males and 11 females, mean age ± SD = 66.2 ± 8.6 years; 3, 3, 2, 5, and 6 patients in Hoehn and Yahr stages I to V received riboflavin orally (30 mg every 8 h plus their usual symptomatic medications and all red meat was eliminated from their diet. After 1 month the riboflavin status of the patients was normalized from 106.4 ± 34.9 to 179.2 ± 23 ng/ml (N = 9. Motor capacity was measured by a modification of the scoring system of Hoehn and Yahr, which reports motor capacity as percent. All 19 patients who completed 6 months of treatment showed improved motor capacity during the first three months and most reached a plateau while 5/19 continued to improve in the 3- to 6-month interval. Their average motor capacity increased from 44 to 71% after 6 months, increasing significantly every month compared with their own pretreatment status (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test. Discontinuation of riboflavin for several days did not impair motor capacity and yellowish urine was the only side effect observed. The data show that the proposed treatment improves the clinical condition of PD patients. Riboflavin-sensitive mechanisms involved in PD may include glutathione depletion, cumulative mitochondrial DNA mutations, disturbed mitochondrial protein complexes, and abnormal iron metabolism. More studies are required to identify the mechanisms involved.

  17. Collagen Cross-Linking Using Riboflavin and Ultraviolet-A for Corneal Thinning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The main objectives for this evidence-based analysis were to determine the safety and effectiveness of photochemical corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet-A radiation, referred to as CXL, for the management of corneal thinning disease conditions. The comparative safety and effectiveness of corneal cross-linking with other minimally invasive treatments such as intrastromal corneal rings was also reviewed. The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) evidence-based analysis was performed to support public financing decisions. Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The primary treatment objective for corneal cross-linking is to increase the strength of the corneal stroma, thereby stabilizing the underlying disease process. At the present time, it is the only procedure that treats the underlying disease condition. The proposed advantages for corneal cross-linking are that the procedure is minimally invasive, safe and effective, and it can potentially delay or defer the need for a corneal transplant. In addition, corneal cross-linking does not adversely affect subsequent surgical approaches, if they are necessary, or interfere with corneal transplants. The evidence for these claims for corneal cross-linking in the management of corneal thinning disorders such as keratoconus will be the focus of this review. The specific research questions for the evidence review were as follows: Technical: How technically demanding is corneal cross-linking and what are the operative risks? Safety: What is known about the broader safety profile of corneal cross-linking? Effectiveness - Corneal Surface Topographic Affects: What are the corneal surface remodeling effects of corneal cross-linking? Do these changes interfere with subsequent interventions, particularly corneal transplant known as penetrating keratoplasty (PKP)? Effectiveness -Visual Acuity: What impacts does the remodeling have on visual acuity? Are these impacts

  18. Nasal potential difference measurements in patients with atypical cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschanski, M; Famini, H; Strauss-Liviatan, N; Rivlin, J; Blau, H; Bibi, H; Bentur, L; Yahav, Y; Springer, H; Kramer, M R; Klar, A; Ilani, A; Kerem, B; Kerem, E

    2001-06-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is based on characteristic clinical and laboratory findings. However, a subgroup of patients present with an atypical phenotype that comprises partial CF phenotype, borderline sweat tests and one or even no common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nasal potential difference (PD) measurements in the diagnosis of CF patients with an atypical presentation and in a population of patients suspected to have CF. Nasal PD was measured in 162 patients from four different groups: patients with classical CF (n = 31), atypical phenotype (n = 11), controls (n = 50), and patients with questionable CF (n = 70). The parameter, or combination of nasal PD parameters was calculated in order to best discriminate all CF patients (including atypical CF) from the non-CF group. The patients with atypical CF disease had intermediate values of PD measurements between the CF and non-CF groups. The best discriminate model that assigned all atypical CF patients as CF used: e(response to chloride-free and isoproterenol/response to amiloride) with a cut-off >0.70 to predict a CF diagnosis. When this model was applied to the group of 70 patients with questionable CF, 24 patients had abnormal PD similar to the atypical CF group. These patients had higher levels of sweat chloride concentration and increased rate of CFTR mutations. Nasal potential difference is useful in diagnosis of patients with atypical cystic fibrosis. Taking into account both the sodium and chloride transport elements of the potential difference allows for better differentiation between atypical cystic fibrosis and noncystic fibrosis patients. This calculation may assist in the diagnostic work-up of patients whose diagnosis is questionable.

  19. Effects of riboflavin deficiency and clofibrate treatment on the five acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in rat liver mitochondria.

    OpenAIRE

    Veitch, K; Draye, J P; Van Hoof, F; Sherratt, H S

    1988-01-01

    Rats were maintained on a riboflavin-deficient diet or on a diet containing clofibrate (0.5%, w/w). The activities of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA) and the branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA) involved in the degradation of branched-chain acyl-CoA esters derived from branched-chain amino acids were assayed in liver mitochondrial extracts prepared in the absence and pres...

  20. A short-term study of corneal collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in keratoconic corneas

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    Shao-Feng Gu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the 3mo outcomes of collagen cross-linking (CXL with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas with the thinnest thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium. METHODS: Eight eyes in 6 patients with age 26.2±4.8y were included in the study. All patients underwent CXL using a hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution after its de-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction, the thinnest corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated before and 3mo after the procedure. RESULTS: The mean thinnest thickness of the cornea was 408.5±29.0 μm before treatment and reduced to 369.8±24.8 μm after the removal of epithelium. With the application of the hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution, the thickness increased to 445.0±26.5 μm before CXL and recover to 412.5±22.7 μm at 3mo after treatment, P=0.659. Before surgery, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 57.6±4.0 diopters, and slightly decreased (54.7±4.9 diopters after surgery (P=0.085. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.55±0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, and increased to 0.53±0.26 logarithm after surgery (P=0.879. The endothelial cell density was 2706.4±201.6 cells/mm2 before treatment, and slightly decreased (2641.2±218.2 cells/mm2 at last fellow up (P=0.002. CONCLUSION: Corneal collagen cross-linking with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising treatment. Further study should be done to evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL in thin corneas for the long-term.

  1. Simultaneous determination and classification of riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine in pharmaceutical formulations, by UV-visible spectrophotometry and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    López-de-Alba,Pedro L.; López-Martínez,Leticia; Cerdá,Vìctor; Amador-Hernández,Judith

    2006-01-01

    Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy and Partial Least Squares Regression were used in this work for the identification and quantification of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide and pyridoxine by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, without separation or preconcentration steps in the analytical procedure. For quantitative purposes, the working range established was 1-14 mg L-1 for riboflavin, 2-26 mg L-1 for thiamine, 2-30 mg L-1 for nicotinamide, and 2-22 mg L-1 for pyridoxine. Recovery results hi...

  2. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complex formation between cloxacillin sodium and riboflavin in aqueous ethanol media of varying composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2006-03-01

    Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form a charge transfer complex of 2:1 stoichiometry with riboflavin (Vitamin B 2) in aqueous ethanol medium. The enthalpy and entropy of formation of this complex have been determined by estimating the formation constant spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures in pure water medium. Pronounced effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the magnitude of K has been observed by determining K in aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition. This has been rationalized in terms of ionic dissociation of the cloxacillin sodium (D -Na +), hydrolysis of the anion D - and complexation of the free acid, DH with riboflavin.

  3. Results of surgical treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gornykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of surgical treatment in 132 patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia have been studied. Post-operative diagnosis was: en- dometrial cancer – in 19 %, atypical hyperplasia – in 35 %, simple and complex hyperplasia – in 33 %, only atrophic endometrial changes – in 13 % of patients. The tumor was within the endometrium in 5 patients, the superficial invasion of the myometrium (1–2 mm were in 8 patients, invasion to half of the myometrium – in 9 patients, invasion of more than half of the myometrium – in 3 patients. The questions of tactics of treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia is under discussion.

  4. Intracranial Tuberculoma Presenting as Atypical Eclampsia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Sendhil Coumary; Murugesan, Sharmila; Pradeep, Sunitha; John, Lopamudra; Kolluru, Vasavi

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of eclampsia before 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 48 hours of delivery in the absence of typical signs of hypertension and or proteinuria is termed as atypical eclampsia. Atypical or non-classic eclampsia will have some symptoms of eclampsia but without the usual proteinuria or hypertension. All patients with atypical onset should undergo neurological evaluation to rule out neurologic causes of seizures. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare and serious form of disease secondary to haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present a case of cerebral tuberculoma with seizures in late pregnancy mimicking eclampsia.

  5. Atypical real estate objects: legal regime and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal concept of immovable things raises controversy in legal practice. Determining and understanding the definition of real estate, the complexity and diversity of these objects, a growing appearance of so-called atypical properties (such as sport stadiums, roads, boreholes, analyzing legislation and judicial practice of this field – all these issues call for a deep study of this topic. There is a conflicting arbitration practice, the subject of which is the learning of the legal nature of atypical real estate (for instance, asphalt playgrounds, car parks, fences, wells. The object of the research is the learning of the legal status of atypical real estate.

  6. Direct observation of inclined a-type threading dislocation with a-type screw dislocation in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tohoru; Sugimoto, Kohei; Goubara, Shin; Inomoto, Ryo; Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2017-05-01

    We investigated both the atomic arrangements in the core structure of threading dislocations (TDs) and their behaviors in unintentionally doped c-plane-GaN layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and hydride vapor phase epitaxy using high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The extra image contrast near the core was attributed to an extra displacement in a-type TDs in addition to the core structures revealed in previous reports; we used the notation "with displacement" to describe the new core structure. We found that TDs incline towards both the m- and a-directions from the c-direction. The transition of a-type TDs from the conventional core structure to the structure with displacement was deduced from its relationship to the TD inclination. We also found similarities between a-type screw dislocations and a-type TDs with displacement in the atomic-scale HAADF-STEM images. We concluded that a-type TDs could incline towards the a-direction via a-type screw dislocations, and that these inclined a-type TDs are observed as the core structure with displacement.

  7. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2008-10-15

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology.

  8. Profile of hepatitis A infection with atypical manifestations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Tryambak; Das, Anjan Kumar; Ganguly, Sutapa

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the clinical course and biochemical profile of symptomatic children with viral hepatitis A who had atypical manifestations. Of 229 children with hepatitis A, atypical manifestations were found in 32 (14%) subjects. Prolonged cholestasis (n = 14), acute liver failure (9), relapse (9), ascites (8), and hematological problems (8) were the common presentations. Liver histology was suggestive of chronic liver disease in six children with protracted jaundice. Patients with atypical presentations were older (7.7 [1.6] years vs. 6.5 [2.6] years; p=0.012) and had higher total serum bilirubin (13.7 [8.1] mg/dL vs. 7.2 [4.0] mg/dL; p=children with acute hepatitis A infection have atypical presentation which is associated with increase in morbidity.

  9. Neural Correlates of Reward Processing in Typical and Atypical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Duerden PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypically developing children including those born preterm or who have autism spectrum disorder can display difficulties with evaluating rewarding stimuli, which may result from impaired maturation of reward and cognitive control brain regions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 58 typically and atypically developing children (6-12 years participated in a set-shifting task that included the presentation of monetary reward stimuli. In typically developing children, reward stimuli were associated with age-related increases in activation in cognitive control centers, with weaker changes in reward regions. In atypically developing children, no age-related changes were evident. Maturational disturbances in the frontostriatal regions during atypical development may underlie task-based differences in activation.

  10. The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Psychotic Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Devi

    2007-01-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

  11. Atypical brain torque in boys with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jeffrey Ryan; Zadina, Janet N; Corey, David M; Cohen, Jeremy D; Lemen, Lisa C; Foundas, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    The counterclockwise brain torque, defined as a larger right prefrontal and left parietal-occipital lobe, is a consistent brain asymmetry. Reduced or reversed lobar asymmetries are markers of atypical cerebral laterality and have been found in adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that atypical brain torque would be more common in children who stutter. Magnetic resonance imaging-based morphology measures were completed in boys who stutter (n = 14) and controls (n = 14), ages 8-13. The controls had the expected brain torque configurations whereas the boys who stutter were atypical. These results support the hypothesis that developmental stuttering is associated with atypical prefrontal and parietal-occipital lobe asymmetries.

  12. [Prevalence and determinants of atypical presentation of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, David; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of patients with atypical presentation of acute coronary syndromes may contribute to increased sensitivity in diagnosis in a given population. The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence of atypical presentation, to identify its determinants, and to describe the presenting symptoms in cases of acute coronary syndrome at the emergency department of Hospital São João, Porto. Systematic sample of 288 emergency admissions with a confirmed diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in 2007. Atypical presentation was defined as absence of chest pain and/or syncope. The prevalence of atypical presentation was 20.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0 to 25.5], with no important variation by gender. It increased with age and was more frequent in cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In multivariate analysis, atypical presentation was associated with age [>70 versus ≤ 50 years, odds ratio (OR)=3.45; 95%CI: 1.03-11.61] and it was about four times less likely in the presence of history of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. A history of heart failure was independently associated with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome with atypical presentation (OR = 4.15, 95%CI 1.50-11.46). Among the 223 cases who had chest pain or discomfort, a growing, oppressive, prolonged (longer than 30 minutes), recurrent and episodic pain prevailed. Among other symptoms, dyspnea was the most frequently reported, either as the main symptom in cases of atypical presentation or concurrently with typical symptoms. Factors associated with atypical presentation are consistent with those described in other populations. Using routine clinical data allowed access to a large data base on a representative sample of patients admitted to the emergency department of a third-level hospital that serves a large part of the local urban population. In medical records, data are unstandardized and heterogeneous in validity

  13. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  14. [Sturge-Weber syndrome with atypical calcifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M L; de Juan, J; Antón, M; Roiz, C; Crespo, M

    1997-09-01

    The syndrome, or disease, or Sturge Weber (SSW) is a neuro-ectodermic disorder of unknown incidence, sporadic presentation and specific sex incidence. It is characterized by the presence of a flat, facial angioma which affects at least the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, association with ipsilateral leptomeningeal vascular anomalies, one or more symptoms (epilepsy, hemiparesia, hemiplegia or mental retardation) and ipsilateral vascular lesions of the choroid which lead to glaucoma. As a consequence of lepto-meningeal involvement, homolateral cerebral hemi-atrophy develops together with cortico-subcortical calcifications with a characteristic "railway line" appearance. We present the case of a six month old girl with a flat port wine angioma on the left half of her face, including three branches of the trigeminal nerve and the left half of her body. She had partial motor crises of the right leg. On the cranial CT there were left periventricular calcifications and calcifications of the choroid plexus. Gadolinium-MR showed signs of left cerebral hemi-atrophy, which was confirmed on the cerebral SPECT (left temporal hypoperfusion). This case is interesting on account of the presence of atypical calcifications, both with regard to the sites and age of presentation. We emphasize the need for cranial CT to rule out the presence of calcifications, (as in this case) not seen on Xray of the skull or on MR. We favour the use of cerebral SPECT as a complementary diagnostic technique.

  15. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable.

  16. Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. M. Mazzocco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders’ number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes.

  17. Atypical proliferating mucinous tumors of gigantic dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP are also known as atypically proliferating tumors. Ovarian tumors of LPM account for approximately 15% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. Mean age of occurrence is 40 years and they are 15-20 cm in diameter. Case report. A 32-year-old female patient was hospitalized as an urgent case with a large tumor mass that filled the entire abdomen. Cyst was 100 × 70 cm dimensions belonging to the right ovary and filled with 18 liters of content. Right adnexectomy, resection of the second ovary, as well as biopsy of the omentum were performed. Lymphadenectomy of the right iliac and obturator area was also performed. After receiving definitive histopathological results it was decided to perform a radical reoperation. On the 10th postoperative day relaparotomy, total hysterectomy and left adnexectomy were performed. The patient was released on the 6th postoperative day. She used to come to regular examinations up to date. Conclusion. This case is a proof that LMP tumors have low malignant potential, they grow slowly and can reach great proportions.

  18. Atypical resource allocation may contribute to many aspects of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Goldknopf, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature and on reports by people with autism, this paper suggests that atypical resource allocation is a factor that contributes to many aspects of autism spectrum conditions, including difficulties with language and social cognition, atypical sensory and attentional experiences, executive and motor challenges, and perceptual and conceptual strengths and weaknesses. Drawing upon resource theoretical approaches that suggest that perception, cognition, and action dra...

  19. Importance of the swallowing atypical in them malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Jiménez, Jonatan; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología.

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to determine the atypical swallowing malocclusions. When there are inadequate move-ments of the tongue and / or other structures during oral and pharyngolaryngeal phase of swallowing, talking about atypical swallowing, as a non-physiological habit. Its objectives may be multiple, simul-taneously acting alone or cumulatively. The size of a large tongue has been found as an impediment to correct such alternations, though this is a cause of causing malocclusion. the importance o...

  20. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  1. An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papakostas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity.

  2. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M

    2012-02-03

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  3. Quenching mechanisms and kinetics of Trolox and ascorbic acid on the riboflavin-photosensitized oxidation of tryptophan and tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yettella, Ramesh R; Min, David B

    2008-11-26

    The effects of 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM Trolox and ascorbic acid on the singlet oxygen oxidation of tryptophan and tyrosine containing 25 ppm of riboflavin were determined by measuring tryptophan and tyrosine concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The samples were stored in the a 1000 lx light storage box for 4 h at 30 degrees C. As the concentration of Trolox and ascorbic acid increased, the degradation of tryptophan and tyrosine decreased significantly at p Trolox reduced tryptophan and tyrosine degradation by quenching both singlet oxygen and excited triplet riboflavin, whereas ascorbic acid quenched singlet oxygen only. The total singlet oxygen quenchings of Trolox in the presence of tryptophan and tyrosine were 1.55 x 10(7) and 1.32 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The total singlet oxygen quenchings of ascorbic acid in the presence of tryptophan and tyrosine were 1.16 x 10(7) and 1.10 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Trolox was more effective than ascorbic acid in preventing the degradation of tryptophan and tyrosine.

  4. Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rocío; Vera, Soledad; Valiente, Mercedes; Díez-Pascual, Ana María; San Andrés, María Paz

    2017-11-22

    Fluorescence quenching is a valuable tool to gain insight about dynamic changes of fluorophores in complex systems. Graphene (G), a single-layered 2D nanomaterial with unique properties, was dispersed in surfactant aqueous solutions of different nature: non-ionic polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether (Brij L23), anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The influence of the surfactant type, chain length and concentration, G total concentration and G/surfactant weight ratio on the fluorescence intensity of vitamin B₂ (riboflavin) was investigated. The quality of the different G dispersions was assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). A quenching phenomenon of the fluorescence of riboflavin was found for G dispersions in all the surfactants, which generally becomes stronger with increasing G/surfactant weight ratio. For dispersions in the ionic surfactants, the quenching is more pronounced as the surfactant concentration raises, whilst the non-ionic one remains merely unchanged for the different G/Brij L23 weight ratios. More importantly, results indicate that DTAB solutions are the optimum media for dispersing G sheets, leading to an up to 16-fold drop in the fluorescence intensity. Understanding the mechanism in fluorescence quenching of G dispersions in surfactants could be useful for several optical applications.

  5. Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mateos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence quenching is a valuable tool to gain insight about dynamic changes of fluorophores in complex systems. Graphene (G, a single-layered 2D nanomaterial with unique properties, was dispersed in surfactant aqueous solutions of different nature: non-ionic polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether (Brij L23, anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS, and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB. The influence of the surfactant type, chain length and concentration, G total concentration and G/surfactant weight ratio on the fluorescence intensity of vitamin B2 (riboflavin was investigated. The quality of the different G dispersions was assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM. A quenching phenomenon of the fluorescence of riboflavin was found for G dispersions in all the surfactants, which generally becomes stronger with increasing G/surfactant weight ratio. For dispersions in the ionic surfactants, the quenching is more pronounced as the surfactant concentration raises, whilst the non-ionic one remains merely unchanged for the different G/Brij L23 weight ratios. More importantly, results indicate that DTAB solutions are the optimum media for dispersing G sheets, leading to an up to 16-fold drop in the fluorescence intensity. Understanding the mechanism in fluorescence quenching of G dispersions in surfactants could be useful for several optical applications.

  6. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  7. MR findings of atypical meningioma: comparison with benign meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jung Hoon; Shin, Byung Suck; Lim, Soo Mee; Kim, Dae Hong; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    Atypical meningioma is an intermediate type, between benign and malignant meningiomas, and has a higher recurrence rate and poorer prognosis than the benign type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential imaging findings between atypical and benign meningiomas. Over a five-year period, 11 acses of atypical meningioma (in ten patients) were pathologically proven, and 30 benign meningiomas were collected consecutively over 6 months. In retrospective analysis, the MR findings of atypical and benign meningiomas were compared with respect to tumor margin, lobulation, intra-/peritumoral hemorrhage, cystic change, heterogeneity, peritumoral edema, enhacement of adjacent meninges, invasion of adjacent venous sinus and adjacent bony change. Signigicant differential MR findings between the two groups were ill-defined tumor margin(atypical-27%;benign-0%), lobulation(82%;43%), heterogeneity(73%;30%), and peritumoral edema(100%;47%). With regard to moderate edema, there was no significant difference between the two groups (36%;23%), and with regard to intra-/peritumoral hemorrhage, cystic change, enhancement of adjacent meninges, invasion of adjacent venous sinus, and adjacent bony change, MR findings between the two groups were not significantly different. The MR findings of atypical meningioma are significantly different in several ways from those of benign meningioma, and these differences may help differentiate the two types.=20.

  8. Pigmentary Markers in Danes – Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård

    2016-01-01

    pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average......To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis) contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical...... variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*), or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14) had significantly (ppigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive...

  9. Treatment of progressive keratoconus by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: ultrastructural analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II in vivo confocal microscopy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Tommasi, Cristina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To assess ultrastructural stromal modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus. This was a second-phase prospective nonrandomized open study in 10 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen and assessed by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Rostock Corneal Module (HRT II-RCM) in vivo confocal microscopy. The eye in the worst clinical condition was treated for each patient. Treatment under topical anesthesia included corneal deepithelization (9-mm diameter) and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin phosphate-20% dextran T 500 solution at 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. UVA irradiation was 7 mm in diameter. Patients were assessed by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy in vivo at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rarefaction of keratocytes in the anterior and intermediate stroma, associated with stromal edema, was observed immediately after treatment. The observation at 3 months after the operation detected keratocyte repopulation in the central treated area, whereas the edema had disappeared. Cell density increased progressively over the postoperative period. At approximately 6 months, keratocyte repopulation was complete, accompanied by increased density of stromal fibers. No endothelial damage was observed at any time. Reduction in anterior and intermediate stromal keratocytes followed by gradual repopulation has been confirmed directly in vivo in humans by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking.

  10. Optimisation of the determination of thiamin, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin, and riboflavin in food samples by use of HPLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was first to optimise and validate a method using an enzyme-mixture to liberate protein- and phosphate-bound thiamin and riboflavin in food by the use of ultrasonication and HPLC, and second to include the quantitation of the vitamin B-1 active compound 2-(1-hydroxyethyl...

  11. Eculizumab in secondary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Teresa; Rabasco, Cristina; López, Antía; Román, Elena; Ávila, Ana; Sevillano, Ángel; Huerta, Ana; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Fuentes, Carolina; Blasco, Miquel; Jarque, Ana; García, Alba; Mendizabal, Santiago; Gavela, Eva; Macía, Manuel; Quintana, Luis F.; María Romera, Ana; Borrego, Josefa; Arjona, Emi; Espinosa, Mario; Portolés, José; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; González-Parra, Emilio; Aljama, Pedro; Morales, Enrique; Cao, Mercedes; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Complement dysregulation occurs in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) other than primary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). A few of these patients have been reported previously to be successfully treated with eculizumab. Methods. We identified 29 patients with so-called secondary aHUS who had received eculizumab at 11 Spanish nephrology centres. Primary outcome was TMA resolution, defined by a normalization of platelet count (>150 × 109/L) and haemoglobin, disappearance of all the markers of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), and improvement of renal function, with a ≥25% reduction of serum creatinine from the onset of eculizumab administration. Results. Twenty-nine patients with secondary aHUS (15 drug-induced, 8 associated with systemic diseases, 2 with postpartum, 2 with cancer-related, 1 associated with acute humoral rejection and 1 with intestinal lymphangiectasia) were included in this study. The reason to initiate eculizumab treatment was worsening of renal function and persistence of TMA despite treatment of the TMA cause and plasmapheresis. All patients showed severe MAHA and renal function impairment (14 requiring dialysis) prior to eculizumab treatment and 11 presented severe extrarenal manifestations. A rapid resolution of the TMA was observed in 20 patients (68%), 15 of them showing a ≥50% serum creatinine reduction at the last follow-up. Comprehensive genetic and molecular studies in 22 patients identified complement pathogenic variants in only 2 patients. With these two exceptions, eculizumab was discontinued, after a median of 8 weeks of treatment, without the occurrence of aHUS relapses. Conclusion. Short treatment with eculizumab can result in a rapid improvement of patients with secondary aHUS in whom TMA has persisted and renal function worsened despite treatment of the TMA-inducing condition. PMID:28339660

  12. Eculizumab in secondary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Teresa; Rabasco, Cristina; López, Antía; Román, Elena; Ávila, Ana; Sevillano, Ángel; Huerta, Ana; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Fuentes, Carolina; Blasco, Miquel; Jarque, Ana; García, Alba; Mendizabal, Santiago; Gavela, Eva; Macía, Manuel; Quintana, Luis F; María Romera, Ana; Borrego, Josefa; Arjona, Emi; Espinosa, Mario; Portolés, José; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; González-Parra, Emilio; Aljama, Pedro; Morales, Enrique; Cao, Mercedes; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Praga, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Complement dysregulation occurs in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) other than primary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). A few of these patients have been reported previously to be successfully treated with eculizumab. We identified 29 patients with so-called secondary aHUS who had received eculizumab at 11 Spanish nephrology centres. Primary outcome was TMA resolution, defined by a normalization of platelet count (>150 × 10 9 /L) and haemoglobin, disappearance of all the markers of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), and improvement of renal function, with a ≥25% reduction of serum creatinine from the onset of eculizumab administration. Twenty-nine patients with secondary aHUS (15 drug-induced, 8 associated with systemic diseases, 2 with postpartum, 2 with cancer-related, 1 associated with acute humoral rejection and 1 with intestinal lymphangiectasia) were included in this study. The reason to initiate eculizumab treatment was worsening of renal function and persistence of TMA despite treatment of the TMA cause and plasmapheresis. All patients showed severe MAHA and renal function impairment (14 requiring dialysis) prior to eculizumab treatment and 11 presented severe extrarenal manifestations. A rapid resolution of the TMA was observed in 20 patients (68%), 15 of them showing a ≥50% serum creatinine reduction at the last follow-up. Comprehensive genetic and molecular studies in 22 patients identified complement pathogenic variants in only 2 patients. With these two exceptions, eculizumab was discontinued, after a median of 8 weeks of treatment, without the occurrence of aHUS relapses. Short treatment with eculizumab can result in a rapid improvement of patients with secondary aHUS in whom TMA has persisted and renal function worsened despite treatment of the TMA-inducing condition.

  13. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with Atypical Odontalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clozapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo Lobos, Claudia; Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Schwarz, Sandra; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic demonstrated to be superior in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia which causes fewer movement disorders. Clozapine, however, entails a significant risk of serious blood disorders such as agranulocytosis which could be potentially fatal. Currently there are a number of newer antipsychotics which have been developed with the purpose to find both a better tolerability profile and a superior effectiveness. Objectives To compare the clinical effects of clozapine with other atypical antipsychotics (such as amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone and zotepine) in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Groups Register (June 2007) and reference lists of all included randomised controlled trials. We also manually searched appropriate journals and conference proceedings relating to clozapine combination strategies and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All relevant randomised, at least single-blind trials, comparing clozapine with other atypical antipsychotics, any dose and oral formulations, for people with schizophrenia or related disorders. Data collection and analysis We selected trials and extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 27 blinded randomised controlled trials, which involved 3099 participants. Twelve randomised control trials compared clozapine with olanzapine, five with quetiapine, nine with risperidone, one with ziprasidone and two with zotepine. Attrition from these studies was high (overall 30.1%), leaving the interpretation

  15. Understanding of the Viscoelastic Response of the Human Corneal Stroma Induced by Riboflavin/UV-A Cross-Linking at the Nano Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Cristina; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the viscoelastic changes of the human cornea induced by riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at the nano level. Methods Seven eye bank donor corneas were investigated, after gently removing the epithelium, using a commercial AFM in the force spectroscopy mode. Silicon cantilevers with tip radius of 10 nm and spring elastic constants between 26- and 86-N/m were used to probe the viscoelastic properties of the anterior stroma up to 3 µm indentation depth. Five specimens were tested before and after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking; the other two specimens were chemically cross-linked using glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and used as controls. The Young’s modulus (E) and the hysteresis (H) of the corneal stroma were quantified as a function of the application load and scan rate. Results The Young’s modulus increased by a mean of 1.1-1.5 times after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (Physteresis decreased, by a mean of 0.9-1.5 times, in all specimens after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (P<0.05). A substantial decrease of H, ranging between 2.6 and 3.5 times with respect to baseline values, was observed in glutaraldehyde-treated corneas (P<0.05). Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking induces changes of the viscoelastic properties of the cornea at the scale of stromal molecular interactions. PMID:25830534

  16. Understanding of the viscoelastic response of the human corneal stroma induced by riboflavin/UV-a cross-linking at the nano level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Labate

    Full Text Available To investigate the viscoelastic changes of the human cornea induced by riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM at the nano level.Seven eye bank donor corneas were investigated, after gently removing the epithelium, using a commercial AFM in the force spectroscopy mode. Silicon cantilevers with tip radius of 10 nm and spring elastic constants between 26- and 86-N/m were used to probe the viscoelastic properties of the anterior stroma up to 3 µm indentation depth. Five specimens were tested before and after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking; the other two specimens were chemically cross-linked using glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and used as controls. The Young's modulus (E and the hysteresis (H of the corneal stroma were quantified as a function of the application load and scan rate.The Young's modulus increased by a mean of 1.1-1.5 times after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (P<0.05. A higher increase of E, by a mean of 1.5-2.6 times, was found in chemically cross-linked specimens using glutaraldehyde 2.5% (P<0.05. The hysteresis decreased, by a mean of 0.9-1.5 times, in all specimens after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (P<0.05. A substantial decrease of H, ranging between 2.6 and 3.5 times with respect to baseline values, was observed in glutaraldehyde-treated corneas (P<0.05.The present study provides the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking induces changes of the viscoelastic properties of the cornea at the scale of stromal molecular interactions.

  17. In vitro analysis of riboflavin-modified, experimental, two-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daood, Umer; Swee Heng, Chan; Neo Chiew Lian, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-06-26

    To modify two-step experimental etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive with different concentrations of riboflavin and to study its effect on the bond strength, degree of conversion, along with resin infiltration within the demineralized dentin substrate, an experimental adhesive-system was modified with different concentrations of riboflavin (m/m, 0, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective adhesives, restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentin slabs and beams to be stored for 24 h or 9 months in artificial saliva. Micro-tensile bond testing was performed with scanning electron microscopy to analyse the failure of debonded beams. The degree of conversion was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different time points along with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis. Data was analyzed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's for pair-wise comparison. Modification with 1% and 3% riboflavin increased the micro-tensile bond strength compared to the control at 24 h and 9-month storage with no significant differences in degree of conversion (Padhesive specimens where cohesive failure was predominant. Raman analysis revealed that 1% and 3% riboflavin adhesives specimens showed relatively higher resin infiltration. The incorporation of riboflavin in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 3% (m/m) improved the immediate bond strengths and bond durability after 9-month storage in artificial saliva without adversely affecting the degree of conversion of the adhesive monomers and resin infiltration.

  18. The effect of riboflavin/UVA collagen cross-linking therapy on the structure and hydrodynamic behaviour of the ungulate and rabbit corneal stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hayes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the effect of riboflavin/UVA corneal crosslinking on stromal ultrastructure and hydrodynamic behaviour. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen enucleated ungulate eyes (112 pig and 5 sheep and 3 pairs of rabbit eyes, with corneal epithelium removed, were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 (28 pig, 2 sheep and 3 rabbits were untreated; Group 2 (24 pig were exposed to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2 for 30 minutes and Group 3 (29 pig and Group 4 (31 pig, 3 sheep and 3 rabbits had riboflavin eye drops applied to the corneal surface every 5 minutes for 35 minutes. Five minutes after the initial riboflavin instillation, the corneas in Group 4 experienced a 30 minute exposure to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2. X-ray scattering was used to obtain measurements of collagen interfibrillar spacing, spatial order, fibril diameter, D-periodicity and intermolecular spacing throughout the whole tissue thickness and as a function of tissue depth in the treated and untreated corneas. The effect of each treatment on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea (its ability to swell in saline solution and its resistance to enzymatic digestion were assessed using in vitro laboratory techniques. RESULTS: Corneal thickness decreased significantly following riboflavin application (p<0.01 and also to a lesser extent after UVA exposure (p<0.05. With the exception of the spatial order factor, which was higher in Group 4 than Group 1 (p<0.01, all other measured collagen parameters were unaltered by cross-linking, even within the most anterior 300 microns of the cornea. The cross-linking treatment had no effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea but did cause a significant increase in its resistance to enzymatic digestion. CONCLUSIONS: It seems likely that cross-links formed during riboflavin/UVA therapy occur predominantly at the collagen fibril surface and in the protein network surrounding the collagen.

  19. The Effect of Riboflavin/UVA Collagen Cross-linking Therapy on the Structure and Hydrodynamic Behaviour of the Ungulate and Rabbit Corneal Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Young, Robert D.; Quantock, Andrew J.; Rost, Anika; Khatib, Yasmeen; Harris, Jonathan; Yagi, Naoto; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of riboflavin/UVA corneal crosslinking on stromal ultrastructure and hydrodynamic behaviour. Methods One hundred and seventeen enucleated ungulate eyes (112 pig and 5 sheep) and 3 pairs of rabbit eyes, with corneal epithelium removed, were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 (28 pig, 2 sheep and 3 rabbits) were untreated; Group 2 (24 pig) were exposed to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes and Group 3 (29 pig) and Group 4 (31 pig, 3 sheep and 3 rabbits) had riboflavin eye drops applied to the corneal surface every 5 minutes for 35 minutes. Five minutes after the initial riboflavin instillation, the corneas in Group 4 experienced a 30 minute exposure to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm2). X-ray scattering was used to obtain measurements of collagen interfibrillar spacing, spatial order, fibril diameter, D-periodicity and intermolecular spacing throughout the whole tissue thickness and as a function of tissue depth in the treated and untreated corneas. The effect of each treatment on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea (its ability to swell in saline solution) and its resistance to enzymatic digestion were assessed using in vitro laboratory techniques. Results Corneal thickness decreased significantly following riboflavin application (pcollagen parameters were unaltered by cross-linking, even within the most anterior 300 microns of the cornea. The cross-linking treatment had no effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea but did cause a significant increase in its resistance to enzymatic digestion. Conclusions It seems likely that cross-links formed during riboflavin/UVA therapy occur predominantly at the collagen fibril surface and in the protein network surrounding the collagen. PMID:23349690

  20. Childhood Learning Disabilities and Atypical Dementia: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Seifan

    Full Text Available To further our understanding of the association between self-reported childhood learning disabilities (LDs and atypical dementia phenotypes (Atypical Dementia, including logopenic primary progressive aphasia (L-PPA, Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA, and Dysexecutive-type Alzheimer's Disease (AD.This retrospective case series analysis of 678 comprehensive neuropsychological assessments compared rates of self-reported LD between dementia patients diagnosed with Typical AD and those diagnosed with Atypical Dementia. 105 cases with neuroimaging or CSF data available and at least one neurology follow-up were identified as having been diagnosed by the neuropsychologist with any form of neurodegenerative dementia. These cases were subject to a consensus diagnostic process among three dementia experts using validated clinical criteria for AD and PPA. LD was considered Probable if two or more statements consistent with prior LD were documented within the Social & Developmental History of the initial neuropsychological evaluation.85 subjects (Typical AD n=68, Atypical AD n=17 were included in the final analysis. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, handedness, education and symptom duration, patients with Probable LD, compared to patients without Probable LD, were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with Atypical Dementia vs. Typical AD (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.3-128.4. All three of the L-PPA cases reporting a childhood LD endorsed childhood difficulty with language. By contrast, both PCA cases reporting Probable childhood LD endorsed difficulty with attention and/or math.In people who develop dementia, childhood LD may predispose to atypical phenotypes. Future studies are required to confirm whether atypical neurodevelopment predisposes to regional-specific neuropathology in AD and other dementias.

  1. Ichthyosiform mycosis fungoides with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a rare case of variant of mycosis fungoides (MF: ichthyosiform MF with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy. The diagnosis was made based on the following findings: generalized ichthyosis-like eruption, alopecia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, proteinuria, and hematuria, the histological features of the skin biopsy from both ichthyotic and alopecic lesions with immunohistochemical staining, and the renal biopsy examination with immunofluorescence. The histological examination of ichthyotic and alopecic lesions displayed a predominant infiltration of atypical lymphocytes in the upper dermis with the characteristics of epidermotropism and folliculotropism. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that most infiltrated atypical lymphocytes were CD3, CD4, and CD45RO positive, whereas negative for CD5, CD7, CD20, CD30, and CD56. A renal biopsy examination revealed atypical membranous nephropathy with deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, IgA, C1q, and C3. In this case atypical membranous nephropathy was involved, which is very uncommon and has never been presented in the literature to date. Although ichthyosiform MF usually features a relatively favorable course, diffuse alopecia and the renal involvement in this case might indicate aggressive disease and poor prognosis.

  2. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  3. An atypical case of Noonan syndrome with mutation diagnosed by targeted exome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsup Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome (NS is a genetic disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance and is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, short stature, chest deformity, and congenital heart disease. In individuals with NS, germline mutations have been identified in several genes involved in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the conventional diagnostic protocol with Sanger sequencing requires a multistep approach. Therefore, molecular genetic diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing (TES is considered a less expensive and faster method, particularly for patients who do not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of NS. In this case, the patient showed short stature, dysmorphic facial features suggestive of NS, feeding intolerance, cryptorchidism, and intellectual disability in early childhood. At the age of 16, the patient still showed extreme short stature with delayed puberty and characteristic facial features suggestive of NS. Although the patient had no cardiac problems or chest wall deformities, which are commonly present in NS and are major concerns for patients and clinicians, the patient showed several other characteristic clinical features of NS. Considering the possibility of a genetic disorder, including NS, a molecular genetic study with TES was performed. With TES analysis, we detected a pathogenic variant of c.458A > T in KRAS in this patient with atypical NS phenotype and provided appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling. The application of TES enables accurate molecular diagnosis of patients with nonspecific or atypical features in genetic diseases with several responsible genes, such as NS.

  4. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and mutation analysis of factor H gene in two Tunisian families

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    Imen Habibi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Imen Habibi1,Imen Sfar1,Walid Ben Alaya1, Jihen Methlouthi2, Abdelkrim Ayadi2, Mounira Brahim2, Jacques Blouin3, Raoudha Dhagbouj1, Thouraya Ben Rhomdhane1, Mouna Makhlouf1, Houda Aouadi1, Saloua Ayed-Jendoubi1, Véronique Fremeaux-bacchi3, Tahar Sfar2, Taieb Ben Abdallah1, Khaled Ayed1, Yousr Gorgi11Laboratory of Immunology, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia; 2Paediatric Department, Tahar Sfar Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia; 3Immunology Department, George Pompidou Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: We carried out a protein and genetic investigation of the ¬factor H gene mutations within two families presenting with a diagnostic suspicion of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS. The results within the patients of the first family revealed a factor H-deficiency. Direct sequencing allowed the detection of a 4-nucleotide deletion in the factor H gene. This deletion was found as the homozygote form in the proband and as the heterozygote form in the parents. Protein and functional analyses of the complement system were normal in all members of the second family. However, the molecular investigation for the father showed the presence of an amino acid substitution in the FH gene. Unfortunately, his two affected children died without being investigated for mutations. The functional consequences of these abnormal proteins are still to be demonstrated.Keywords: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, complement, alternative pathway, factor H, deletion, nucleotide substitution

  5. Influence of the Addition of Riboflavin in Culture Medium on Delivering Biomass Using Yeast Strains of Saccharomyces Carlsbengensis

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    Cornelia Nicoară

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts requirements for growth factors should be considered both in terms of ability to summarize the simpleaverage and the dependence on external supplies. Vitamins are components of coenzymes or enzymes prostheticgroups and thus they are growth factors for yeast. The study concerns about the influence of the addition ofriboflavin in culture medium in different quantities, the accumulation of yeast biomass under the action of yeaststrains of beer. The process of cultivation has been made for 24 hours at a temperature of 220C. The addition ofriboflavin in culture medium of yeast biomass increased in each strain of yeast compared with the witness - thesample without added riboflavin. Biomass obtained by follow this procedure could be used to create new foodproducts with high ration nutritional value.

  6. Oxidative Stability in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Quercetin or Rutin Under Iron Catalysis or Riboflavin Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, BoRa; Ka, HaeJung; Kwon, YongJun; Choi, HyungSeok; Kim, Sunghwa; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of quercetin and rutin on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were tested under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization in the presence or absence of FeCl 2 . The degree of oxidation in O/W emulsions was determined by headspace oxygen content, conjugated dienes, and lipid hydroperoxides. Quercetin chelated more metal than did rutin in iron catalyzed O/W emulsions. Generally, 0.1 mM quercetin and rutin was oxidative while 0.5 and 1.0 mM quercetin and rutin was antioxidative in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization. Depending on the analysis method, the antioxidants had different strengths. The antioxidative or oxidative properties of quercetin and rutin vary in O/W emulsions and depend the quercetin and rutin concentrations and oxidative forces like transition metals, RF photosensitization, or a combination thereof. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Olanzapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Schwarz, Sandra; Duggan, Lorna; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (“atypical”) antipsychotics have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics. Objectives To evaluate the effects of olanzapine compared to other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods 1. Electronic searching We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. 2. Reference searching We inspected the reference of all identified studies for more trials. 3. Personal contact We contacted the first author of each included study for missing information. 4. Drug companies We contacted the manufacturers of all atypical antipsychotics included for additional data. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials that used at least single-blind (rater-blind) design, comparing oral olanzapine with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random effects model. Main results The review currently includes 50 studies and 9476 participants which provided data for six comparisons (olanzapine compared to amisulpride, aripiprazole

  8. Risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Schwarz, Sandra; Schmid, Franziska; Hunger, Heike; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second-generation (“atypical”) antipsychotics (SGAs) have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether and if so how much the effects of the various SGAs differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone differs from that of other SGAs. Objectives To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods 1. Electronic searching We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. 2. Reference searching We inspected the references of all identified studies for more trials. 3. Personal contact We contacted the first author of each included study for missing information. 4. Drug companies We contacted the manufacturers of all atypical antipsychotics included for additional data. Selection criteria We included all randomised, blinded trials comparing oral risperidone with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 45 blinded RCTs with 7760 participants. The number of RCTs available for each comparison varied: four studies compared risperidone with amisulpride, two with aripiprazole, 11 with clozapine, 23 with olanzapine, eleven with

  9. Oxygen removal during pathogen inactivation with riboflavin and UV light preserves protein function in plasma for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, H B; Van Aelst, B; Devreese, K; Devloo, R; Coene, J; Vandekerckhove, P; Compernolle, V

    2014-05-01

    Photochemical pathogen inactivation technologies (PCT) for individual transfusion products act by inhibition of replication through irreversibly damaging nucleic acids. Concern on the collateral impact of PCT on the blood component's integrity has caused reluctance to introduce this technology in routine practice. This work aims to uncover the mechanism of damage to plasma constituents by riboflavin pathogen reduction technology (RF-PRT). Activity and antigen of plasma components were determined following RF-PRT in the presence or absence of dissolved molecular oxygen. Employing ADAMTS13 as a sentinel molecule in plasma, our data show that its activity and antigen are reduced by 23 ± 8% and 29 ± 9% (n = 24), respectively, which corroborates with a mean decrease of 25% observed for other coagulation factors. Western blotting of ADAMTS13 shows decreased molecular integrity, with no obvious indication of additional proteolysis nor is riboflavin able to directly inhibit the enzyme. However, physical removal of dissolved oxygen prior to RF-PRT protects ADAMTS13 as well as FVIII and fibrinogen from damage, indicating a direct role for reactive oxygen species. Redox dye measurements indicate that superoxide anions are specifically generated during RF-PRT. Protein carbonyl content as a marker of disseminated irreversible biomolecular damage was significantly increased (3·1 ± 0·8 vs. 1·6 ± 0·5 nmol/mg protein) following RF-PRT, but not in the absence of dissolved molecular oxygen (1·8 ± 0·4 nmol/mg). RF-PRT of single plasma units generates reactive oxygen species that adversely affect biomolecular integrity of relevant plasma constituents, a side-effect, which can be bypassed by applying hypoxic conditions during the pathogen inactivation process. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Effects of Ultraviolet-A and Riboflavin on the Interaction of Collagen and Proteoglycans during Corneal Cross-linking*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntao; Conrad, Abigail H.; Conrad, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    Corneal cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (RFUVA) is a clinical treatment targeting the stroma in progressive keratoconus. The stroma contains keratocan, lumican, mimecan, and decorin, core proteins of major proteoglycans (PGs) that bind collagen fibrils, playing important roles in stromal transparency. Here, a model reaction system using purified, non-glycosylated PG core proteins in solution in vitro has been compared with reactions inside an intact cornea, ex vivo, revealing effects of RFUVA on interactions between PGs and collagen cross-linking. Irradiation with UVA and riboflavin cross-links collagen α and β chains into larger polymers. In addition, RFUVA cross-links PG core proteins, forming higher molecular weight polymers. When collagen type I is mixed with individual purified, non-glycosylated PG core proteins in solution in vitro and subjected to RFUVA, both keratocan and lumican strongly inhibit collagen cross-linking. However, mimecan and decorin do not inhibit but instead form cross-links with collagen, forming new high molecular weight polymers. In contrast, corneal glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, in isolation from their core proteins, are not cross-linked by RFUVA and do not form cross-links with collagen. Significantly, when RFUVA is conducted on intact corneas ex vivo, both keratocan and lumican, in their natively glycosylated form, do form cross-links with collagen. Thus, RFUVA causes cross-linking of collagen molecules among themselves and PG core proteins among themselves, together with limited linkages between collagen and keratocan, lumican, mimecan, and decorin. RFUVA as a diagnostic tool reveals that keratocan and lumican core proteins interact with collagen very differently than do mimecan and decorin. PMID:21335557

  11. Corneal biomechanical properties from two-dimensional corneal flap extensiometry: application to UV-riboflavin cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Ginis, Harilaos; Marcos, Susana

    2012-07-27

    Corneal biomechanical properties are usually measured by strip extensiometry or inflation methods. We developed a two-dimensional (2D) flap extensiometry technique, combining the advantages of both methods, and applied it to measure the effect of UV-Riboflavin cross-linking (CXL). Corneal flaps (13 pig/8 rabbit) from the de-epithelialized anterior stroma (96 μm) were mounted on a custom chamber, consisting of a BK7 lens, a reflective retina, and two reservoirs (filled with Riboflavin and silicone oil). Stretching the corneal flap during five pressure increase/decrease cycles (0-30 mm Hg) changed the refractive power of the system, whose Zernike aberrations were monitored with a ray-tracing aberrometer. Porcine flaps were used to test the system. Rabbits were treated with CXL unilaterally in vivo following standard clinical procedures. Flaps were measured 1 month postoperatively. An analytical model allowed estimating Young's modulus from the change in surface (strain) and pressure (stress). Confocal microscopy examination was performed before, and at different times after CXL. Flap curvature changed with increased function of IOP in pig flaps (23.4 × 10⁻³ D/mm Hg). In rabbit flaps curvature changed significantly less in 1 month post CXL (P = 0.026) than in untreated corneas [17.0 vs. 6.36 millidiopter (mD)/mm Hg]. Young's modulus was 2.29 megapascals (MPa) in porcine corneas, 1.98 MPa in untreated rabbit corneas, and 4.83 MPa in 1 month post CXL rabbit corneas. At the same time, highly reflective structures were observed in the rabbit midstroma after treatment. 2D flap extensiometry allows estimating corneal elasticity in vitro. The measurements are spatially resolved in depth, minimize the effects of corneal hydration, and preserve the integrity of the cornea. The method proved the efficacy of CXL in increasing corneal rigidity after 1 month in rabbits.

  12. Inactivation of model viruses and bacteria in human fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and long wave ultraviolet rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikaei, Ameneh; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Sharifi, Zohreh

    2017-02-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies are among methods to eliminate transfusion transmitted infections. Mirasol method using riboflavin in combination with ultraviolet rays is one of them. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of Mirasol method to inactivate some model pathogens as well as examination of the sensitivity of plasma proteins after treatment. Riboflavin in 50μM concentration and ultraviolet (365 nm) in three different energy doses (3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 j/cm2) were employed to inactivate model pathogens. Four standard viruses were used in this study including Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus1 (HSV-1), Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Polio Virus. 50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID50) and Reed-Muench Methods were used to estimate viruses' titers. E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as bacterial models. Four plasma proteins including factor V, VIII, fibrinogen and antithromin were used to determine their sensitivity to pathogen inactivation treatment. The most pathogen reduction titre was determined for 15 minutes irradiation period equal to 10.8 J/cm2 that is corresponding to Log 6.10 for BVDV, Log 6.09 for HSV-1, Log 6.62 for VSV and Log 3.36 for Polio. Bacterial reduction titer was Log 6.94 for E. coli and Log 7.00 for S. aureus. Indicator proteins for plasma activity were determined to be 75% for factor V, 88% for factor VIII, 52% for fibrinogen and 94% for antithrombin. Results showed that the employed method can inactivate most of the pathogens in fresh frozen plasma. The acceptable activities of selected plasma proteins remained after treatment.

  13. Presence of Phlebotomus perniciosus Atypical Form in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Kamel Eddine; Benikhlef, Razika; Garni, Rafik; Gassen, Brahim; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Harrat, Zoubir

    2017-03-01

    Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis. A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012-2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P. perniciosus form. The analysis revealed the presence of 33/246 (13%) atypical P. perniciosus previously confused with P. longicuspis species and whose distribution is mainly located in the semi-arid and arid bioclimatic regions. This study proved for the first time the presence of atypical form of P. perniciosus in Algeria.

  14. Atypical Craniosynostosis with Torticollis and Neurological Symptoms: A Rhombencephalosynapsis Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Koljonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe a case of 3-year-old girl with rhombencephalosynapsis, a rare cerebellar anomaly. Patient. A 3-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to congenital torticollis and asymmetry of face, skull and trunk. Craniosynostosis was suspected due to abnormal head shape. 3D-CT revealed closure of the sagittal suture without scaphocephalic skull. Due to atypical craniosynostosis with neurological symptoms, brain-MRI was performed revealing rhombencephalosynapsis. Results. Our patient presented with atypical craniosynostosis and balance problems, not typical for scaphocephaly. Operative treatment for craniosynotosis was not carried out because the cause of the problems was the cerebellum instead of the brain. Conclusions. Therefore, we conclude that patients with atypical craniosynostosis should be examined with brain-MRI to exclude the intracranial malformations, which 3D-CT does not reveal. Without brain-MRI, decision (not to perform surgery could have been different.

  15. Atypical presentation of HELLP syndrome: clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Tobar Parra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a case of HELLP syndrome with atypical presentation form. Background: HELLP syndrome is a complication of preeclampsia, characterized by: haemolysis, elevation of liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia; Can present atypical, without hypertension or proteinuria, 10-20% of the cases. Case report: 38 year old female patient, with a pregnancy of 38.5 weeks of gestation, treated at the Hospital Universitario San José de Popayán (Colombia. Atypical HELLP syndrome is diagnosed in a pregnant woman with thrombocytopenia, impaired liver enzymes, but no evidence of proteinuria or hypertension. Gestation is terminated by cesarean section and magnesium sulfate is given for 24 hours, with adequate post-surgical evolution, clinical improvement of the symptomatology presented, normalization of liver enzymes and platelet elevation. Conclusion: Knowledge of this syndrome, although of rare occurrence, allows a fast action, an effective diagnosis and treatment, to avoid morbidity and greater maternal fetal mortality.

  16. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with osteomyelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dubravka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum generally appear on the upper extremities; most frequently they are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including osteomyelofibrosis. A response to systemic steroids is more pronounced than in classical form. Sometimes it may be the first sign of an underlying malignancy. Case report. We reported a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum developed during the course of a myeloid malignancy - osteomyelofibrosis. The lesions occurred after a minor trauma. Painful blistering plaques, with an elevated, bluish-gray border were located on the dorsal aspect of hands. No skin malignancy was found. The lesions resolved rapidly to systemic steroids. Conclusion. Considering the unusual clinical presentation which makes the diagnosis difficult, as well as the fact that atypical forms of pyoderma gangrenosum can be the first sign of malignancies, especially myeloproliferative ones, recognizing this entity enables timely guiding future investigations toward their prompt detection.

  18. Presence of Phlebotomus perniciosus Atypical Form in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Eddine Benallal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis.Methods: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012–2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P. perniciosus form.Results: The analysis revealed the presence of 33/246 (13% atypical P. perniciosus previously confused with P. longicuspis species and whose distribution is mainly located in the semi-arid and arid bioclimatic regions.Conclusion: This study proved for the first time the presence of atypical form of P. perniciosus in Algeria.

  19. Presence of Phlebotomus perniciosus Atypical Form in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Kamel Eddine; Benikhlef, Razika; Garni, Rafik; Gassen, Brahim; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Harrat, Zoubir

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis. Methods: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012–2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P. perniciosus form. Results: The analysis revealed the presence of 33/246 (13%) atypical P. perniciosus previously confused with P. longicuspis species and whose distribution is mainly located in the semi-arid and arid bioclimatic regions. Conclusion: This study proved for the first time the presence of atypical form of P. perniciosus in Algeria. PMID:29026861

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    female were also studied. The G6PD and glutathione reductase were partially activated, the change being more intense in males. On the basis of race and of the laboratory characteristics observed, it is possible to suggest that the G6PD deficiency of these individuals is of the African type and that the female is heterozygous for this deficiency. Analysis of the results as a whole permitted us to conclude that the methods proposed here were efficient for evaluating the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The latter is dependent on the pentose pathway, which generates NADPH, and on riboflavin, a FAD precursor vitamin.

  1. The Efficacy of Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Mustafa M.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Rush, A. John; Knapp, Rebecca G.; Fink, Max; Rummans, Teresa A.; Rasmussen, Keith; Claassen, Cynthia; Petrides, Georgios; Biggs, Melanie M.; Mueller, Martina; Sampson, Shirlene; Bailine, Samuel H.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Kellner, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the characteristics and outcomes of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with or without atypical features, who were treated with acute bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Method Analyses were conducted with 489 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD. Subjects were identified as typical or atypical on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV obtained at baseline prior to ECT. Depression symptom severity was measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D24) and the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30). Remission was defined as at least a 60% decrease from baseline in HAM-D24 score and a total score of 10 or below on the last 2 consecutive HAM-D24 ratings. The randomized controlled trial was performed from 1997 to 2004. Results The typical (N = 453) and atypical (N = 36) groups differed in several sociodemographic and clinical variables including gender (p = .0071), age (p = .0005), treatment resistance (p = .0014), and age at first illness onset (p < .0001) and onset of current episode (p = .0008). Following an acute course of bilateral ECT, a considerable portion of both the typical (67.1%) and the atypical (80.6%) groups reached remission. The atypical group was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1 to 6.2) times more likely to remit than the typical group after adjustment for age, psychosis, gender, clinical site, and depression severity based on the HAM-D24. Conclusion Acute ECT is an efficacious treatment for depressed patients with typical or atypical symptom features. PMID:18278988

  2. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT FOR ATYPICAL HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME IN A PUERPERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Ulitkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the problems of differential diagnosis and treatment of atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a 23-year-old patient.Results. Eculizumab (Soliris, (Alexon Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA that is a glycosylated humanized monoclonal antibody to immunoglobulins (IgG2/4k is shown to be effective in treating this disease.Conclusion. Atypical hemolytical-uremic syndrome in pregnancy is a disease, whose treatment difficulties are largely associated with the problem of differential diagnosis with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and man-ifestations of multiple organ dysfunction. The treatment for this disease gives a key role to Eculizumab.

  3. Atypical Wernicke's encephalopathy showing involvement of substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidass, Bhagheerathi; Sunnathkal, Rajani; Rangashamanna, Dr Vital; Paraswani, Rajesh

    2012-04-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) seen in alcoholics and even in nonalcoholic patients, classically presenting with a triad of ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and altered mental status. Typical findings in magnetic resonance imaging are represented by symmetric signal alterations in medial thalami, mamillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area and atypical findings involve lesions in cerebellum, midline vermis, red nuclei, dentate, caudate, cranial nerve nuclei, splenium and cerebral cortex. We report here a case of nonalcoholic starvation induced atypical WE showing symmetrical lesions in substantia nigra in addition to the classical neuroradiological findings. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Use of Clozapine

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    Quevedo-Florez Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine. In the absence of fever and clinical improvement, the patient is considered to have an atypical presentation of this disease.

  5. Atypical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Ansuya; Paruk, Hoosain; Bhagwan, Bhupendra; Moodley, Anand

    2017-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented. Despite the few cases, we propose that the dysimmune process lying between marked immunosuppression (CD4  500 cells/μL) might be responsible for these atypical presentations.

  6. Atypical psychotic symptoms and Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aislinn J; Wang, Zhenni; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-10-01

    New-onset psychotic symptoms often respond well to antipsychotic treatment; however, symptoms may be difficult to treat when an underlying brain malformation is present. Here, we present a case of atypical psychotic symptoms in the context of a congenital cerebellar malformation (Dandy-Walker variant). The patient ultimately improved with paliperidone palmitate after multiple antipsychotic medication trials (both oral and one long-acting injectable) were ineffective. Neuroimaging may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in cases of new-onset psychosis with atypical features and treatment resistance, even in the absence of neurologic signs and symptoms.

  7. Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis: Atypical and Resistant Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Struijk, Dirk Gijsbert

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis remains to be one of the most frequent and serious complications of PD. In this study, existing literature has been reviewed on PD peritonitis caused by atypical organisms and antibiotic resistant organisms and their impact on patient outcomes. Although uncommon, delay in recognition of PD peritonitis caused by atypical organisms can lead to poor patient outcomes if there is a delay in diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatment. There is also a large difference in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections across the world with variable impact on reported patient-level outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A child with myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11) misdiagnosed as atypical opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivenes, Bergitte; Born, Alfred Peter; Ek, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: DYT11 is an autosomal dominant inherited movement disorder characterized by myoclonus and dystonia. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a case with atypical symptoms and with episodes of ataxia and myoclonus preceded by infections. Atypical presentation of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome...

  9. Electronic Pathways in Photoactivated Repair of UV Mutated DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, K. J.; Bary Malik, F.

    An investigation of the physics, underlying the damage caused to DNA by UV radiation and its subsequent repair via a photoreactivation mechanism, is presented in this study. Electronic pathways, starting from the initial damage to the final repair process, are presented. UV radiation is absorbed to create a hole-excited thymine or other pyrimidine that subsequently is responsible for the formation of a dimer. The negative-ion of the cofactor riboflavin, FADH-, formed by the exposure of the photolyase protein to visible light, interacts with the hole-excited electronic orbital of the thymine dimer inducing a photon-less Auger transition, which restores the two thymines to the ground state, thereby detaching the lesion and repairing the DNA. Density functional theoretical calculations supporting the theory are presented. The mechanism involves the least amount of energy dissipation and is charge neutral. It also avoids radiation damage in the repair process. Recent experimental data are compatible with this theory.

  10. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Silverstein; Jules Angst

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetit...

  11. Role of laboratory in rapid diagnosis of atypical mumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KE Vandana

    Full Text Available Fairly large number of mumps virus infections present atypically without parotitis leading to delay in diagnosis and increased morbidity. Awareness of such presentations and inclusion of serological test for detecting IgM-specific antibodies could help in solving diagnostic dilemma, especially in unvaccinated individuals from developing countries.

  12. Atypical Chikungunya during pregnancy: Report of the Venezuela final experience

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    Ana Carvajal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus in Latin America and the Caribbean. The virus was detected in the Caribbean territory, at the end of 2013 for the first time. It is known that 1 to 2 % of patients will show atypical symptoms. Methods Three cases of pregnant women with atypical Chikungunya virus are described taking into account epidemiological variables, clinical features, pregnancy progress and laboratory testing parameters. Results Three pregnant women with atypical CHIKV confirmed by RT‐PCR were included. All of them were included at the ICU because of a life‐ threatening disease, 2 of the pregnancies were resolved by caesarean, one at term with a newborn with typical CHIKV and the other one at the 25 week of pregnancy, this result in a stillborn and a neonatal death. Conclusion Chikungunya fever during pregnancy can show atypical and severe course, with adverse evolution of pregnancy and vertical transmission of the infection. We recommend to maximize the medical care in pregnant women with suspicion of CHIKV infection.

  13. Diagnosis and management of atypically presenting slowly-leaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An ectopic pregnancy is a common cause of morbidity and occasionally of mortality in women of reproductive age. Its diagnosis can be difficult with an atypical presentation as the classic symptoms of abdominal pain, amenorrhoea and vaginal bleeding are seen in 50% of women presenting with ectopic ...

  14. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for selected atypical antipsychotic removal from river waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regulska, El?bieta; Karpi?ska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis of selected atypical antipsychotic, namely olanzapine, was examined. Photocatalytic degradation of above mentioned pharmaceutic was investigated in deionized and river water solution in the presence of titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst. River water samples were collected from Narew and Marycha, which run in the east of Poland. Studied irradiation sources included ultraviolet radiation and simulated solar light. Photodegradation efficiency and the presen...

  15. Use of atypical antipsychotics in the elderly: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareri P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Gareri,1 Cristina Segura-García,2 Valeria Graziella Laura Manfredi,1 Antonella Bruni,2 Paola Ciambrone,2 Gregorio Cerminara,2 Giovambattista De Sarro,2 Pasquale De Fazio2 1Elderly Health Care, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the elderly has become wider and wider in recent years; in fact, these agents have novel receptor binding profiles, good efficacy with regard to negative symptoms, and reduced extrapyramidal symptoms. However, in recent years, the use of both conventional and atypical antipsychotics has been widely debated for concerns about their safety in elderly patients affected with dementia and the possible risks for stroke and sudden death. A MEDLINE search was made using the words elderly, atypical antipsychotics, use, schizophrenia, psychosis, mood disorders, dementia, behavioral disorders, and adverse events. Some personal studies were also considered. This paper reports the receptor binding profiles and the main mechanism of action of these drugs, together with their main use in psychiatry and the possible adverse events in elderly people. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, dementia, elderly, psychosis, mood disorders, side effects

  16. [Atypical sites of metastatic renal carcinoma. Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fentes, D A; Blanco Parra, M; Toucedo Caamaño, V; Lema Grille, J; Cimadevila García, A; Villar Núñez, M

    2005-01-01

    To review in the literature atypical sites of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, its onset, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. To review, using Medline database, atypical sites of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the last five years Spanish literature. There have been published 15 spanish articles about atypical metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the last five years. Most patients were male with a mean age of 62,3 years and methacronous metastases. Imaging and pathological diagnosis. Main sites: ocular, renal graft, larynx, suprarenal, brain, penis, gastric and pancreatic. Surgical treatment if the surgeon is able to remove the lesion. Inmunotherapy and radiotherapy in the rest of cases. Renal cell carcinoma represents about 3% of all adult malignancy neoplasms. Its metastatic sites, in order of frequency, are lung, bone and liver, whether synchronic or methacronic. Its location, clinical features, onset, evolution and prognosis is very variable. Individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach, according to prognostic factors. The knowledge of this atypical sites in patients with renal cell carcinoma in the past can lead us to an earlier diagnosis and treatment which could change the evolution of the illness.

  17. Strategies in an Arts Program for Adults with Atypical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and implement strategies and adaptations in an arts program for adults with atypical communication due to developmental and intellectual disabilities. This study was conducted in the field using an action research approach with triangulated methods of data collection including semi-structured interviews,…

  18. Atypical vessels as an early sign of intracardiac myxoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dübel, Hans-Peter; Knebel, Fabian; Gliech, Volker; Konertz, Wolfgang; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian Constantin

    2004-01-01

    We report on a woman with previously unknown left atrial myxoma, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. 45 months after the initial coronary angiography, echocardiography demonstrated a large atrial myxoma, which was not seen echocardiographically before. The retrospective analysis of the pre-intervention coronary angiography revealed atypical vessels in the atrial septum, which are interpreted as early signs of myxoma. PMID:15310408

  19. CASE REPORT CASE Atypical tuberculosis of the knee joint CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB caused by atypical mycobacteria is rare; instead, it is predomi- nantly a synovial disease affecting the tendon sheaths rather than bone. Predisposing factors are immunocompromised individuals, including the elderly, alcoholics, those with HIV, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and other chronic debilitating illnesses, and ...

  20. [HL-A W27 antigen and atypical rheumatic pelvispondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sany, J; Serre, H; Seignalet, J

    1976-02-01

    The authors report 26 cases of atypical inflammatory rheumatism in which the discovery of HL-A W27 antigen indicated the possibility of atypical ankylosing spondylarthritis. These patients included 17 men and 9 women with an average age of 35.6 years. The clinical symptoms included :--pelvic or vetebral signs alone in 8 cases,--pelvic or vertebral signs combined with peripheral inflammatory rheumatism, the latter being always cleaarly evident, in 9 cases,--extravertebral signs alone without any involvement of the vertebral column or of the sacroiliac joints in 9 cases (8 cases of peripheral inflammatory rheumatism, 1 case of talalgia). The vertebral radiograms were normal in 84 percent of cases. The sacroiliac joints were clear radiologically in 65 percent of cases. In the other cases the lesions, generally unilateral, were extremely discrete. In all the cases, the Waaler-Rose reaction was negative. The therapeutic test with non-hormonal anti inflammatory products were generally positive. The evolution of the condition confirmed the diagnosis of rheumatic pelvispondylitis in 2 cases. The patients have been under observation for insufficient time to be sure whether all the cases presented represent authentic cases of ankylosing spondylarthritis that were at first atypical. The authors emphasize the high percentage of female cases (38 percent) the high frequency of extra-vertebral manifestations. They also emphasize the value of looking for HL-A W27 antigen in patients with atypical inflammatory rheumatism.

  1. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Resembling Clinical Absence with Atypical EEG Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaiah Srikanth Mysore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS, both presenting with altered mental status (AMS and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS, with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity. A diagnosis of NCSE with clinical features of AS was made based on both clinical and EEG features. There was significant clinical and electrographic improvement with administration of levetiracetam for both patients in addition to sodium valproate and Solumedrol for the SREAT patient. Both patients continued to be seizure free on follow-up few months later. Conclusions. This is a report of two cases of atypical AS, with atypical EEG, in patients with different neurological conditions. Prompt clinical and EEG recovery occurred following appropriate medical treatment. We think that this condition might be underreported and could significantly benefit from prompt treatment when appropriately diagnosed.

  2. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma in the foot: atypical MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuseghem, I. van; Pans, S.; Geusens, E.; Brys, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Sciot, R. [Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium); Wever, I. de [Department of Oncological Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium)

    2003-11-01

    Lipomatosis of a nerve is a well-known but uncommon entity mostly seen in the median nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to provide pathognomonic features, obviating the need for diagnostic biopsy. We present a case of lipomatosis of a branch of the medial plantar nerve with an atypical appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  3. Comparing the side effect profile of the Atypical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antipsychotics have greater efficacy (especially for negative symptoms) and fewer EPSE when compared to the typical antipsychotics. Given the lack of studies directly comparing these agents, we used the Physician Desk Reference (PDR) to calculate the treatment emergent placebo adjusted side effects for these atypical ...

  4. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  5. Hereditary atypical retinitis pigmentosa: case report | Omoti | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents four generations of hereditary atypical (pericentric) retinitis pigmentosa in an Itsekiri family of Warri, Delta state of Nigeria. The patients presented with nyctalopia, waxy disc pallor, arteriolar attenuation, pigment deposits around the optic nerve and visual field loss. The cases were typically mild with ...

  6. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    A stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas was made. The aim was to investigate whether this method could discriminate between these two meningeal neoplasms. The difference was significant and it was moreover seen that there was no overlap between the two grou...

  7. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour in a supratentorial location

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebro spinal fluid seeding, as in our second patient,[4] which led to their death. e entire CNS must therefore be imaged at presentation to identify subarachnoid spread of the tumour. e differential diagnosis for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour includes. PNET, medulloblastoma, high-grade glioma and teratoma.[1,3,6].

  8. Educational Needs and Causes of False Diagnosis of Atypical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entity of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in The Bethesda System 2001 for reporting cervical cytology is characterized by equivocal diagnosis, poor reproducibility and debatable management. This retrospective study was done to analyse the causes of false ASCUS if any and identify the ...

  9. Atypical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in a west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune multi-system disorder. About seventy to ninety percent of all cases of SLE occur in women. Although the disease is common in black young women residing in Europe and North America, it is reputed to be a very rare diagnosis in West Africa. A case of atypical ...

  10. Atypical tuberculosis of the knee joint | Albuquerque-Jonathan | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (TB) of the knee joint, caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Osteoarticular TB caused by atypical mycobacteria is rare; instead, it is predominantly a synovial disease affecting the tendon sheaths rather than bone. Predisposing factors are immunocompromised individuals, including the elderly, alcoholics, those with HIV, ...

  11. Atypical Localizations of Hydatid Disease: Experience from a Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of General Surgery, 1Radiodiagnosis and Imaging and 2Neurosurgery, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical. Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and ... development of hydatidosis at the primary sites. KEYWORDS: Atypical locations ..... Conflict of Interest: None declared. 24. Senyuz OF, Yesildag E, Celayir S.

  12. Grid Keratotomy for Treatment of Atypical Presenting Indolent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corneal ulcers are one of the highest causes of vision impairment in dogs. The Boxer breed is particularly predisposed to recurrent and refractory corneal ulcers (Whitley and Gigler, 1999). In this report we present an interesting case of indolent corneal ulcer in a Boxer with atypical clinical manifestation and features, and its ...

  13. Atypical basic movement kinematics in autism spectrum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Press, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum conditions have difficulties in understanding and responding appropriately to others. Additionally, they demonstrate impaired perception of biological motion and problems with motor control. Here we investigated whether individuals with autism move with an atypical kinematic profile, which might help to explain perceptual and motor impairments, and in principle may contribute to some of their higher level social problems. We recorded trajectory, velocity, acceleration and jerk while adult participants with autism and a matched control group conducted horizontal sinusoidal arm movements. Additionally, participants with autism took part in a biological motion perception task in which they classified observed movements as ‘natural’ or ‘unnatural’. Results show that individuals with autism moved with atypical kinematics; they did not minimize jerk to the same extent as the matched typical control group, and moved with greater acceleration and velocity. The degree to which kinematics were atypical was correlated with a bias towards perceiving biological motion as ‘unnatural’ and with the severity of autism symptoms as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. We suggest that fundamental differences in movement kinematics in autism might help to explain their problems with motor control. Additionally, developmental experience of their own atypical kinematic profiles may lead to disrupted perception of others’ actions. PMID:23983031

  14. Update on diffusion MRI in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Mahlknecht, P.; Seppi, K.; Goraj, B.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from other types of neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) can be challenging, especially in early disease stages. Routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show atrophy or signal changes in several parts of the brain with fairly high

  15. Variability in contents of thiamine and riboflavin in brown rice, crude oil in brown rice and bran-polish, and silicon in hull of IR rices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, C P; Juliano, B O

    1989-09-01

    Among 30 IR varieties, variety had greater effect on thiamine content of brown rice than season. Both season and variety affected riboflavin content. Purple- and red-pericarped Philippines rices had higher riboflavin and crude protein contents than IR rices. Crude oil contents of brown rice and bran-polish of 19 IR rices were significantly affected by variety, but only brown rice oil content was significantly affected by season. Bran-polish of waxy rice IR29 had the highest oil content. Silicon content of hull of 16 IR rices showed significant variation due to variety and season and tended to be higher in the dry season crop. Variety rankings in nutrient composition were not consistent for the two crops. The levels of nutrients of IR rices were within the range of values reported for other rices.

  16. Effect of Riboflavin/UVA Collagen Cross-linking on Central Cornea, Limbus and Intraocular Pressure. Experimental Study in Rabbit Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozobolis, Vassilios; Gkika, Maria; Sideroudi, Haris; Tsaragli, Efthymia; Lydataki, Stylliani; Naoumidi, Irini; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios; Teus, Miguel; Labiris, Georgios

    The Purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of riboflavin/ultraviolet-A-induced collagen cross-linking (CXL) on central cornea, limbus and intraocular pressure (IOP). This was an animal experimental study. The right corneas of 10 rabbits were ultraviolet-A irradiated (3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes) after de-epithelialization and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin / 20% Dextran drops. Left corneas served as controls. Samples were examined histologically one month postoperatively. Before and after treatment, IOP measurements were recorded bilaterally. At central cornea of eyes underwent CXL keratocyte repopulation, normal arrangement of collagen fibres and a statistically significant change in fibres diameter were detected, compared to controls. At limbus area, there were not any significant histological differences after CXL. There was no statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative IOP in all eyes.

  17. Clinical Profile of Atypical Manifestations of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothapregada, Sriram; Kamalakannan, Banupriya; Thulasingam, Mahalakshmy

    2016-06-01

    To study the clinical profile and outcome of the atypical manifestations of dengue fever in children. All children (0-12 y of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever at a tertiary care hospital at Puducherry, between the 1st of August 2012 and January 31st 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines 2011 for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies and the data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Out of 254 children admitted with dengue fever, non-severe dengue and severe dengue were seen in 62.6 % and 37.4 % respectively. Atypical manifestations were seen in 106 cases (41.7 %). Mean age of presentation was 6.9(3.3) y. M: F ratio was 1.2:1. The common manifestations of severe dengue infection were shock (37.4 %), bleeding (20.1 %) and multi-organ dysfunction (2.4 %). The most common atypical manifestations of dengue fever were lymphadenopathy (41.7 %), splenomegaly (21.2 %), biphasic fever (18.1 %), hepatitis (11.4 %), febrile diarrhea (6.3 %), refractory shock (2.4 %) and impaired consciousness (1.9 %). The other atypical manifestations present were portal hypertension, acalculous cholecystitis, appendicitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocarditis, pericardial effusion, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), myositis, acute kidney injury (AKI), hemophagocytic syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Platelet count did not always correlate well with the severity of bleeding. There were six deaths (2.4 %) and out of them four presented with impaired consciousness (66.6 %). The common causes for poor outcome were multiorgan failure, encephalopathy and refractory shock. The atypical manifestations of dengue fever are no more a rare entity. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and vigilance for atypical manifestations of

  18. Understanding A-type supergiants. I. Ultraviolet and visible spectral atlas of A-type supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Verdugo, E; Gómez de Castro, A I

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series whose aim is to perform a systematic study of A-type supergiant atmospheres and winds. Here we present a spectral atlas of 41 A-supergiants observed by us in high and medium resolution in the visible and ultraviolet. The atlas consists of profiles of the H alpha , H beta , H gamma , H delta , H epsilon , Ca II (H and K), Na I (D1 and D2), Mg II/sub 4481/, Mg II uv1 and Fe II uv1, uv2, uv3, uv62, uv63, uv161 lines for 41 stars with spectral types ranging from B9 to A9 and luminosity classes Ia, Iab and Ib, and provides the basic data for a thoughtful study of these stars. The overall characteristics of the sample as well as the data reduction procedures are described. We also present some examples of spectral variability. Figures 1-3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.com. (27 refs).

  19. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Nichols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. DESIGN: An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2 deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals, and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration. RESULTS: Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2% of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. CONCLUSION: Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.

  20. Treatment Results of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Combined with Riboflavin and 440 Nm Blue Light for Bacterial Corneal Ulcer in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shufang; Zhang, Cuiying; Zhang, Shaoru; Xu, Yanyun; Mu, Guoying

    2017-10-01

    To study the treatment effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with 440 nm blue light and riboflavin on bacterial corneal ulcer using animal experiments. A total of 21 New Zealand white rabbits that developed Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups. Seven rabbits were used as blank control groups; seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light; and seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 370 nm ultraviolet A light. Necrotic tissues or secretions from the ulcer surface, eye secretions, conjunctival hyperemia, hypopyon, corneal infiltration, and pathological changes of the cornea were all observed. The 1st, 3th, and 7th day after CXL treatment, a statistically significant difference was found among the inflammation scores of the three groups. The scores of 440 and 370 groups decreased gradually, significantly lower than that of the control group. Bacterial cultures of 440 and 370 groups turned to be negative while that of the control group remained positive. After 1 day of CXL treatment, pathology pictures of the three groups all showed loss of corneal epithelia with many inflammatory cells in deep stroma. After 7 days of CXL treatment, abscess formed in almost all corneal area in the control group, while in 440 and 370 groups, multilayer healing of corneal epithelia, neovascularization, and many inflammatory cells within ulcers and proliferation of a small amount of fibroblast were seen. CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light is effective in treating S. aureus corneal ulcer.

  1. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  2. ESR study of the singlet oxygen quenching and protective activity of Trolox on the photodecomposition of riboflavin and lumiflavin in aqueous buffer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mun Yhung; Min, David B

    2009-08-01

    Singlet oxygen quenching activity of Trolox, a water-soluble derivative of tocopherol, was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in a buffer solution (pH 7.4) containing methylene blue (MB), 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD) after light illumination for 30 min. Trolox at the concentration of 125 microM quenched 89.1% singlet oxygen in the system. Trolox showed significantly higher singlet oxygen quenching activity than ascorbic acid in the buffer solution (P Trolox greatly protected the photodegradation of riboflavin and lumiflavin. The protective activities of Trolox against the photodegradation of riboflavin and lumiflavin were also pH dependent. The treatments of 5 mM Trolox in the buffer solutions of pHs 8.5 and 6.5 exhibited 56.1% and 31.7% protection of riboflavin against degradation during 120 min light illumination, respectively. The treatments of Trolox at the concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 mM in the buffer of 6.5 exhibited 14.8%, 58.4%, and 81.4% protection of lumiflavin against degradation during 24 h light illumination, respectively.

  3. The effect of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking on anti-degeneration and promoting angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junxi; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Xinglong; Dong, Dinghui; Fan, Shujuan; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Xuemin; Wang, Bo; Lv, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Weak mechanical property and unstable degradation rate limited the application of decellularized liver matrix in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to explore a new method for improving the mechanical properties, anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix. This was achieved by a novel approach using riboflavin/ultraviolet A treatment to induce collagen cross-linking of decellularized matrix. Histological staining and scanning electron microscope showed that the diameter of cross-linked fibers significantly increased compared with the control group. The average peak load and Young's modulus of decellularized matrix were obviously improved after cross-linking. Then we implanted the modified matrix into the rat hepatic injury model to test the anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of riboflavin/UVA cross-linked decellularized liver scaffolds in vivo. The results indicated that cross-linked scaffolds degrade more slowly than those in the control group. In the experiment group, average microvessel density in the implanted matrix was higher than that in the control group since the first week after implantation. In conclusion, we initiated the method to improve the biomechanical properties of decellularized liver scaffolds by riboflavin/UVA cross-linking, and more importantly, its improvement on anti-degeneration and angiogenesis was identified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2662-2669, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects and mechanisms of eugenol, isoeugenol, coniferylaldehyde and dihydroeugenol on the riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of α-terpinene in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2017-04-01

    The effects of eugenol, isoeugenol, coniferylaldehyde, and dihydroeugenol on the riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of α-terpinene in methanol were studied. Riboflavin greatly accelerated α-terpinene oxidation in methanol during light illumination, resulting in two major oxidation products (p-cymene and ascaridole). The results clearly showed the involvement of Type I and II mechanisms. All the eugenols exerted strong protective activity on riboflavin sensitized photooxidation of α-terpinene. Dihydroeugenol showed the highest protective activity, followed by isoeugenol, coniferylaldehyde, and eugenol, in a decreasing order. Dihydroeugenol greatly inhibited the production of ascaridole, but showed relatively low inhibitory activity on the formation of p-cymene. The protective activity of dihydroeugenol was higher than those of BHA, BHT and sodium azide. Sodium azide, a specific singlet oxygen quencher, showed strong inhibitory activity on the formation of ascaridole, but very low inhibitory activity on the formation of p-cymene, verifying the feasibility of mechanism study with the present model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a more potent inhibitor against the formation of insulin amyloid fibril than EGCG monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rong-Zu; Zhu, Wei; Peng, Jin-Ming; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Because fibrillary protein aggregates is regarded to be closely associated with many diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, growing interest and researches have been focused on finding potential fibrillation inhibitors. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer) on the formation of insulin fibrillation were compared by multi-dimensional approaches including thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence assay, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic (ANS) fluorescence assay, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Our results confirmed that A-type EGCG dimer is a more potent inhibitor against the formation of bovine insulin amyloid fibril than EGCG. In addition, A-type EGCG dimer could not only inhibit insulin amyloid fibril formation, but also change the aggregation pathway and induce bovine insulin into amorphous aggregates. The results of the present study may provide a new guide on finding novel anti-amyloidogenic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. Revolutionary Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colgan, Jeff; Lucas, Edward

    2017-01-01

    How much and in what ways do individual leaders matter for international politics? This article sheds new light on these questions by considering the consequences of domestic revolutions in international relations. We argue that revolutions have international effects due to two separate pathways......, one associated with the event and one associated with the new leader's administration. In the first pathway, a revolutionary event disrupts established relationships and perceptions, creating uncertainty both within the state and abroad. In the second pathway, revolutions put individuals into office...... who are more willing to challenge the status quo and who have publicly committed to a sustained shift in policies during their administration. These two distinct pathways suggest that the important question about revolutions is not whether leaders or events matter most but rather the conditions under...

  7. Stroke pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketasubramanian, N

    2001-07-01

    Stroke pathways are task-orientated structured multidisciplinary care plans which detail essential steps and interventions during the period of care of a "typical" stroke patient. Pathway development and implementation are best achieved by an appointed champion leading a multidisciplinary team of health care workers and administrators, who will also be the end users of the pathway. Pathway development involves reviews of existing clinical practice guidelines and pathways, followed by documentation, interdigitation and prioritization of care requirements at different time points in the various spheres, taking into consideration local philosophies and practices. These spheres could include investigations, pharmacologic treatment, rehabilitative therapy, nursing measures, and patient education. This would result in evidence-based holistic quality care, wide support base, efficient service provision, reduced costs and length of stay, less practice variation, improved communication among disciplines, enhanced patient-staff relationship, ease of audit and research opportunities. Components of the pathway could include a patient summary sheet, multidisciplinary record of the various activities structured on a day-to-day basis, sign-off columns for staff responsible for performing those activity, variance sheet, and separate protocols for specific issues. Implementation requires training of users, pilot runs, feedback, regular revisions, monitoring of compliance, and analysis of variances. Widespread implementation of pathways may be hindered by lack of support, and concerns about increased time requirements and costs, stifling of innovation, restriction of application of clinical judgement, lack of applicability to all patients, misuse and legal issues. However, a well-designed pathway will ensure quality care in a cost-efficient manner, benefiting the patient, carer and the health care service.

  8. Clinical utilization of atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the available literature regarding the safety of atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation in order to recommend evidence-based strategies for pharmacologic management of psychosis in these conditions. We summarized the results from articles identified via MEDLINE/PubMed/TOXNET (1993-January 31, 2004), using the key terms pregnancy, lactation, breast-feeding, human milk, psychotropic drugs, atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, clozapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Retrospective studies, clinical observations, and case reports regarding the 6 atypical antipsychotics mentioned above were selected and analyzed. Extensive manual review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. Reviewed studies show that olanzapine and clozapine apparently do not increase the teratogenic risk if administered to pregnant women, while evidence on quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone is still limited. In contrast, available information is not able to exclude unwanted serious effects associated with the use of all atypical antipsychotics on mother-infant dyads. Furthermore, more than a few studies suggest increased hyperglycemic risk for pregnant women related to atypical antipsychotic therapy during gestation. Finally, published evidence about the effects on long-term infant neurodevelopment of drug exposure through both placenta and breast milk is represented only by sporadic case reports. It is well known that potential consequences of an untreated psychotic episode may be severe and may lead to the mother attempting suicide and/or infanticide. For these reasons, clinicians need to help mothers weigh both fetal and neonatal risks of exposure to drugs against the potential risk they and their infant may incur if the psychiatric illness is not treated. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and breast-feeding do not show evident advantages in safety when compared with typical neuroleptic

  9. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov S.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.

  10. Atypical cerebral language dominance in a right-handed patient: An anatomoclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Elke; Van Hecke, Wim; Dua, Guido; De Surgeloose, Didier; Moens, Maarten; Mariën, Peter

    2014-02-01

    ) preoperative brain plasticity mechanisms inducing a shift of language functions to the right hemisphere or (2) right hemisphere language dominance as a maturational variant. This case with atypical cerebral language dominance shows that although DES is the 'gold standard' to identify eloquent language regions and their pathways, fMRI and DTI are important adjuncts to guide surgery, to identify language lateralisation and to study anatomoclinical correlations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

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    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  12. Transmission of atypical scrapie to homozygous ARQ sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Two Cheviot ewes homozygous for the A136L141R154Q171 (AL141RQ) prion protein (PrP) genotype were exposed intracerebrally to brain pools prepared using four field cases of atypical scrapie from the United Kingdom. Animals were clinically normal until the end of the experiment, when they were culled 7 years post-inoculation. Limited accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrP(Sc)) was observed in the cerebellar molecular layer by immunohistochemistry, but not by western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, PrP(Sc) was partially localized in astrocytes and microglia, suggesting that these cells have a role in PrP(Sc) processing, degradation or both. Our results indicate that atypical scrapie is transmissible to AL141RQ sheep, but these animals act as clinically silent carriers with long incubation times.

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis with Atypical Clinical and MRI Findings

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    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and a slow virus infection caused by aberrant measles virüs. Typical neurological manifestations include psychomotor impairment, progressive intellectual deterioration, myoclonic jerks and behavioral changes, with or without pyramidal symptoms. It usually affecting people aged 10 to 14 year. We report the case of an 17-year-old girl presenting with initial symptom of visual loss, seizures, a lack of SSPE specific EEG pattern, late onset and atypical fast progression of disease. The case highlights the importance of atypical clinical findings of SSPE at onset and also firstly disappearing, then appearing MRI findings at sequential images which can complicate the accurate diagnosis. High suspicion is needed because of its rareness.

  14. [Atypical fractures of the femur: apropos of 3 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduloviciu, Maria; Stoll, Delphine; Lamy, Olivier; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Aubry-Rozier, Bérengère

    2014-08-06

    Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem. The bisphophonates are the most useful treatment used through the world to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Their large prescription revealed an unpredictable side effect: the atypical fracture. These fractures appear in the subtrochanteric or diaphysal femoral proximal site, spontaneously or after a low trauma, and could be bilateral. X-rays shows a transversal or oblique fracture with a spur in the cortex and with a diffuse thickening of the cortical of the proximal femur. Expert's recommendations are current in progress to well understand and managed this problem. Here we report three cases of atypical femur fractures occurred in our Centre of bone diseases with some management and treatment propositions.

  15. Learning, plasticity, and atypical generalization in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Barbara A; Rice, Courtney L; Dovgopoly, Alexander; Lopata, Christopher J; Thomeer, Marcus L; Nelson, Andrew; Mercado, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show accelerated learning in some tasks, degraded learning in others, and distinct deficits when generalizing to novel situations. Recent simulations with connectionist models suggest that deficits in cortical plasticity mechanisms can account for atypical patterns of generalization shown by some children with ASD. We tested the surprising theoretical prediction, from past simulations, that the children with ASD who show atypical generalization in perceptual categorization tasks will benefit more from training with a single prototypical member of the category than from training with multiple examples, but children with ASD who generalize normally will be comparatively harmed. The experimental results confirmed this prediction, suggesting that plasticity deficits may well underlie the difficulties that some children with ASD have generalizing skills, and these deficits are not specific to the acquisition of social skills, but rather reflect a more general perceptual learning deficit that may impact many abilities.

  16. Clinical Study of Mitomycin C in Reducing Haze Formation After Ultraviolet A/Riboflavin Crosslinking for Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin; Tao, Xiangchen; Li, Zhiwei; Xu, Yanyun; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Huijuan; Pu, Wei; Xie, Yi; Mu, Guoying

    2017-09-21

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of mitomycin C (MMC) in haze formation after ultraviolet A/riboflavin corneal crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. A total of 60 keratoconic eyes of 48 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative study after obtaining informed consent. In the CXL group, standard corneal CXL was performed, whereas in the CXL+MMC group, 0.02% MMC was used for 30 s soon after CXL. Comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations were performed on all patients before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The epithelium recovered within 3 to 4 days after CXL, and the healing time was comparable in the two groups. There was no significant endothelial cell density loss after CXL in both groups. Eyes in both groups showed improvement of uncorrected distance visual acuity (Snellen) and best-corrected visual acuity (Snellen; Pdegree, and central corneal thickness (CCT) (P0.05). Corneal haze scores were significantly higher in the CXL group at 1 and 3 months after CXL (P=0.012 and P=0.028, respectively), but were similar to the MMC group at 6 and 12 months after surgery (P=0.329 and P=0.543, respectively). Prophylactic intraoperative use of 0.02% MMC can significantly reduce CXL-associated haze formation, especially in the early postoperative period, and no signs of weakening CXL efficacy were observed.

  17. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  18. Administration of riboflavin improves behavioral outcome and reduces edema formation and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Michael R; Wolyniak, Joseph G; Akstulewicz, Stacy L

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that administration of riboflavin, vitamin B2, significantly reduced edema formation following experimental stroke. The present study evaluated the ability of B2 to improve behavioral function, reduce edema formation, and limit glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression following frontal cortex contusion injury. Groups of rats were assigned to B2 (7.5 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg) treatment conditions and received contusion injuries or sham procedures. Drug treatment was administered 15 min and 24 h following injury. Rats were examined on a variety of tests to measure sensorimotor performance (bilateral tactile removal test), and cognitive ability (acquisition of reference and working memory) in the Morris water maze. Administration of B2 following injury significantly reduced the behavioral impairments observed on the bilateral tactile removal test and improved the acquisition of both reference and working memory tests compared to saline-treated rats. The lesion analysis showed that B2 reduced the size of the lesion. Examination of GFAP expression around the lesion revealed that B2 significantly reduced the number of GFAP+ astrocytes. Edema formation following injury was also significantly reduced by B2 administration. These findings are the first to show that B2 administration significantly improved behavioral outcome and reduced lesion volume, edema formation, and the expression of GFAP following traumatic brain injury. These findings suggest that B2 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of TBI.

  19. Corneal Biomechanical Response Following Collagen Cross-Linking With Rose Bengal-Green Light and Riboflavin-UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekesi, Nandor; Kochevar, Irene E; Marcos, Susana

    2016-03-01

    To compare the biomechanical corneal response of two different corneal cross-linking (CXL) treatments, rose bengal-green light (RGX) and riboflavin-UVA (UVX), using noninvasive imaging. A total of 12 enucleated rabbit eyes were treated with RGX and 12 with UVX. Corneal dynamic deformation to an air puff was measured by high speed Scheimpflug imaging (Corvis ST) before and after treatment. The spatial and temporal deformation profiles were evaluated at constant intraocular pressure of 15 mm Hg, and several deformation parameters were estimated. The deformation profiles were modeled numerically using finite element analysis, and the hyperelastic corneal material parameters were obtained by inverse modeling technique. The corneal deformation amplitude decreased significantly after both CXL methods. The material parameters obtained from inverse modeling were consistent with corneal stiffening after both RGX and UVX. Within the treated corneal volume, we found that the elasticity decreased by a factor of 11 after RGX and by a factor of 6.25 after UVX. The deformation of UVX-treated corneas was smaller than the RGX-treated corneas. However, the reconstructed corneal mechanical parameters reveal that RGX produced in fact larger stiffening of the treated region (100-μm depth) than UVX (137-μm depth). Rose bengal-green light stiffens the cornea effectively, with shorter treatment times and shallower treated areas. Dynamic air puff deformation imaging coupled with mechanical simulations is a useful tool to characterize corneal biomechanical properties, assess different treatments, and possibly help optimize the treatment protocols.

  20. Riboflavin-containing telodendrimer nanocarriers for efficient doxorubicin delivery: High loading capacity, increased stability, and improved anticancer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dandan; Shi, Changying; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shengle; Luo, Juntao

    2017-10-01

    We have developed two linear-dendritic telodendrimers (TDs) with rational design using amphiphilic riboflavin (Rf) as building blocks for efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Micellar TD nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell and a Rf-containing affinitive core for DOX encapsulation. Strong DOX-Rf interactions and amphiphilic Rf structure render these nanocarriers with an ultra-high DOX loading capacity (>1/1, DOX/TD, w/w), ∼100% loading efficiency, the sustained drug release and the optimal particle sizes (20-40 nm) for efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery. These nanoformulations significantly prolonged DOX circulation time in the blood without the accelerated clearance observed after multiple injections. DOX-TDs target several types of tumors efficiently in vivo, e.g. Raji lymphoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer. In vivo maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DOX was increased by 2-2.5 folds for the nanoformulations in mice relative to those of free DOX and Doxil(®). These nanoformulations significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts. In summary, Rf-containing nanoformulations with high DOX loading capacity, improved stability and efficient tumor targeting lead to superior antitumor efficacy, which merit the further development for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  2. [A-type lamins and progeroïd syndromes : persistent farnesylation with dramatic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Claire L; Poitelon, Yannick; Lévy, Nicolas

    2008-10-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS), a rare and severe developmental disorder characterized by features recalling premature aging, and Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), a neonatal lethal genodermatosis, have recently been identified as being primary or secondary . These heterogeneous disorders are caused by altered Lamin maturation pathway. In physiological conditions, mature Lamin A is obtained through a series of post-translational processing steps performed on a protein precursor, Prelamin A. The major pathophysiological mechanism involved in Progeria is an aberrant splicing due to a de novo heterozygous point mutation, leading to the accumulation of truncated Lamin A precursor. The same aberrant splicing mechanism was involved in RD, whereas the majority of RD cases are caused by ZMPSTE24/FACE1 inactivation, a key enzyme involved in the Lamin A maturation pathway. In functional terms, all these conditions share the same pathophysiological mechanism, i.e. the intranuclear accumulation of Lamin A precursors, which cannot be fully processed and exert a toxic effect on nuclear homeostasis. In this article, we review the structure and functions of A-type Lamins, focusing namely on HGPS, RD or MAD disorders, in relation to existing animal models and possible future therapeutic approaches.

  3. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: what is it, how is it diagnosed, and how is it treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Carla M; Thomas, Christie P

    2012-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome of hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency. Genetic mutations in the alternate pathway of complement are well recognized as the cause in more than 60% of patients affected by this thrombotic microangiopathy. The identification of aHUS as a disease of the alternate pathway of complement enables directed therapeutic intervention both in the acute and chronic setting and may include one or all of the following: plasma therapy, complement blockade, and liver transplantation. Because aHUS shares many of the presenting characteristics of the other thrombotic microangiopathies, and confirmatory genetic results are not available at the time of presentation, the diagnosis relies heavily on the recognition of a clinical syndrome consistent with the diagnosis in the absence of signs of an alternate cause of thrombotic microangiopathy. Limited understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and clinical features of aHUS has the potential to delay diagnosis and treatment. To advance our understanding, a more complete characterization of the unique phenotypical features of aHUS is needed. Further studies to identify additional genetic loci for aHUS and more robust biomarkers of both active and quiescent disease are required. Advances in these areas will undoubtedly improve the care of patients with aHUS.

  4. The Development of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Depends on Complement C5

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jorge, Elena Goicoechea; Macor, Paolo; Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Rose, Kirsten L.; Tedesco, Franco; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Gene variants in the alternative pathway of the complement system strongly associate with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), presumably by predisposing to increased complement activation within the kidney. Complement factor H (CFH) is the major regulator of complement activation through the alternative pathway. Factor H-deficient mice transgenically expressing a mutant CFH protein (Cfh−/−.FHΔ16–20) that functionally mimics the CFH mutations reported in aHUS patients spontaneously develop thrombotic microangiopathy. To investigate the role of complement C5 activation in this aHUS model, we generated C5-deficient Cfh−/−.FHΔ16–20 mice. Both C5-sufficient and C5-deficient Cfh−/−.FHΔ16–20 mice had abnormal C3 deposition within the kidney, but spontaneous aHUS did not develop in any of the C5-deficient mice. Furthermore, although Cfh−/−.FHΔ16–20 animals demonstrated marked hypersensitivity to experimentally triggered renal injury, animals with concomitant C5 deficiency did not. These data demonstrate a critical role for C5 activation in both spontaneous aHUS and experimentally triggered renal injury in animals with defective complement factor H function. This study provides a rationale to investigate therapeutic inhibition of C5 in human aHUS. PMID:21148255

  5. Idiopathic Atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome presenting with acute dystonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maduemem, Rizwan K E

    2017-09-01

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. The atypical HUS (aHUS) results from over activation of complement system with formation of micro thrombi and damage to endothelial cells resulting in renal impairment in 50 % and death in 25 %, commonly in untreated patients. We report an intriguing case of aHUS presenting with acute onset of movement disorder and fluctuating delirium.

  6. Atypical presentation is dominant and typical for coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Rostami, Kamran; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Habibi, Manijeh; Dabiri, Hossein; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2009-09-01

    Atypical presentation is the most prevalent form of coeliac disease (CD) and mostly clinically indistinguishable from other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The first objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CD in patients with GI symptoms and the second objective was to characterize the typical manifestations of the atypical forms of CD. This was a cross sectional study comprising 5,176 individuals by random sampling of self-referred people from the Tehran province, during the years 2006-2007 in a primary care setting. From 5,176 individuals, 670 with GI symptoms were selected for coeliac serology including total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies. Those with IgA deficiency were tested with IgG tTG. This study shows that 13% (670/5176) of self-referred patients to a general practice suffer from GI symptoms. Dyspepsia was the most common symptom in 25 seropositive cases similar to the rest of the study group. A positive anti-tTG test was found in 22 from 670 investigated subjects (17 women, 5 men) (95% CI: 1.70-4.30) and 8/670 were IgA deficient. A positive IgG tTG was detected in 3/8 IgA deficient individuals. The prevalence of CD antibodies in serologically screened samples excluding IgA-deficient was 3.3% and 3.7% when including those IgA-deficient with positive tTG-IgG. Non-specific GI symptoms seem to be the typical presentation of atypical CD. This study indicated that there is a high prevalence of CD antibodies among patients with GI symptoms (3.7%). More awareness regarding the atypical presentation of CD could be the key step in identifying asymptomatic patients.

  7. Atypical Histiocyte-Rich Sweet’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet’s Syndrome is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis thought to be a result of immune dysregulation occurring in the setting of drug exposure, recent infection, pregnancy, and underlying malignancy or idiopathic with specific and widely accepted diagnostic criteria established in the literature. Other organ systems can be involved with varying degrees of severity. An unusual case of Sweet’s Syndrome associated with myopericarditis, acral involvement, and atypical histological findings with predominance of histiocytes is described here.

  8. Use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Joan M; Nunn-Thompson, Cheryl

    2007-04-01

    To review clinical trials and reports describing the efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole) in the treatment of autistic or other pervasive developmental disorders. English-language publications from the MEDLINE database (1966-February 2007) including clinical trials, case reports, and retrospective series were reviewed. Relevant data were extracted from studies of selected atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of autistic disorder in children, adolescents, and adults. Most literature found was in the form of case reports or case series; however, several open-label and double-blind trials were also identified. Autistic disorder is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with limited treatment options. Nonpharmacologic approaches may be the most beneficial, but pharmacologic agents are needed for some patients with significant behavioral manifestations of the disorder. The atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole) have shown some efficacy in improving certain behavioral symptoms of autistic disorder--primarily aggressiveness, hyperactivity, and self-injurious behavior. Efficacy was based on observation or changes from baseline in behavioral rating scores. Data appear to be strongest for olanzapine compared with quetiapine, with several open-label trials suggesting its efficacy. Weight gain and sedation were frequently reported adverse events with both agents. Aripiprazole has demonstrated efficacy in limited case series, with minimal adverse effects reported. Atypical antipsychotics represent a treatment option for symptoms associated with autistic disorder. However, these drugs do not affect the core symptoms of autistic disorder and are associated with potentially significant adverse effects. In addition, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials to determine the true efficacy and long-term safety of these agents in the pediatric population.

  9. Recurrent Malignancy-Associated Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Noninfectious Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kathryn Nicole; Panach, Kamaldeep; Dominguez, Arturo Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Sweet syndrome (SS) or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis presents with the sudden onset of fever, leukocytosis and tender, erythematous, edematous, well-demarcated papules and plaques that histopathologically demonstrate a dense neutrophilic infiltrate. A total of 20% of patients with SS have malignancy-associated disease that can present with bullous or atypical skin lesions that mimic pyoderma gangrenosum, another neutrophilic dermatosis. Both entities exist on a spectrum, and in the context of underlying malignancy, these neutrophilic diseases become less clinically distinct. The literature also describes life-threatening cases of neutrophilic dermatoses that mimic severe sepsis. We present a fatal case of a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia with recurrent episodes of malignancy-associated atypical neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by necrotic skin lesions, pulmonary infiltrates and noninfectious shock and we also summarize the clinical presentations of an additional 10 patients reported in the literature. We conducted a PubMed search of articles published up to and in 2015, focusing on the English and Spanish literature with SS cross-referenced with the following search terms: neutrophilic dermatosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, shock, multiorgan failure and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The articles were reviewed and the patients׳ clinical and laboratory findings were summarized. Cases of atypical neutrophilic dermatosis presenting with noninfectious shock syndrome are likely underrecognized clinically and underreported in the literature. Patients with malignancy-associated atypical neutrophilic dermatoses associated with noninfectious shock syndrome typically have multisystem disease characterized by recurrent episodes and typically have poor prognoses. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary atypical carcinoid of the parietal pleura expressing KIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The author reports an extremely rare case of atypical carcinoid of the pleura expressing KIT. An 81-year-old Japanese man with emphysema was found to have a mass (3×3×2 cm) in the left parietal pleura by various imaging modalities. Video-assisted tumorectomy was performed, but could not excise it completely. Histologically, the tumor was composed of atypical cells arranged in trabecular, ribbon-like, and rosette patterns. Mitotic figures and necrosis were present. The tumor cells were argyrophil. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins, cytokeratin (CK) 18, chromogranin (focal), p53, KIT, and Ki67 (labeling=17%). In contrast, the tumor cells were negative for CK5/6, CK7, CK19, CK20, CK34βE12, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, S100-protein, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, CEA, TTF-1, CDX-2, AFP, HepPar-1, synaptophysin, CD56, CA19-9, CD15, neuron specific enolase, serotonin, CD34, platelet-derived growth factor-α, calretinin, thrombomodulin, WT-1, B72.3, and D2-40. The pathologic diagnosis was atypical carcinoid of the pleura. The patient was examined by whole body computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, but there were no tumors other than the pleural tumor. Endoscopic examinations including upper and lower gastrointestinal tract revealed no tumors. Therefore, the pleural tumor was thought to be primary. Ten months later, the patient developed metastatic lesions in the vertebular and femoral bones, and died of respiratory failure. Autopsy was not performed. To the best of the author's knowledge, there are no cases of primary carcinoid in the pleura in the English literature. This case is also interesting in that the atypical carcinoid expressed KIT.

  11. Acute neck pain, an atypical presentation of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz

    2007-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long‐term repercussions. The “classic” presentation of sudden‐onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52‐year‐old man who presented with a 1‐day history of progressively worsening right‐sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Co...

  12. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarurin Pitanupong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.

  13. Electronic brachytherapy management of atypical fibroxanthoma: report of 8 lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Doggett; James Brazil; Marketa Limova; Leah Press; Sidney Smith; Jeremy Peck

    2017-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the suitability of treating atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), an uncommon skin malignancy, with electronic brachytherapy. Material and methods : From Feb 2013 to Sep 2014, we were referred a total of 8 cases of AFX in 7 patients, all involving the scalp. All of them were treated with electronic brachytherapy 50 Kev radiations (Xoft Axxent®, Fremont, California). All lesions received 40 Gy in two fractions per week with 5mm margins. Results : At a median follow-up...

  14. Atypical Pelvic Crescent Fracture Caused by Vertical Shear Force

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Eun; Lee, Se-Won; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Park, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The crescent fracture consists of a posterior iliac wing fracture with extension into the sacroiliac joint and a dislocation of the sacroiliac joint. This fracture represents a subset of lateral compression injury. The strong posterior ligaments of sacroiliac joint remain intact and a fracture fragment (crescent shape) involving the posterior superior iliac spines remains firmly attached to the sacrum. We report a patient with atypical pelvic crescent fracture that is mainly influenced by ver...

  15. Childhood atypical meningioma with perineural spread: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Feng-Yu.; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Wu, Chieh-Tsai [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan); Lin, Kuang-Lin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Meningiomas are uncommon in children. When they occur, they are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. Childhood meningiomas are generally large and commonly associated with cyst formation and an unusual location. Perineural tumor spread, occasionally associated with head and neck malignancies, is very rare in meningiomas. We present the MR findings of an atypical meningioma with perineural spread in a 4.5-year-old girl. (orig.)

  16. Quantitative methods for somatosensory evaluation in atypical odontalgia

    OpenAIRE

    PORPORATTI,André Luís; COSTA,Yuri Martins; STUGINSKI-BARBOSA,Juliana; BONJARDIM,Leonardo Rigoldi; CONTI,Paulo César Rodrigues; SVENSSON,Peter

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify reliable somatosensory evaluation methods for atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The computerized search included the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library). The studies included used the following quantitative sensory testing (QST) methods: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) (pinprick), pressure pain threshold (PPT), dynamic mechanical allodynia with a cotton swab (DMA1) or a brush (DMA2), warm d...

  17. Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abiko, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Toyofuku, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i) What is the prevalence of AO in the community? (ii) What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii) A...

  18. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    that 45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection...... of fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  19. Extracutaneous atypical syphilis in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Paula; Imaz, Arkaitz; Calatayud, Laura; García, Olga; Saumoy, María; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2017-12-07

    We describe a series of cases of syphilis with atypical extracutaneous clinical presentation diagnosed in HIV-infected patients. Retrospective observational study. All cases of syphilis diagnosed in HIV-infected patients during the period between June 2013 and June 2016 in a tertiary hospital of the Barcelona metropolitan area were analysed. A total of 71 cases of syphilis were diagnosed, 32 of them presenting with clinical signs or symptoms. Seven of these cases (9.8% of the total and 21.8% of the symptomatic cases) had atypical presentations with extracutaneous involvement: ocular (4), gastric (1), multiple hepatic abscesses (1) and generalised adenopathies (1). Patients were treated with intramuscular or intravenous penicillin and the clinical and serological evolution was good in all of them. Extracutaneous atypical clinical presentations were observed in 21.8% of symptomatic cases of syphilis in HIV+ patients with ocular involvement being the most freqent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Atypical resource allocation may contribute to many aspects of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Goldknopf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature and on reports by people with autism, this paper suggests that atypical resource allocation is a factor that contributes to many aspects of autism spectrum conditions, including difficulties with language and social cognition, atypical sensory and attentional experiences, executive and motor challenges, and perceptual and conceptual strengths and weaknesses. Drawing upon resource theoretical approaches that suggest that perception, cognition, and action draw upon multiple pools of resources, the approach states that compared with resources in typical cognition, resources in autism are narrowed or reduced, especially in people with strong sensory symptoms. In narrowed attention, resources are restricted to smaller areas and to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition; resources may be more intense than in typical cognition. In reduced attentional capacity, overall resources are reduced; resources may be restricted to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition, or the amount of resources allocated to each area or process may be reduced. Possible neural bases of the hypothesized atypical resource allocation, relations to other approaches, limitations, and tests of the hypotheses are discussed.