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Sample records for atypical human kinase

  1. Metformin action in human hepatocytes: coactivation of atypical protein kinase C alters 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase effects on lipogenic and gluconeogenic enzyme expression.

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    Sajan, Mini P; Ivey, Robert A; Farese, Robert V

    2013-11-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) levels and activity are elevated in hepatocytes of individuals with type 2 diabetes and cause excessive increases in the levels of lipogenic and gluconeogenic enzymes; aPKC inhibitors largely correct these aberrations. Metformin improves hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, metformin also activates aPKC in certain tissues; in the liver, this activation could amplify diabetic aberrations and offset the positive effects of AMPK. In this study, we examined whether metformin activates aPKC in human hepatocytes and the metabolic consequences of any such activation. We compared protein kinase activities and alterations in lipogenic and gluconeogenic enzyme levels during activity of the AMPK activators metformin and AICAR, relative to those of an aPKC-ι inhibitor, in hepatocytes from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic human organ donors. Metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) activated aPKC at concentrations comparable with those required for AMPK activation. Moreover, both agents increased lipogenic enzyme levels by an aPKC-dependent mechanism. Thus, whereas insulin- and diabetes-dependent increases in lipogenic enzyme levels were reversed by aPKC inhibition, such levels were increased in hepatocytes from non-diabetic donors and remained elevated in hepatocytes from diabetic donors following metformin and AICAR treatment. In addition, whereas aPKC inhibition diminished gluconeogenic enzyme levels in the absence and presence of insulin in hepatocytes from both non-diabetic and diabetic donors, metformin and AICAR increased gluconeogenic enzyme levels in hepatocytes from non-diabetic individuals, but nevertheless diminished gluconeogenic enzyme levels in insulin-treated hepatocytes from diabetic donors. Metformin and AICAR activate aPKC together with AMPK in human hepatocytes. Activation of aPKC increases lipogenic enzyme levels and alters gluconeogenic

  2. Atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes.

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    Philippe Truc

    Full Text Available The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.

  3. Role of Atypical Protein Kinases in Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity.

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    Borodinova, A A; Zuzina, A B; Balaban, P M

    2017-03-01

    Investigation of biochemical mechanisms underlying the long-term storage of information in nervous system is one of main problems of modern neurobiology. As a molecular basis of long-term memory, long-term changes in kinase activities, increase in the level and changes in the subunit composition of receptors in synaptic membranes, local activity of prion-like proteins, and epigenetic modifications of chromatin have been proposed. Perhaps a combination of all or of some of these factors underlies the storage of long-term memory in the brain. Many recent studies have shown an exclusively important role of atypical protein kinases (PKCζ, PKMζ, and PKCι/λ) in processes of learning, consolidation and maintenance of memory. The present review is devoted to consideration of mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control of atypical protein kinases and their roles in induction and maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in vertebrates and invertebrates.

  4. Clinical Heterogeneity of Atypical Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration in Koreans

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    Jae-Hyeok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA represents a group of inherited movement disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recent advances have included the identification of new causative genes and highlighted the wide phenotypic variation between and within the specific NBIA subtypes. This study aimed to investigate the current status of NBIA in Korea. Methods We collected genetically confirmed NBIA patients from twelve nationwide referral hospitals and from a review of the literature. We conducted a study to describe the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Korean adults with atypical pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN. Results Four subtypes of NBIA including PKAN (n = 30, PLA2G6-related neurodegeneration (n = 2, beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (n = 1, and aceruloplasminemia (n = 1 have been identified in the Korean population. The clinical features of fifteen adults with atypical PKAN included early focal limb dystonia, parkinsonism-predominant feature, oromandibular dystonia, and isolated freezing of gait (FOG. Patients with a higher age of onset tended to present with parkinsonism and FOG. The p.R440P and p.D378G mutations are two major mutations that represent approximately 50% of the mutated alleles. Although there were no specific genotype-phenotype correlations, most patients carrying the p.D378G mutation had a late-onset, atypical form of PKAN. Conclusions We found considerable phenotypic heterogeneity in Korean adults with atypical PKAN. The age of onset may influence the presentation of extrapyramidal symptoms.

  5. Tv-RIO1 – an atypical protein kinase from the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus

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    Sternberg Paul W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are key enzymes that regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and metabolic functions. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of phosphates to serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, thus playing functional roles in reversible protein phosphorylation. There are two main groups, namely eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs and atypical protein kinases (aPKs; RIO kinases belong to the latter group. While there is some information about RIO kinases and their roles in animals, nothing is known about them in parasites. This is the first study to characterise a RIO1 kinase from any parasite. Results A full-length cDNA (Tv-rio-1 encoding a RIO1 protein kinase (Tv-RIO1 was isolated from the economically important parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus (Order Strongylida. The uninterrupted open reading frame (ORF of 1476 nucleotides encoded a protein of 491 amino acids, containing the characteristic RIO1 motif LVHADLSEYNTL. Tv-rio-1 was transcribed at the highest level in the third-stage larva (L3, and a higher level in adult females than in males. Comparison with homologues from other organisms showed that protein Tv-RIO1 had significant homology to related proteins from a range of metazoans and plants. Amino acid sequence identity was most pronounced in the ATP-binding motif, active site and metal binding loop. Phylogenetic analyses of selected amino acid sequence data revealed Tv-RIO1 to be most closely related to the proteins in the species of Caenorhabditis. A structural model of Tv-RIO1 was constructed and compared with the published crystal structure of RIO1 of Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af-Rio1. Conclusion This study provides the first insights into the RIO1 protein kinases of nematodes, and a foundation for further investigations into the biochemical and functional roles of this molecule in biological processes in parasitic nematodes.

  6. BRD4 is an atypical kinase that phosphorylates Serine2 of the RNA Polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain

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    Devaiah, Ballachanda N.; Lewis, Brian A.; Cherman, Natasha; Hewitt, Michael C.; Albrecht, Brian K.; Robey, Pamela G.; Ozato, Keiko; Sims, Robert J.; Singer, Dinah S.

    2012-01-01

    The bromodomain protein, BRD4, has been identified recently as a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, NUT midline carcinoma, colon cancer, and inflammatory disease; its loss is a prognostic signature for metastatic breast cancer. BRD4 also contributes to regulation of both cell cycle and transcription of oncogenes, HIV, and human papilloma virus (HPV). Despite its role in a broad range of biological processes, the precise molecular mechanism of BRD4 function remains unknown. We report that BRD4 is an atypical kinase that binds to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II and directly phosphorylates its serine 2 (Ser2) sites both in vitro and in vivo under conditions where other CTD kinases are inactive. Phosphorylation of the CTD Ser2 is inhibited in vivo by a BRD4 inhibitor that blocks its binding to chromatin. Our finding that BRD4 is an RNA polymerase II CTD Ser2 kinase implicates it as a regulator of eukaryotic transcription. PMID:22509028

  7. Overexpression of atypical protein kinase C in HeLa cells facilitates macropinocytosis via Src activation.

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    Tisdale, Ellen J; Shisheva, Assia; Artalejo, Cristina R

    2014-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is the first recognized kinase oncogene. However, the specific contribution of aPKC to cancer progression is unclear. The pseudosubstrate domain of aPKC is different from the other PKC family members, and therefore a synthetic peptide corresponding to the aPKC pseudosubstrate (aPKC-PS) sequence, which specifically blocks aPKC kinase activity, is a valuable tool to assess the role of aPKC in various cellular processes. Here, we learned that HeLa cells incubated with membrane permeable aPKC-PS peptide displayed dilated heterogeneous vesicles labeled with peptide that were subsequently identified as macropinosomes. A quantitative membrane binding assay revealed that aPKC-PS peptide stimulated aPKC recruitment to membranes and activated Src. Similarly, aPKC overexpression in transfected HeLa cells activated Src and induced macropinosome formation. Src-aPKC interaction was essential; substitution of the proline residues in aPKC that associate with the Src-SH3 binding domain rendered the mutant kinase unable to induce macropinocytosis in transfected cells. We propose that aPKC overexpression is a contributing factor to cell transformation by interacting with and consequently promoting Src activation and constitutive macropinocytosis, which increases uptake of extracellular factors, required for altered cell growth and accelerated cell migration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Atypical MAP Kinase SWIP-13/ERK8 Regulates Dopamine Transporters through a Rho-Dependent Mechanism.

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    Bermingham, Daniel P; Hardaway, J Andrew; Refai, Osama; Marks, Christian R; Snider, Sam L; Sturgeon, Sarah M; Spencer, William C; Colbran, Roger J; Miller, David M; Blakely, Randy D

    2017-09-20

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates multiple behaviors across phylogeny, with disrupted DA signaling in humans associated with addiction, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The DA transporter (DAT) imposes spatial and temporal limits on DA action, and provides for presynaptic DA recycling to replenish neurotransmitter pools. Molecular mechanisms that regulate DAT expression, trafficking, and function, particularly in vivo, remain poorly understood, though recent studies have implicated rho-linked pathways in psychostimulant action. To identify genes that dictate the ability of DAT to sustain normal levels of DA clearance, we pursued a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans based on the phenotype swimming-induced paralysis (Swip), a paralytic behavior observed in hermaphrodite worms with loss-of-function dat-1 mutations. Here, we report the identity of swip-13, which encodes a highly conserved ortholog of the human atypical MAP kinase ERK8. We present evidence that SWIP-13 acts presynaptically to insure adequate levels of surface DAT expression and DA clearance. Moreover, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a conserved pathway involving SWIP-13/ERK8 activation of Rho GTPases that dictates DAT surface expression and function.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Signaling by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is tightly regulated by the DA transporter (DAT), insuring efficient DA clearance after release. Molecular networks that regulate DAT are poorly understood, particularly in vivo Using a forward genetic screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we implicate the atypical mitogen activated protein kinase, SWIP-13, in DAT regulation. Moreover, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that SWIP-13, as well as its human counterpart ERK8, regulate DAT surface availability via the activation of Rho proteins. Our findings implicate a novel pathway that regulates DA synaptic availability and that may

  9. Atypical protein kinase C regulates primary dendrite specification of cerebellar Purkinje cells by localizing Golgi apparatus.

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    Tanabe, Koji; Kani, Shuichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bae, Young-Ki; Abe, Takaya; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-12-15

    Neurons have highly polarized structures that determine what parts of the soma elaborate the axon and dendrites. However, little is known about the mechanisms that establish neuronal polarity in vivo. Cerebellar Purkinje cells extend a single primary dendrite from the soma that ramifies into a highly branched dendritic arbor. We used the zebrafish cerebellum to investigate the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells acquire these characteristics. To examine dendritic morphogenesis in individual Purkinje cells, we marked the cell membrane using a Purkinje cell-specific promoter to drive membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins. We found that zebrafish Purkinje cells initially extend multiple neurites from the soma and subsequently retract all but one, which becomes the primary dendrite. In addition, the Golgi apparatus specifically locates to the root of the primary dendrite, and its localization is already established in immature Purkinje cells that have multiple neurites. Inhibiting secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus reduces dendritic growth, suggesting that the Golgi apparatus is involved in the dendritic morphogenesis. We also demonstrated that in a mutant of an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Prkci, Purkinje cells retain multiple primary dendrites and show disrupted localization of the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, a mosaic inhibition of Prkci in Purkinje cells recapitulates the aPKC mutant phenotype. These results suggest that the aPKC cell autonomously controls the Golgi localization and thereby regulates the specification of the primary dendrite of Purkinje cells.

  10. Crystal Structure of Human Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase

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    Khan,J.; Xiang, S.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel {beta} sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  11. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

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    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  12. Association of Factor V Secretion with Protein Kinase B Signaling in Platelets from Horses with Atypical Equine Thrombasthenia.

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    Norris, J W; Pombo, M; Shirley, E; Blevins, G; Tablin, F

    2015-01-01

    Two congenital bleeding diatheses have been identified in Thoroughbred horses: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) and a second, novel diathesis associated with abnormal platelet function in response to collagen and thrombin stimulation. Platelet dysfunction in horses with this second thrombasthenia results from a secretory defect. Two affected and 6 clinically normal horses. Ex vivo study. Washed platelets were examined for (1) expression of the αIIb-β3 integrin; (2) fibrinogen binding capacity in response to ADP and thrombin; (3) secretion of dense and α-granules; (4) activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway; and (5) cellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-3-kinase, class 2B (PIK3C2B) and SH2 containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Platelets from affected horses expressed normal amounts of αIIb-β3 integrin and bound fibrinogen normally in response to ADP, but bound 80% less fibrinogen in response to thrombin. α-granules only released 50% as much Factor V as control platelets, but dense granules released their contents normally. Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation was reduced after thrombin activation, but mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling were normal. SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) did not localize to the cytoskeleton of affected platelets and was decreased overall consistent with reduced AKT phosphorylation. Defects in fibrinogen binding, granule secretion, and signal transduction are unique to this thrombasthenia, which we designate as atypical equine thrombasthenia. Copyright © The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

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    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  14. Signaling of mechanical stretch in human keratinocytes via MAP kinases.

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    Kippenberger, S; Bernd, A; Loitsch, S; Guschel, M; Müller, J; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Kaufmann, R

    2000-03-01

    Cells within human skin are permanently exposed to mechanical stretching. Here we present evidence that alterations in cell shape trigger biochemical signaling via MAP kinases in human keratinocytes. In an in vitro attempt we demonstrate a fast but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in response to cell stretch. This activation is reversed by preincubation with functional blocking antibodies directed towards beta1-integrins. As a second member of MAP kinases, stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase was activated in a slower fashion, peaking at 1 h after the initial stimulus. The delay in signal transmission suggests that extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase do not share the same signaling pathway. p38 was not activated by cell stretching. The contribution of cytoskeletal elements in signal perception and transduction was evaluated by selective disruption of either actin filaments, microtubules, or keratin filaments but showed no clear effect on stretch-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase. In conclusion we found evidence of a cell-shape-dependent activation of MAP kinases in human keratinocytes disclosing beta1-integrins as putative mechano-transducers. It is likely that alterations of skin mechanics in vivo underlying pathogenic processes like wound formation and healing trigger physiologic responses via the MAP kinase pathway.

  15. The role of atypical protein kinase C in CSF-1-dependent Erk activation and proliferation in myeloid progenitors and macrophages.

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    Angel W Lee

    Full Text Available Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 or M-CSF is the major physiological regulator of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. CSF-1 binds to a receptor tyrosine kinase, the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R. Multiple pathways are activated downstream of the CSF-1R; however, it is not clear which pathways regulate proliferation and survival. Here, we investigated the role of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCζ in a myeloid progenitor cell line that expressed CSF-1R (32D.R and in primary murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs. In 32D.R cells, CSF-1 induced the phosphorylation of PKCζ and increased its kinase activity. PKC inhibitors and transfections with mutant PKCs showed that optimal CSF-1-dependent Erk activation and proliferation depended on the activity of PKCζ. We previously reported that CSF-1 activated the Erk pathway through an A-Raf-dependent and an A-Raf independent pathway (Lee and States, Mol. Cell. Biol.18, 6779. PKC inhibitors did not affect CSF-1 induced Ras and A-Raf activity but markedly reduced MEK and Erk activity, implying that PKCζ regulated the CSF-1-Erk pathway at the level of MEK. PKCζ has been implicated in activating the NF-κB pathway. However, CSF-1 promoted proliferation in an NF-κB independent manner. We established stable 32D.R cell lines that overexpressed PKCζ. Overexpression of PKCζ increased the intensity and duration of CSF-1 induced Erk activity and rendered cells more responsive to CSF-1 mediated proliferation. In contrast to 32D.R cells, PKCζ inhibition in BMMs had only a modest effect on proliferation. Moreover, PKCζ -specific and pan-PKC inhibitors induced a paradoxical increase in MEK-Erk phosphorylation suggesting that PKCs targeted a common negative regulatory step upstream of MEK. Our results demonstrated that CSF-1 dependent Erk activation and proliferation are regulated differentially in progenitors and differentiated cells.

  16. Atypical protein kinase C mediates activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 in response to oxidative stress.

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    Numazawa, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Makie; Yoshida, Aya; Tanaka, Sachiko; Yoshida, Takemi

    2003-08-01

    Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the induction of antioxidative proteins, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Nrf2 is sequestered in the cytoplasm by Keap1 under unstimulated conditions but translocates into the nucleus and transactivates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) upon exposure to oxidative insults. It has recently been demonstrated that in vitro phosphorylation of Nrf2 on Ser40 by protein kinase C (PKC) facilitates the dissociation of Nrf2 from the Keap1 complex (Huang HC, Nguyen T, and Pickett CB. J Biol Chem 277: 42769-42774, 2002). The present study was designed to examine whether PKC is involved in oxidative stress-mediated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in vivo and, if so, which PKC isoforms are involved. Induction of HO-1 gene expression by phorone, a glutathione depletor, and 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal (4-HNE), an end product of lipid peroxidation, was suppressed by a specific PKC inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, at concentrations that inhibit all isoforms in WI-38 cells. The induction of HO-1 was not affected by prolonged exposure of the cells to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA), suggesting that TPA-insensitive atypical PKC (aPKC) isoforms are involved. An immunocomplex kinase assay revealed that phorone and 4-HNE increased aPKCiota activity. In COS-7 cells, 4-HNE induced nuclear translocation of the Nrf2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, but not the Nrf2(S40A)-GFP mutant. In the absence of oxidative insults, the Nrf2(S40E)-GFP mutant was distributed in the nucleus. The Nrf2-GFP accumulation in the nucleus was induced by coexpression of aPKCiota, but not by a kinase inactive mutant aPKCiota(K274W). The activity of an ARE-driven reporter was increased by coexpression of aPKCiota, and this effect was eliminated by Ro-31-8220 in HepG2 cells. The reporter activity induced by 4-HNE was inhibited by coexpression of aPKCiota(K274W). These results suggest that phosphorylation of Nrf2 Ser40 by aPKC(s) is involved in

  17. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

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    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  18. Differential inhibitor sensitivity between human kinases VRK1 and VRK2.

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    Marta Vázquez-Cedeira

    Full Text Available Human vaccinia-related kinases (VRK1 and VRK2 are atypical active Ser-Thr kinases implicated in control of cell cycle entry, apoptosis and autophagy, and affect signalling by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. The specific structural differences in VRK catalytic sites make them suitable candidates for development of specific inhibitors. In this work we have determined the sensitivity of VRK1 and VRK2 to kinase inhibitors, currently used in biological assays or in preclinical studies, in order to discriminate between the two proteins as well as with respect to the vaccinia virus B1R kinase. Both VRK proteins and vaccinia B1R are poorly inhibited by inhibitors of different types targeting Src, MEK1, B-Raf, JNK, p38, CK1, ATM, CHK1/2 and DNA-PK, and most of them have no effect even at 100 µM. Despite their low sensitivity, some of these inhibitors in the low micromolar range are able to discriminate between VRK1, VRK2 and B1R. VRK1 is more sensitive to staurosporine, RO-31-8220 and TDZD8. VRK2 is more sensitive to roscovitine, RO 31-8220, Cdk1 inhibitor, AZD7762, and IC261. Vaccinia virus B1R is more sensitive to staurosporine, KU55933, and RO 31-8220, but not to IC261. Thus, the three kinases present a different pattern of sensitivity to kinase inhibitors. This differential response to known inhibitors can provide a structural framework for VRK1 or VRK2 specific inhibitors with low or no cross-inhibition. The development of highly specific VRK1 inhibitors might be of potential clinical use in those cancers where these kinases identify a clinical subtype with a poorer prognosis, as is the case of VRK1 in breast cancer.

  19. A comparative study of Drosophila and human A-type lamins.

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    Sandra R Schulze

    Full Text Available Nuclear intermediate filament proteins, called lamins, form a meshwork that lines the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. Lamins contain three domains: an N-terminal head, a central rod and a C-terminal tail domain possessing an Ig-fold structural motif. Lamins are classified as either A- or B-type based on structure and expression pattern. The Drosophila genome possesses two genes encoding lamins, Lamin C and lamin Dm(0, which have been designated A- and B-type, respectively, based on their expression profile and structural features. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding A-type lamins are associated with a spectrum of predominantly tissue-specific diseases known as laminopathies. Linking the disease phenotypes to cellular functions of lamins has been a major challenge. Drosophila is being used as a model system to identify the roles of lamins in development. Towards this end, we performed a comparative study of Drosophila and human A-type lamins. Analysis of transgenic flies showed that human lamins localize predictably within the Drosophila nucleus. Consistent with this finding, yeast two-hybrid data demonstrated conservation of partner-protein interactions. Drosophila lacking A-type lamin show nuclear envelope defects similar to those observed with human laminopathies. Expression of mutant forms of the A-type Drosophila lamin modeled after human disease-causing amino acid substitutions revealed an essential role for the N-terminal head and the Ig-fold in larval muscle tissue. This tissue-restricted sensitivity suggests a conserved role for lamins in muscle biology. In conclusion, we show that (1 localization of A-type lamins and protein-partner interactions are conserved between Drosophila and humans, (2 loss of the Drosophila A-type lamin causes nuclear defects and (3 muscle tissue is sensitive to the expression of mutant forms of A-type lamin modeled after those causing disease in humans. These studies provide new insights on the

  20. Functional diversity of human protein kinase splice variants marks significant expansion of human kinome

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    Anamika Krishanpal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are involved in diverse spectrum of cellular processes. Availability of draft version of the human genomic data in the year 2001 enabled recognition of repertoire of protein kinases. However, over the years the human genomic data is being refined and the current release of human genomic data has helped us to recognize a larger repertoire of over 900 human protein kinases represented mainly by splice variants. Results Many of these identified protein kinases are alternatively spliced products. Interestingly, some of the human kinase splice variants appear to be significantly diverged in terms of their functional properties as represented by incorporation or absence of one or more domains. Many sets of protein kinase splice variants have substantially different domain organization and in a few sets of splice variants kinase domains belong to different subfamilies of kinases suggesting potential participation in different signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Addition or deletion of a domain between splice variants of multi-domain kinases appears to be a means of generating differences in the functional features of otherwise similar kinases. It is intriguing that marked sequence diversity within the catalytic regions of some of the splice variant kinases result in kinases belonging to different subfamilies. These human kinase splice variants with different functions might contribute to diversity of eukaryotic cellular signaling.

  1. Structures of thymidine kinase 1 of human and mycoplasma origin

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    Welin, Martin; Kosinska, Urszula; Mikkelsen, Nils-Egil

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic thymidine kinase, TK1, is a well-known cell cycle regulated enzyme of importance in nucleotide metabolism as well as an activator of antiviral and anticancer drugs as AZT. We have now determined the first structures of the TK1 family, the human and Ureaplasma urealyticum enzymes, in com...... differs fundamentally from the structures of the other deoxyribonucleoside kinases indicating a different evolutionary origin....

  2. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

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    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...... to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-¿ and PKC-¿ have interchangeable functions in these processes....

  3. Acquired pyruvate kinase deficiency. The effect of maleic acid upon human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, E.D.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Maleic acid is shown to be able to bind the thiol compound 2-mercaptoethanol. This is fully consistent with the data of Morgan and Friedman (1938). 2. 2. Human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase dissolved and quantitated in Trismaleate shows a loss of positive homotropic interactions, as compared

  4. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  5. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  6. Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunjian; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-18

    Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis.

  7. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Structural comparison of human mammalian ste20-like kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Record

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine mammalian Ste-20 like kinases (MSTs are key regulators of apoptosis, cellular proliferation as well as polarization. Deregulation of MSTs has been associated with disease progression in prostate and colorectal cancer. The four human MSTs are regulated differently by C-terminal regions flanking the catalytic domains.We have determined the crystal structure of kinase domain of MST4 in complex with an ATP-mimetic inhibitor. This is the first structure of an inactive conformation of a member of the MST kinase family. Comparison with active structures of MST3 and MST1 revealed a dimeric association of MST4 suggesting an activation loop exchanged mechanism of MST4 auto-activation. Together with a homology model of MST2 we provide a comparative analysis of the kinase domains for all four members of the human MST family.The comparative analysis identified new structural features in the MST ATP binding pocket and has also defined the mechanism for autophosphorylation. Both structural features may be further explored for inhibitors design.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  9. Structure-function analysis of STRUBBELIG, an Arabidopsis atypical receptor-like kinase involved in tissue morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vaddepalli

    Full Text Available Tissue morphogenesis in plants requires the coordination of cellular behavior across clonally distinct histogenic layers. The underlying signaling mechanisms are presently being unraveled and are known to include the cell surface leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG in Arabidopsis. To understand better its mode of action an extensive structure-function analysis of STRUBBELIG was performed. The phenotypes of 20 EMS and T-DNA-induced strubbelig alleles were assessed and homology modeling was applied to rationalize their possible effects on STRUBBELIG protein structure. The analysis was complemented by phenotypic, cell biological, and pharmacological investigations of a strubbelig null allele carrying genomic rescue constructs encoding fusions between various mutated STRUBBELIG proteins and GFP. The results indicate that STRUBBELIG accepts quite some sequence variation, reveal the biological importance for the STRUBBELIG N-capping domain, and reinforce the notion that kinase activity is not essential for its function in vivo. Furthermore, individual protein domains of STRUBBELIG cannot be related to specific STRUBBELIG-dependent biological processes suggesting that process specificity is mediated by factors acting together with or downstream of STRUBBELIG. In addition, the evidence indicates that biogenesis of a functional STRUBBELIG receptor is subject to endoplasmic reticulum-mediated quality control, and that an MG132-sensitive process regulates its stability. Finally, STRUBBELIG and the receptor-like kinase gene ERECTA interact synergistically in the control of internode length. The data provide genetic and molecular insight into how STRUBBELIG regulates intercellular communication in tissue morphogenesis.

  10. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atypical depression Overview Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  11. Athlete atypicity on the edge of human achievement: performances stagnate after the last peak, in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-20

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress.We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints.

  12. Athlete atypicity on the edge of human achievement: performances stagnate after the last peak, in 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Berthelot

    Full Text Available The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress.We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988 followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints.

  13. Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. PMID:20098706

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 promotes human prostate cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Pavese

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. Death from PCa primarily results from metastasis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 is overexpressed in invasive PCa lesions in humans, and can be inhibited by small molecule therapeutics that demonstrate favorable activity in phase II studies. However, MAP2K4's role in regulating metastatic behavior is controversial and unknown. To investigate, we engineered human PCa cell lines which overexpress either wild type or constitutive active MAP2K4. Orthotopic implantation into mice demonstrated MAP2K4 increases formation of distant metastasis. Constitutive active MAP2K4, though not wild type, increases tumor size and circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow. Complementary in vitro studies establish stable MAP2K4 overexpression promotes cell invasion, but does not affect cell growth or migration. MAP2K4 overexpression increases the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 protein and protease production, with the largest effect upon matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, both in vitro and in mouse tumor samples. Further, MAP2K4-mediated increases in cell invasion are dependent upon heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 and MMP-2, but not upon MAP2K4's immediate downstream targets, p38 MAPK or JNK. We demonstrate that MAP2K4 increases human PCa metastasis, and prolonged over expression induces long term changes in cell signaling pathways leading to independence from p38 MAPK and JNK. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for human studies linking increases in HSP27 and MMP-2 to progression to metastatic disease. MAP2K4 is validated as an important therapeutic target for inhibiting human PCa metastasis.

  15. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen (Sanofi); (Michigan); (Texas)

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  16. The Entamoeba histolytica, Arp2/3 Complex Is Recruited to Phagocytic Cups through an Atypical Kinase EhAK1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuta, Mrigya; Mansuri, M Shahid; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis and phagocytosis plays a key role in virulence of this organism. Signaling pathways involved in activation of cytoskeletal dynamics required for phagocytosis remain to be elucidated. Phagocytosis is initiated with sequential recruitment of EhC2PK, EhCaBP1, EhCaBP3 and an atypical kinase EhAK1 after particle attachment. Here we show that EhARPC1, an essential subunit of the actin branching complex Arp 2/3 is recruited to the phagocytic initiation sites by EhAK1. Imaging, expression knockdown of different molecules and pull down experiments suggest that EhARPC1 interacts with EhAK1 and that it is required during initiation of phagocytosis and phagosome formation. Moreover, recruitment of EhARPC2 at the phagocytosis initiation by EhAK1 is also observed, indicating that the Arp 2/3 complex is recruited. In conclusion, these results suggests a novel mechanism of recruitment of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis in E. histolytica. PMID:26646565

  17. Extending Thymidine Kinase Activity to the Catalytic Repertoire of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Saugata; Sabini, Eliszbetta; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon; (UIC); (MXPL-G)

    2009-03-04

    Salvage of nucleosides in the cytosol of human cells is carried out by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Whereas TK1 is only responsible for thymidine phosphorylation, dCK is capable of converting dC, dA, and dG into their monophosphate forms. Using structural data on dCK, we predicted that select mutations at the active site would, in addition to making the enzyme faster, expand the catalytic repertoire of dCK to include thymidine. Specifically, we hypothesized that steric repulsion between the methyl group of the thymine base and Arg104 is the main factor preventing the phosphorylation of thymidine by wild-type dCK. Here we present kinetic data on several dCK variants where Arg104 has been replaced by select residues, all performed in combination with the mutation of Asp133 to an alanine. We show that several hydrophobic residues at position 104 endow dCK with thymidine kinase activity. Depending on the exact nature of the mutations, the enzyme's substrate preference is modified. The R104M-D133A double mutant is a pyrimidine-specific enzyme due to large K{sub m} values with purines. The crystal structure of the double mutant R104M-D133A in complex with the L-form of thymidine supplies a structural explanation for the ability of this variant to phosphorylate thymidine and thymidine analogs. The replacement of Arg104 by a smaller residue allows L-dT to bind deeper into the active site, making space for the C5-methyl group of the thymine base. The unique catalytic properties of several of the mutants make them good candidates for suicide-gene/protein-therapy applications.

  18. Atypical Asymmetry for Processing Human and Robot Faces in Autism Revealed by fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E Jung

    Full Text Available Deficits in the visual processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder (ASD individuals may be due to atypical brain organization and function. Studies assessing asymmetric brain function in ASD individuals have suggested that facial processing, which is known to be lateralized in neurotypical (NT individuals, may be less lateralized in ASD. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to first test this theory by comparing patterns of lateralized brain activity in homologous temporal-occipital facial processing regions during observation of faces in an ASD group and an NT group. As expected, the ASD participants showed reduced right hemisphere asymmetry for human faces, compared to the NT participants. Based on recent behavioral reports suggesting that robots can facilitate increased verbal interaction over human counterparts in ASD, we also measured responses to faces of robots to determine if these patterns of activation were lateralized in each group. In this exploratory test, both groups showed similar asymmetry patterns for the robot faces. Our findings confirm existing literature suggesting reduced asymmetry for human faces in ASD and provide a preliminary foundation for future testing of how the use of categorically different social stimuli in the clinical setting may be beneficial in this population.

  19. A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the RANKL-Dependent Differentiation and Function of Human Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Howell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  20. Crystal structures of human pyridoxal kinase in complex with the neurotoxins, ginkgotoxin and theophylline: insights into pyridoxal kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Amit K; Desai, Jigar V; Ghatge, Mohini S; di Salvo, Martino L; Di Biase, Stefano; Danso-Danquah, Richmond; Musayev, Faik N; Contestabile, Roberto; Schirch, Verne; Safo, Martin K

    2012-01-01

    Several drugs and natural compounds are known to be highly neurotoxic, triggering epileptic convulsions or seizures, and causing headaches, agitations, as well as other neuronal symptoms. The neurotoxic effects of some of these compounds, including theophylline and ginkgotoxin, have been traced to their inhibitory activity against human pyridoxal kinase (hPL kinase), resulting in deficiency of the active cofactor form of vitamin B₆, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Pyridoxal (PL), an inactive form of vitamin B₆ is converted to PLP by PL kinase. PLP is the B₆ vitamer required as a cofactor for over 160 enzymatic activities essential in primary and secondary metabolism. We have performed structural and kinetic studies on hPL kinase with several potential inhibitors, including ginkgotoxin and theophylline. The structural studies show ginkgotoxin and theophylline bound at the substrate site, and are involved in similar protein interactions as the natural substrate, PL. Interestingly, the phosphorylated product of ginkgotoxin is also observed bound at the active site. This work provides insights into the molecular basis of hPL kinase inhibition and may provide a working hypothesis to quickly screen or identify neurotoxic drugs as potential hPL kinase inhibitors. Such adverse effects may be prevented by administration of an appropriate form of vitamin B₆, or provide clues of how to modify these drugs to help reduce their hPL kinase inhibitory effects.

  1. Crystal structures of human pyridoxal kinase in complex with the neurotoxins, ginkgotoxin and theophylline: insights into pyridoxal kinase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Gandhi

    Full Text Available Several drugs and natural compounds are known to be highly neurotoxic, triggering epileptic convulsions or seizures, and causing headaches, agitations, as well as other neuronal symptoms. The neurotoxic effects of some of these compounds, including theophylline and ginkgotoxin, have been traced to their inhibitory activity against human pyridoxal kinase (hPL kinase, resulting in deficiency of the active cofactor form of vitamin B₆, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP. Pyridoxal (PL, an inactive form of vitamin B₆ is converted to PLP by PL kinase. PLP is the B₆ vitamer required as a cofactor for over 160 enzymatic activities essential in primary and secondary metabolism. We have performed structural and kinetic studies on hPL kinase with several potential inhibitors, including ginkgotoxin and theophylline. The structural studies show ginkgotoxin and theophylline bound at the substrate site, and are involved in similar protein interactions as the natural substrate, PL. Interestingly, the phosphorylated product of ginkgotoxin is also observed bound at the active site. This work provides insights into the molecular basis of hPL kinase inhibition and may provide a working hypothesis to quickly screen or identify neurotoxic drugs as potential hPL kinase inhibitors. Such adverse effects may be prevented by administration of an appropriate form of vitamin B₆, or provide clues of how to modify these drugs to help reduce their hPL kinase inhibitory effects.

  2. Crystal Structures of Human Pyridoxal Kinase in Complex with the Neurotoxins, Ginkgotoxin and Theophylline: Insights into Pyridoxal Kinase Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mohini S.; di Salvo, Martino L.; Di Biase, Stefano; Danso-Danquah, Richmond; Musayev, Faik N.; Contestabile, Roberto; Schirch, Verne; Safo, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    Several drugs and natural compounds are known to be highly neurotoxic, triggering epileptic convulsions or seizures, and causing headaches, agitations, as well as other neuronal symptoms. The neurotoxic effects of some of these compounds, including theophylline and ginkgotoxin, have been traced to their inhibitory activity against human pyridoxal kinase (hPL kinase), resulting in deficiency of the active cofactor form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP). Pyridoxal (PL), an inactive form of vitamin B6 is converted to PLP by PL kinase. PLP is the B6 vitamer required as a cofactor for over 160 enzymatic activities essential in primary and secondary metabolism. We have performed structural and kinetic studies on hPL kinase with several potential inhibitors, including ginkgotoxin and theophylline. The structural studies show ginkgotoxin and theophylline bound at the substrate site, and are involved in similar protein interactions as the natural substrate, PL. Interestingly, the phosphorylated product of ginkgotoxin is also observed bound at the active site. This work provides insights into the molecular basis of hPL kinase inhibition and may provide a working hypothesis to quickly screen or identify neurotoxic drugs as potential hPL kinase inhibitors. Such adverse effects may be prevented by administration of an appropriate form of vitamin B6, or provide clues of how to modify these drugs to help reduce their hPL kinase inhibitory effects. PMID:22879864

  3. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Bacteria that cause atypical pneumonia include: Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae . It often affects people younger than age 40. Pneumonia due ...

  4. Primary human cytomegalovirus infection induces the expansion of virus-specific activated and atypical memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauby, Nicolas; Kummert, Caroline; Lecomte, Sandra; Liesnard, Corinne; Delforge, Marie-Luce; Donner, Catherine; Marchant, Arnaud

    2014-10-15

    Although neutralizing antibodies play a central role in the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) dissemination, little is known about the response of B lymphocytes to primary human CMV infection. The proportion, phenotype, specificity, and functionality of B-cell subsets were studied in a cohort of pregnant women with primary CMV infection. CMV-seronegative pregnant women, as well as CMV-seronegative and CMV-seropositive healthy adults, were included as controls. Primary CMV infection was associated with a sustained expansion of activated (CD27(+)CD20(+)CD21(low)) and atypical (CD27(-)CD20(+)CD21(low)) memory B cells (MBCs). Both subsets expressed an effector phenotype, and their proportions were correlated with viremia. Activated MBCs expressed high levels of activation markers and included high frequencies of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α)-producing cells, whereas atypical MBCs expressed high levels of inhibitory receptors and had low TNF-α responses. Fluorescent-labeled antigen experiments indicated that activated and atypical MBCs were enriched in CMV-specific cells. Primary CMV infection mobilizes a large pool of memory B cells that includes activated and atypical MBCs. The functional regulation of CMV-specific MBCs may limit the production of antibodies and the control of viral dissemination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  6. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  7. Structural and biochemical analysis of atypically low dephosphorylating activity of human dual-specificity phosphatase 28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Ku

    Full Text Available Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs constitute a subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases, and are intimately involved in the regulation of diverse parameters of cellular signaling and essential biological processes. DUSP28 is one of the DUSP subfamily members that is known to be implicated in the progression of hepatocellular and pancreatic cancers, and its biological functions and enzymatic characteristics are mostly unknown. Herein, we present the crystal structure of human DUSP28 determined to 2.1 Å resolution. DUSP28 adopts a typical DUSP fold, which is composed of a central β-sheet covered by α-helices on both sides and contains a well-ordered activation loop, as do other enzymatically active DUSP proteins. The catalytic pocket of DUSP28, however, appears hardly accessible to a substrate because of the presence of nonconserved bulky residues in the protein tyrosine phosphatase signature motif. Accordingly, DUSP28 showed an atypically low phosphatase activity in the biochemical assay, which was remarkably improved by mutations of two nonconserved residues in the activation loop. Overall, this work reports the structural and biochemical basis for understanding a putative oncological therapeutic target, DUSP28, and also provides a unique mechanism for the regulation of enzymatic activity in the DUSP subfamily proteins.

  8. Human papillomavirus among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesi, Suelen; Correa, Leonardo; Tregnago, Márcia Caldart; Mandelli, Jovana; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a population in southern Brazil. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the prevalence of ASCUS was determined among women aged 20-60 years who were referred to a private medical center in Caxias do Sul by a gynecologist for assessment of a cervical condition between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2011. Histologic and cytologic samples were tested for HPV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to genotype any HPV DNA identified. Among the 250 included women, 25 (10.0%) had ASCUS. HPV DNA was found in 15 (60.0%) women with ASCUS and 115 (51.1%) of the 225 without ASCUS. Viral typing showed that 7 (46.7%) HPV-positive women with ASCUS had multiple infections with up to five different genotypes. Both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes were found in ASCUS samples; the most prevalent genotypes were HPV6/HPV11 (affecting 10 [66.7%] women), HPV51 (6 [40.0%]), and HPV16 (6 [40.0%]). ASCUS is not an indication of HPV infection. HPV screening and genotyping would benefit women with ASCUS, because treatment can be planned according to risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atypical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ertekin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical depression is defined as a specifier of major depressive disorder. Columbia criteria for atypical depression are commonly used to make a diagnosis. Female sex, onset at early age, chronic course, and higher rate of comorbidity (especially anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder is noteworthy in atypical depression. Although, the atypical depression seems to support the familial genetic transition, there is not any specific study supporting these data. In the treatment of atypical depression, monoamine oxidase inhibitors are reported to be more effective than tricyclic antidepressants. In recent studies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also proven to be efficient.

  10. Pfnek-1, a NIMA-related kinase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Biochemical properties and possible involvement in MAPK regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, D; Le Roch, K; Sallicandro, P; Alano, P; Parzy, D; Poullet, P; Meijer, L; Doerig, C

    2001-05-01

    We have cloned Pfnek-1, a gene encoding a novel protein kinase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This enzyme displays maximal homology to the never-in-mitosis/Aspergillus (NIMA)/NIMA-like kinase (Nek) family of protein kinases, whose members are involved in eukaryotic cell division processes. Similar to other P. falciparum protein kinases and many enzymes of the NIMA/Nek family, Pfnek-1 possesses a large C-terminal extension in addition to the catalytic domain. Bacterially expressed recombinant Pfnek-1 protein is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate a panel of protein substrates with a specificity that is similar to that displayed by other members of the NIMA/Nek family. However, the FXXT motif usually found in NIMA/Nek protein kinases is substituted in Pfnek-1 by a SMAHS motif, which is reminiscent of a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) activation site. Mutational analysis indicates that only one of the serine residues in this motif is essential for Pfnek-1 kinase activity in vitro. We show (a) that recombinant Pfnek-1 is able to specifically phosphorylate Pfmap-2, an atypical P. falciparum MAPK homologue, in vitro, and (b) that coincubation of Pfnek-1 and Pfmap-2 results in a synergistic increase in exogenous substrate labelling. This suggests that Pfnek-1 may be involved in the modulation of MAPK pathway output in malaria parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that recombinant Pfnek-1 can be used in inhibition assays to monitor the effect of kinase inhibitors, which opens the way to the screening of chemical libraries aimed at identifying potential new antimalarials.

  11. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ana Cristina Macêdo; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%), being 38 (54.2%) reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71%) neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5%) ASC-US and 8 (11.41%) ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol), respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%), 19 (27.1%), 3 (27.1%), 16 (22.8%), and 1 (1.4%). A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P = .0021). High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P = .031). Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN. PMID:21760701

  12. Enantioselectivity of human AMP, dTMP and UMP-CMP kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Julie A C; Roy, Béatrice; Topalis, Dimitri; Pochet, Sylvie; Périgaud, Christian; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    L-nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine are active for treating viral infections. Like D-nucleosides, the biological activity of the L-enantiomers requires their stepwise phosphorylation by cellular or viral kinases to give the triphosphate. The enantioselectivity of NMP kinases has not been thoroughly studied, unlike that of deoxyribonucleoside kinases. We have therefore investigated the capacity of L-enantiomers of some natural (d)NMP to act as substrates for the recombinant forms of human uridylate-cytidylate kinase, thymidylate kinase and adenylate kinases 1 and 2. Both cytosolic and mitochondrial adenylate kinases were strictly enantioselective, as they phosphorylated only D-(d)AMP. L-dTMP was a substrate for thymidylate kinase, but with an efficiency 150-fold less than D-dTMP. Both L-dUMP and L-(d)CMP were phosphorylated by UMP-CMP kinase although much less efficiently than their natural counterparts. The stereopreference was conserved with the 2'-azido derivatives of dUMP and dUMP while, unexpectedly, the 2'-azido-D-dCMP was a 4-fold better substrate for UMP-CMP kinase than was CMP. Docking simulations showed that the small differences in the binding of D-(d)NMP to their respective kinases could account for the differences in interactions of the L-isomers with the enzymes. This in vitro information was then used to develop the in vivo activation pathway for L-dT.

  13. Abnormal A-type lamin organization in a human lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, BM; Broers, JL; Raymond, Y; de Leij, Louis; Kuijpers, HJH; Caberg, NEH; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.

    We have studied the expression of lamins A and C (A-type lamins) in a lung carcinoma cell line using type-specific monoclonal antibodies, Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies it was noted that several irregularities in lamin expression exist in the cell line GLC-A1, derived from an

  14. Identification and characterization of Nek6 protein kinase, a potential human homolog of NIMA histone H3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Hibino, Mitsunobu; Kohri, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2002-05-03

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the kinase activity of NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A) is critical for the initiation of mitosis. NIMA regulates mitotic chromatin condensation through phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. In the present study, we identified human Nek6 (hNek6), a member of the mammalian NIMA-related kinases. The predicted hNek6 protein is comprised of 338 amino acids. Northern blot analysis revealed that hNek6 transcripts are ubiquitously expressed with the highest expression found in the heart and skeletal muscle. Lower cell cycle-dependent expression of hNek6 transcripts was observed in the early G1 phase. GFP-fused hNek6 protein showed both nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations in HeLa cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using full-length hNek6 cDNA as a probe showed that the hNek6 gene is localized to human chromosome 9q33-34, a region at which the loss of heterozygosity is associated with transitional cell carcinomas. Importantly, recombinant hNek6 protein produced in insect cells effectively phosphorylated histones H1 and H3, but not casein. Thus, these results suggest that, unlike other mammalian NIMA-related kinases, Nek6 is a mitotic histone kinase which regulates chromatin condensation in mammalian cells. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  15. Human papillomavirus viral load in predicting high-grade CIN in women with cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,André Luis Ferreira; Derchain,Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Martins,Marcos Roberto; Sarian,Luís Otávio Zanatta; Martinez,Edson Zangiacome; Syrjänen,Kari Juhani

    2003-01-01

    CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may have an important role in predicting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with cervical smears showing atypical squamous cells or LSIL. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the assessment of the viral load of high-risk HPV DNA is useful in predicting the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 and 3) in women referred because of cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or LSIL. TYPE OF S...

  16. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  17. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos; Márcia Antoniazi Michelin; Sheila Jorge Adad; Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, A...

  18. wKinMut-2: Identification and Interpretation of Pathogenic Variants in Human Protein Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Miguel; Pons, Tirso; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    forest approach. To understand the biological mechanisms causative of human diseases and cancer, information from pertinent reference knowledgebases and the literature is automatically mined, digested and homogenized. Variants are visualized in their structural contexts and residues affecting catalytic...... is often scattered across different sources, which makes the integrative analysis complex and laborious. wKinMut-2 constitutes a solution to facilitate the interpretation of the consequences of human protein kinase variation. Nine methods predict their pathogenicity, including a kinase-specific random...

  19. A homozygous founder missense variant in arylsulfatase G abolishes its enzymatic activity causing atypical Usher syndrome in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Samer; Kowalewski, Björn; Bedoni, Nicola; Damme, Markus; Pollack, Netta; Saada, Ann; Obolensky, Alexey; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Gross, Menachem; Dierks, Thomas; Banin, Eyal; Rivolta, Carlo; Sharon, Dror

    2018-01-04

    PurposeWe aimed to identify the cause of disease in patients suffering from a distinctive, atypical form of Usher syndrome.MethodsWhole-exome and genome sequencing were performed in five patients from three families of Yemenite Jewish origin, suffering from distinctive retinal degeneration phenotype and sensorineural hearing loss. Functional analysis of the wild-type and mutant proteins was performed in human fibrosarcoma cells.ResultsWe identified a homozygous founder missense variant, c.133G>T (p.D45Y) in arylsulfatase G (ARSG). All patients shared a distinctive retinal phenotype with ring-shaped atrophy along the arcades engirdling the fovea, resulting in ring scotoma. In addition, patients developed moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Both vision and hearing loss appeared around the age of 40 years. The identified variant affected a fully conserved amino acid that is part of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Functional analysis of the wild-type and mutant proteins showed no basal activity of p.D45Y.ConclusionHomozygosity for ARSG-p.D45Y in humans leads to protein dysfunction, causing an atypical combination of late-onset Usher syndrome. Although there is no evidence for generalized clinical manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases in this set of patients, we cannot rule out the possibility that mild and late-onset symptoms may appear.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 4 January 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.227.

  20. Atypical Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which is also used to treat insomnia Vortioxetine (Trintellix) Side effects may occur with antidepressants, including atypical ... traz_imtb_ins.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2016. Trintellix (prescribing information). Deerfield, Ill.: Takeda Pharmaceuticals; 2016. http:// ...

  1. The two kinases, AbrC1 and AbrC2, of the atypical two-component system AbrC are needed to regulate antibiotic production and differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor eRodríguez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems (TCSs are the most important sensing mechanisms in bacteria. In Streptomyces, Two-component systems (TCSs are the most important sensing mechanisms in bacteria. In Streptomyces, TCSs-mediated responses to environmental stimuli are involved in the regulation of antibiotic production. This study examines the individual role of two histidine kinases (HKs, AbrC1 and AbrC2, which form part of an atypical TCS in Streptomyces coelicolor. qRT-PCR analysis of the expression of both kinases demonstrated that both are expressed at similar levels in NB and NMMP media. Single deletion of abrC1 elicited a significant increase in antibiotic production, while deletion of abrC2 did not have any clear effect. The origin of this phenotype, probably related to the differential phosphorylation ability of the two kinases, was also explored indirectly, analyzing the toxic phenotypes associated with high levels of phosphorylated RR. The higher the AbrC3 regulator phosphorylation rate, the greater the cell toxicity. For the first time, the present work shows in Streptomyces the combined involvement of two different HKs in the response of a regulator to environmental signals. Regarding the possible applications of this research, the fact that an abrC1 deletion mutant overproduces three of the S. coelicolor antibiotics makes this strain an excellent candidate as a host for the heterologous production of secondary metabolites.

  2. Src-family tyrosine kinase activities are essential for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells are characterized by pluripotency, defined as the developmental potential to generate cell lineages derived from all three primary germ layers. In the past decade, great progress has been made on the cell culture conditions, transcription factor programs and intracellular signaling pathways that control both murine and human ES cell fates. ES cells of mouse vs. human origin have distinct culture conditions, responding to some tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in opposite ways. Previous work has implicated the Src family of non-receptor protein–tyrosine kinases in mouse ES cell self-renewal and differentiation. Seven members of the Src kinase family are expressed in mouse ES cells, and individual family members appear to play distinct roles in regulating their developmental fate. Both Hck and c-Yes are important in self-renewal, while c-Src activity alone is sufficient to induce differentiation. While these findings implicate Src-family kinase signaling in mouse ES cell renewal and differentiation, the role of this kinase family in human ES cells is largely unknown. Here, we explored Src-family kinase expression patterns and signaling in human ES cells during self-renewal and differentiation. Of the eleven Src-related kinases in the human genome, Fyn, c-Yes, c-Src, Lyn, Lck and Hck were expressed in H1, H7 and H9 hES cells, while Fgr, Blk, Srm, Brk, and Frk transcripts were not detected. Of these, c-Yes, Lyn, and Hck transcript levels remained constant in self-renewing human ES cells vs. differentiated EBs, while c-Src and Fyn showed a modest increase in expression as a function of differentiation. In contrast, Lck expression levels dropped dramatically as a function of EB differentiation. To assess the role of overall Src-family kinase activity in human ES cell differentiation, cultures were treated with inhibitors specific for the Src kinase family. Remarkably, human ES cells maintained in the presence of the potent

  3. Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2006-11-01

    The HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel is a widely-used resource for studies of human genetic variation. Here, pairs of close relatives that have been included in the panel are identified. Together with information on atypical and duplicated samples, the inferred relative pairs suggest standardized subsets of the panel for use in future population-genetic studies.

  4. Comparative active-site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Uhlin, Ulla; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The first step for the intracellular retention of several anticancer or antiviral nucleoside analogues is the addition of a phosphate group catalysed by a deoxyribonucleoside kinase such as thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Recently, human TK1 (HuTK1) has been crystallized and characterized using different...... ligands. To improve our understanding of TK1 substrate specificity, we performed a detailed, mutation-based comparative structure-function study of the active sites of two thymidine kinases: HuTK1 and Caenorhabditis elegans TK1 (CeTK1). Specifically, mutations were introduced into the hydrophobic pocket...... surrounding the substrate base. In CeTK1, some of these mutations led to increased activity with deoxycytidine and deoxyguanosine, two unusual substrates for TK1-like kinases. In HuTK1, mutation of T163 to S resulted in a kinase with a 140-fold lower K(m) for the antiviral nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3...

  5. A mathematical model of human thymidine kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radivoyevitch, Tom; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Wang, Liya

    2011-01-01

    _ The mitochondrial enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) phosphorylates deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) to form dTMP and dCMP, which in cells rapidly become the negative-feedback end-products dTTP and dCTP. TK2 kinetic activity exhibits Hill coefficients of ∼0.5 (apparent negative cooperati......_ The mitochondrial enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) phosphorylates deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) to form dTMP and dCMP, which in cells rapidly become the negative-feedback end-products dTTP and dCTP. TK2 kinetic activity exhibits Hill coefficients of ∼0.5 (apparent negative...

  6. Nek8, a NIMA family kinase member, is overexpressed in primary human breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J; Boylan, John F

    2004-03-17

    The family of human Nek (NIMA Related Kinase) kinases currently contains 11 members. We have identified Nek8 as a new member of the Nek kinase family. For many of the Nek family members, primary tumor expression data and function have been limited. However, all of the Nek family proteins share considerable homology with the Never In Mitosis, gene A (NIMA) kinase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. NIMA, as well as its most closely related human ortholog, Nek2, are required for G(2)/M progression and promote centrosome maturation during mitosis. We isolated Nek8 from a primary human colon cDNA library, and found it to be highly homologous to murine Nek8. Recently, a previously named Nek8 sequence was renamed Nek9/Nercc1 in Genbank due to its lack of homology to murine Nek8 and its high homology to murine Nek9. Interestingly, in our study, phylogenetic analysis suggests that human Nek8 and Nek9 form a subfamily within the Nek family. Nek8 has high homology to the Nek family kinase domain as well as to a regulator of chromosome condensation domain (RCC1), which is also present in Nek9. The open reading frame of human Nek8 encodes a 692 amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 75 kDa. Nek8 is differently expressed between normal human breast tissue and breast tumors. Overexpression of a mutated kinase domain Nek8 in U2-0S cells led to a decrease in actin protein, and a small increase in the level of cdk1/cyclinB1. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Nek8 is a novel tumor associated gene, and shares considerable sequence homology with the Nek family of protein kinases and may be involved in G(2)/M progression.

  7. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  8. Assignment of casein kinase 2 alpha sequences to two different human chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Klett, C; Göttert, E

    1992-01-01

    Human casein kinase 2 alpha gene (CK-2-alpha) sequences have been localized within the human genome by in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis using a CK-2 alpha cDNA as a probe. By in situ hybridization, the CK-2 alpha cDNA could be assigned to two different loci, one on 11p15.1-ter...

  9. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  10. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coping Other mental health disorders such as anxiety Suicide from feelings of depression Prevention There's no sure way to prevent depression. ... the association between oversleeping and overeating in atypical depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2015;78:52. Koyuncu A, et al. Relationship ...

  11. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human kinase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ensembl Genome Browser located PDIK1L to human chromosome 1p35.3. It spans about 13.7 kb and consists of four exons and three introns. Multiple-tissue cDNA panel PCR revealed that the gene is expressed widely in human tissues: liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus and prostate. The protein appears to be ...

  13. Low-density crystal packing of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit in complex with resorufin or other ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A low-resolution structure of the catalytic subunit CK2α of human protein kinase CK2 (formerly known as casein kinase 2) in complex with the ATP-competitive inhibitor resorufin is presented. The structure supplements previous human CK2α structures in which the interdomain hinge/helix αD region...

  14. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...

  15. The Effect of Creatine Kinase Inhibition on Contractile Properties of Human Resistance Arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taherzadeh, Zhila; Karamat, Fares A.; Ankum, Willem M.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Bavel, Ed; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2016-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a main predictor of blood pressure, and this is thought to largely depend on high resistance artery contractility. We previously reported an association between vascular contractility and CK in normotensive pregnancy, but pregnancy is a strong CK inducer, and data on human

  16. Significance of atypical repair in liquid-based gynecologic cytology: a follow-up study with molecular analysis for human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Kuen; Li, Albert S M; Cheung, Leslie K N

    2003-06-25

    "Atypical repair" is a controversial topic in gynecologic cytology. Although some cases do represent reparative change of dysplastic epithelium, the overall significance of identifying atypical reparative cells, especially in liquid-based cytology specimens, has not been investigated thoroughly. All the liquid-based cytology cases with the diagnostic connotation of atypical repair were retrieved from the files of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, during a 4.5-year period from early 1998 to mid 2002. The clinical data and follow-up cytology/surgical biopsy findings were analyzed to explain the atypical cytologic change. Retrospective molecular analysis for human papillomavirus (HPV) using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism was also carried out on the liquid-based cytology samples. During the study period, the authors identified 21 patients with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical repair, for which follow-up information was available. The liquid-based cytology samples revealed scattered atypical squamoid cells demonstrating reparative change, including the presence of prominent nucleoli. In addition to typical repair, these cells showed more obvious nuclear pleomorphism, anisonucleosis, irregularities of nuclear outline, slight coarsening of the chromatin, and focal loss of nuclear polarity. Of the 21 patients, 4 did not have a significant history of cervical/vaginal pathology before or after the cytologic examination, whereas the 17 remaining patients had squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL; n = 9), genital prolapse (n = 3), endocervical polyps (n = 2), SIL/cervical carcinoma with local radiotherapy (n = 2), or uterine malignancy with cervical extension (n = 1). These associations could not be delineated solely on the basis of morphologic assessment of the liquid-based cytology preparations. However, HPV DNA was detected frequently in cases of atypical repair associated with subsequent development of SIL

  17. Managing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): human papillomavirus testing, ASCUS subtyping,or follow-up cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sara A; Sun, Deqin; Gibson, Cheryl; Bellerose, Bronya; Rushing, Lynda; Chen, Hao; Harlow, Bernard L; Genest, David R; Sheets, Ellen E; Crum, Christopher P

    2002-03-01

    This study related morphologic subtype, human papillomavirus status, and a second cytologic examination to the follow-up biopsy-proven high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; grade II or III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) after a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Seven hundred four liquid-based cervical cytology specimens were classified as normal, "ASCUS, favor reactive" (AFR), "ASCUS, not otherwise specified," "ASCUS, favor low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion," "ASCUS, favor HSIL" (AFHS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and HSIL. Human papillomavirus typing used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A longitudinal review of the cytologic and histologic records of ASCUS cases with > or =1 follow-up test or biopsy ascertained the frequency of a follow-up diagnosis of biopsy-proven HSIL (grade II or III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Three hundred eighty-six cases (208 ASCUS, 68 normal, 86 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 24 with HSIL) were evaluated. High-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV positive) was lowest with normal cytology (13%), highest with HSIL (71%), and was present in 29.8% of ASCUS cases, ranging from 22.2% (AFR) to 75% (AFHS). Most ASCUS tests (64%) were followed by a negative cytologic or histologic examination. Overall, 3.8% and 11% of ASCUS and HRHPV-positive ASCUS had histologic outcomes of HSIL. AFHS had the highest (25%) and AFR had the lowest (1.1%) proportion of HSIL outcomes. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of human papillomavirus testing for biopsy-proven HSIL were 87.5%, 72.5%, and 11.3%, respectively. HSIL and AFHS are distinguished by the highest frequency of HRHPV types and higher rates of HSIL outcome. The remaining categories of ASCUS are heterogeneous with respect to human papillomavirus type and HSIL risk, and the value of subclassification of these entities is

  18. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities.

  19. Ser2 is the autophosphorylation site in the beta subunit from bicistronically expressed human casein kinase-2 and from native rat liver casein kinase-2 beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; James, P; Staudenmann, W

    1993-01-01

    Human casein kinase-2 (CK-2) subunits alpha and beta were bicistronically expressed in bacteria. The recombinant holoenzyme shared all investigated properties with the native CK-2 from mammalian sources (rat liver, Krebs II mouse ascites tumour cells). Contrary to recombinant human CK-2 produced...

  20. [Atypical odontalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, Jens Christoph

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its first description by the English surgeon JOHN HUNTER more than 200 years ago, atypical odontalgia (AO), or phantom tooth pain, is not universally known among dentists. AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction. In the absence of pathological clinical or radiological findings, the diagnosis is made by exclusion. After a thorough patient education about the condition, pharmacological and psychological pain management is required. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are contraindicated.

  1. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  2. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30......-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13....../18/31/33/45 mRNA test is not optimal for ASC-US triage due to its low sensitivity and the substantial risk for precancer following a negative test....

  3. Isolation of a human lymphoblastoid line heterozygous at the thymidine kinase locus: possibility for a rapid human cell mutation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopek, T.R.; Liber, H.L.; Penman, B.W.; Thilly, W.G.

    1978-09-29

    A thymidine kinase heterozygote designated H2BT has been isolated from the human lymphoblast line HH4. Significant increase in the trifluorothymidine-resistant fraction was observed in the new cell line following treatment with the mutagens ICR-191 and butylmethansulfonate. Phenotypic expression was complete forty-eight hours after treatment.

  4. Structure and Substrate Recruitment of the Human Spindle Checkpoint Kinase Bub1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jungseog; Yang, Maojun; Li, Bing; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Yu, Hongtao (UCSF); (UTSMC)

    2009-11-10

    In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint detects a single unattached kinetochore, inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), and prevents premature sister chromatid separation. The checkpoint kinase Bub1 contributes to checkpoint sensitivity through phosphorylating the APC/C activator, Cdc20, and inhibiting APC/C catalytically. We report here the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Bub1, revealing the requirement of an N-terminal extension for its kinase activity. Though the activation segment of Bub1 is ordered and has structural features indicative of active kinases, the C-terminal portion of this segment sterically restricts substrate access to the active site. Bub1 uses docking motifs, so-called KEN boxes, outside its kinase domain to recruit Cdc20, one of two known KEN box receptors. The KEN boxes of Bub1 are required for the spindle checkpoint in human cells. Therefore, its unusual active-site conformation and mode of substrate recruitment suggest that Bub1 has an exquisitely tuned specificity for Cdc20.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine metabolism and choline kinase in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Wu, Gengshu; van der Veen, Jelske N; Hermansson, Martin; Vance, Dennis E

    2014-06-01

    There is a paucity of information about phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in bone formation. Thus, we characterized PC metabolism in both primary human osteoblasts (HOB) and human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Our results show that the CDP-choline pathway is the only de novo route for PC biosynthesis in both HOB and MG-63 cells. Both CK activity and CKα expression in MG-63 cells were significantly higher than those in HOB cells. Silencing of CKα in MG-63 cells had no significant effect on PC concentration but decreased the amount of phosphocholine by approximately 80%. The silencing of CKα also reduced cell proliferation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of CK activity impaired the mineralization capacity of MG-63 cells. Our data suggest that CK and its product phosphocholine are required for the normal growth and mineralization of MG-63 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human kinase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Molecular cloning and sequencing of PDIK1L cDNA: Human foetal brain polyA+ RNA was purchased from Clontech. (Cat. No. 6525-1). Double-stranded cDNA was prepared with the SMART PCR cDNA Synthesis kit (Clontech,. Cat. No. K1052-1) according to the manufacturer's re- commendation. The cDNAs were digested ...

  7. Characterization of an atypical lipoprotein-binding protein in human aortic media membranes by ligand blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Y S; Bochkov, V N; Philippova, M P; Tkachuk, V A; Resink, T J

    1994-01-01

    By use of ligand-blotting techniques, this study investigated lipoprotein-binding proteins in human aortic smooth muscle. PAGE was performed under non-reducing conditions, and, using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as ligand, with rabbit anti-apolipoprotein (apo) B and 125I-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG as primary and secondary antibodies respectively, we demonstrate that membranes from human aortic media (and cultured human smooth-muscle cells) contain a major lipoprotein-binding protein with an apparent molecular mass of 105 kDa. Anionized preparations (carbamoyl- and acetyl-) of LDL, which did not displace 125I-LDL bound to the apo B,E receptor of cultured fibroblasts, were also recognized as ligands for the 105 kDa protein in aortic media membranes. LDL binding to 105 kDa protein was decreased in the presence of high density lipoprotein (HDL), although more than 100-fold molar excess of HDL was required to achieve 50% displacement of bound LDL. The LDL-binding activity of 105 kDa protein was inhibited by EDTA, and was also significantly decreased when samples were reduced by beta-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis. Monoclonal antibodies against apo B,E receptor reacted with partially purified bovine adrenal apo B,E receptor, but not with 105 kDa protein of human aortic media membranes. The spectrum of properties of this vascular smooth-muscle lipoprotein-binding protein binding are clearly distinct from those of other previously characterized lipoprotein-binding molecules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7945254

  8. The Atypical Guanylate Kinase MoGuk2 Plays Important Roles in Asexual/Sexual Development, Conidial Septation, and Pathogenicity in the Rice Blast Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjia Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate kinases (GKs, which convert guanosine monophosphate into guanosine diphosphate (GDP, are important for growth and mannose outer chain elongation of cell wall N-linked glycoproteins in yeast. Here, we identified the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GK Guk1, named MoGuk1 and a novel family of fungal GKs MoGuk2 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. MoGuk1 contains 242 aa with an C-terminal GuKc domain that very similar to yeast Guk1. MoGuk2 contains 810 amino acids with a C-terminal GuKc domain and an additional N-terminal efThoc1 domain. Expression of either MoGuk1 or MoGuk2 in heterozygote yeast guk1 mutant could increase its GDP level. To investigate the biological role of MoGuk1 and MoGuk2 in M. oryzae, the gene replacement vectors were constructed. We obtained the ΔMoguk2 but not ΔMoguk1 mutant by screening over 1,000 transformants, indicating MoGuk1 might be essential for M. oryzae. The ΔMoguk2 mutant showed weak reductions in vegetative growth, conidial germination, appressorial formation, and appressorial turgor, and showed significant reductions in sporulation and pathogenicity. Moreover, the ΔMoguk2 mutant failed to produce perithecia and was sensitive to neomycin and a mixture of neomycin-tunicamycin. Exogenous GDP and ATP partially rescued the defects in conidial germination, appressorial formation, and infectious growth of the mutant. Further analysis revealed that intracellular GDP and GTP level was decreased, and GMP level was increased in the mutant, suggesting that MoGuk2 exhibits enzymatic activity. Structural analysis proved that the efThoc1, GuKc, and P-loop domains are essential for the full function of MoGuk2. Taken together, our data suggest that the guanylate kinase MoGuk2 is involved in the de novo GTP biosynthesis pathway and is important for infection-related morphogenesis in the rice blast fungus.

  9. Evolutionary conservation of an atypical glucocorticoid-responsive element in the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela Rani, C S; Soto-Pina, Alexandra; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Strong, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene has a 42 bp evolutionarily conserved region designated (CR) II at -7.24 kb, which bears 93% homology to the region we earlier identified as containing the glucocorticoid response element, a 7 bp activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like motif in the rat TH gene. We cloned this hTH-CRII region upstream of minimal basal hTH promoter in luciferase (Luc) reporter vector, and tested glucocorticoid responsiveness in human cell lines. Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulated Luc activity of hTH-CRII in HeLa cells, while mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, prevented Dex stimulation. Deletion of the 7 bp 5'-TGACTAA at -7243 bp completely abolished the Dex-stimulated Luc activity of hTH-CRII construct. The AP-1 agonist, tetradeconoyl-12,13-phorbol acetate (TPA), also stimulated hTH promoter activity, and Dex and TPA together further accentuated this response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the presence of both GR and AP-1 proteins, especially Jun family members, at this hTH promoter site. Dex did not stimulate hTH promoter activity in a catecholaminergic cell line, which had low endogenous GR levels, but did activate the response when GR was expressed exogenously. Thus, our studies have clearly identified a glucocorticoid-responsive element in a 7 bp AP-1-like motif in the promoter region at -7.24 kb of the human TH gene. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárvári, Anitta K., E-mail: anittasarvari@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Veréb, Zoltán, E-mail: jzvereb@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Uray, Iván P., E-mail: ipuray@mdanderson.org [Clinical Cancer Prevention Department, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Fésüs, László, E-mail: fesus@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA DE Apoptosis, Genomics and Stem Cell Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Balajthy, Zoltán, E-mail: balajthy@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin

  11. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2: insights into basic properties of the CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalyt...

  12. Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase, and c-Jun are involved in NF-kappa B-dependent IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyt, LML; Dokter, WHA; Birbenkamp, K; Koopmans, S.B.; Lummen, C; Kruijer, W; Vellenga, E

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating IL-6 gene expression in human monocytes, in particular their role in enhancing NF-kappa B

  13. A homologue of Drosophila aurora kinase is oncogenic and amplified in human colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J R; Anderson, L; Zhu, Y; Mossie, K; Ng, L; Souza, B; Schryver, B; Flanagan, P; Clairvoyant, F; Ginther, C; Chan, C S; Novotny, M; Slamon, D J; Plowman, G D

    1998-06-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies in lower eukaryotes have identified several proteins that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. These include the Drosophila aurora and yeast Ipl1 kinases that are required for centrosome maturation and chromosome segregation. We have identified two human homologues of these genes, termed aurora1 and aurora2, that encode cell-cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases. Here we demonstrate that the aurora2 gene maps to chromosome 20q13, a region amplified in a variety of human cancers, including a significant number of colorectal malignancies. We propose that aurora2 may be a target of this amplicon since its DNA is amplified and its RNA overexpressed, in more than 50% of primary colorectal cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of aurora2 transforms rodent fibroblasts. These observations implicate aurora2 as a potential oncogene in many colon, breast and other solid tumors, and identify centrosome-associated proteins as novel targets for cancer therapy.

  14. Atypical Squamous Cells in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology: Microbiology, Inflammatory Infiltrate, and Human Papillomavirus-DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Oliveira, Geilson; Eleutério, Renata Mirian Nunes; Silveira Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Giraldo, Paulo César; Eleutério, José

    2017-11-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between atypical squamous cells (ASC) and inflammatory infiltrate and vaginal microbiota using cervical liquid-based cytological (SurePath®) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) tests. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 6-year database from a laboratory in Fortaleza (Brazil). Files from 1,346 ASC cases were divided into subgroups and results concerning inflammation and vaginal microorganisms diagnosed by cytology were compared with HR-HPV test results. An absence of specific microorganisms (ASM) was the most frequent finding (ASC of undetermined significance, ASC-US = 74%; ASC - cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H = 68%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (ASC-US = 20%; ASC- H = 25%) and Candida spp. (ASC-US = 6%; ASC-H = 5%). Leukocyte infiltrate was present in 71% of ASC-US and 85% of ASC-H (p = 0.0040), and in these specific cases HR-HPV tests were positive for 65 and 64%, respectively. A positive HR-HPV test was relatively more frequent when a specific microorganism was present, and Candida spp. was associated with HR-HPV-positive results (p = 0.0156), while an ASM was associated with negative HR-HPV results (p = 0.0370). ASC-US is associated with an absence of inflammation or vaginosis, while ASC-H smears are associated with Trichomonas vaginalis and inflammatory infiltrate. A positive HR-HPV is associated with Candida spp. in ASC cytology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Atypical Bilateral Brain Synchronization in the Early Stage of Human Voice Auditory Processing in Young Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Kurita

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical interhemispheric circuitry. In the context of ASD, alterations in both peripheral and central auditory processes have also attracted a great deal of interest because these changes appear to represent pathophysiological processes; therefore, many prior studies have focused on atypical auditory responses in ASD. The auditory evoked field (AEF, recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the synchronization of these processes between right and left hemispheres was recently suggested to reflect various cognitive abilities in children. However, to date, no previous study has focused on AEF synchronization in ASD subjects. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, the analysis of Omega complexity from multichannel neurophysiological data was proposed. Using Omega complexity analysis, we investigated the global coordination of AEFs in 3-8-year-old typically developing (TD children (n = 50 and children with ASD (n = 50 in 50-ms time-windows. Children with ASD displayed significantly higher Omega complexities compared with TD children in the time-window of 0-50 ms, suggesting lower whole brain synchronization in the early stage of the P1m component. When we analyzed the left and right hemispheres separately, no significant differences in any time-windows were observed. These results suggest lower right-left hemispheric synchronization in children with ASD compared with TD children. Our study provides new evidence of aberrant neural synchronization in young children with ASD by investigating auditory evoked neural responses to the human voice.

  16. Atypical presentation of human bocavirus: Severe respiratory tract infection complicated with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Hacer; Sık, Guntulu; Salman, Nuran; Sutcu, Murat; Tatli, Burak; Ciblak, Meral Akcay; Erol, Oguz Bulent; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Citak, Agop; Somer, Ayper

    2015-11-01

    Human bocavirus (HBOV) has been reported as a worldwide distributed respiratory pathogen. It has also been associated with encephalitis recently by detection of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presented with encephalitis. This retrospective study aimed to present clinical features of HBOV infections in children with respiratory symptoms and describe unexplained encephalopathy in a subgroup of these patients. Results of 1,143 pediatric nasal samples from mid-December 2013 to July 2014 were reviewed for detection of HBOV. A multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay was used for viral detection. Medical records of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. HBOV was detected in 30 patients (2.6%). Median age was 14 months (5-80). Clinical diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (n = 10), bronchopneumonia (n = 9), acute bronchiolitis (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), acute bronchitis (n = 1), and asthma execarbation (n = 1). Hospitalization was required in 16 (53.3%) patients and 10 (62.5%) of them admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Noninvasive mechanical ventilation modalities was applied to four patients and mechanical ventilation to four patients. Intractable seizures developed in four patients while mechanically ventilated on the 2nd-3rd days of PICU admission. No specific reason for encephalopathy was found after a thorough investigation. No mortality was observed, but two patients were discharged with neurological sequela. HBOV may lead to respiratory infections in a wide spectrum of severity. This report indicates its potential to cause severe respiratory infections requiring PICU admission and highlights possible clinical association of HBOV and encephalopathy, which developed during severe respiratory infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human cytosolic thymidine kinase: purification and physical characterization of the enzyme from HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherley, J.L.; Kelly, T.J.

    1988-01-05

    The mammalian cytosolic thymidine kinase is one of a number of enzymes involved in DNA replication whose activities increase dramatically during S phase of the cell cycle. As a first step in defining the mechanisms that control the S phase induction of thymidine kinase activity, the authors have purified the human enzyme from HeLa cells and raised a specific immune serum against the purified protein. The enzyme was isolated from cells arrested in S phase by treatment with methotrexate and purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. Stabilization of the purified enzyme was achieved by the addition of digitonin. An electrophoretic R/sub m/ of 0.2 in nondenaturing gels characterizes the purified enzyme activity as cytosolic thymidine kinase. The enzyme has a Stoke's radius of 40 A determined by gel filtration and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.5 S determined by glycerol gradient sedimentation. Based on these hydrodynamic values, a native molecular weight of 96,000 was calculated for the purified enzyme. When electrophoresed in denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions, the most purified enzyme fraction was found to contain one predominant polypeptide of M/sub r/ = 24,000. Several lines of evidence indicate that this polypeptide is responsible for thymidine kinase enzymatic activity.

  18. RO0504985 is an inhibitor of CMGC kinase proteins and has anti-human cytomegalovirus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Blair L

    2017-08-01

    Public-private partnerships allow many previously unavailable compounds to be screened for antiviral activity. Here a screening method was used to identify an oxindole compound, RO0504985, from a Roche kinase inhibitor library that inhibited human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein production. RO0504985 was previously described as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). However, using kinase selectivity assays it was found that RO0504985 was an inhibitor of several CMGC group kinase proteins, including CDK2. Using virus yield reduction assays it was observed that RO0504985 inhibited replication of different HCMV strains at low micromolar concentrations. Western blotting was used to investigate how RO0504985 inhibited HCMV replication. Treatment of HCMV infected cells with RO0504985 inhibited production of the immediate early viral IE2 proteins and the late viral protein pp28. Thus, RO0504985 inhibited HCMV replication by preventing production of specific HCMV proteins necessary for virus replication. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Identification of a novel human MAST4 gene, a new member of the microtubule associated serine-threonine kinase family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Gu, S; Li, X; Sun, Y; Zheng, D; Yu, K; Ji, C; Tang, R; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

    2006-01-01

    Human protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins, which are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains). Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human MAST4 (microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4) gene, which locates on human chromosome 5q13. The MAST4 cDNA is 7587 base pairs in length and encodes a putative protein of 2435 amino acids which contains a serine/threonine kinase domain and a PDZ domain. MAST4 protein has 64%, 63%, 59% and 39% identical aminoacid residues with MAST1, MAST2, MAST3 and MASTL respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed relatively high expression level of MAST4 in most normal human tissues, with an exception of in testis, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocyte.

  20. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2010-01-01

    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  1. Parasite Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases as Drug Discovery Targets to Treat Human Protozoan Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brumlik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma, about which the most is known.

  2. Kinase pathway dependence in primary human leukemias determined by rapid inhibitor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Tyner (Jeffrey); W.F. Yang (Wayne); A. Bankhead III (Armand); G. Fan (Guang); L.B. Fletcher (Luke); J. Bryant (Jade); J.M. Glover (Jason); B.H. Chang (Bill); S.E. Spurgeon (Stephen); W.H. Fleming (William); T. Kovacsovics; J. Gotlib (Jason); S.T. Oh (Stephen); M.W.N. Deininger (Michael W.); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); M.L. den Boer (Monique); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); T. O'Hare (Thomas); B.J. Druker (Brian); M.M. Loriaux (Marc)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractKinases are dysregulated in most cancers, but the frequency of specific kinase mutations is low, indicating a complex etiology in kinase dysregulation. Here, we report a strategy to rapidly identify functionally important kinase targets, irrespective of the etiology of kinase pathway

  3. Human ether-à-go-go gene potassium channels are regulated by EGFR tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Dong, Ming-Qing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Sun, Hai-Ying; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lau, Chu-Pak; Li, Gui-Rong

    2012-02-01

    Human ether á-go-go gene potassium channels (hEAG1 or Kv10.1) are expressed in brain and various human cancers and play a role in neuronal excitement and tumor progression. However, the functional regulation of hEAG channels by signal transduction is not fully understood. The present study was therefore designed to investigate whether hEAG1 channels are regulated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in HEK 293 cells stably expressing hEAG1 gene using whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and mutagenesis approaches. We found that the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor AG556 (10 μM), but not the platelet growth factor receptor (PDGFR) kinase inhibitor AG1295 (10 μM) or the Src-family inhibitor PP2 (10 μM), can inhibit hEAG1 current, and the inhibitory effect can be reversed by the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor orthovanadate. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation level of hEAG1 channels was reduced by AG556, and the reduction was significantly countered by orthovanadate. The hEAG1 mutants Y90A, Y344A and Y485A, but not Y376A and Y479A, exhibited reduced response to AG556. Interestingly, the inhibition effect of AG556 was lost in triple mutant hEAG1 channels at Y90, Y344, and Y485 with alanine. These results demonstrate for the first time that hEAG1 channel activity is regulated by EGFR kinase at the tyrosine residues Tyr90, Try344, and Try485. This effect is likely involved in regulating neuronal activity and/or tumor growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of human rotaviruses circulating in Iraq in 2008: atypical G8 and high prevalence of P[6] strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John; Albana, Antun; Alhamdani, Faisal; Oskoff, John; Soliman, Mireille; Heylen, Elisabeth; Teleb, Nadia; Husain, Tupur; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2013-06-01

    Fecal samples from 976 children with gastroenteritis were collected and analyzed for group A rotavirus (RVA), in three different cities in Iraq between January 2008 and December 2008. RVA antigen was detected in 394 (40%) of the samples, and 98 samples were available for further genotype analyses using multiplex RT-PCR and sequence analyses for untypeable strains. The G/P-genotype combination was determined for 69 samples, and 19, 2 and 8 samples remained P-untypeable, G-untypeable and G/P-untypeable (UT), respectively. The most prevalent genotype was G2 (40%, 39/98) most often associated with P[6]. G1 was the second most common genotype (16%, 16/98) mainly associated with P[8] and P[UT]. G3, G4 and G9 were detected at a lower prevalence (3%, 11%, 3%, respectively), mainly associated with P[6]. Surprisingly, five G8P[6], and seven G12 RVA strains in combination with P[6] and P[8] were also detected for the first time in Iraq. Overall, a striking high prevalence of 47% of the analyzed samples possessed the P[6] genotype (65% of the P-typed RVA strains). Atypical genotype combinations such as G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[8] or strains with mixed G-types were detected sporadically. The detection of unusual G8P[6] RVA strains prompted us to further analyze the NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 gene segments of three selected G8P[6] strains, resulting in their designation to the N2, T2, E2 and H2 genotypes, respectively. The VP7, VP4, NSP2, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments clustered closely with common human RVA strains, whereas the NSP4 gene sequences were found to cluster with animal derived RVA strains, suggesting a potential reassortment event. The high prevalence of RVA strains with the G8, G12 and P[6] genotypes in combination with a DS-1-like genotype constellation in Iraq, needs to be monitored closely as these RVA strains might challenge the effectiveness of current RVA vaccines. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Relationship Between Buprenorphine Dosing and Triglyceride Lowering and Creatinine Kinase Elevation in Felines: Possible Human Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-01-01

    Recently published feline data suggest that high doses of buprenorphine can elevate creatinine kinase (CK) and profoundly influence triglyceride levels in an inverted dose versus effect relationship. This intriguing observation in felines, hitherto not documented for buprenorphine, should be considered in human situations for any trends of translatability. The report evaluates the observed effects in domestic cats and what is known about buprenorphine in human subjects. Based on the objective assessment, the following are deduced: (a) although elevated CK levels is a nonissue in humans, one needs to pay attention especially when buprenorphine is used at the high end of therapeutic dose range in the presence of drugs that can impair the hepatic metabolism of buprenorphine; and (b) the potential for triglyceride lowering can be easily confirmed in human trials, and since it may occur at the relevant therapeutic doses of buprenorphine, it may be beneficial in such patients who may have added cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Inositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B is increased in human Alzheimer brain and exacerbates mouse Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygelbout, Virginie; Leroy, Karelle; Pouillon, Valérie; Ando, Kunie; D'Amico, Eva; Jia, Yonghui; Luo, H Robert; Duyckaerts, Charles; Erneux, Christophe; Schurmans, Stéphane; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2014-02-01

    ITPKB phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and controls signal transduction in various hematopoietic cells. Surprisingly, it has been reported that the ITPKB messenger RNA level is significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease, compared with control subjects. As extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation is increased in the Alzheimer brain and as ITPKB is a regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation in some hematopoietic cells, we tested whether this increased activation in Alzheimer's disease might be related to an increased activity of ITPKB. We show here that ITPKB protein level was increased 3-fold in the cerebral cortex of most patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with control subjects, and accumulated in dystrophic neurites associated to amyloid plaques. In mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, Itpkb overexpression was associated with increased cell apoptosis and increased β-secretase 1 activity leading to overproduction of amyloid-β peptides. In this cellular model, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated kinase kinases 1/2 completely prevented overproduction of amyloid-β peptides. Transgenic overexpression of ITPKB in mouse forebrain neurons was not sufficient to induce amyloid plaque formation or tau hyperphosphorylation. However, in the 5X familial Alzheimer's disease mouse model, neuronal ITPKB overexpression significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation and β-secretase 1 activity, resulting in exacerbated Alzheimer's disease pathology as shown by increased astrogliosis, amyloid-β40 peptide production and tau hyperphosphorylation. No impact on pathology was observed in the 5X familial Alzheimer's disease mouse model when a catalytically inactive ITPKB protein was overexpressed. Together, our results point to the ITPKB/inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate/extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1

  7. Sulforaphane prevents human platelet aggregation through inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wen-Ying; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, which is a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, is still unclear. In the present study, we show that sulforaphane inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by different receptor agonists, including collagen, U46619 (a thromboxane A2 mimic), protease-activated receptor 1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP), and an ADP P2Y12 receptor agonist. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly reduced thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface under whole blood flow conditions. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that sulforaphane specifically prevented phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling, without markedly affecting other signlaling pathways involved in platelet aggregation, such as protein kinase C activation, calcium mobilisation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Although sulforaphane did not directly inhibit the catalytic activity of PI3K, it caused ubiquitination of the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, and prevented PI3K translocation to membranes. In addition, sulforaphane caused ubiquitination and degradation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), which is required for Akt activation. Therefore, sulforaphane is able to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway at two distinct sites. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented platelet aggregation and reduced thrombus formation in flow conditions; our data also support that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway by sulforaphane contributes it antiplatelet effects.

  8. Modulation of human UMP/CMP kinase affects activation and cellular sensitivity of deoxycytidine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jieh-Yuan; Lai, Hui-Ru; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Chang, Wei-Ling; Hsieh, Mei-Ju; Huang, Yu-Chun; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2010-02-01

    Deoxycytidine analogs are an important class of clinically active antiviral and anticancer agents. The stepwise phosphorylation of these analogs to triphosphate metabolites is crucial for biological action. Human UMP/CMP kinase (UMP/CMPK; cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14) is thought to be responsible for phosphorylation of UMP, CMP, and dCMP and may also play an important role in the activation of pyrimidine analogs. However, no evidence has verified this notion in intact cells. In this study we explored the functional roles of UMP/CMPK in natural pyrimidine synthesis and metabolism of deoxycytidine analogs, as well as 5-FU in HeLa S3 and HCT8 cells. The amounts of UMP/CMPK protein in different cell lines correlated with UMP, CMP, and dCMP kinase activities and amounts of UMP/CMPK RNA. Modulation of UMP/CMPK by overexpression or down-regulation had no impact on natural pyrimidine nucleotides and cell growth. However, down-regulating UMP/CMPK expression by siRNA led to a decrease in the formation of the triphosphate metabolites, resulting in cellular resistance to these analogs. More diphosphate and triphosphate metabolites of deoxycytidine analogs were detected and cellular sensitivity to these agents was increased in the UMP/CMPK-overexpressing cells. This study indicates that the second step enzyme (UMP/CMPK) is responsible for the phosphorylation of pyrimidine analogs and also has an impact on cellular sensitivity to these analogs in those cell lines.

  9. Structure of the human autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 in complex with potent inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michael B; Novotny, Chris J; Shokat, Kevan M

    2015-01-16

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that involves the degradation of cellular components for energy maintenance and cytoplasmic quality control that has recently gained interest as a novel target for a variety of human diseases, including cancer. A prime candidate to determine the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting autophagy is the kinase ULK1, whose activation initiates autophagy. Here, we report the first structures of ULK1, in complex with multiple potent inhibitors. These structures show features unique to the enzyme and will provide a path for the rational design of selective compounds as cellular probes and potential therapeutics.

  10. Insights into the Phosphoryl Transfer Mechanism of Human Ubiquitous Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanjie; Fan, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyu; Jin, Yuanyuan; He, Weiqing; Zhou, Jinming; Cen, Shan; Yang, ZhaoYong

    2016-12-02

    Human ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) is responsible for the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. To investigate the phosphoryl-transfer mechanism catalyzed by human uMtCK, in this work, molecular dynamic simulations of uMtCK∙ATP-Mg2+∙creatine complex and quantum mechanism calculations were performed to make clear the puzzle. The theoretical studies hereof revealed that human uMtCK utilizes a two-step dissociative mechanism, in which the E227 residue of uMtCK acts as the catalytic base to accept the creatine guanidinium proton. This catalytic role of E227 was further confirmed by our assay on the phosphatase activity. Moreover, the roles of active site residues in phosphoryl transfer reaction were also identified by site directed mutagenesis. This study reveals the structural basis of biochemical activity of uMtCK and gets insights into its phosphoryl transfer mechanism.

  11. Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermakova, Inessa; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly called: casein kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two separate catalytic chains (CK2alpha) and a stable dimer of two non-catalytic subunits (CK2beta). CK2alpha is a highly conserved member of the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases. The crystal...... main regions of conformational plasticity and regulatory importance in eukaryotic protein kinases, in active conformations stabilized by extensive contacts to the N-terminal segment. This arrangement is in accordance with the constitutive activity of the enzyme. By structural superimposition of human...... CK2alpha in isolated form and embedded in the human CK2 holoenzyme the loop connecting the strands beta4 and beta5 and the ATP-binding loop were identified as elements of structural variability. This structural comparison suggests that the ATP-binding loop may be the key region by which the non...

  12. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  13. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has since the mid-1980's been known to distinguish atypical, aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) from the endemic type in Africa (1). In our series at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, we recorded 44 patients with AAKS, 35 of them male and 9 female, giving ...

  14. Involvement of kinase PKC-zeta in the p62/p62(P392L)-driven activation of NF-κB in human osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Estelle; McManus, Stephen; Laberge, Gino; Bisson, Martine; Roux, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of the gene encoding sequestosome1 (SQSTM1/p62), clustering in or near the UBA domain, have been described in Paget's disease of bone (PDB); among these the P392L substitution is the most prevalent. Protein p62 mediates several cell functions, including the control of NF-κB signaling, and autophagy. This scaffolding protein interacts with atypical PKCζ in the RANKL-induced signaling complex. We have previously shown that osteoclasts (OCs) overexpressing the p62(P392L) variant were in a constitutively activated state, presenting activated kinase p-PKCζ/λ and activated NF-κB prior to RANKL stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between PKCζ and NF-κB activation in human OCs transfected with p62 variants. We showed that PKCζ and p-PKCζ/λ co-localize with p62, and that PKCζ is involved in the RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and in the RANKL-independent activation of NF-κB observed in p62(P392L)-transfected cells. We also observed a basal and RANKL-induced increase in IκBα levels in the presence of the p62(P392L) mutation that contrasted with the NF-κB activation. In this study we propose that PKCζ plays a role in the activation of NF-κB by acting as a p65 (RelA) kinase at Ser(536), independently of IκBα; this alternative pathway could be used preferentially in the presence of the p62(P392L) mutation, which may hinder the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Overall, our results highlight the importance of p62-associated PKCζ in the overactive state of pagetic OCs and in the activation of NF-κB, particularly in the presence of the p62(P392L) mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal structure of human AKT1 with an allosteric inhibitor reveals a new mode of kinase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-I Wu

    Full Text Available AKT1 (NP_005154.2 is a member of the serine/threonine AGC protein kinase family involved in cellular metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. The three human AKT isozymes are highly homologous multi-domain proteins with both overlapping and distinct cellular functions. Dysregulation of the AKT pathway has been identified in multiple human cancers. Several clinical trials are in progress to test the efficacy of AKT pathway inhibitors in treating cancer. Recently, a series of AKT isozyme-selective allosteric inhibitors have been reported. They require the presence of both the pleckstrin-homology (PH and kinase domains of AKT, but their binding mode has not yet been elucidated. We present here a 2.7 Å resolution co-crystal structure of human AKT1 containing both the PH and kinase domains with a selective allosteric inhibitor bound in the interface. The structure reveals the interactions between the PH and kinase domains, as well as the critical amino residues that mediate binding of the inhibitor to AKT1. Our work also reveals an intricate balance in the enzymatic regulation of AKT, where the PH domain appears to lock the kinase in an inactive conformation and the kinase domain disrupts the phospholipid binding site of the PH domain. This information advances our knowledge in AKT1 structure and regulation, thereby providing a structural foundation for interpreting the effects of different classes of AKT inhibitors and designing selective ones.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Human Nucleoside Kinase-Based Reporter Systems for PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason T; Zhang, Hanwen; Moroz, Maxim A; Likar, Yury; Shenker, Larissa; Sumzin, Nikita; Lobo, Jose; Zurita, Juan; Collins, Jeffrey; van Dam, R Michael; Ponomarev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    Radionuclide-based reporter gene imaging has the sensitivity to monitor gene- and cell-based therapies in human subjects. Potential immunogenicity of current viral transgenes warrants development of human-based reporter systems. We compared human nucleoside kinase reporters to a panel of nucleoside analogs of FEAU, FMAU, and FIAU, including the first in vivo assessment of L-[18F]FEAU. Human isogenic U87 cell lines were transduced to express different human reporter genes including dCK-R104M/D133A (dCKDM), dCK-R104Q/D133N (dCKep16A), dCK-A100V/R104M/D133A (dCK3M), and TK2-N93D/L109F (TK2DM), and wild-type dCK (dCK) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSVTK) reporter gene as references. In vitro cell uptake assays were performed with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, [14C]FMAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU. Micro-positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging of xenograft-bearing nu/nu mice was conducted with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU on consecutive days. A cell viability assay was also performed to assess sensitivities to gemcitabine and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU). In vitro, dCKep16A and dCKDM with [18F]FEAU exhibited the highest sensitivity and selectivity of the human reporters, second only to HSVTK/[18F]FEAU. L-[18F]FEAU biodistribution in mice was on par with [18F]FEAU and L-[18F]FMAU. L-[18F]FMAU uptake in isogenic xenografts was highest for all human reporter genes. However, [18F]FEAU was the most selective of the short half-life reporter probes due to its minimal recognition by human dCK and relative sensitivity, whereas [124I]FIAU permitted imaging at a later time point, improving signal-to-background ratio. Of the human reporter genes, dCKep16A consistently outperformed the other tested reporters. Reporter genes of interest increased potency to the nucleoside analog prodrugs gemcitabine and BVdU. We demonstrate that human nucleoside kinase reporter systems vary significantly in their sensitivity and selectivity for in vivo

  17. Insights into the binding mode of MEK type-III inhibitors. A step towards discovering and designing allosteric kinase inhibitors across the human kinome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zheng; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinases are critical drug targets for treating a large variety of human diseases. Type-III kinase inhibitors have attracted increasing attention as highly selective therapeutics. Thus, understanding the binding mechanism of existing type-III kinase inhibitors provides useful insights into designing new type-III kinase inhibitors. In this work, we have systematically studied the binding mode of MEK-targeted type-III inhibitors using structural systems pharmacology and molecular dynamic...

  18. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis reveals similar substrate consensus motif for human Mps1 kinase and Plk1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Dou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the Mps1 kinase family play an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, a surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Human Mps1 (hMps1 is highly phosphorylated during mitosis and many phosphorylation sites have been identified. However, the upstream kinases responsible for these phosphorylations are not presently known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we identify 29 in vivo phosphorylation sites in hMps1. While in vivo analyses indicate that Aurora B and hMps1 activity are required for mitotic hyper-phosphorylation of hMps1, in vitro kinase assays show that Cdk1, MAPK, Plk1 and hMps1 itself can directly phosphorylate hMps1. Although Aurora B poorly phosphorylates hMps1 in vitro, it positively regulates the localization of Mps1 to kinetochores in vivo. Most importantly, quantitative mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that at least 12 sites within hMps1 can be attributed to autophosphorylation. Remarkably, these hMps1 autophosphorylation sites closely resemble the consensus motif of Plk1, demonstrating that these two mitotic kinases share a similar substrate consensus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: hMps1 kinase is regulated by Aurora B kinase and its autophosphorylation. Analysis on hMps1 autophosphorylation sites demonstrates that hMps1 has a substrate preference similar to Plk1 kinase.

  19. Dissecting the role of AMP-activated protein kinase in human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, known as a sensor and a master of cellular energy balance, integrates various regulatory signals including anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes. Accompanying the application of genetic methods and a plethora of AMPK agonists, rapid progress has identified AMPK as an attractive therapeutic target for several human diseases, such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disease. The role of AMPK in metabolic and energetic modulation both at the intracellular and whole body levels has been reviewed elsewhere. In the present review, we summarize and update the paradoxical role of AMPK implicated in the diseases mentioned above and put forward the challenge encountered. Thus it will be expected to provide important clues for exploring rational methods of intervention in human diseases.

  20. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  1. Cholesterol selectively regulates IL-5 induced mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in human eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy E Burnham

    Full Text Available Eosinophils function contributes to human allergic and autoimmune diseases, many of which currently lack curative treatment. Development of more effective treatments for eosinophil-related diseases requires expanded understanding of eosinophil signaling and biology. Cell signaling requires integration of extracellular signals with intracellular responses, and is organized in part by cholesterol rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs, commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Formation of these organizational membrane domains is in turn dependent upon the amount of available cholesterol, which can fluctuate widely with a variety of disease states. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating membrane cholesterol content in primary human peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEos would selectively alter signaling pathways that depend upon membrane-anchored signaling proteins localized within CRMMs (e.g., mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway, while not affecting pathways that signal through soluble proteins, like the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription [JAK/STAT] pathway. Cholesterol levels were increased or decreased utilizing cholesterol-chelating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, which can either extract membrane cholesterol or add exogenous membrane cholesterol depending on whether MβCD is preloaded with cholesterol. Human PBEos were pretreated with MβCD (cholesterol removal or MβCD+Cholesterol (MβCD+Chol; cholesterol delivery; subsequent IL-5-stimulated signaling and physiological endpoints were assessed. MβCD reduced membrane cholesterol in PBEos, and attenuated an IL-5-stimulated p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-p38, p-ERK1/2, and an IL-5-dependent increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA levels. In contrast, MβCD+Chol treatment elevated PBEos membrane cholesterol levels and basal p-p38, but did not alter IL-5-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT5, or STAT3. Furthermore, M

  2. Coexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase AXL and EGFR in human primary lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenzhou; Bai, Fan; Fan, Liyun; Pang, Wenshuai; Han, Ruiyu; Wang, Juan; Liu, Yueping; Yan, Xia; Duan, Huijun; Xing, Lingxiao

    2015-12-01

    AXL has been identified as a tyrosine kinase switch that causes resistance to inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the relationship between 2 receptor tyrosine kinases, AXL and EGFR, and the relevance of AXL expression with EGFR mutation status in treatment-naive human NSCLCs remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the coexpression pattern of AXL, EGFR, and pEGFR(1068) in 109 lung adenocarcinoma patients with or without an EGFR mutation. There were 68 (62.4%) patients with tumors harboring EGFR mutations such as 19 del and/or L858R; 2 patients were T790M positive. The expression of AXL, EGFR, and pEGFR(1068) was detected in 60 (55%), 68 (62.4%), and 57 (52.3%) of 109 patients, respectively. The positive rates of EGFR and pEGFR(1068) were associated with the L858R mutation alone or with the 19 del and L858R mutation status. Further analysis indicated that the percentage of AXL(+)/EGFR(+)/pEGFR(1068) coexpression in 68 EGFR-activating mutations patients was significantly higher than that in 39 EGFR wild-type patients (30.9% versus 10.3%, P=.015). Furthermore, in the subgroup of AXL(+) patients (35 mutation(+) and 23 wild-type patients), the coexpression rates of AXL(+)/pEGFR(1068+) and AXL(+)/EGFR(+)/pEGFR(1068+) in patients with EGFR mutations were significantly higher compared with those in wild-type patients (both P<.05). Our study emphasized that the AXL and EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases were coexpressed in a subgroup of treatment-naive lung adenocarcinomas with or without EGFR mutations. Anti-AXL therapeutics delivered up front in combination with an EGFR inhibitor might prevent or delay resistance in patients with AXL-positive, EGFR-mutant, or wild-type NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal structure of the Sema-PSI extracellular domain of human RON receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinlin L Chao

    Full Text Available Human RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais receptor tyrosine kinase is a cell surface receptor for Macrophage Stimulating Protein (MSP. RON mediates signal transduction pathways that regulate cell adhesion, invasion, motility and apoptosis processes. Elevated levels of RON and its alternatively spliced variants are implicated in the progression and metastasis of tumor cells. The binding of MSP α/β heterodimer to the extracellular region of RON receptor induces receptor dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domains. The ectodomain of RON, containing the ligand recognition and dimerization domains, is composed of a semaphorin (Sema, Plexins-Semaphorins-Integrins domain (PSI, and four Immunoglobulins-Plexins-Transcription factor (IPT domains. High affinity association between MSP and RON is mediated by the interaction between MSP β-chain and RON Sema, although RON activation requires intact RON and MSP proteins. Here, we report the structure of RON Sema-PSI domains at 1.85 Å resolution. RON Sema domain adopts a seven-bladed β-propeller fold, followed by disulfide bond rich, cysteine-knot PSI motif. Comparison with the homologous Met receptor tyrosine kinase reveals that RON Sema-PSI contains distinguishing secondary structural features. These define the receptors' exclusive selectivity towards their respective ligands, RON for MSP and Met for HGF. The RON Sema-PSI crystal packing generates a homodimer with interface formed by the Sema domain. Mapping of the dimer interface using the RON homology to Met, MSP homology to Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, and the structure of the Met/HGF complex shows the dimer interface overlapping with the putative MSPβ binding site. The crystallographically determined RON Sema-PSI homodimer may represent the dimer assembly that occurs during ligand-independent receptor activation and/or the inhibition of the constitutive activity of RONΔ160 splice variant by the soluble RON

  4. Cloning and expression of two human p70 S6 kinase polypeptides differing only at their amino termini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, J.R.; Banerjee, P.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Price, D.J.; Avruch, J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Coffer, P.J.; Woodgett, J.R. (Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-11-01

    Two classes of human cDNA encoding the insulin/mitogen-activated p70 S6 kinase have been isolated; the two classes differ only in the 5{prime} region, such that the longer polypeptide consists of 525 amino acids, of which the last 502 longer residues are identical in sequence to the entire polypeptide encoded by the second cDNA. Both p70 S6 kinase polypeptides predicted by these cDNAs are present in p70 S6 kinase purified from rat liver, and each is thus expressed in vivo. Moreover, both polypeptides are expressed from a single mRNA transcribed from the (longer) p70 S6 kinase {alpha}I cDNA through the utilization of different translational start sites. Transient expression of p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II S6 kinase cDNA in COA cells results in a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in overall S6 kinase activity. Transfection with the {alpha}II cDNA yields only the smaller set of bands, while transfection with the {alpha}I cDNA generates both sets of bands. Mutation of Met-24 in the {alpha}I cDNA to Leu or Thr suppresses synthesis of the {alpha}II polypeptides. Only the p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II polypeptides of slowest mobility on SDS-PAGE comigrate with the 70-and 90-kDa proteins observed in purified rat liver S6 kinase. The recombinant p70 S6 kinase undergoes multiple phosphorylation and partial activation in COS cells. Acquisition of S6 protein kinase catalytic function, however, is apparently restricted to the most extensively phosphorylated recombinant polypeptides.

  5. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  6. Sanguinarine causes cell cycle blockade and apoptosis of human prostate carcinoma cells via modulation of cyclin kinase inhibitor-cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Reagan-Shaw, Shannon R; Nihal, Minakshi; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2004-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males in the United States. This warrants the development of novel mechanism-based strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. Several studies have shown that plant-derived alkaloids possess remarkable anticancer effects. Sanguinarine, an alkaloid derived from the bloodroot plant Sanguinaria canadensis, has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Previously, we have shown that sanguinarine possesses strong antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes. Here, employing androgen-responsive human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and androgen-unresponsive human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells, we studied the antiproliferative properties of sanguinarine against prostate cancer. Sanguinarine (0.1-2 micromol/L) treatment of LNCaP and DU145 cells for 24 hours resulted in dose-dependent (1) inhibition of cell growth [as evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], (2) arrest of cells in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle (as assessed by DNA cell cycle analysis), and (3) induction of apoptosis (as evaluated by DNA ladder formation and flow cytometry). To define the mechanism of antiproliferative effects of sanguinarine against prostate cancer, we studied the effect of sanguinarine on critical molecular events known to regulate the cell cycle and the apoptotic machinery. Immunoblot analysis showed that sanguinarine treatment of both LNCaP and DU145 cells resulted in significant (1) induction of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1; (2) down-regulation of cyclin E, D1, and D2; and (3) down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 4, and 6. A highlight of this study was the fact that sanguinarine induced growth inhibitory and antiproliferative effects in human prostate carcinoma cells irrespective of their androgen

  7. Functional Analysis of the Aurora Kinase A Ile31 Allelic Variant in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Matarasso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the centrosome-associated serine/ threonine kinase Aurora Kinase A (AURKA has been demonstrated in both advanced prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. The single-nucleotide polymorphism T91A (Phe3lile has been implicated in AURKA overexpression and has been suggested as a low-penetrance susceptibility allele in multiple human cancers, including prostate cancer. We studied the transcriptional consequences of the AURKA Ile31 allele in 28 commercial normal prostate tissue RNA samples (median age, 27 years. Significant overexpression of AURKA was demonstrated in homozygous and heterozygous AURKA Ile31 prostate RNA (2.07-fold and 1.93-fold, respectively; P < .05. Expression levels of 1509 genes differentiated between samples homozygous for Phe31 alleles and samples homozygous for Ile31 alleles (P = .05. Gene Ontology classification revealed overrepresentation of cell cycle arrest, ubiquitin cycle, antiapoptosis, angiogenesisrelated genes. When these hypothesis-generating results were subjected to more stringent statistical criteria, overexpression of a novel transcript of the natural killer tumor recognition sequence (NKTR gene was revealed and validated in homozygous Ile31 samples (2.6-fold; P < .05. In summary, our data suggest an association between the AURKA Ile31 allele and an altered transcriptome in normal non-neopasic prostates.

  8. Integrin-Associated Focal Adhesion Kinase Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Apoptosis, Detachment, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriana Vitillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be maintained in a fully defined niche on extracellular matrix substrates, to which they attach through integrin receptors. However, the underlying integrin signaling mechanisms, and their contribution to hESC behavior, are largely unknown. Here, we show that focal adhesion kinase (FAK transduces integrin activation and supports hESC survival, substrate adhesion, and maintenance of the undifferentiated state. After inhibiting FAK kinase activity we show that hESCs undergo cell detachment-dependent apoptosis or differentiation. We also report deactivation of FAK downstream targets, AKT and MDM2, and upregulation of p53, all key players in hESC regulatory networks. Loss of integrin activity or FAK also induces cell aggregation, revealing a role in the cell-cell interactions of hESCs. This study provides insight into the integrin signaling cascade activated in hESCs and reveals in FAK a key player in the maintenance of hESC survival and undifferentiated state.

  9. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Shiow-Lin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN, two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC and glutathione (GSH, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor (SP600125, and an activator protein-1 (AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin. Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis.

  10. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Graf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins.

  11. The Human Biliverdin Reductase-based Peptide Fragments and Biliverdin Regulate Protein Kinase Cδ Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Tudor, Cicerone; Hagen, Fred K.; Maines, Mahin D.

    2012-01-01

    PKCδ, a Ser/Thr kinase, promotes cell growth, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase, inhibits apoptosis by reducing biliverdin-IX to antioxidant bilirubin. The enzymes are activated by similar stimuli. Reportedly, hBVR is a kinase-independent activator of PKCδ and is transactivated by the PKC (Gibbs, P. E., Miralem, T., Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Tudor, C., and Maines, M. D. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1066–1079). Presently, we examined interactions between the two proteins in the context of regulation of their activities and defining targets of hBVR phosphorylation by PKCδ. LC-MS/MS analysis of PKCδ-activated intact hBVR identified phosphorylated serine positions 21, 33, 230, and 237, corresponding to the hBVR Src homology-2 domain motif (Ser230 and Ser237), flanking the ATP-binding motif (Ser21) and in PHPS sequence (Ser33) as targets of PKCδ. Ser21 and Ser230 were also phosphorylated in hBVR-based peptides. The Ser230-containing peptide was a high affinity substrate for PKCδ in vitro and in cells; the relative affinity was PKCδ > PKCβII > PKCζ. Two overlapping peptides spanning this substrate, KRNRYLSF and SFHFKSGSL, were effective inhibitors of PKCδ kinase activity and PKCδ-supported activation of transcription factors Elk1 and NF-κB. Only SFHFKSGSL, in PKCδ-transfected phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated cells, caused membrane blebbing and cell loss. Biliverdin noncovalently inhibited PKCδ, whereas PKCδ potentiated hBVR reductase activity and accelerated the rate of bilirubin formation. This study, together with previous findings, reveals an unexpected regulatory interplay between PKCδ and hBVR in modulating cell death/survival in response to various activating stimuli. In addition, this study has identified novel substrates for and inhibitors of PKCδ. We suggest that hBVR-based technology may have utility to modulate PKCδ-mediated functions in the cell. PMID:22584576

  12. Comparative active‐site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skovgaard, Tine; Uhlin, Ulla; Munch‐Petersen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The first step for the intracellular retention of several anticancer or antiviral nucleoside analogues is the addition of a phosphate group catalysed by a deoxyribonucleoside kinase such as thymidine kinase 1 (TK1...

  13. Regulation of Cell Survival in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Sphingosine Kinase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hobson, John

    2001-01-01

    .... Cell migration toward PDGF, which stimulates sphingosine kinase and increases SPP levels, was dependent on expression of EDG-1, and conversely, deletion of EDG-1, inhibition of sphingosine kinase...

  14. BMI-Related Progression of Atypical PKC-dependent Aberrations in Insulin Signaling Through IRS-1, Akt, FoxO1 and PGC-1α in Livers of Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan, Mini P; Ivey, Robert A; Farese, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    Information on insulin resistance in human liver is limited. In mouse diet-induced obesity (DIO), hepatic insulin resistance initially involves: lipid + insulin-induced activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC); elevated Akt activity/activation but selective impairment of compartmentalized Akt-dependent FoxO1 phosphorylation; and increases in gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. In advanced stages, e.g., in hepatocytes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) humans, insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) and Akt fails, further increasing FoxO1-dependent gluconeogenic/lipogenic enzyme expression. Increases in hepatic PGC-1α also figure prominently, but uncertainly, in this scheme. Here, we examined signaling factors in liver samples harvested from human transplant donors with increasing BMI, 20→25→30→35→40→45. We found, relative to lean (BMI=20–25) humans, obese (BMI>30) humans had all abnormalities seen in early mouse DIO, but, surprisingly, at all elevated BMI levels, had decreased insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1) levels, decreased Akt activity, and increased expression/abundance of aPKC-ι and PGC-1α. Moreover, with increasing BMI, there were: progressive increases in aPKC activity and PKC-ι expression/abundance; progressive decreases in IRS-1 levels, Akt activity and FoxO1 phosphorylation; progressive increases in expression/abundance of PGC-1α; and progressive increases in gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Remarkably, all abnormalities reached T2D levels at higher BMI levels. Most importantly, both “early” and advanced abnormalities were largely reversed by 24-hour treatment of T2D hepatocytes with aPKC inhibitor. We conclude: hepatic insulin resistance in human obesity is: advanced; BMI-correlated; and sequentially involves increased aPKC-activating ceramide; increased aPKC levels and activity; decreases in IRS-1 levels, Akt activity, and FoxO1 phosphorylation; and increases in expression/abundance of PGC-1α and gluconeogenic and

  15. Studies of the cytosolic thymidine kinase in human cells and comparison to the recombinantly expressed enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock Jensen, Helle

    Thymidine kinase (TK) is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of the nucleoside metabolism catalyzing the first phosphorylation step in TTP synthesis. Human cytosolic TK (TKl) is highly cell cycle regulated. TKl is regulated on many different levels of expression and isoforms with altered enzymatic...... properties are found in cancer cells. Investigation of these factors offers possibilities to understand the molecular background for TKl expression including to clarify general regulation patterns. It also gives valuable information for constructing new nucleoside analogs for the therapy of cancer and virus...... infections. In the first part of the present investigation a sensitive test for quantitating TKl mRNA (competitive PCR) is developed and the results show that PHA stimulated lymphocytes reveal the same pattern concerning expression of TKl mRNA and TKl enzyme activity as serum-stimulated cells. This pattern...

  16. A pseudoreceptor modelling study of the varicella-zoster virus and human thymidine kinase binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenidge, Paulette A.; Merz, Alfred; Folkers, Gerd

    1995-12-01

    A representative range of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues that are known to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication have been used to construct receptor binding site models for the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), thymidine kinase (TK) and human TK1. Given a set of interacting ligands, superimposed in such a manner as to define a pharmacophore, the pseudoreceptor modelling technique Yak provides a means of building binding site models of macromolecules for which no three-dimensional experimental structures are available. Once the models have been evaluated by their ability to reproduce experimental binding data [Vedani et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 117 (1995) 4987], they can be used for predictive purposes. Calculated and experimental values of relative binding affinity are compared. Our models suggest that the substitution of one residue may be sufficient to determine ligand subtype affinity.

  17. Regulation of ERK-mediated signal transduction by p38 MAP kinase in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Watabe, Masahiko; Nishimura, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Masahiro; Izuno, Makoto; Yoshida, Takemi

    2003-05-01

    SB 203580 has been widely used to specifically shut down the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway, although it is capable of inducing c-Raf kinase activity in cells. The present study demonstrates that SB 203580 activates members of the ERK cascade, c-Raf, MEK, and ERK, in human monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of these kinases was sustained for at least 24 h after SB 203580 treatment and was also observed in U937 cells, suggesting that c-Raf efficiently transduces the signal even in the presence of the inhibitor in these cells. However, the expression of ERK cascade-dependent genes, such as c-fos and IL-1beta, was extremely limited. Analysis of the cellular distribution of ERK in SB 203580-treated cells indicated that nuclear translocation of phosphorylated ERK was impaired. Also, nuclear translocation of ERK induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was inhibited by SB 239063, which does not associate with c-Raf and is highly selective for p38 MAP kinase. In addition, the forced expression of the dominant negative mutant of p38 MAP kinase suppressed serum responsive element-dependent transactivation induced by TPA. These results suggest that the steady-state level of p38 MAP kinase activity modulates ERK signaling.

  18. Determination of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein and albumin binding of various marketed and preclinical kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona; Bencze, Gyula; Kéri, György; Orfi, László

    2009-01-01

    There are about 380 protein kinase inhibitors in drug development as of today and 15 drugs have been marketed already for the treatment of cancer. This time 139 validated kinase targets are in the focus of drug research of pharmaceutical companies and big efforts are made for the development of new, druglike kinase inhibitors. Plasma protein binding is an important factor of the ADME profiling of a drug compound. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) are the most relevant drug carriers in blood plasma. Since previous literature data indicated that AAG is the principal plasma binding component of some kinase inhibitors the present work focuses on the comprehensive evaluation of AAG binding of a series of marketed and experimental kinase inhibitors by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approach. HSA binding was also evaluated by affinity chromatography. Protein binding interactions of twenty-six kinase inhibitors are characterized. The contribution of AAG and HSA binding data to the pharmacokinetic profiles of the investigated therapeutic agents is discussed. Structural, biological and drug binding properties of AAG as well as the applicability of the CD method in studying drug-protein binding interactions are also briefly reviewed.

  19. Structure-function similarities between a plant receptor-like kinase and the human interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus-Heisen, D.; Nurisso, A.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Mbengue, M.; Camut, S.; Timmers, T.; Pichereaux, C.; Rossignol, M.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Imberty, A.; Lefebvre, B.; Cullimore, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has previously shown that plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are monophyletic with respect to the kinase domain and share an evolutionary origin with the animal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase/Pelle-soluble kinases. The lysin motif domain-containing receptor-like

  20. KinMutRF: a random forest classifier of sequence variants in the human protein kinase superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Tirso; Vazquez, Miguel; Matey-Hernandez, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    remains challenging: cells tolerate most genomic alterations and only a minor fraction disrupt molecular function sufficiently and drive disease. Results: KinMutRF is a novel random-forest method to automatically identify pathogenic variants in human kinases. Twenty six decision trees implemented......Background: The association between aberrant signal processing by protein kinases and human diseases such as cancer was established long time ago. However, understanding the link between sequence variants in the protein kinase superfamily and the mechanistic complex traits at the molecular level...... as a random forest ponder a battery of features that characterize the variants: a) at the gene level, including membership to a Kinbase group and Gene Ontology terms; b) at the PFAM domain level; and c) at the residue level, the types of amino acids involved, changes in biochemical properties, functional...

  1. Investigation of the Role of Protein Kinase D in Human Rhinovirus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedán, Anabel; Swieboda, Dawid; Charles, Mark; Toussaint, Marie; Johnston, Sebastian L; Asfor, Amin; Panjwani, Anusha; Tuthill, Tobias J; Danahay, Henry; Raynham, Tony; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodeling of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes, and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB). Since both OSBP and PI4KB are substrates for protein kinase D (PKD) and PKD is known to be involved in the control of Golgi membrane vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesized that PKD played a role in viral replication. We present multiple lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis. First, infection of HeLa cells with human rhinovirus (HRV) induced the phosphorylation of PKD. Second, PKD inhibitors reduced HRV genome replication, protein expression, and titers in a concentration-dependent fashion and also blocked the replication of poliovirus (PV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in a variety of cells. Third, HRV replication was significantly reduced in HeLa cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant forms of PKD1. Fourth, HRV genome replication was reduced in HAP1 cells in which the PKD1 gene was knocked out by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Although we have not identified the molecular mechanism through which PKD regulates viral replication, our data suggest that this is not due to enhanced interferon signaling or an inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and PKD inhibitors do not need to be present during viral uptake. Our data show for the first time that targeting PKD with small molecules can inhibit the replication of HRV, PV, and FMDV, and therefore, PKD may represent a novel antiviral target for drug discovery.IMPORTANCE Picornaviruses remain an important family of human and animal pathogens for which we have a very limited arsenal of antiviral agents. HRV is the causative agent of the common cold, which in itself is a relatively trivial infection; however, in asthma and chronic obstructive

  2. [Cytoplasmic kinase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    Protein kinases play essential roles in the regulation of cell proliferation. Point mutations or/and fusions of protein kinases are frequently identified in human cancers, and targeting such activated kinases provides us with a chance to eradicate tumor cells. This was first proved by imatinib mesylate that inhibits ABL tyrosine kinase and, thereby, efficiently kills malignant cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. In addition, other clinical trials are ongoing for kinase inhibitors against EML4--ALK in lung cancer, JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders and BRAF in malignant melanoma. Early reports indeed reveal that such targeting compounds are promising drugs for human cancers with activated kinases.

  3. SKI-606 (bosutinib), a novel Src kinase inhibitor, suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vultur, Adina; Buettner, Ralf; Kowolik, Claudia; Liang, Wei; Smith, David; Boschelli, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Src family kinase (SFK) activity is elevated in many human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with aggressive disease. We examined the effects of SKI-606 (bosutinib), a selective SFK inhibitor, on human cancer cells derived from breast cancer patients in order to assess its potential for breast cancer treatment. Our results show that SKI-606 caused a decrease in cell motility and invasion of breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 of ~250 nM, which was also the IC50 for inhibition of c-Src kinase activity in intact tumor cells. These changes were accompanied by an increase in cell-to-cell adhesion and membrane localization of beta-catenin. By contrast, cell proliferation and survival were unaffected by SKI-606 at concentrations sufficient to block cell migration and invasion. Analysis of downstream effectors of Src revealed that SKI-606 inhibits the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas) with an IC50 similar to inhibition of c-Src kinase. Our findings indicate that SKI-606 inhibits signaling pathways involved in controlling tumor cell motility and invasion, suggesting that SKI-606 is a promising therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:18483306

  4. Structure and function of adenylate kinase isozymes in normal humans and muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Takenaka, H; Fukumoto, K; Fukamachi, S; Yamaguchi, T; Sumida, M; Shiosaka, T; Kurokawa, Y; Okuda, H; Kuby, S A

    1987-01-01

    Two isozymes of adenylate kinase from human Duchenne muscular dystrophy serum, one of which was an aberrant form specific to DMD patients, were separated by Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity chromatography. The separated aberrant form possessed a molecular weight of 98,000 +/- 1,500, whereas the normal serum isozyme had a weight of 87,000 +/- 1,600, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and sedimentation equilibrium. The sedimentation coefficients were 5.8 S and 5.6 S for the aberrant form and the normal form, respectively. Both serum isozymes are tetramers. The subunit size of the aberrant isozyme (Mr = 24,700) was very similar to that of the normal human liver isozyme, and the subunit size of the normal isozyme (Mr = 21,700) was very similar to that of the normal human muscle enzyme. The amino acid composition of the normal serum isozyme was similar to that of the muscle-type enzyme, and that of the aberrant isozyme was similar to that of the liver enzyme, with some exceptions in both cases.

  5. Activation of focal adhesion kinase enhances the adhesion of Fusarium solani to human corneal epithelial cells via the tyrosine-specific protein kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaojing; Wang, Ye; Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hao; Xie, Lixin

    2011-03-05

    To determine the role of the integrin-FAK signaling pathway triggered by the adherence of F. solani to human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). After pretreatment with/without genistein, HCECs were incubated with F. solani spores at different times (0-24 h). Cell adhesion assays were performed by optical microscopy. Changes of the ultrastructure were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of F-actin and Paxillin (PAX) were detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting to detect the expression of these key proteins with/without genistein treatment. Cell adhesion assays showed that the number of adhered spores began to rise at 6 h after incubation and peaked at 8 h. SEM and TEM showed that the HCECs exhibited a marked morphological alteration induced by the attachment and entry of the spores. The expression of PAX increased, while the expression of F-actin decreased by stimulation with F. solani. The interaction of F. solani with HCECs causes actin rearrangement in HCECs. Genistein strongly inhibited FAK phosphorylation and the activation of the downstream protein (PAX). F. solani-induced enhancement of cell adhesion ability was inhibited along with the inhibition of FAK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the integrin-FAK signaling pathway is involved in the control of F. solani adhesion to HCECs and that the activation of focal adhesion kinase enhances the adhesion of human corneal epithelial cells to F. solani via the tyrosine-specific protein kinase signaling pathway.

  6. β3-Adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat and human urinary bladder : roles of BKCa channels and Rho kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernecka, Hana; Kersten, Kim; Maarsingh, Harm; Elzinga, Carolina R.; de Jong, Igle Jan; Korstanje, Cees; Michel, Martin C.; Schmidt, Martina

    Previous studies suggest that the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel and Rho-kinase play major roles in the control of urinary bladder tone. Here, we investigated their involvement in beta-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated relaxation of rat and human bladder. Concentration-response curves

  7. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2* Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue11The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  8. Conservation, variability and the modeling of active protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D R Knight

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The human proteome is rich with protein kinases, and this richness has made the kinase of crucial importance in initiating and maintaining cell behavior. Elucidating cell signaling networks and manipulating their components to understand and alter behavior require well designed inhibitors. These inhibitors are needed in culture to cause and study network perturbations, and the same compounds can be used as drugs to treat disease. Understanding the structural biology of protein kinases in detail, including their commonalities, differences and modes of substrate interaction, is necessary for designing high quality inhibitors that will be of true use for cell biology and disease therapy. To this end, we here report on a structural analysis of all available active-conformation protein kinases, discussing residue conservation, the novel features of such conservation, unique properties of atypical kinases and variability in the context of substrate binding. We also demonstrate how this information can be used for structure prediction. Our findings will be of use not only in understanding protein kinase function and evolution, but they highlight the flaws inherent in kinase drug design as commonly practiced and dictate an appropriate strategy for the sophisticated design of specific inhibitors for use in the laboratory and disease therapy.

  9. Isoflurane Protects Against Human Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by Inducing Sphingosine Kinase-1 via ERK MAPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Thomas Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is a major clinical problem affecting virtually every patient requiring critical care. Volatile anesthetics are frequently used during the perioperative period and protect the heart and kidney against ischemia and reperfusion injury. We aimed to determine whether isoflurane, the most commonly used volatile anesthetic in the USA, protects against endothelial apoptosis and necrosis and the mechanisms involved in this protection. Human endothelial EA.hy926 cells were pretreated with isoflurane or carrier gas (95% room air + 5% CO2 then subjected to apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-α or to necrosis with hydrogen peroxide. DNA laddering and in situ Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining determined EA.hy926 cell apoptosis and percent LDH released determined necrosis. We also determined whether isoflurane modulates the expression and activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1 and induces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK MAPK as both enzymes are known to protect against cell death. Isoflurane pretreatment significantly decreased apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells as evidenced by reduced TUNEL staining and DNA laddering without affecting necrosis. Mechanistically, isoflurane induces the phosphorylation of ERK MAPK and increased SK1 expression and activity in EA.hy926 cells. Finally, selective blockade of SK1 (with SKI-II or S1P1 receptor (with W146 abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of isoflurane. Taken together, we demonstrate that isoflurane, in addition to its potent analgesic and anesthetic properties, protects against endothelial apoptosis most likely via SK1 and ERK MAPK activation. Our findings have significant clinical implication for protection of endothelial cells during the perioperative period and patients requiring critical care.

  10. Synthetic genes for human muscle-type adenylate kinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tanaka, T; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gene coding for the human muscle-type cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1) was chemically synthesized and directly expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of trp promoter. The DNA duplex of 596 bp was designed and constructed from 40 oligonucleotide fragments of typically 30 nucleotides in length. Twelve unique restriction sites were fairly evenly spaced in the synthetic gene to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis at any part of this recombinant protein. The genes for mutant hAK1 (Tyr 95----Phe 95, Y95F hAK1; Arg 97----Ala 97, R97A hAK1) were constructed by cassette mutagenesis and utilized restriction sites incorporated in the hAK1 gene. The recombinant hAK1 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step chromatographic procedure with a good yield, and showed the same adenylate kinase activity as that of authentic hAK1. Preliminary kinetic studies show that the enzymatic activity (Vmax app,cor/Et) of Y95F hAK1 was slightly greater than that of recombinant hAK1, whereas R97A hAK1 still possessed approximately 4% of recombinant hAK1 activity. These results suggest that the Arg-97 residue is important but not essential for catalytic activity, and that Tyr-95 can be replaced by phenylalanine without substantial effects on the enzymatic activity. Moreover, preliminary estimates of the apparent kinetic parameters suggest that these residues are not required for MgATP binding, and therefore they do not appear to be part of the MgATP binding site.

  11. Quaternary structures of recombinant, cellular, and serum forms of Thymidine Kinase 1 from dogs and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Sharif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1 is a salvage enzyme involved in DNA precursor synthesis, and its expression is proliferation dependent. A serum form of TK1 has been used as a biomarker in human medicine for many years and more recently to monitor canine lymphoma. Canine TK1 has not been cloned and studied. Therefore, dog and human TK1 cDNA were cloned and expressed, and the recombinant enzymes characterized. The serum and cellular forms of canine and human TK1 were studied by size-exclusion chromatography and the level of TK1 protein was determined using polyclonal and monoclonal anti-TK1 antibodies. Results Canine TK1 phosphorylated the thymidine (dThd analog 3'-azido-thymidine (AZT as efficiently as it did dThd, whereas AZT phosphorylation by human TK1 was less efficient than that of dThd. Dog TK1 was also more thermostable and pH tolerant than the human enzyme. Oligomeric forms were observed with both enzymes in addition to the tetrameric and dimeric forms. Cellular TK1 was predominantly seen in dimeric and tetrameric forms, in the case of both dog TK1 from MDCK cells and human TK1 from CEM cells. Active serum TK1 was found mainly in a high molecular weight form, and treatment with a reducing agent shifted the high molecular weight complex to lower molecular weight forms with reduced total activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated a polypeptide of 26 kDa (dog and 25 kDa (human for cellular and serum TK1. There was no direct correlation between serum TK1 activity and protein level. It appears that a substantial fraction of serum TK1 is not enzymatically active. Conclusions These results suggest that the serum TK1 protein differs from cellular or recombinant forms, is more active in high molecular weight complexes, and is sensitive to reducing agents. The results presented here provide important information for the future development and use of serum TK1 as a diagnostic biomarker in human and veterinary medicine.

  12. [Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in human peritoneal mesothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Min; Liu, Fuyou; Yang, Yu; Ye, Yun; Huang, Guxiang

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inducing epithelial mesenchymal transition in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). Primary HPMC was harvested from human omental tissue and maintained under defined in vitro conditions. The expression of p-GSK-3beta and total GSK-3beta in HMPC was detected by Western blot after incubation with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mmol/L)of LiCl at different time points (0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h). The protein expression of E-cadherin and alpha-SMA was also examined after treatment with 20 mmol/L LiCl according to different time courses. The intracellular distribution and expression of alpha-SMA were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. LiCl stimulated phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and the effect was time-dependent and concentration-dependent to limited extent (PHMPC to epithelial mesenchymal transition and provides new clue for the treatment of peritoneal fibrosis.

  13. Choline kinase overexpression increases invasiveness and drug resistance of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tariq; Wildes, Flonne; Penet, Marie-France; Winnard, Paul T; Glunde, Kristine; Artemov, Dmitri; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Gimi, Barjor; Kakkad, Samata; Raman, Venu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2010-07-01

    A direct correlation exists between increased choline kinase (Chk) expression, and the resulting increase of phosphocholine levels, and histological tumor grade. To better understand the function of Chk and choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer we have stably overexpressed one of the two isoforms of Chk-alpha known to be upregulated in malignant cells, in non-invasive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Dynamic tracking of cell invasion and cell metabolism were studied with a magnetic resonance (MR) compatible cell perfusion assay. The MR based invasion assay demonstrated that MCF-7 cells overexpressing Chk-alpha (MCF-7-Chk) exhibited an increase of invasion relative to control MCF-7 cells (0.84 vs 0.3). Proton MR spectroscopy studies showed significantly higher phosphocholine and elevated triglyceride signals in Chk overexpressing clones compared to control cells. A test of drug resistance in MCF-7-Chk cells revealed that these cells had an increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil and higher expression of thymidylate synthase compared to control MCF-7 cells. To further characterize increased drug resistance in these cells, we performed rhodamine-123 efflux studies to evaluate drug efflux pumps. MCF-7-Chk cells effluxed twice as much rhodamine-123 compared to MCF-7 cells. Chk-alpha overexpression resulted in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells acquiring an increasingly aggressive phenotype, supporting the role of Chk-alpha in mediating invasion and drug resistance, and the use of phosphocholine as a biomarker of aggressive breast cancers.

  14. Crystal Structure of Human Cyclin K, A Positive Regulator of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek,K.; Brown, R.; Birrane, G.; Ladias, J.

    2007-01-01

    K and the closely related cyclins T1, T2a, and T2b interact with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) forming multiple nuclear complexes, referred to collectively as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Through phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, distinct P-TEFb species regulate the transcriptional elongation of specific genes that play central roles in human physiology and disease development, including cardiac hypertrophy and human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of human cyclin K (residues 11-267) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, which represents the first atomic structure of a P-TEFb subunit. The cyclin K fold comprises two typical cyclin boxes with two short helices preceding the N-terminal box. A prominent feature of cyclin K is an additional helix (H4a) in the first cyclin box that obstructs the binding pocket for the cell-cycle inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}. Modeling of CDK9 bound to cyclin K provides insights into the structural determinants underlying the formation and regulation of this complex. A homology model of human cyclin T1 generated using the cyclin K structure as a template reveals that the two proteins have similar structures, as expected from their high level of sequence identity. Nevertheless, their CDK9-interacting surfaces display significant structural differences, which could potentially be exploited for the design of cyclin-targeted inhibitors of the CDK9-cyclin K and CDK9-cyclin T1 complexes.

  15. Rho kinase (ROK)-related proteins in human cavernous arteries: an immunohistochemical and functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldkirch, Eginhard S; Ückert, Stefan; Sohn, Michael; Kuczyk, Markus A; Hedlund, Petter

    2012-05-01

    Rho kinases (ROKs) cause calcium-independent modulation of smooth muscle contraction. A significant role for the RhoA/ROK pathway in mediating the contraction of the penile erectile tissue has been suggested. Moreover, it has been postulated that ROK activity might represent a key factor in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. Up until today, little is known on the significance of ROK and related proteins in the control of blood flow in the corpus cavernosum. To investigate by means of immunohistochemistry and organ bath studies the significance of the Rho pathway in human cavernous arteries. The expression of ROK1, ROK2, RhoA, and RhoGDI in human cavernous arteries was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry; myographic studies were conducted in order to characterize the effects of the ROK inhibitor Y27632 on isolated cavernous arteries. Specimens of human cavernous arteries were processed for immunohistochemistry for ROK1, ROK2, RhoA, and RhoGDI. Circular penile vascular segments were mounted in a tissue bath and the effects of increasing concentrations of the ROK inhibitor Y27632 on the tension induced by norepinephrine (NE, 1 µM) were investigated. Alpha-actin immunoreactive cavernous arterioles also presented abundant staining specific for ROK1, ROK2, RhoA, and RhoGDI in the smooth musculature of the vascular wall. Cumulative addition of Y27632 dose-dependently reversed the tension induced by NE of isolated arterial segments. Y27632 produced relaxant responses with a reversion of tension of 34.3 ± 11.8% at a concentration of 1 µM. The findings are in support for a role of the Rho/ROK-mediated signaling in the regulation of muscle tone of human cavernous arteries. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen

    2010-02-15

    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  17. KinMutRF: a random forest classifier of sequence variants in the human protein kinase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Tirso; Vazquez, Miguel; Matey-Hernandez, María Luisa; Brunak, Søren; Valencia, Alfonso; Izarzugaza, Jose Mg

    2016-06-23

    The association between aberrant signal processing by protein kinases and human diseases such as cancer was established long time ago. However, understanding the link between sequence variants in the protein kinase superfamily and the mechanistic complex traits at the molecular level remains challenging: cells tolerate most genomic alterations and only a minor fraction disrupt molecular function sufficiently and drive disease. KinMutRF is a novel random-forest method to automatically identify pathogenic variants in human kinases. Twenty six decision trees implemented as a random forest ponder a battery of features that characterize the variants: a) at the gene level, including membership to a Kinbase group and Gene Ontology terms; b) at the PFAM domain level; and c) at the residue level, the types of amino acids involved, changes in biochemical properties, functional annotations from UniProt, Phospho.ELM and FireDB. KinMutRF identifies disease-associated variants satisfactorily (Acc: 0.88, Prec:0.82, Rec:0.75, F-score:0.78, MCC:0.68) when trained and cross-validated with the 3689 human kinase variants from UniProt that have been annotated as neutral or pathogenic. All unclassified variants were excluded from the training set. Furthermore, KinMutRF is discussed with respect to two independent kinase-specific sets of mutations no included in the training and testing, Kin-Driver (643 variants) and Pon-BTK (1495 variants). Moreover, we provide predictions for the 848 protein kinase variants in UniProt that remained unclassified. A public implementation of KinMutRF, including documentation and examples, is available online ( http://kinmut2.bioinfo.cnio.es ). The source code for local installation is released under a GPL version 3 license, and can be downloaded from https://github.com/Rbbt-Workflows/KinMut2 . KinMutRF is capable of classifying kinase variation with good performance. Predictions by KinMutRF compare favorably in a benchmark with other state

  18. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promote down-regulation and display functional selectivity at human 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andressen, K W; Manfra, O; Brevik, C H; Ulsund, A H; Vanhoenacker, P; Levy, F O; Krobert, K A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Classically, ligands of GPCRs have been classified primarily upon their affinity and efficacy to activate a signal transduction pathway. Recent reports indicate that the efficacy of a particular ligand can vary depending on the receptor-mediated response measured (e.g. activating G proteins, other downstream responses, internalization). Previously, we reported that inverse agonists induce both homo- and heterologous desensitization, similar to agonist stimulation, at the Gs-coupled 5-HT7 receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether different inverse agonists at the 5-HT7 receptor also induce internalization and/or degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT7(a, b or d) receptors were pre-incubated with 5-HT, clozapine, olanzapine, mesulergine or SB269970 and their effects upon receptor density, AC activity, internalization, recruitment of β-arrestins and lysosomal trafficking were measured. Key Results The agonist 5-HT and three out of four inverse agonists tested increased internalization independently of β-arrestin recruitment. Among these, only the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promoted lysosomal sorting and reduced 5-HT7 receptor density (∼60% reduction within 24 h). Inhibition of lysosomal degradation with chloroquine blocked the clozapine- and olanzapine-induced down-regulation of 5-HT7 receptors. Incubation with SB269970 decreased both 5-HT7(b) constitutive internalization and receptor density but increased 5-HT7(d) receptor density, indicating differential ligand regulation among the 5-HT7 splice variants. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, we found that various ligands differentially activate regulatory processes governing receptor internalization and degradation in addition to signal transduction. Thus, these data extend our understanding of functional selectivity at the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25884989

  19. The human biliverdin reductase-based peptide fragments and biliverdin regulate protein kinase Cδ activity: the peptides are inhibitors or substrate for the protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Gibbs, Peter E M; Tudor, Cicerone; Hagen, Fred K; Maines, Mahin D

    2012-07-13

    PKCδ, a Ser/Thr kinase, promotes cell growth, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase, inhibits apoptosis by reducing biliverdin-IX to antioxidant bilirubin. The enzymes are activated by similar stimuli. Reportedly, hBVR is a kinase-independent activator of PKCδ and is transactivated by the PKC (Gibbs, P. E., Miralem, T., Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Tudor, C., and Maines, M. D. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1066-1079). Presently, we examined interactions between the two proteins in the context of regulation of their activities and defining targets of hBVR phosphorylation by PKCδ. LC-MS/MS analysis of PKCδ-activated intact hBVR identified phosphorylated serine positions 21, 33, 230, and 237, corresponding to the hBVR Src homology-2 domain motif (Ser(230) and Ser(237)), flanking the ATP-binding motif (Ser(21)) and in PHPS sequence (Ser(33)) as targets of PKCδ. Ser(21) and Ser(230) were also phosphorylated in hBVR-based peptides. The Ser(230)-containing peptide was a high affinity substrate for PKCδ in vitro and in cells; the relative affinity was PKCδ > PKCβII > PKCζ. Two overlapping peptides spanning this substrate, KRNRYLSF and SFHFKSGSL, were effective inhibitors of PKCδ kinase activity and PKCδ-supported activation of transcription factors Elk1 and NF-κB. Only SFHFKSGSL, in PKCδ-transfected phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated cells, caused membrane blebbing and cell loss. Biliverdin noncovalently inhibited PKCδ, whereas PKCδ potentiated hBVR reductase activity and accelerated the rate of bilirubin formation. This study, together with previous findings, reveals an unexpected regulatory interplay between PKCδ and hBVR in modulating cell death/survival in response to various activating stimuli. In addition, this study has identified novel substrates for and inhibitors of PKCδ. We suggest that hBVR-based technology may have utility to modulate PKCδ-mediated functions in the cell.

  20. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  1. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enhances apoptosis induced by arsenic trioxide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Li, Aiping; Liu, Qizhan; Wang, Xinru; Zhou, Jianwei

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently been used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia and has activity in vitro against several solid tumour cell lines where the induction of differentiation and apoptosis are the prime effects. The mechanism of As2O3-induced cell death has yet to be clarified, especially in solid cancers. In the present study, the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was examined as a cellular model for As2O3 treatment. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was investigated in As2O3-induced cell death. 3. It was found that As2O3 activates the prosurvival mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway in MCF-7 cells, which, conversely, may compromise the efficacy of As2O3. Hence, a combination treatment of As2O3 and MEK inhibitors was investigated to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. 4. Inhibition of MEK/ERK with the pharmacological inhibitors U0126 (10 micromol/L) or PD98059 (20 micromol/L) together with As2O3 (2 and 5 micromol/L) resulted in a significant enhancement of growth inhibition in breast cancer MCF-7 cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and [Methyl-3H]-thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that combined treatment with As2O3 and the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 could augment breast cancer MCF-7 cell apoptosis approximately twofold compared with the effects of the two drugs alone, as determined by Hoechst 33258 or annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 5. In addition, As2O3 activated p38 in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on JNK1/2. Treatment with a p38 inhibitor did not prevent As2O3-induced apoptosis. 6. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that enhanced apoptosis is detected in breast cancer MCF-7 cells in the presence of As2O3 and an MEK inhibitor, which may be a

  2. Atypical antigen recognition mode of a shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) variable domain characterized by humanization and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V; Olland, Andrea; Piché-Nicholas, Nicole; Godbole, Adarsh; King, Daniel; Svenson, Kristine; Calabro, Valerie; Müller, Mischa R; Barelle, Caroline J; Somers, William; Gill, Davinder S; Mosyak, Lidia; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila

    2013-06-14

    The immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are a class of Ig-like molecules of the shark immune system that exist as heavy chain-only homodimers and bind antigens by their single domain variable regions (V-NARs). Following shark immunization and/or in vitro selection, V-NARs can be generated as soluble, stable, and specific high affinity monomeric binding proteins of ∼12 kDa. We have previously isolated a V-NAR from an immunized spiny dogfish shark, named E06, that binds specifically and with high affinity to human, mouse, and rat serum albumins. Humanization of E06 was carried out by converting over 60% of non-complementarity-determining region residues to those of a human germ line Vκ1 sequence, DPK9. The resulting huE06 molecules have largely retained the specificity and affinity of antigen binding of the parental V-NAR. Crystal structures of the shark E06 and its humanized variant (huE06 v1.1) in complex with human serum albumin (HSA) were determined at 3- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The huE06 v1.1 molecule retained all but one amino acid residues involved in the binding site for HSA. Structural analysis of these V-NARs has revealed an unusual variable domain-antigen interaction. E06 interacts with HSA in an atypical mode that utilizes extensive framework contacts in addition to complementarity-determining regions that has not been seen previously in V-NARs. On the basis of the structure, the roles of various elements of the molecule are described with respect to antigen binding and V-NAR stability. This information broadens the general understanding of antigen recognition and provides a framework for further design and humanization of shark IgNARs.

  3. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence.

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  5. MNADK, a Long-Awaited Human Mitochondrion-Localized NAD Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP, play essential roles in numerous cellular processes in all organisms. NADP maintains a pool of its reducing equivalent, NADPH, which regenerates cellular oxidative defense systems to counteract oxidative damages. Mitochondria represent a major source of oxidative stress, because the majority of superoxide, a reactive oxygen species, is generated from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Therefore, as universal electron carriers in cellular electron transfer reactions, the pyridine nucleotides are required by mitochondria for both antioxidant protection and biosynthetic pathways. The NAD kinase (NADK) is the sole NADP biosynthetic enzyme. Because NADP is membrane-impermeable, eukaryotes need compartment-specific NADKs for different organelles. Consistently, in both yeast and plants, three compartment-specific NADKs have been identified. In contrast, even though the first human NADK, a cytosolic one, was identified in 2001, the identity of a hypothesized mitochondrial NADK remained elusive, until a recent discovery that the uncharacterized human gene C5ORF33 encodes a mitochondrion-localized NADK, referred to as MNADK. Three groups have characterized MNADK functions based on distinct systems involving yeast, mouse, and human studies, from aspects of both in vitro and in vivo evidence. MNADK is a mitochondrial NADK that is enriched and nutritionally-regulated in mouse liver, and a MNADK-deficient patient exhibits symptoms characteristic of mitochondrial disease. The identification of MNADK provides a key clue to the mechanism involved in mitochondrial NADPH production and the maintenance of redox balance in mammalian cells. The roles of MNADK in physiological and pathological processes have yet to be discovered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aspirin augments IgE-mediated histamine release from human peripheral basophils via Syk kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Morita, Hironobu; Ooi, Mina; Urata, Kana; Ishii, Kaori; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Yanase, Yuhki; Hiragun, Takaaki; Mihara, Shoji; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially aspirin, and food additives (FAs) may exacerbate allergic symptoms in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria and food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Augmentation of histamine release from human mast cells and basophils by those substances is speculated to be the cause of exacerbated allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of aspirin on IgE-mediated histamine release. The effects of NSAIDs, FAs or cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on histamine release from human basophils concentrated by gravity separation were evaluated. Benzoate and tartrazine, which have no COX inhibitory activity, augmented histamine release from basophils similar to aspirin. In contrast, ibuprofen, meloxicam, FR122047 and NS-398, which have COX inhibitory activity, did not affect histamine release. These results indicate that the augmentation of histamine release by aspirin is not due to COX inhibition. It was observed that aspirin augmented histamine release from human basophils only when specifically activated by anti-IgE antibodies, but not by A23187 or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. When the IgE receptor signaling pathway was activated, aspirin increased the phosphorylation of Syk. Moreover, patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA tended to be more sensitive to aspirin as regards the augmentation of histamine release, compared with healthy controls. Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  7. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Wu, Wei-Chi; Hsu, Jason; Weng, Shih-Ting; Lin, Tsai-Leng; Liu, Chun-Yi; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2008-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions. An immuno-modulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) isolated from G. lucidum exhibited potent mitogenic effects upon human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, LZ-8-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression within human T cells is largely unknown. Here we cloned the LZ-8 gene of G. lucidum, and expressed the recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) by means of a yeast Pichia pastoris protein expression system. We found that rLZ-8 induces IL-2 gene expression via the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), via reactive oxygen species (ROS), and differential protein kinase-dependent pathways within human primary T cells and cultured Jurkat T cells. In essence, we have established the nature of the rLZ-8-mediated signal-transduction pathways, such as PTK/protein kinase C (PKC)/ROS, PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/ERK1/2, and PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/p38 pathways in the regulation of IL-2 gene expression within human T cells. Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Induction of interleukin-8 by Naegleria fowleri lysates requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human astroglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kwon, Daeho; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2012-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic free-living amoeba which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans and experimental animals. To investigate the mechanisms of such inflammatory diseases, potential chemokine gene activation in human astroglial cells was investigated following treatment with N. fowleri lysates. We demonstrated that N. fowleri are potent inducers for the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) genes in human astroglial cells which was preceded by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, N. fowleri lysates induces the DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1), an important transcription factor for IL-8 induction. The specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK inhibitor, U0126, blocks N. fowleri-mediated AP-1 activation and subsequent IL-8 induction. N. fowleri-induced IL-8 expression requires activation of ERK in human astroglial cells. These findings indicate that treatment of N. fowleri on human astroglial cells leads to the activation of AP-1 and subsequent expression of IL-8 which are dependent on ERK activation. These results may help understand the N. fowleri-mediated upregulation of chemokine and cytokine expression in the astroglial cells.

  9. Structure of protein kinase CK2: dimerization of the human beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Mietens, U; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits. Us...

  10. Nucleotide binding to human UMP-CMP kinase using fluorescent derivatives -- a screening based on affinity for the UMP-CMP binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalis, Dimitri; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Amaya Velasco, Maria-Fernanda; Dugué, Laurence; Haouz, Ahmed; Alexandre, Julie Anne C; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Alzari, Pedro Maria; Pochet, Sylvie; Agrofoglio, Luigi André; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    Methylanthraniloyl derivatives of ATP and CDP were used in vitro as fluorescent probes for the donor-binding and acceptor-binding sites of human UMP-CMP kinase, a nucleoside salvage pathway kinase. Like all NMP kinases, UMP-CMP kinase binds the phosphodonor, usually ATP, and the NMP at different binding sites. The reaction results from an in-line phosphotransfer from the donor to the acceptor. The probe for the donor site was displaced by the bisubstrate analogs of the Ap5X series (where X = U, dT, A, G), indicating the broad specificity of the acceptor site. Both CMP and dCMP were competitors for the acceptor site probe. To find antimetabolites for antivirus and anticancer therapies, we have developed a method of screening acyclic phosphonate analogs that is based on the affinity of the acceptor-binding site of the human UMP-CMP kinase. Several uracil vinylphosphonate derivatives had affinities for human UMP-CMP kinase similar to those of dUMP and dCMP and better than that of cidofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. The uracil derivatives were inhibitors rather than substrates of human UMP-CMP kinase. Also, the 5-halogen-substituted analogs inhibited the human TMP kinase less efficiently. The broad specificity of the enzyme acceptor-binding site is in agreement with a large substrate-binding pocket, as shown by the 2.1 A crystal structure.

  11. Effect of oncogene activating mutations and kinase inhibitors on amino acid metabolism of human isogenic breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Samanta, Animesh; Cheng, Hui Shan; Ding, Zhaobing; Han, Weiping; Toschi, Luisella; Chang, Young Tae

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the changes in amino acid (AA) metabolism induced in MCF10A, a human mammary epithelial cell line, by the sequential knock-in of K-Ras and PI3K mutant oncogenes. Differentially regulated genes associated to AA pathways were identified on comparing gene expression patterns in the isogenic cell lines. Additionally, we monitored the changes in the levels of AAs and transcripts in the cell lines treated with kinase inhibitors (REGO: a multi-kinase inhibitor, PI3K-i: a PI3K inhibitor, and MEK-i: a MEK inhibitor). In total, 19 AAs and 58 AA-associated transcripts were found to be differentially regulated by oncogene knock-in and by drug treatment. In particular, the multi-kinase and MEK inhibitor affected pathways in K-Ras mutant cells, whereas the PI3K inhibitor showed a major impact in the K-Ras/PI3K double mutant cells. These findings may indicate the dependency of AA metabolism on the oncogene mutation pattern in human cancer. Thus, future therapy might include combinations of kinase inhibitors and drug targeting enzymes of AA pathways.

  12. Comparison by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and antimicrobial resistance among atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from food samples and human and animal faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Nakamura, H; Kage-Nakadai, E; Hara-Kudo, Y; Nishikawa, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99·8%. Cluster 2 included 87% of cattle isolates and 67% of patient isolates. The plurality (15/34, 44%) of strains from healthy humans mapped to Cluster 1, while half (18/41, 44%) of the swine strains belonged to Cluster 4. Testing for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that 52 strains (37%) of aEPEC were resistant to one or more agents; only 10 strains (7%) exhibited resistance to more than three agents. Strains isolated from swine or food exhibited a wider variety of resistance phenotypes than bovine or human strains. MLVA assigned the aEPEC isolates from cattle and patients to Cluster 2, distinct from aEPEC from other sources. Hog yards may be a larger source of drug-resistant strains than are cattle ranches. MLVA suggests that human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC are derived from cattle and are distinct from strains carried by healthy people and other animals. Cattle appear to be reservoirs of human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Targeting elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed A; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz H; Mansour, Ahmed M; Alpay, S Neslihan; Huo, Longfei; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most aggressive, apoptosis-resistant and currently incurable cancers with a poor survival rate. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase, whose role in PaCa survival is not yet known. Here, we show that eEF-2K is overexpressed in PaCa cells and its down-regulation induces apoptotic cell death. Rottlerin (ROT), a polyphenolic compound initially identified as a PKC-δ inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy in a variety of cancer cells including PaCa cells. We demonstrated that ROT induces intrinsic apoptosis, with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and stimulates extrinsic apoptosis with concomitant induction of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, DR4 and DR5, with caspase-8 activation, in PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells. Notably, while none of these effects were dependent on PKC-δ inhibition, ROT down-regulates eEF-2K at mRNA level, and induce eEF-2K protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Down-regulation of eEF-2K recapitulates the events observed after ROT treatment, while its over-expression suppressed the ROT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, eEF-2K regulates the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme previously implicated in proliferation, drug resistance and survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis leads to caspase-independent apoptosis which is associated with induction of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that the down-regulation of eEF-2K leads to induction of intrinsic, extrinsic as well as AIF-dependent apoptosis in PaCa cells, suggesting that eEF-2K may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the future anticancer agents in PaCa.

  14. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Boettner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK, was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932. Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection.

  15. Identification of Human UMP/CMP Kinase 1 as Doxorubicin Binding Target Using Protein Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxian; Wang, Xu; Ye, Xianghui; Ma, Donghui; Chen, Caiwei; Cai, Junlong; Fu, Yongfeng; Cheng, Xunjia; Chen, Yun; Gong, Xiaohai; Jin, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a leading anthracycline drug with exceptional efficacy; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its side effects, which include heart muscle damage, noncancerous cell death, and drug resistance. A total of 17,950 human proteins expressed in HEK293 cells were screened and yielded 14 hits. Competitive and binding experiments further verified the binding of DOX to UMP/CMP kinase 1 (CMPK1), and microscale thermophoresis showed that DOX binds to CMPK1 with a Kd of 1216 nM. In addition, we observed that the binding of DOX to CMPK1 activated the phosphorylation of CMP, dCMP, and UMP. A significant activation was observed at the concentration of 30 µM DOX and reached plateau at the concentration of DOX 30 µM, 150 µM, and 100 µM, respectively. DOX would add up stimulation of CMPK1 by DTT and overcome inhibition of CMPK1 by NaF, EDTA. In summary, we showed that DOX might bind to the nonactive site of CMPK1 and regulate its activity with magnesium.

  16. Human TFIIH Kinase CDK7 Regulates Transcription-Associated Chromatin Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Ebmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CDK7 phosphorylates the RNA polymerase II (pol II C-terminal domain CTD and activates the P-TEFb-associated kinase CDK9, but its regulatory roles remain obscure. Here, using human CDK7 analog-sensitive (CDK7as cells, we observed reduced capping enzyme recruitment, increased pol II promoter-proximal pausing, and defective termination at gene 3′ ends upon CDK7 inhibition. We also noted that CDK7 regulates chromatin modifications downstream of transcription start sites. H3K4me3 spreading was restricted at gene 5′ ends and H3K36me3 was displaced toward gene 3′ ends in CDK7as cells. Mass spectrometry identified factors that bound TFIIH-phosphorylated versus P-TEFb-phosphorylated CTD (versus unmodified; capping enzymes and H3K4 methyltransferase complexes, SETD1A/B, selectively bound phosphorylated CTD, and the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2 specifically bound P-TEFb-phosphorylated CTD. Moreover, TFIIH-phosphorylated CTD stimulated SETD1A/B activity toward nucleosomes, revealing a mechanistic basis for CDK7 regulation of H3K4me3 spreading. Collectively, these results implicate a CDK7-dependent “CTD code” that regulates chromatin marks in addition to RNA processing and pol II pausing.

  17. Characterization of protein kinase C and its isoforms in human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, A D; Hanekom, C; Rheeder, A; Strachan, A F; Wooten, M W; Nel, A E

    1988-11-15

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates numerous T cell functions and is present in abundance in normal human T cells and certain T cell lines. Although crude Triton X-100 soluble material obtained from T cell pellets contains minimal PKC activity, DEAE chromatography revealed that 12 to 37% of cellular PKC was membrane associated, probably due to removal of an inhibitor through column chromatography. As in other tissues, PKC from lymphoid tissue was phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent and diolein reduced the Ca2+ requirements for enzyme activity. Hydroxylapatite chromatography revealed that T cells possess two major peaks of PKC activity. Although, the enzyme in these peaks had similar m.w. and identical iso-electric mobility, the proteins differed with respect to their autophosphorylation sites and immunoreactivity toward an isoform specific antibody. Furthermore, differences in their activities in the presence of phospholipid, diolein, and limiting amounts of Ca2+ imply that these isoforms may be differentially activated. We discuss optimal conditions for activation of PKC and its isoforms for study of T lymphocyte cellular function.

  18. P21-activated kinase 1 regulates resistance to BRAF inhibition in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babagana, Mahamat; Johnson, Sydney; Slabodkin, Hannah; Bshara, Wiam; Morrison, Carl; Kandel, Eugene S

    2017-05-01

    BRAF is a commonly mutated oncogene in various human malignancies and a target of a new class of anti-cancer agents, BRAF-inhibitors (BRAFi). The initial enthusiasm for these agents, based on the early successes in the management of metastatic melanoma, is now challenged by the mounting evidence of intrinsic BRAFi-insensitivity in many BRAF-mutated tumors, by the scarcity of complete responses, and by the inevitable emergence of drug resistance in initially responsive cases. These setbacks put an emphasis on discovering the means to increase the efficacy of BRAFi and to prevent or overcome BRAFi-resistance. We explored the role of p21-activated kinases (PAKs), in particular PAK1, in BRAFi response. BRAFi lowered the levels of active PAK1 in treated cells. An activated form of PAK1 conferred BRAFi-resistance on otherwise sensitive cells, while genetic or pharmacologic suppression of PAK1 had a sensitizing effect. While activation of AKT1 and RAC1 proto-oncogenes increased BRAFi-tolerance, the protective effect was negated in the presence of PAK inhibitors. Furthermore, combining otherwise ineffective doses of PAK- and BRAF-inhibitors synergistically affected intrinsically BRAFi-resistant cells. Considering the high incidence of PAK1 activation in cancers, our findings suggests PAK inhibition as a strategy to augment BRAFi therapy and overcome some of the well-known resistance mechanisms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biology Dept.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Lab. of Cell Biology

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  20. Ganciclovir uptake in human mammary carcinoma cells expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, Uwe; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Morr, Iris; Altmann, Annette; Mueller, Markus; Kaick, Gerhard van

    1998-05-01

    Assessment of suicide enzyme activity would have considerable impact on the planning and the individualization of suicide gene therapy of malignant tumors. This may be done by determining the pharmacokinetics of specific substrates. We generated ganciclovir (GCV)-sensitive human mammary carcinoma cell lines after transfection with a retroviral vector bearing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene. Thereafter, uptake measurements and HPLC analyses were performed up to 48 h in an HSV-tk-expressing cell line and in a wild-type cell line using tritiated GCV. HSV-tk-expressing cells showed higher GCV uptake and phosphorylation than control cells, whereas in wild-type MCF7 cells no phosphorylated GCV was detected. In bystander experiments the total GCV uptake was related to the amount of HSV-tk-expressing cells. Furthermore, the uptake of GCV correlated closely with the growth inhibition (r=0.92). Therefore, the accumulation of specific substrates may serve as an indicator of the HSV-tk activity and of therapy outcome. Inhibition and competition experiments demonstrated slow transport of GCV by the nucleoside carriers. The slow uptake and low affinity to HSV-tk indicate that GCV is not an ideal substrate for the nucleoside transport systems or for HSV-tk. This may be the limiting factor for therapy success, necessitating the search for better substrates of HSV-tk.

  1. Human NIMA-related kinase 6 is one of the Fe65 WW domain binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeoung; Hyun, Sung Hee; Chun, Jaesun; Kang, Sang Sun

    2007-07-06

    The Aspergillus nidulans protein NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A) is a protein kinase required for initiation of mitosis, whereas its inactivation is necessary for mitotic exit. Here, we present evidence that human Nek6 is associated with Fe65. Based on the presence of Fe65 WW domain binding motifs ((267)PPLP(270)) in the Nek6 catalytic domain, we observed that Nek6 interacts physically with Fe65 both in vivo and in vitro, using a pull-down approach. Additionally, we detected co-localization of Nek6 and Fe65 via confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Nek6 and Fe65 was disrupted by mutation of the WW domain binding motifs ((267)PPLP(270)). Finally, when transient transfection assays were performed, interaction of Nek6 (wt) with Fe65 induced substantial cell apoptosis, whereas interaction using the Nek6 pplp mutant ((267)PPLP(270) changes (267)APVA(270)) did not. Thus, our observations indicated that Nek6 binds to Fe65 through its (267)PPLP(270) motif and that the protein-protein interaction between Nek6 and Fe65 regulates their subcellular localization and cell apoptosis.

  2. Lck is involved in interleukin-2 induced proliferation but not cell survival in human T cells through a MAP kinase-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K

    2000-01-01

    The role of Lck in IL-2-induced proliferation and cell survival is still controversial. Here, we show that the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, reduced the IL-2-induced proliferation of human T cells significantly without inhibiting the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-2. As Lck is the only Src family...... kinase activated upon IL-2 stimulation in T cells, this indicates that Lck is involved in IL-2-induced proliferation but not survival. IL-2-induced MAP kinase activation was only slightly inhibited by PP1, suggesting that Lck is not essential for IL-2-induced MAP kinase activation in human T cells. We...... found that an IL-2-sensitive, human mycosis fungoides-derived tumor T cell line is Lck negative, and that the IL-2-induced MAP kinase activation is comparable to non-cancerous T cells, although a little delayed in kinetics. An Lck expressing clone was established by transfecting Lck into mycosis...

  3. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  4. A novel role of protein tyrosine kinase2 in mediating chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liang

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ activated Cl(- channels (CaCC are up-regulated in cystic fibrosis (CF airway surface epithelia. The presence and functional properties of CaCC make it a possible therapeutic target to compensate for the deficiency of Cl(- secretion in CF epithelia. CaCC is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+, which not only activates epithelial CaCCs, but also inhibits epithelial Na(+ hyperabsorption, which may also be beneficial in CF. Our previous study has shown that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, activates CaCCs and stimulates Cl(- secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, and in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR knockout mice in vivo. Spiperone activates CaCC not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of either 5-HT2 or D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Moreover, spiperone independently activates CFTR through a novel mechanism. Herein, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis and identified the signaling molecule that mediates the spiperone effect in activating chloride secretion through CaCC and CFTR. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family. The inhibition of PYK2 notably reduced the ability of spiperone to increase intracellular Ca(2+ and Cl(- secretion. In conclusion, we have identified the tyrosine kinase, PYK2, as the modulator, which plays a crucial role in the activation of CaCC and CFTR by spiperone. The identification of this novel role of PYK2 reveals a new signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

  5. MHC-I-induced apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells is dependent on protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Johansen, B

    1999-01-01

    B lymphoma cells, is dependent on protein tyrosine kinases and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase. Functional studies showed that MHC-I crosslinking induced almost complete inhibition of the spontaneous proliferation of the B lymphoma cells as early as 6 h post-crosslinking and apoptosis 24 h...... post-crosslinking. Preincubation with either protein tyrosine kinase or protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors reduced the MHC-I-induced apoptosis to background levels, whereas inhibition of PI-3 kinase had no effect. These data demonstrate a pivotal role for protein tyrosine and serine....../threonine kinases in MHC-I-mediated apoptosis in human B-cells and suggest the presence of several MHC-I signaling pathways leading to diverse effects in these cells....

  6. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankala, Heidi; Spiegel, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    .... However, whether it also has an intracellular action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by types 1 and 2 sphingosine kinase (SphK...

  7. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankala, Heidi; Spiegel, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    .... However, whether it also has an intracellular action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by types 1 and 2 sphingosine kinase (SphK...

  8. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  9. The effects of knockdown of rho-associated kinase 1 and zipper-interacting protein kinase on gene expression and function in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ti Deng

    Full Text Available Rho-associated kinase (ROCK and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK have been implicated in diverse physiological functions. ROCK1 phosphorylates and activates ZIPK suggesting that at least some of these physiological functions may require both enzymes. To test the hypothesis that sequential activation of ROCK1 and ZIPK is commonly involved in regulatory pathways, we utilized siRNA to knock down ROCK1 and ZIPK in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC. Microarray analysis using a whole-transcript expression chip identified changes in gene expression induced by ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. ROCK1 knockdown affected the expression of 553 genes, while ZIPK knockdown affected the expression of 390 genes. A high incidence of regulation of transcription regulator genes was observed in both knockdowns. Other affected groups included transporters, kinases, peptidases, transmembrane and G protein-coupled receptors, growth factors, phosphatases and ion channels. Only 76 differentially expressed genes were common to ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified five pathways shared between the two knockdowns. We focused on cytokine signaling pathways since ROCK1 knockdown up-regulated 5 and down-regulated 4 cytokine genes, in contrast to ZIPK knockdown, which affected the expression of only two cytokine genes (both down-regulated. IL-6 gene expression and secretion of IL-6 protein were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown reduced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion and increased ROCK1 protein expression, suggesting that ROCK1 may inhibit IL-6 secretion. IL-1β mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to ROCK1 knockdown. Differences in the effects of ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown on cell cycle regulatory genes suggested that ROCK1 and ZIPK regulate the cell cycle by different mechanisms. ROCK1, but not ZIPK knockdown reduced the viability and inhibited proliferation of vascular SMC. We conclude

  10. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Priti Arun; Rajan Jain; Vaibhav Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  11. Atypical Centrioles During Sexual Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer eAvidor-Reiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL. We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the zombie centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

  12. Antibody response to a major human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen in patients without evidence of immunosuppression and in patients with suspected atypical pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Lebech, M; Lind, K

    1993-01-01

    IgG and IgM antibodies to a purified human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen (gp95) were measured in 694 serum specimens from two different population groups using an EIA technique. In a population of 441 patients with no evidence of immunosuppression, the percentage of persons positive for Ig......G antibodies to gp95 was significantly lower in the age group 1 to 9 years (30%, 23/77) compared to persons 10 to 19 years old (56%, 49/88). In the age group 1 to 14 years there was a significant correlation between the percentage of persons with IgG antibodies to gp95 and age. In 106 consecutive patients...... under evaluation due to atypical pneumonia, 76 patients showed no change in the titre of antibodies to Legionella spp. or Mycoplasma pneumoniae in two consecutive serum samples. Three of these 76 patients (4%) demonstrated an increase in the level of IgG antibodies to gp95 in the paired samples. One...

  13. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  14. HaloTag-based purification of functional human kinases from mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Hurst, Robin; Vidugiriene, Jolanta; Slater, Michael R; Wood, Keith V; Urh, Marjeta

    2011-04-01

    Although cultured mammalian cells are preferred for producing functional mammalian proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, purification of recombinant proteins is frequently hampered by low expression. We have addressed this by creating a new method configured specifically for mammalian cell culture that provides rapid detection and efficient purification. This approach is based on HaloTag, a protein fusion tag designed to bind rapidly, selectively and covalently to a series of synthetic ligands that can carry a variety of functional groups, including fluorescent dyes for detection or solid supports for purification. Since the binding of HaloTag to the HaloLink resin is essentially irreversible, it overcomes the equilibrium-based binding limitations associated with affinity tags and enables efficient capture and purification of target protein, even at low expression levels. The target protein is released from the HaloLink resin by specific cleavage using a TEV protease fused to HaloTag (HaloTEV), leaving both HaloTag and HaloTEV permanently attached to the resin and highly pure, tag-free protein in solution. HaloTag fluorescent ligands enable fluorescent labeling of HaloTag fusion proteins, providing a convenient way to monitor expression, and thus facilitate the identification of optimal transient transfection conditions as well as the selection of high expression stable cell lines. The capabilities of this method have been demonstrated by the efficient purification of five functional human kinases from HEK293T cells. In addition, when purifications using FLAG, 3xFLAG, His(6)Tag and HaloTag were performed in parallel, HaloTag was shown to provide significantly higher yields, purity and overall recovery of the expressed proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates differentiation-induced apoptosis of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Alexandra; Baake, Jana; Weiss, Dieter G; Kriehuber, Ralf

    2013-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a multifunctional key regulator enzyme in neural developmental processes and a main component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. It is already known that the Wnt-driven differentiation of neural progenitor cells is accompanied by an increase of apoptosis at which the pro-apoptotic function of GSK-3beta is still discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the phosphorylation level of GSK-3beta at serine 9 is the primary regulatory mechanism of differentiation-induced apoptosis. Differentiating human neural ReNcell VM progenitor cells were treated with the specific GSK-3beta inhibitor SB216763 (10 μM) and analyzed in respect to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway regulation using microscopy and protein expression analysis. Differentiation of ReNcell VM cells was accompanied by cell morphological changes, cytoskeleton rearrangement and apoptosis increase. Treatment of differentiating cells with SB216763 induced a significant dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta at serine 9 accompanied by a significant decrease of apoptosis of about 0.7±0.03% and reduced activation of caspase-3 as well as BAX and PARP cleavage during the first 12h of differentiation compared to untreated, differentiating cells. Dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta at serine 9 appears not solely to be responsible for its pro-apoptotic function, because we observed a decrease of intrinsic apoptosis after treatment of the cells with the specific GSK-3beta inhibitor SB216763. We assume that GSK-3beta drives neural progenitor cell apoptosis by direct interaction with pro-apoptotic BAX or by indirect influence on the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin target gene transcription. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activin-like kinase 2 functions in peri-implantation uterine signaling in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Clementi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of a blastocyst in the uterus is a multistep process tightly controlled by an intricate regulatory network of interconnected ovarian, uterine, and embryonic factors. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP ligands and receptors are expressed in the uterus of pregnant mice, and BMP2 has been shown to be a key regulator of implantation. In this study, we investigated the roles of the BMP type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, during mouse pregnancy by producing mice carrying a conditional ablation of Alk2 in the uterus (Alk2 cKO mice. In the absence of ALK2, embryos demonstrate delayed invasion into the uterine epithelium and stroma, and upon implantation, stromal cells fail to undergo uterine decidualization, resulting in sterility. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (Cebpb expression is suppressed during decidualization in Alk2 cKO females. These findings and the similar phenotypes of Cebpb cKO and Alk2 cKO mice lead to the hypothesis that BMPs act upstream of CEBPB in the stroma to regulate decidualization. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down ALK2 in human uterine stromal cells (hESC and discovered that ablation of ALK2 alters hESC decidualization and suppresses CEBPB mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis of decidualizing hESC confirmed that BMP signaling proteins, SMAD1/5, directly regulate expression of CEBPB by binding a distinct regulatory sequence in the 3' UTR of this gene; CEBPB, in turn, regulates the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR. Our work clarifies the conserved mechanisms through which BMPs regulate peri-implantation in rodents and primates and, for the first time, uncovers a linear pathway of BMP signaling through ALK2 to regulate CEBPB and, subsequently, PGR during decidualization.

  17. Thermodynamics parameters for binding of halogenated benzotriazole inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiewska, Maria; Kucińska, Katarzyna; Makowska, Małgorzata; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of human CK2α (hCK2α) with nine halogenated benzotriazoles, TBBt and its analogues representing all possible patterns of halogenation on the benzene ring of benzotriazole, was studied by biophysical methods. Thermal stability of protein-ligand complexes, monitored by calorimetric (DSC) and optical (DSF) methods, showed that the increase in the mid-point temperature for unfolding of protein-ligand complexes (i.e. potency of ligand binding to hCK2α) follow the inhibitory activities determined by biochemical assays. The dissociation constant for the ATP-hCK2α complex was estimated with the aid of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as 4.3±1.8 μM, and MST-derived dissociation constants determined for halogenated benzotriazoles, when converted according to known ATP concentrations, perfectly reconstruct IC50 values determined by the biochemical assays. Ligand-dependent quenching of tyrosine fluorescence, together with molecular modeling and DSC-derived heats of unfolding, support the hypothesis that halogenated benzotriazoles bind in at least two alternative orientations, and those that are efficient hCK2α inhibitors bind in the orientation which TBBt adopts in its complex with maize CK2α. DSC-derived apparent heat for ligand binding (ΔΔHbind) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Lys68 and the triazole ring of the ligand, as indicated by a good correlation between ΔΔHbind and ligand pKa. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly (~40 kJ/mol), relative to possible intermolecular halogen/hydrogen bonding (less than 10 kJ/mol), in binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the ATP-binding site of hCK2α. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the synergy between cysteinyl-leukotrienes and receptor tyrosine kinase growth factors on human bronchial fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Yoshisue

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs synergise not only with epidermal growth factor (EGF but also with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF to induce mitogenesis in human bronchial fibroblasts. We now describe the molecular mechanisms underlying this synergism. Mitogenesis was assessed by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and changes in protein phosphorylation by Western blotting. Surprisingly, no CysLT receptor antagonists (MK-571, montelukast, BAY u9773 prevented the synergistic mitogenesis. LTD4 did not cause phosphorylation of EGFR nor did it augment EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, and the synergy between LTD4 and EGF was not blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 or by an HB-EGF neutralising antibody. The EGFR-selective kinase inhibitor, AG1478, suppressed the synergy by LTD4 and EGF, but had no effect on the synergy with PDGF and FGF. While inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC prevented the synergy, these drugs also inhibited mitogenesis elicited by EGF alone. In contrast, pertussis toxin (PTX efficiently inhibited the potentiating effect of LTD4 on EGF-induced mitogenesis, as well as that provoked by PDGF or FGF, but had no effect on mitogenesis elicited by the growth factors alone. Whereas LTD4 alone did not augment phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk-1/2 and Akt, it increased phosphorylation of PKC in a Gi-dependent manner. Addition of LTD4 prolonged the duration of EGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt, both of which were sensitive to PTX. The effect of cys-LTs involves a PTX-sensitive and PKC-mediated intracellular pathway leading to sustained growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt.

  19. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari; Mohammad Abromand; Behrooz Motlagh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates af...

  20. The production of VEGF involving MAP kinase activation by low level laser therapy in human granulosa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya-Kai, Yufuko; Kai, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Isao; Ohshiro, Toshio; Narahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The function of granulosa cells is regulated by various hormones and growth factors. Our aim is to clarify the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by low level laser therapy (LLLT) in human granulosa cells. Methods: A human granulosa cell line, KGN cells, were cultured and incubated after LLLT (60mW, GaAlAs 830nm). The levels of VEGF in the culture media were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activation of MAP kinase in KGN cells was detected by western blot analysis. Results: VEGF production was significantly increased by LLLT in a time-dependent manner. MAP kinase activity was increased by LLLT. In addition it was enhanced by LLLT and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation. Conclusions: The results suggested that VEGF is induced by LLLT through mechanisms involving MAPK. The increase in VEGF may contribute to neovascularization, which in turn would promote various ovulation phenomena as well as follicular growth. PMID:24511196

  1. Significance of Ser-188 in human mitochondrial NAD kinase as determined by phosphomimetic and phosphoresistant amino-acid substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yutaka; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-25

    Human mitochondrial NAD kinase is a crucial enzyme responsible for the synthesis of mitochondrial NADP(+). Despite its significance, little is known about the regulation of this enzyme in the mitochondria. Several putative and known phosphorylation sites within the protein have been found using phosphoproteomics, and here, we examined the effect of phosphomimetic mutations at six of these sites. The enzymatic activity was downregulated by a substitution of an Asp residue at Ser-289 and Ser-376, but not a substitution of Ala, suggesting that the phosphorylation of these residues downregulates the enzyme. Moreover, the activity was completely inhibited by substituting Ser-188 with an Asp, Glu, or in particular Ala, which highlights two possibilities: first, that Ser-188 is critical for catalytic activity, and second, that phosphorylation of Ser-188 inhibits the activity. Ser-188, Ser-289, and Ser-376 were found to be highly conserved in the primary structures of mitochondrial NAD kinase homologs in higher animals. Moreover, Ser-188 has been frequently detected in human and mouse phosphorylation site studies, whereas Ser-289 and Ser-376 have not. Taken together, this indicates that Ser-188 (and perhaps the other residues) is an important phosphorylation site that can downregulate the NAD kinase activity of this critical enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein kinase inhibitors CK59 and CID755673 alter primary human NK cell effector functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi eScheiter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are part of the innate immune response and play a crucial role in the defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. Their effector functions include the specific killing of target cells, as well as the modulation of other immune cells by cytokine release. Kinases constitute a relevant part in signaling, are prime targets in drug research and the protein kinase inhibitor Dasatinib is already used for immune-modulatory theraphies. In this study, we have tested the effects of the kinase inhibitors CK59 and CID755673. These inhibitors are directed against CaMKII (CK59 and PKD family kinases (CID755673 that were previously suggested as novel components of NK activation pathways. Here, we use a multi-parameter, FACS-based assay to validate the influence of CK59 and CID755673 on the effector functions of primary NK cells. Dose dependent treatment with CK59 and CID755673 indeed results in a significant reduction of NK cell degranulation markers and cytokine release in freshly isolated PBMC populations from healthy blood donors. These results underline the importance of CaMKII for NK cell signaling and suggest PKD2 as a novel signaling component in NK cell activation. Notably, kinase inhibition studies on pure NK cell populations indicate significant donor variations.

  3. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease.

  4. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells is Associated with MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1 Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eRichter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cycline-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1 acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease.

  5. The human Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is a membrane scaffold protein for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Pedraz Cuesta, Elena; Olesen, Christina Wilkens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is an S/T kinase with more than 200 known substrates, and with critical roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation and currently no membrane proteins have been linked to ERK2 scaffolding. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we identify...... the human Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (hNHE1) as a membrane scaffold protein for ERK2 and show direct hNHE1-ERK1/2 interaction in cellular contexts. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and immunofluorescence analysis we demonstrate that ERK2 scaffolding by hNHE1 occurs by one of three D...... and ERK2, and provides a molecular mechanism for the important ERK2 scaffolding function of the membrane protein hNHE1, which regulates the phosphorylation of both hNHE1 and ERK2....

  6. Protein kinase C is differentially regulated by thrombin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor in human mammary tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.L.; Tellez-Inon, M.T. (Instituto de Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Medrano, E.E.; Cafferatta, E.G.A. (Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas Fundacion Campomar, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1988-03-01

    The exposure of serum-deprived mammary tumor cells MCF-7 and T-47D to insulin, thrombin, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in dramatic modifications in the activity and in the translocation capacity of protein kinase C from cytosol to membrane fractions. Insulin induces a 600% activation of the enzyme after 5 h of exposure to the hormone in MCF-7 cells; thrombin either activates (200% in MCF-7) or down-regulates (in T-47D), and EGF exerts only a moderate effect. Thus, the growth factors studied modulate differentially the protein kinase C activity in human mammary tumor cells. The physiological significance of the results obtained are discussed in terms of the growth response elicited by insulin, thrombin, and EGF.

  7. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombino, Sonya; Cesario, Alfredo; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, PierLuigi; Motta, Giovanni; Falugi, Carla; Russo, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    This study presents data suggesting that both human mesothelioma (cell lines and human mesothelioma biopsies) and human normal mesothelial cells express receptors for acetylcholine and that stimulation of these receptors by nicotine prompted cell growth via activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Thus, these data demonstrate that: (a) human mesothelioma cells and human biopsies of mesothelioma as well as of normal pleural mesothelial cells express functionally alpha-7 nicotinic acethlycholine receptors, evaluated by alpha-bungarotoxin-FITC binding, receptor binding assay, Western blot, and reverse transcription-PCR; (b) choline acetyltransferase immunostaining is present in mesothelioma cells; (c) mesothelioma cell growth is modulated by the cholinergic system in which agonists (i.e., nicotine) has a proliferative effect, and antagonists (i.e., curare) has an inhibitory effect, evaluated by cell cloning, DNA synthesis and cell cycle; (d) nicotine induces Ca(+2) influx, evaluated by [(45)Ca(2+)] uptake, and consequently activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p90(RSK) phosphorylation), evaluated by Western blot; and (e) apoptosis mechanisms in mesothelioma cells are under the control of the cholinergic system (nicotine antiapoptotic via induction of nuclear factor-kappaB complexes and phosphorylation of Bad at Ser(112); curare proapoptotic via G(0)-G(1) arrest p21(waf-1) dependent but p53 independent). The involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in mesothelioma appears reasonable and open up new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Short interfering RNA inhibits Rift Valley fever virus replication and degradation of protein kinase R in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonto Faburay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes directed against the RVFV nucleoprotein can effectively inhibit RVFV replication in human (MRC5 cells and African green monkey cells (Vero E6 cells. Using these cells, we demonstrate that individual or complex siRNAs, targeting the RVFV nucleoprotein gene completely abrogate viral protein expression and prevent degradation of the host innate antiviral factor, protein kinase R (PKR. Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with the nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs markedly reduces the virus titer. The antiviral effect of the siRNAs was not attributable to interferon or the interferon response effector molecule, protein kinase R. Thus, the antiviral activity of RVFV nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs may provide novel therapeutic strategy against RVFV infections in animals and humans.

  9. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-01-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal. PMID:25400915

  10. Differentially activated Src kinase in chemo-naïve human primary osteosarcoma cells and effects of a Src kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Geminiani, Michela; Manetti, Fabrizio; Mori, Mattia; Spreafico, Adriano; Campanacci, Domenico; Capanna, Rodolfo; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2017-11-01

    The therapeutic treatment of osteosarcoma (OS), a rare malignant teenage cancer of the skeletal system, still represents a great challenge as patient survival after conventional protocol chemotherapy treatment has not improved in the last four decades leaving poor patient prognoses. Therefore, many efforts have been done to find increasingly reliable OS cell models and to identify "druggable" targets in OS, in order to identify novel effective therapeutic approaches and treatment strategies. In this contest, the more successful use of patient-derived cell cultures in respect to human commercial lines and findings of Src kinase deregulation in cancer, prompted us to study for the first time the activation state of Src and the potential activity of our Src inhibitor SI-83 in a number of chemo-naïve patient-derived primary OS cells. We here demonstrate that Src is hyperactivated in OS cells in respect to the nonmalignant counterpart and that SI-83 is able to strongly decrease cell viability, proliferation, Src416 phosphorylation, and cell migration. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):801-811, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Calcium Hydroxide-induced Proliferation, Migration, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Mineralization via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoping; Zheng, Lisha; Jiang, Jingyi; Gui, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lingyu; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ji, Jing; Fan, Yubo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively used as the gold standard for direct pulp capping in clinical dentistry. It induces proliferation, migration, and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Human DPSCs between passages 3 and 6 were used. DPSCs were preincubated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and cultured with calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was analyzed via the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Cell migration was estimated using the wound healing assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was analyzed using the ALP staining assay. Mineralization was studied by alizarin red staining analysis. Calcium hydroxide significantly promoted the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The inhibition of JNK and p38 signaling abolished calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation of DPSCs. The inhibition of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling suppressed the migration, ALP expression, and mineralization of DPSCs. Our study showed that the MAP kinase pathway was involved in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Rift valley fever virus infection of human cells and insect hosts is promoted by protein kinase C epsilon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marie Filone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As an arthropod-borne human pathogen, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV cycles between an insect vector and mammalian hosts. Little is known about the cellular requirements for infection in either host. Here we developed a tissue culture model for RVFV infection of human and insect cells that is amenable to high-throughput screening. Using this approach we screened a library of 1280 small molecules with pharmacologically defined activities and identified 59 drugs that inhibited RVFV infection with 15 inhibiting RVFV replication in both human and insect cells. Amongst the 15 inhibitors that blocked infection in both hosts was a subset that inhibits protein kinase C. Further studies found that infection is dependent upon the novel protein kinase C isozyme epsilon (PKCε in both human and insect cells as well as in adult flies. Altogether, these data show that inhibition of cellular factors required for early steps in the infection cycle including PKCε can block RVFV infection, and may represent a starting point for the development of anti-RVFV therapeutics.

  14. Characterization of casein kinase II in human colonic carcinomas after heterotransplantation into nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitz, G; Münstermann, U; Schneider, H R

    1989-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity in colorectal tumours was compared before and after heterotransplantation onto nude mice. The test revealed that the enzyme activity was about two-fold enhanced in the tumours isolated from the nude mice when compared to the respective primary tumours from which...

  15. Resistance artery creatine kinase mRNA and blood pressure in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamat, Fares A.; Oudman, Inge; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B.; Keijser, Remco; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the main risk factor for cardiovascular death. Environmental and biological factors are known to contribute to the condition, and circulating creatine kinase was reported to be the main predictor of blood pressure in the general population. This was proposed to be because of

  16. Regulation of serotonin transport in human platelets by tyrosine kinase Syk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanetto, Martina; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Borgo, Christian; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Deana, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of numerous neuro-physiological processes. The circulating level of 5-HT is regulated by the membrane transporter SERT present both in the presynaptic nerve terminals and blood platelets. 5-HT transport is a process tightly regulated by a variety of factors including protein phosphorylation. Aim of this study was to ascertain if also the SERT Tyr-phosphorylation mediated by Syk-kinase concurs to the regulation of SERT activity. Indeed we found that 5-HT uptake decreased upon platelet exposure to piceatannol or Syk-inhibitor II, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of the tyrosine-kinase Syk. Tyr-phosphorylation of anti-SERT-immuno-stained proteins in membrane extracts and in anti-SERT-immuno-precipitates, decreased upon platelet treatment with piceatannol, in parallel with a reduction of Syk-activity. Syk was immuno-revealed in the anti-SERT immuno-precipitates, which displayed a piceatannol-sensitive kinase activity towards SERT itself and the Syk-substrate α-sinuclein. Syk inhibitors also caused a decrease of the monensin-induced 5-HT-efflux from platelets and of imipramine binding to them. It is concluded that, in addition to the phosphorylation of SERT mediated by various other kinases, also that catalyzed by Syk might play an important role in the 5-HT transport, likely favoring the transporter conformation exposing the neurotransmitter binding sites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of Quercetin flavonoid on structural changes of recombinant human FGFR2b kinase domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Alimohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: The tertiary structural change of FGFR2b kinase domain represents a conformational change that may have a critical role in signal transduction cascade. Thus, this molecular transduction inconsistency can lead to cellular transduction complication; and as a result, inhibit the development and multiplication of  cancerous cells.

  18. Cost and effectiveness comparison of immediate colposcopy versus human papillomavirus DNA testing in management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, Mehmet; Seckin, Berna; Baser, Eralp; Togrul, Cihan; Kececioglu, Tugban Seckin; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    A small but significant proportion of cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) may harbour CIN 2-3, or even invasive carcinoma. Although immediate colposcopy, HPV-DNA testing or expectant management are three recommended options in ASCUS triage, a consensus does not currently exist on which one of these approaches is the most efficient. In this study, we aimed to compare the performance and cost of immediate colposcopy and colposcopy based on the human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for detecting histologically confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with ASCUS. Records of 594 women with an index Papanicolaou smear showing ASCUS were retrospectively analyzed. Women in the immediate colposcopy arm were referred directly to colposcopy (immediate colposcopy group, n=255) and those in the HPV triage arm were proceeded to colposcopy if the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) test was positive (HPV triage group, n=339). High grade CIN (CIN2+) detection rate and treatment costs were compared between the groups. The detected rate of CIN2+ was higher in the HPV triage group compared to immediate colposcopy group (8% vs. 1.6%, p=0.011). In the HPV triage group, the total cost, cost per patient, and the cost for detecting one case of high grade CIN were higher than the immediate colposcopy group (pASCUS cytology, HPV DNA testing followed by colposcopy is more costly than immediate colposcopy, but this approach is associated with a higher rate of CIN2+ detection. This findings suggest that HPV DNA testing combined with cervical cytology could reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.

  19. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of HPV test for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) was evaluated. Median age was 44 years (range, 17 to 75 years). ASCUS was more frequently observed in older patients while LSIL was more common in younger patients (P=0.002). CIN2+ was found in 11.3% (32/284) of the ASCUS patients and 12.9% (20/155) of patients with LSIL. Older patients with ASCUS showed lower HPV infection rates (P=0.025), but not LSIL (P=0.114). However, the prevalence of CIN2+ was similar between the age groups with ASCUS or LSIL. In patients with ASCUS, the false negative rate of HPV test for CIN2+ was 6.2%. The false negative rate of the HPV test became higher with increasing of the age after the age of 50 (P=0.034). Our findings suggest that false negative rate of the HPV test for CIN2+ in ASCUS patients older than 50 years might become higher with increasing of the age. Negative HPV results in patients of the age >50 years with ASCUS should be carefully interpreted.

  20. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are recognized as candidate progenitor cells for bone regeneration. However, the mechanism of hUCMSC osteogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling is involved in hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Particularly, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and p38 signaling pathways maintained a consistent level in hUCMSCs through the entire 21-day osteogenic differentiation period. At the same time, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK signaling significantly increased from day 5, peaked at day 9, and declined thereafter. Moreover, gene profiling of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity measurement, and alizarin red staining demonstrated that the application of U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK activation, completely prohibited hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation. However, when U0126 was removed from the culture at day 9, ERK activation and osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs were partially recovered. Together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of ERK signaling is essential for hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation, which points out the significance of ERK signaling pathway to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs as an alternative cell source for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  2. Cloning and quantitative determination of the human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) isoforms in human beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlitz, H; Voigt, A; Lankat-Buttgereit, B; Göke, B; Heimberg, H; Nauck, M A; Schiemann, U; Schatz, H; Pfeiffer, A F

    2000-04-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is highly expressed in pancreatic islets and associated with insulin secretion vesicles. The suppression of CaMK II disturbs insulin secretion and insulin gene expression. There are four isoforms of CaMK II, alpha to delta, that are expressed from different genes in mammals. Our aim was to identify the isoforms of CaMK II expressed in human beta cells by molecular cloning from a human insulinoma cDNA library and to assess its distribution in humans. The previously unknown complete coding sequences of human CaMK IIbeta and the kinase domain of CaMK IIdelta were cloned from a human insulinoma cDNA library. Quantitative determination of CaMK II isoform mRNA was carried out in several tissues and beta cells purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting and compared to the housekeeping enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. We found CaMK IIbeta occurred in three splice variants and was highly expressed in endocrine tissues such as adrenals, pituitary and beta cells. Liver showed moderate expression but adipose tissue or lymphocytes had very low levels of CaMK IIbeta-mRNA. In human beta cells CaMK IIbeta and delta were expressed equally with pyruvate dehydrogenase whereas tenfold lower expression of CaMK IIgamma and no expression of CaMK IIalpha were found. Although CaMK IIdelta is ubiquitously expressed, CaMK IIbeta shows preferential expression in neuroendocrine tissues. In comparison with the expression of a key regulatory enzyme in glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase, two of the four CaM kinases investigated are expressed at equally high levels, which supports an important role in beta-cell physiology. These results provide the basis for exploring the pathophysiological relevance of CaMK IIbeta in human diabetes.

  3. Histamine induces activation of protein kinase D that mediates tissue factor expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Wu, Daniel Dongwei; Xu, Xuemin

    2012-01-01

    Histamine, an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to influence the pathogenesis of vascular wall cells. However, the molecular basis of its influence is not well understood. Our data reveal that histamine markedly induces protein kinase D (PKD) activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and its function in vascular disease is largely unknown. Our data show that histamine-induced PKD phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of histamine receptor 1 and protein kinase C (PKC). To determine the role of PKD in the histamine pathway, we employed a small-interfering RNA approach to downregulate PKD expression and found that PKD1 and PKD2 are key mediators for expression of tissue factor (TF), which is the key initiator of blood coagulation and is important for thrombosis. Our results show that PKD2 predominantly mediates histamine-induced TF expression via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas PKD1 mediates histamine-induced TF expression through a p38 MAPK-independent pathway. We demonstrate that histamine induces TF expression via the PKC-dependent PKD activation. Our data provide the first evidence that PKD is a new component in histamine signaling in live cells and that PKD has a novel function in the histamine signaling pathway leading to gene expression, as evidenced by TF expression. Importantly, our data reveal a regulatory link from histamine to PKD and TF, providing new insights into the mechanisms of coagulation and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:23001835

  4. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...... of Henle's loop and collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. In rats, the abundance of inactive, phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) protein decreased during postnatal development. After feeding dams with litters lithium (50 mmol Li/kg chow, postnatal (P) day 7-28), the offspring showed...

  5. New applications for known drugs: Human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of Aspergillus fumigatus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Pérez, Víctor; Manoli, Maria-Tsampika; Pérez, Daniel I; Gil, Carmen; Mellado, Emilia; Martínez, Ana; Espeso, Eduardo A; Campillo, Nuria E

    2016-06-30

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. IA disease is mainly due to Aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. Mortality rate caused by IA is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. The aim of this work is, using Aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat IA. The recent discovered role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 homologue, GskA, in A. fumigatus human infection and our previous experience on human GSK-3 inhibitors focus our attention on this kinase as a target for the development of antifungal drugs. With the aim to identify effective inhibitors of colonial growth of A. fumigatus we use A. nidulans as an accurate model for in vivo and in silico studies. Several well-known human GSK-3β inhibitors were tested for inhibition of A. nidulans colony growth. Computational tools as docking studies and binding site prediction was used to explain the different biological profile of the tested inhibitors. Three of the five tested hGSK3β inhibitors are able to reduce completely the colonial growth by covalent bind to the enzyme. Therefore these compounds may be useful in different applications to eradicate IA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  7. Src family kinase phosphorylation of the motor domain of the human kinesin-5, Eg5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Kathleen G; Mann, Barbara J; Waitzman, Joshua S; Poor, Taylor A; Rice, Sarah E; Wadsworth, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Spindle formation in mammalian cells requires precise spatial and temporal regulation of the kinesin-5, Eg5, which generates outward force to establish spindle bipolarity. Our results demonstrate that Eg5 is phosphorylated in cultured cells by Src family kinases (SFKs) at three sites in the motor head: Y125, Y211, and Y231. Mutation of these sites diminishes motor activity in vitro, and replacement of endogenous Eg5 with phosphomimetic Y211 in LLC-Pk1 cells results in monopolar spindles, consistent with loss of Eg5 activity. Cells treated with SFK inhibitors show defects in spindle formation, similar to those in cells expressing the nonphosphorylatable Y211 mutant, and distinct from inhibition of other mitotic kinases. We propose that this phosphoregulatory mechanism tunes Eg5 enzymatic activity for optimal spindle morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gastrin induces sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 phosphorylation and mTOR activation via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-/protein kinase C-dependent but AKT-independent pathway in renal proximal tubule cells derived from a normotensive male human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbing; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrin is natriuretic, but its renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways are not fully known. In this study, we confirmed the existence of CCKBR (a gastrin receptor) in male human renal proximal tubule cells and discovered that gastrin induced S6 phosphorylation, a downstream component of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Gastrin also increased the phosphorylation of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) at serine 552, caused its internalization, and decreased its expression at the cell surface and NHE activity. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was dependent on PI3 kinases because it was blocked by 2 different PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294,002. The phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 was not affected by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 but was blocked by a pan-PKC (chelerythrine) and a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor (Gö6976) (10 μM) and an intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The cPKC involved was probably PKCα because it was phosphorylated by gastrin. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3, S6, and PKCα was via phospholipase C because it was blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122 (10 μM). The phosphorylation (activation) of AKT, which is usually upstream of mammalian target of rapamycin in the classic PI3 kinase-AKT-p70S6K signaling pathway, was not affected, suggesting that the gastrin-induced phosphorylation of NHE3 and S6 is dependent on both PI3 kinase and PKCα but not AKT.

  9. Antibody response to a major human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen in patients without evidence of immunosuppression and in patients with suspected atypical pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Lebech, M; Lind, K

    1993-01-01

    under evaluation due to atypical pneumonia, 76 patients showed no change in the titre of antibodies to Legionella spp. or Mycoplasma pneumoniae in two consecutive serum samples. Three of these 76 patients (4%) demonstrated an increase in the level of IgG antibodies to gp95 in the paired samples. One...

  10. Atypical swallowing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, C; Prevedello, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Farronato, G

    2014-06-01

    Atypical swallowing is a myofunctional problem consisting of an altered tongue position during the act of swallowing. High incidence in population, multifactorial etiology and the recurring connection with the presence of malocclusions made it a topic of strong interest and discussion in science. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the current orientation on the topic of atypical swallowing, trying in particular to answer two questions: 1) what kind of connection is there between atypical swallowing and malocclusion; 2) what kind of therapy should be used to solve it. This review was conducted on the Medline database [www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/pubmed] searching for the keywords "atypical swallowing" and "tongue thrust". We examined all the documents from the year 1990 onwards, excluding the ones about syndromic cases of the central motor system. The causal relation between the two problems seems to be biunique: some authors affirm that this oral habit starts as a compensation mechanism for a preexisting malocclusion (especially in case of open-bite); other texts show that it has a tendency to exacerbate cases of malocclusion; it is also proven that a non-physiological tongue thrust can negatively influence the progress of an ongoing orthodontic therapy. Thereby, the best therapeutic approach seems to be a multidisciplinary one: beside orthodontics, which is necessary to correct the malocclusion, it is essential to set up a myofunctional rehabilitation procedure to correct the oral habit, therefore granting long time permanent results. There is also proof of a substantial difference between the results obtained from early (deciduous or primary mixed dentition) or later treatments. The biunique causal relation between atypical swallowing and malocclusion suggests a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, orthodontic and myofunctional, to temporarily solve both problems. An early diagnosis and a prompt intervention have a significantly positive influence on the

  11. Short waves-induced enhancement of proliferation of human chondrocytes: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated map-kinase (erk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue-Long; Chan, Rai-Chi; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Huang, Chun-Jen; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chang, Hong-Tai; Huang, Jong-Khing; Chen, Jin-Shyr; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-07-01

    1. Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is a form of radiofrequency radiation that is used therapeutically by physiotherapists. The cellular mechanisms of SWD are unclear. The present study was performed to explore the effect of different conditions of short-wave exposure on the proliferation of cultured human chondrocytes. 2. Cells exposed to short waves once per day for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in proliferation by 42% compared with the control cells. In cells that were treated with short waves twice per day for seven consecutive days, or only once on Day 1 and then examined for proliferation on Day 7, cell proliferation was greater than the control cells by 40% and 30%, respectively. 3. Given the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the proliferation of different cell types, efforts were extended to explore the role of three major types of MAPK; that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38. 4. It was found that the level of phosphorylated ERK (phospho-ERK 1 and ERK 2) increased significantly within 5-120 min following consecutive exposure to short waves for 7 days. Exposure to short waves failed to alter the intensity of phosphorylated JNK and p38 within 0-240 min. 5. Cells were exposed to short waves once for seven consecutive days in the presence of 0, 10 micromol/L, 20 micromol/L or 50 micromol/L PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor). PD98059 totally inhibited short waves-induced enhancement of proliferation without altering normal control viability. In the presence of short waves and PD98059, the cell viability was lower than the normal control. Together, the data suggest that short waves could increase proliferation in human chondrocytes through activation of the ERK pathway, which is also involved in maintaining normal cell proliferation under physiological conditions.

  12. Atypical Neurological Manifestations Of Hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pal P K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A part from the well-established syndrome of motor paralysis, hypokalemia may present with atypical neurological manifestations, which are not well documented in literature. Methods: We treated 30 patients of hypokalemia whose neurological manifestations improved after corrections of hypokalemia. A retrospective chart review of the clinical profile was done with emphasis on the evolution of symptoms and occurrence of unusual manifestations. Results: Twenty-eight patients had subacute quadriparesis with duration of symptoms varying from 10hrs to 7 days and two had slowly progressive quadriparesis. Fifty percent of patients had more than one attack of paralysis. Early asymmetric weakness (11, stiffness and abnormal posture of hands (7, predominant bibrachial weakness (4, distal paresthesias (4, hemiparesthesia (1, hyperreflexia(4, early severe weakness of neck muscles (3, chorea (1, trismus (1,and, retention of urine (1 were the unusual features observed. The means level of serum potassium on admission was 2.1+0.6mEq/L.and the serum creatine kinase was elevated in 14 out of 17 patients. All patients except two had complete recovery.

  13. Elevated cyclin A associated kinase activity promotes sensitivity of metastatic human cancer cells to DNA antimetabolite drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Yin, Hailin; Panandikar, Ashwini; Gandhi, Varsha; Sen, Subrata

    2015-08-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle in successful systemic therapy of metastatic cancer. We analyzed the involvement of cell cycle regulatory proteins in eliciting response to N (phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA), an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, in two metastatic variants of human cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 isolated from lung (L-2) and brain (Br-1) in nude mouse, respectively. L-2 and Br-l cells markedly differed in their sensitivity to PALA. While both cell types displayed an initial S phase delay/arrest, Br-l cells proliferated but most L-2 cells underwent apoptosis. There was distinct elevation in cyclin A, and phosphorylated Rb proteins concomitant with decreased expression of bcl-2 protein in the PALA treated L-2 cells undergoing apoptosis. Markedly elevated cyclin A associated and cdk2 kinase activities together with increased E2F1-DNA binding were detected in these L-2 cells. Induced ectopic cyclin A expression sensitized Br-l cells to PALA by activating an apoptotic pathway. Our findings demonstrate that elevated expression of cyclin A and associated kinase can activate an apoptotic pathway in cells exposed to DNA antimetabolites. Abrogation of this pathway can lead to resistance against these drugs in metastatic variants of human carcinoma cells.

  14. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKalpha has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, no evidence for a role of ChoKbeta in carcinogenesis has been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we compare the in vitro and in vivo properties of ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta in lipid metabolism, and their potential role in carcinogenesis. Both ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta showed choline and ethanolamine kinase activities when assayed in cell extracts, though with different affinity for their substrates. However, they behave differentially when overexpressed in whole cells. Whereas ChoKbeta display an ethanolamine kinase role, ChoKalpha1 present a dual choline/ethanolamine kinase role, suggesting the involvement of each ChoK isoform in distinct biochemical pathways under in vivo conditions. In addition, while overexpression of ChoKalpha1 is oncogenic when overexpressed in HEK293T or MDCK cells, ChoKbeta overexpression is not sufficient to induce in vitro cell transformation nor in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, a significant upregulation of ChoKalpha1 mRNA levels in a panel of breast and lung cancer cell lines was found, but no changes in ChoKbeta mRNA levels were observed. Finally, MN58b, a previously described potent inhibitor of ChoK with in vivo antitumoral activity, shows more than 20-fold higher efficiency towards ChoKalpha1 than ChoKbeta. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first evidence of the distinct metabolic role of ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, suggesting different physiological roles and implications in human

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase activation mediates CCL3-induced cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in human chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, is a cytokine involved in inflammation and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. CCL3 has been detected in infiltrating cells and tumor cells. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor that causes distant metastasis. However, the effect of CCL3 on human chondrosarcoma metastasis is still unknown. Here, we found that CCL3 increased cellular migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the MMP-2 inhibitor or transfection with MMP-2 specific siRNA abolished CCL3-induced cell migration. CCL3 has been reported to exert its effects through activation of its specific receptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). The CCR5 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or siRNA also attenuated CCL3-upregulated cell motility and MMP-2 expression. CCL3-induced expression of MMP-2 and migration were also inhibited by specific inhibitors, and inactive mutants of AMPK, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 or p38-MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) cascades. On the other hand, CCL3 treatment demonstrably activated AMPK, p38, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the expression levels of CCL3, CCR5, and MMP-2 were correlated in human chondrosarcoma specimens. Taken together, our results indicate that CCL3 enhances the migratory ability of human chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression via the CCR5, AMPK, p38, and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24047437

  16. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase G1 Enhances Bone Formation by Human Skeletal Stem Cells Through Activation of RhoA-Akt Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Siersbaek, Majken S; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches to enhance bone regeneration is needed for efficient treatment of bone defects. Protein kinases play a key role in regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, and pharmacological targeting of protein kinases has led to development of novel treatments...... for several malignant and nonmalignant conditions. We screened a library of kinase inhibitors to identify small molecules that enhance bone formation by human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC). We identified H-8 (known to inhibit protein kinases A, C, and G) as a potent enhancer of ex vivo...... that pharmacological inhibition of PRKG1 in hMSC implanted at the site of bone defect can enhance bone regeneration. Stem Cells 2015....

  17. Atypical femoral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Sandro; Chiarello, Eugenio; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Cadossi, Matteo; Luciani, Deianira; Mazzotti, Antonio; Donati, Davide Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the most widely used therapy for osteoporosis. Recently, a relationship between long-term treatment with BPs and a subset of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) from below the lesser trochanter to the sovracondilar line has been described. Many etiopathogenetic theories have been invoked to explain AFFs: reduced bone turnover and increased osteoblast bone apposition with accumulation of microdamage and decreased bone toughness with subsequent increased risk of mi...

  18. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ and IIδ mediate TGFβ-induced transduction of fibronectin and collagen in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Sheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Janssen, Luke J

    2017-04-01

    It is now clear that in addition to activating several complex kinase pathways (Smad, MAP kinase, PI3 kinase), TGFβ also acts by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration within human pulmonary fibroblasts. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamK II) is also known to regulate gene expression in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the interactions between calcium signaling, activation of CamK and other kinases, and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression. Human pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with artificially generated Ca(2+) pulses in the absence of TGFβ, or with TGFβ (1 nM) or vehicle in the presence of various blockers of Ca(2+) signaling. PCR and Western blotting were used to measure gene expression and protein levels, respectively. We found that Ca(2+) pulses in the absence of TGFβ increased ECM gene expression in a pulse frequency-dependent manner, and that blocking Ca(2+) signaling and the CamK II pathway significantly reduced TGFβ-mediated ECM gene expression, without having any effects on other kinase pathways (Smad, PI3 kinase, or MAP kinase). We also found that TGFβ elevated the expression of CamK IIβ and CamK IIδ, while siRNA silencing of those two subtypes significantly reduced TGFβ-mediated expression of collagen A1 and fibronectin 1. Our data suggest that TGFβ induces the expression of CamK IIβ and CamK IIδ, which in turn are activated by TGFβ-evoked Ca(2+) waves in a frequency-dependent manner, leading to increased expression of ECM proteins. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Triptolide-Mediated Apoptosis by Suppression of Focal Adhesion Kinase through Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in Human Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Young Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triptolide (TPL has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells; however, the precise mechanism of apoptosis induced by TPL in human melanoma cells has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the precise mechanism underlying cytocidal effects of TPL on human melanoma cells. Treatment of human melanoma cells with TPL significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate analyses. TPL increased the levels of Fas and Fas-associated death domain (FADD and induced cleavage of Bid by activation of caspase-8 and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol, which resulted in activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Moreover, TPL-induced apoptosis in SK-MEL-2 cells was mediated through dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and its cleavage by caspase-8-mediated caspase-3 activation via upregulation of Fas expression. We also found that TPL mediated the dissociation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP from FAK and enhanced the formation of RIP/Fas complex formation initiating cell death. In conclusion, our data firstly demonstrated that TPL induces apoptosis by both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in human melanoma cells and identified that RIP shuttles between Fas and FAK to mediate apoptosis.

  20. Universal quantitative kinase assay based on diagonal SCX chromatography and stable isotope dimethyl labeling provides high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and human Mps1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennrich, M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406778; Marino, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339461799; Groenewold, V.; Kops, G.J.P.L.; Mohammed, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483632X; Heck, A.J.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand cellular signaling, a clear understanding of kinase–substrate relationships is essential. Some of these relationships are defined by consensus recognition motifs present in substrates making them amendable for phosphorylation by designated kinases. Here, we explore a method

  1. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-α staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-α production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells.

  2. Isomeric mono-, di-, and tri-bromobenzo-1H-triazoles as inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Wąsik

    Full Text Available To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt, a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC(50 of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5/C(6 atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br(2Bt and 4,5,6-Br(3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pK(a for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pK(a on halogenation of the peripheral C(4/C(7 atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC(50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91. Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2.

  3. Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase promotes escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor–positive human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W.; Hennessy, Bryan T.; González-Angulo, Ana M.; Fox, Emily M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Chen, Heidi; Higham, Catherine; García-Echeverría, Carlos; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2010-01-01

    Many breast cancers exhibit a degree of dependence on estrogen for tumor growth. Although several therapies have been developed to treat individuals with estrogen-dependent breast cancers, some tumors show de novo or acquired resistance, rendering them particularly elusive to current therapeutic strategies. Understanding the mechanisms by which these cancers develop resistance would enable the development of new and effective therapeutics. In order to determine mechanisms of escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor–positive (ER-positive) breast cancer, we established 4 human breast cancer cell lines after long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). LTED cells showed variable changes in ER levels and sensitivity to 17β-estradiol. Proteomic profiling of LTED cells revealed increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrates p70S6 kinase and p85S6 kinase as well as the PI3K substrate AKT. Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR induced LTED cell apoptosis and prevented the emergence of hormone-independent cells. Using reverse-phase protein microarrays, we identified a breast tumor protein signature of PI3K pathway activation that predicted poor outcome after adjuvant endocrine therapy in patients. Our data suggest that upon adaptation to hormone deprivation, breast cancer cells rely heavily on PI3K signaling. Our findings also imply that acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer may be abrogated by combination therapies targeting both ER and PI3K pathways. PMID:20530877

  4. ARQ 197, a novel and selective inhibitor of the human c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase with antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Neru; Jeay, Sébastien; Li, Youzhi; Chen, Chang-Rung; France, Dennis S; Ashwell, Mark A; Hill, Jason; Moussa, Magdi M; Leggett, David S; Li, Chiang J

    2010-06-01

    The met proto-oncogene is functionally linked with tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Validation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met as a selective anticancer target has awaited the emergence of selective c-Met inhibitors. Herein, we report ARQ 197 as the first non-ATP-competitive small molecule that selectively targets the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase. Exposure to ARQ 197 resulted in the inhibition of proliferation of c-Met-expressing cancer cell lines as well as the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in cell lines with constitutive c-Met activity. These cellular responses to ARQ 197 were phenocopied by RNAi-mediated c-Met depletion and further demonstrated by the growth inhibition of human tumors following oral administration of ARQ 197 in multiple mouse xenograft efficacy studies. Cumulatively, these data suggest that ARQ 197, currently in phase II clinical trials, is a promising agent for targeting cancers in which c-Met-driven signaling is important for their survival and proliferation.

  5. Several Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, Structurally Related to Roscovitine, As New Anti-Malarial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Houzé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, malaria kills one child each minute. It is also responsible for about one million deaths worldwide each year. Plasmodium falciparum, is the protozoan responsible for the most lethal form of the disease, with resistance developing against the available anti-malarial drugs. Among newly proposed anti-malaria targets, are the P. falciparum cyclin-dependent kinases (PfCDKs. There are involved in different stages of the protozoan growth and development but share high sequence homology with human cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. We previously reported the synthesis of CDKs inhibitors that are structurally-related to (R-roscovitine, a 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine, and they showed activity against neuronal diseases and cancers. In this report, we describe the synthesis and the characterization of new CDK inhibitors, active in reducing the in vitro growth of P. falciparum (3D7 and 7G8 strains. Six compounds are more potent inhibitors than roscovitine, and three exhibited IC50 values close to 1 µM for both 3D7 and 7G8 strains. Although, such molecules do inhibit P. falciparum growth, they require further studies to improve their selectivity for PfCDKs.

  6. A single starfish Aurora kinase performs the combined functions of Aurora-A and Aurora-B in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yusuke; Okumura, Eiichi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hirota, Toru; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Aurora, an essential mitotic kinase, is highly conserved during evolution. Most vertebrates have at least two Aurora kinases, Aurora-A and Aurora-B, which have distinct functions in the centrosome-spindle and inner centromere-midbody, respectively. However, some non-vertebrate deuterostomes have only a single Aurora. It remains to be verified whether the single Aurora performs the same functions as vertebrate Auroras A and B combined. We have isolated a cDNA of a single Aurora (ApAurora) from the echinoderm starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and show that ApAurora displays most features of both Aurora-A and Aurora-B in starfish oocytes and early embryos. Furthermore, ApAurora that is stably expressed in HeLa cells can substitute for both human Aurora-A and Aurora-B when either is reduced by RNAi. A single ApAurora thus has properties of both Aurora-A and Aurora-B in starfish eggs and HeLa cells. Together with phylogenetic analysis indicating that ApAurora forms a clade with all types of vertebrate Auroras and single Auroras of non-vertebrate deuterostomes, our observations support the idea that the single Aurora found in non-vertebrate deuterostomes represents the ancestor that gave rise to various types of vertebrate Auroras. This study thus provides functional evidence for phylogenetic considerations.

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  8. Structural Evolution of the Protein Kinase-Like Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase family is large and important, but it is only one family in a larger superfamily of homologous kinases that phosphorylate a variety of substrates and play important roles in all three superkingdoms of life. We used a carefully constructed structural alignment of selected kinases as the basis for a study of the structural evolution of the protein kinase-like superfamily. The comparison of structures revealed a "universal core" domain consisting only of regions required for ATP binding and the phosphotransfer reaction. Remarkably, even within the universal core some kinase structures display notable changes, while still retaining essential activity. Hence, the protein kinase-like superfamily has undergone substantial structural and sequence revision over long evolutionary timescales. We constructed a phylogenetic tree for the superfamily using a novel approach that allowed for the combination of sequence and structure information into a unified quantitative analysis. When considered against the backdrop of species distribution and other metrics, our tree provides a compelling scenario for the development of the various kinase families from a shared common ancestor. We propose that most of the so-called "atypical kinases" are not intermittently derived from protein kinases, but rather diverged early in evolution to form a distinct phyletic group. Within the atypical kinases, the aminoglycoside and choline kinase families appear to share the closest relationship. These two families in turn appear to be the most closely related to the protein kinase family. In addition, our analysis suggests that the actin-fragmin kinase, an atypical protein kinase, is more closely related to the phosphoinositide-3 kinase family than to the protein kinase family. The two most divergent families, alpha-kinases and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs, appear to have distinct evolutionary histories. While the PIPKs probably have an

  9. Identification of phosphorylation sites on human deoxycytidine kinase after overexpression in eucaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smal, C; Vertommen, D; Bertrand, L; Rider, M H; van den Neste, E; Bontemps, F

    2006-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a key enzyme in the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides and in the activation of clinically relevant nucleoside analogues, can be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. In this study, we show that dCK overexpressed in HEK-293T cells was labelled after incubation of the cells with [32P]orthophosphate. Tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of 4 in vivo phosphorylation sites, Thr3, Ser11, Ser15, and Ser74. These results provide the first evidence that dCK is constitutively multiphosphorylated in intact cells. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser74, the major in vivo phosphorylation site, is crucial for dCK activity.

  10. Src kinases are required for a balanced production of IL-12/IL-23 in human dendritic cells activated by Toll-like receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Baronio, Roberta; Valentini, Sara; Monaci, Elisabetta; Muzzi, Alessandro; Aprea, Susanna; De Gregorio, Ennio; D'Oro, Ugo

    2010-07-09

    Pathogen recognition by dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for the initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) by microbial molecular patterns leads to the maturation of DC, which present the antigen and activate T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Cytokine production by DC is critical for shaping the adaptive immune response by regulating T helper cell differentiation. It was previously shown by our group that Src kinases play a key role in cytokines production during TLR4 activation in human DC. In this work we investigated the role of Src kinases during different TLRs triggering in human monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). We found that Src family kinases are important for a balanced production of inflammatory cytokines by human MoDC upon stimulation of TLR3 and 8 with their respective agonists. Disruption of this equilibrium through pharmacological inhibition of Src kinases alters the DC maturation pattern. In particular, while expression of IL-12 and other inflammatory cytokines depend on Src kinases, the induction of IL-23 and co-stimulatory molecules do not. Accordingly, DC treated with Src inhibitors are not compromised in their ability to induce CD4 T cell proliferation and to promote the Th17 subset survival but are less efficient in inducing Th1 differentiation. We suggest that the pharmacological modulation of DC maturation has the potential to shape the quality of the adaptive immune response and could be exploited for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.

  11. Evolutionary divergence in the catalytic activity of the CAM-1, ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR 1 and 2 are atypical members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family and have been associated with several human diseases. The vertebrate RORs contain an ATP binding domain that deviates from the consensus amino acid sequence, although the impact of this deviation on catalytic activity is not known and the kinase function of these receptors remains controversial. Recently, ROR2 was shown to signal through a Wnt responsive, β-catenin independent pathway and suppress a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal. In this work we demonstrate that both ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains are catalytically deficient while CAM-1, the C. elegans homolog of ROR, has an active tyrosine kinase domain, suggesting a divergence in the signaling processes of the ROR family during evolution. In addition, we show that substitution of the non-consensus residues from ROR1 or ROR2 into CAM-1 and MuSK markedly reduce kinase activity, while restoration of the consensus residues in ROR does not restore robust kinase function. We further demonstrate that the membrane-bound extracellular domain alone of either ROR1 or ROR2 is sufficient for suppression of canonical Wnt3a signaling, and that this domain can also enhance Wnt5a suppression of Wnt3a signaling. Based on these data, we conclude that human ROR1 and ROR2 are RTK-like pseudokinases.

  12. The Raf Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib Inhibits JAK-STAT Signal Transduction in Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin del Campo, Sara E; Levine, Kala M; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Grignol, Valerie P; Fairchild, Ene T; Campbell, Amanda R; Trikha, Prashant; Mace, Thomas A; Paul, Bonnie K; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Markowitz, Joseph; Kondadasula, Sri Vidya; Guenterberg, Kristan D; McClory, Susan; Karpa, Volodymyr I; Pan, Xueliang; Olencki, Thomas E; Monk, J Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Tridandapani, Susheela; Lesinski, Gregory B; Byrd, John C; Caligiuri, Michael A; Shah, Manisha H; Carson, William E

    2015-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that was originally developed as a Raf kinase inhibitor. We hypothesized that sorafenib would also have inhibitory effects on cytokine signaling pathways in immune cells. PBMCs from normal donors were treated with varying concentrations of sorafenib and stimulated with IFN-α or IL-2. Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Changes in IFN-α- and IL-2-stimulated gene expression were measured by quantitative PCR, and changes in cytokine production were evaluated by ELISA. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from cancer patients before and after receiving 400 mg sorafenib twice daily. Patient PBMCs were thawed, stimulated with IL-2 or IFN-α, and evaluated for phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5. Pretreatment of PBMCs with 10 μM sorafenib decreased STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation after treatment with IFN-α or IL-2. This inhibitory effect was observed in PBMCs from healthy donors over a range of concentrations of sorafenib (5-20 μM), IL-2 (2-24 nM), and IFN-α (10(1)-10(6) U/ml). This effect was observed in immune cell subsets, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, regulatory T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Pretreatment with sorafenib also inhibited PBMC expression of IFN-α- and IL-2-regulated genes and inhibited NK cell production of IFN-γ, RANTES, MIP1-α, and MIG in response to IFN-α stimulation. PBMCs from patients receiving sorafenib therapy showed decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and IFN-α treatment. Sorafenib is a Raf kinase inhibitor that could have off-target effects on cytokine-induced signal transduction in immune effector cells. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in human skeletal muscle: effects of food intake and bicycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszewski, J F; Nielsen, P; Kiens, B; Richter, E A; Wojtazsewski, J F

    2001-02-01

    Studies of skeletal muscle from rodents performed both in vivo and in vitro suggest a regulatory role of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 in glycogen synthase (GS) activation in response to insulin. Recently, hyperinsulinemic clamp studies in humans support such a role under nearly physiological conditions. In addition, in rats the activation of GS in skeletal muscle during treadmill running is time-related to the deactivation of GSK3. We investigated whether GSK3 was deactivated in human muscle during low- (approximately 50% VO2max for 1.5 h) and high-intensity (approximately 75% VO2max for 1 h) bicycle exercise as well as food intake. We observed a small but significant increase in GSK3alpha (10-20%) activity in biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis after both low- and high-intensity exercise, whereas GSK3beta activity was unaffected. Subsequent food intake increased Aktphosphorylation (approximately 2-fold) and deactivated GSK3alpha (approximately 40%), whereas GSK3beta activity was unchanged. GS activity increased in response to both exercise and food intake. We conclude that GSK3alpha but not GSK3beta may have a role in the regulation of GS activity in response to meal-associated hyperinsulinemia in humans. However, in contrast to findings in muscle from rats, exercise does not deactivate GSK3 in humans, suggesting a GSK3-independent mechanism in the regulation of GS activity in muscle during physical activity.

  14. An essential role of intestinal cell kinase in lung development is linked to the perinatal lethality of human ECO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yixin; Park, So Hyun; Wu, Di; Xu, Wenhao; Guillot, Stacey J; Jin, Li; Li, Xudong; Wang, Yalin; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Fu, Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome, caused by the loss-of-function mutation R272Q in the intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene, is a neonatal-lethal developmental disorder. To elucidate the molecular basis of ECO syndrome, we constructed an Ick R272Q knock-in mouse model that recapitulates ECO pathological phenotypes. Newborns bearing Ick R272Q homozygous mutations die at birth due to respiratory distress. Ick mutant lungs exhibit not only impaired branching morphogenesis associated with reduced mesenchymal proliferation but also significant airspace deficiency in primitive alveoli concomitant with abnormal interstitial mesenchymal differentiation. ICK dysfunction induces elongated primary cilia and perturbs ciliary Hedgehog signaling and autophagy during lung sacculation. Our study identifies an essential role for ICK in lung development and advances the mechanistic understanding of ECO syndrome. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and subunit expression in exercise-trained human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Mustard, Kirsty J.W.; Graham, Drew A.

    2002-01-01

    (3)) AMPK subunits and exercise-induced AMPK activity are influenced by exercise training status, muscle biopsies were obtained from seven endurance exercise-trained and seven sedentary young healthy men. The alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AMPK mRNA contents in trained subjects were both 117 +/- 2...... trained human skeletal muscle has increased alpha(1)-AMPK protein levels and blunted AMPK activation during exercise.......5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to be a pivotal factor in cellular responses to both acute exercise and exercise training. To investigate whether protein levels and gene expression of catalytic (alpha(1), alpha(2)) and regulatory (beta(1), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma...

  16. Comparative genomics of MAP kinase and calcium-calcineurin signalling components in plant and human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispail, Nicolas; Soanes, Darren M; Ant, Cemile; Czajkowski, Robert; Grünler, Anke; Huguet, Romain; Perez-Nadales, Elena; Poli, Anna; Sartorel, Elodie; Valiante, Vito; Yang, Meng; Beffa, Roland; Brakhage, Axel A; Gow, Neil A R; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Lenasi, Helena; Perez-Martin, José; Talbot, Nicholas J; Wendland, Jürgen; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway control fundamental aspects of fungal growth, development and reproduction. Core elements of these signalling pathways are required for virulence in a wide array of fungal pathogens of plants and mammals. In this review, we have used the available genome databases to explore the structural conservation of three MAPK cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway in ten different fungal species, including model organisms, plant pathogens and human pathogens. While most known pathway components from the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae appear to be widely conserved among taxonomically and biologically diverse fungi, some of them were found to be restricted to the Saccharomycotina. The presence of multiple paralogues in certain species such as the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae and the incorporation of new functional domains that are lacking in S. cerevisiae signalling proteins, most likely reflect functional diversification or adaptation as filamentous fungi have evolved to occupy distinct ecological niches.

  17. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  18. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signalingr driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-03-08

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology.

  19. Erectile properties of the Rho-kinase inhibitor SAR407899 in diabetic animals and human isolated corpora cavernosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background RhoA-Rho kinase complex contributes to keep the cavernosus smooth muscle contracted and its inhibition is considered a potential strategy for the therapy of erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods We compared the effects of SAR407899, the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil for their ability to relax corpus cavernosum strips contracted with phenylephrine in healthy and diabetic animals. Strips were obtained from WKY, spontaneous hypertensive (SHR), control CD, and diabetic CD rats, humans, control and diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin or alloxan injection. In vivo penile erection (length) induced by drugs was measured in conscious rabbits. Results SAR407899 dose-dependently relaxed the pre-contracted corpora cavernosa in all species, with similar potency and efficacy in healthy vs diabetic rats, WKY vs SHR rats, healthy vs diabetic rabbits (IC50 range from 0.05 to 0.29 μM, Emax range 89 to 97%). In the presence of the NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, the SAR407899 response did not decrease in any of the species or experimental conditions. The effect was confirmed in human strips where sildenafil was significantly less potent and effective, with IC50 respectively 0.13 and 0.51 μM; Emax 92 and 43%. Unlike SAR407899, the potency and efficacy of sildenafil and Y27632 were significantly reduced by diabetes and L-NAME. In vivo, SAR407899 dose-dependently induced rabbit penile erection, with greater potency and longer duration of action than sildenafil. Sildenafil, but not SAR407899, was less effective in alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The induction of penile erection by SAR407899, unlike that by sildenafil, is largely independent of e-NO activity. This suggests its use in erectile dysfunction for diabetic and hypertensive patients where e-NO activity is impaired. PMID:22444253

  20. Atypical odontalgia--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seena B; Boros, Audrey L; Kumar, Satish K S

    2012-09-01

    Atypical odontalgia is a commonly misdiagnosed condition that frequently leads to unnecessary dental treatments such as extraction and endodontic therapy. These treatments often worsen the pain. Despite greater recognition and understanding of this condition, proper diagnosis and treatment remains a challenge. It is believed that atypical odontalgia is a neuropathic condition. This article updates the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of atypical odontalgia, and provides appropriate diagnostic and management approaches for this condition.

  1. Casein kinase 1delta activates human recombinant deoxycytidine kinase by Ser-74 phosphorylation, but is not involved in the in vivo regulation of its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smal, Caroline; Vertommen, Didier; Amsailale, Rachid; Arts, Angélique; Degand, Hervé; Morsomme, Pierre; Rider, Mark H; Neste, Eric Van Den; Bontemps, Françoise

    2010-10-01

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a key enzyme in the salvage of deoxynucleosides and in the activation of several anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. We recently showed that dCK was activated in vivo by phosphorylation of Ser-74. However, the protein kinase responsible was not identified. Ser-74 is located downstream a Glu-rich region, presenting similarity with the consensus phosphorylation motif of casein kinase 1 (CKI), and particularly of CKI delta. We showed that recombinant CKI delta phosphorylated several residues of bacterially overexpressed dCK: Ser-74, but also Ser-11, Ser-15, and Thr-72. Phosphorylation of dCK by CKI delta correlated with increased activity reaching at least 4-fold. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that only Ser-74 phosphorylation was involved in dCK activation by CKI delta, strengthening the key role of this residue in the control of dCK activity. However, neither CKI delta inhibitors nor CKI delta siRNA-mediated knock-down modified Ser-74 phosphorylation or dCK activity in cultured cells. Moreover, these approaches did not prevent dCK activation induced by treatments enhancing Ser-74 phosphorylation. Taken together, the data preclude a role of CKI delta in the regulation of dCK activity in vivo. Nevertheless, phosphorylation of dCK by CKI delta could be a useful tool for elucidating the influence of Ser-74 phosphorylation on the structure-activity relationships in the enzyme. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Janus-kinase-2 relates directly to portal hypertension and to complications in rodent and human cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine; Rick, Johanna; Lehmann, Jennifer; Schierwagen, Robert; Schierwagen, Irela Gretchen; Verbeke, Len; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Uschner, Frank Erhard; Manekeller, Steffen; Strassburg, Christian P; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Sayeski, Peter P; Wolf, Dominik; Laleman, Wim; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) activates via angiotensin-II-type-I receptor (AT1R) Janus-kinase-2 (JAK2)/Arhgef1 pathway and subsequently RHOA/Rho-kinase (ROCK), which induces experimental and probably human liver fibrosis. This study investigated the relationship of JAK2 to experimental and human portal hypertension. The mRNA and protein levels of JAK2/ARHGEF1 signalling components were analysed in 49 human liver samples and correlated with clinical parameters of portal hypertension in these patients. Correspondingly, liver fibrosis (bile duct ligation (BDL), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)) was induced in floxed-Jak2 knock-out mice with SM22-promotor (SM22(Cre+)-Jak2(f/f)). Transcription and contraction of primary myofibroblasts from healthy and fibrotic mice and rats were analysed. In two different cirrhosis models (BDL, CCl4) in rats, the acute haemodynamic effect of the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 was assessed using microsphere technique and isolated liver perfusion experiments. Hepatic transcription of JAK2/ARHGEF1 pathway components was upregulated in liver cirrhosis dependent on aetiology, severity and complications of human liver cirrhosis (Model for End-stage Liver disease (MELD) score, Child score as well as ascites, high-risk varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis). SM22(Cre+)- Jak2(f/f) mice lacking Jak2 developed less fibrosis and lower portal pressure (PP) than SM22(Cre-)-Jak2(f/f) upon fibrosis induction. Myofibroblasts from SM22(Cre+)-Jak2(f/f) mice expressed less collagen and profibrotic markers upon activation. AG490 relaxed activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro. In cirrhotic rats, AG490 decreased hepatic vascular resistance and consequently the PP in vivo and in situ. Hepatic JAK2/ARHGEF1/ROCK expression is associated with portal hypertension and decompensation in human cirrhosis. The deletion of Jak2 in myofibroblasts attenuated experimental fibrosis and acute inhibition of JAK2 decreased PP. Thus, JAK2 inhibitors, already in clinical use for other

  3. TMPYP4 exerted antitumor effects in human cervical cancer cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Jun; Cao, Yun-Gui

    2017-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms by which TMPyP4 exerted its actions. After human cervical cancer cells were treated with different doses of TMPyP4, cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry (FCM), and the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), capase-3, MAPKAPK2 (MK-2) and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was measured by Western blot analysis. The analysis revealed that TMPyP4 potently suppressed cell viability and induced the apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the up-regulation of p-p38 MAPK expression levels was detected in TMPyP4-treated human cervical cancer cells. However, followed by the block of p38 MAPK signaling pathway using the inhibitor SB203580, the effects of TMPyP4 on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells were significantly changed. It was indicated that TMPyP4-inhibited proliferation and -induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells was accompanied by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrates that TMPyP4 may represent a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  4. Growth factor-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is Rho-kinase-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinout; Schaafsma, D.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M; Vrugt, B.; Zaagsma, Hans; Meurs, Herman; Nelemans, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the putative effects of these growth factors on human airway smooth muscle tone are still largely unknown. We performed contraction experiments using human bronchial smooth muscle ring preparations. The growth factor

  5. A Murine Model for Human ECO Syndrome Reveals a Critical Role of Intestinal Cell Kinase in Skeletal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mengmeng; Jin, Li; Xie, Lin; Park, So Hyun; Tong, Yixin; Wu, Di; Chhabra, A Bobby; Fu, Zheng; Li, Xudong

    2017-11-02

    An autosomal-recessive inactivating mutation R272Q in the human intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene caused profound multiplex developmental defects in human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome. ECO patients exhibited a wide variety of skeletal abnormalities, yet the underlying mechanisms by which ICK regulates skeletal development remained largely unknown. The goal of this study was to understand the structural and mechanistic basis underlying skeletal anomalies caused by ICK dysfunction. Ick R272Q knock-in transgenic mouse model not only recapitulated major ECO skeletal defects such as short limbs and polydactyly but also revealed a deformed spine with defective intervertebral disk. Loss of ICK function markedly reduced mineralization in the spinal column, ribs, and long bones. Ick mutants showed a significant decrease in the proliferation zone of long bones and the number of type X collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes in the spinal column and the growth plate of long bones. These results implicate that ICK plays an important role in bone and cartilage development by promoting chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. Our findings provided new mechanistic insights into the skeletal phenotype of human ECO and ECO-like syndromes.

  6. Structural Properties of Human CaMKII Ca2+ /Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II using X-ray Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yumeng Melody; McSpadden, Ethan; Kuriyan, John; Department of Molecular; Cell Biology; Department of Chemistry Team

    To this day, human memory storage remains a mystery as we can at most describe the process vaguely on a cellular level. Switch-like properties of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II make it a leading candidate in understanding the molecular basis of human memory. The protein crystal was placed in the beam of a synchrotron source and the x-ray crystallography data was collected as reflections on a diffraction pattern that undergo Fourier transform to obtain the electron density. We observed two drastic differences from our solved structure at 2.75Å to a similar construct of the mouse CaMKII association domain. Firstly, our structure is a 6-fold symmetric dodecamer, whereas the previously published construct was a 7-fold symmetric tetradecamer. This suggests the association domain of human CaMKII is a dynamic structure that is triggered subunit exchange process. Secondly, in our structure the N-terminal tag is docked as an additional beta-strand on an uncapped beta-sheet present in each association domain protomer. This is concrete evidence of the involvement of the polypeptide docking site in the molecular mechanism underlining subunit exchange. In the future, we would like to selectively inhibit the exchange process while not disrupting the other functionalities of CaMKII.

  7. Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case after wild-boar (Sus scrofa pork consumption in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar (Sus scrofa hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti-Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters.

  8. Regulation of Discrete Functional Responses by Syk and Src Family Tyrosine Kinases in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornin Ear

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play a critical role in innate immunity and also influence adaptive immune responses. This occurs in good part through their production of inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, in conjunction with their prolonged survival at inflamed foci. While a picture of the signaling machinery underlying these neutrophil responses is now emerging, much remains to be uncovered. In this study, we report that neutrophils constitutively express various Src family isoforms (STKs, as well as Syk, and that inhibition of these protein tyrosine kinases selectively hinders inflammatory cytokine generation by acting posttranscriptionally. Accordingly, STK or Syk inhibition decreases the phosphorylation of signaling intermediates (e.g., eIF-4E, S6K, and MNK1 involved in translational control. By contrast, delayed apoptosis appears to be independent of either STKs or Syk. Our data therefore significantly extend our understanding of which neutrophil responses are governed by STKs and Syk and pinpoint some signaling intermediates that are likely involved. In view of the foremost role of neutrophils in several chronic inflammatory conditions, our findings identify potential molecular targets that could be exploited for future therapeutic intervention.

  9. Rho kinase inhibitor y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H.J. van den; Rodijk-Olthuis, D.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Erp, P.E.J. van; Joosten, I.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases,

  10. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. I. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Morris, G. E.; Man, N. T.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies against the M and B subunit isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) we have investigated their distribution in developing human skeletal and cardiac muscle immunohistochemically. It is demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, a switch from CK-B to CK-M takes place around the week 8

  11. Distribution and Evolution of CTG Repeats at the Myotonin Protein Kinase Gene in Human Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Ranjan; Majumder, Partha P.; Shriver, Mark D.; Stivers, David N.; Zhong, Yixi; Yu, Ling M.; Barrantes-Mesén, Ramiro; Yin, Shih-Jiun; Miki, Tetsuro; Hundrieser, Joachim; Bunker, Clareann H.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Sakallah, Sameer; Ferrell, Robert E.; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    1996-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1996 We have analyzed the CTG repeat length and the neighboring Alu insertion/deletion (+/-) polymorphism in DNA samples from 16 ethnically and geographically diverse human populations to understand the evolutionary dynamics of the myotonic dystrophy-associated CTG repeat. Our results show that the CTG repeat length is variable in human populations. Although the (CTG)5 repeat is the most common allele in the majority of populati...

  12. DNA-hypomethylating agent, 5'-azacytidine, induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The cytosine analogue 5'-azacytidine (5'-aza) induces DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase. In clinical trials, 5'-aza is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Accumulated evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various cancers, indicating that it may play a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, few studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the increased COX-2 expression. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 5'-aza regulates COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, was treated with various concentrations of 5'-aza for different time periods. Protein expressions of COX-2, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), pAkt, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined using western blot analysis, and COX-2 mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. PGE2 production was evaluated using the PGE2 assay kit. The localization and expression of COX-2 were determined using immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with 5'-aza induces protein and mRNA expression of COX-2. We also observed that 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were inhibited by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor. Treatment with 5'-aza phosphorylates PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2; inhibition of these pathways by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase/Akt, or PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, respectively, prevents 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Overall, these observations indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5'-aza modulates COX-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

  13. Human xanthine dehydrogenase cDNA sequence and protein in an atypical case of type I xanthinuria in comparison with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Shibutani, Y; Matsui, K; Ueo, T; Takahashi, S; Tsutsumi, Z; Hada, T

    2001-02-01

    To investigate the properties of xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) deficiency in a patient with atypical type I xanthinuria, as indicated by oxypurine data, a cDNA sequence encoding XDH, XDH/XO immunoblot analysis and a competitive PCR assay were performed, and the results were compared with those of normal subjects. The xanthine dehydrogenase cDNA sequence of the patient was consistent with the controls, while immunologically reactive 150 kD XDH/XO protein was not present in the xanthinuric duodenal mucosa, unlike the control duodenal mucosa. In addition, a decrease in XDH/XO messenger RNA was found by competitive PCR. These results suggest that atypical type I xanthinuria is due to a decrease in messenger RNA of XDH/XO. Furthermore, it was considered that this decrease could explain the normal plasma level and near normal urinary excretion of hypoxanthine seen in this case of xanthinuria, though XDH/XO activity and protein were not detected spectrophotometrically and immunologically, respectively.

  14. The Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitor Prexasertib Induces Regression of Preclinical Models of Human Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Caitlin D; VanWye, Alle B; Dowless, Michele; Blosser, Wayne; Falcon, Beverly L; Stewart, Julie; Stephens, Jennifer; Beckmann, Richard P; Bence Lin, Aimee; Stancato, Louis F

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a mediator of replication stress through modulation of replication fork licensing and activation of S and G2-M cell-cycle checkpoints. We evaluated prexasertib (LY2606368), a small-molecule CHK1 inhibitor currently in clinical testing, in multiple preclinical models of pediatric cancer. Following an initial assessment of prexasertib activity, this study focused on the preclinical models of neuroblastoma.Experimental Design: We evaluated the antiproliferative activity of prexasertib in a panel of cancer cell lines; neuroblastoma cell lines were among the most sensitive. Subsequent Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses measured DNA damage and DNA repair protein activation. Prexasertib was investigated in several cell line-derived xenograft mouse models of neuroblastoma.Results: Within 24 hours, single-agent prexasertib promoted γH2AX-positive double-strand DNA breaks and phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors ATM and DNA-PKcs, leading to neuroblastoma cell death. Knockdown of CHK1 and/or CHK2 by siRNA verified that the double-strand DNA breaks and cell death elicited by prexasertib were due to specific CHK1 inhibition. Neuroblastoma xenografts rapidly regressed following prexasertib administration, independent of starting tumor volume. Decreased Ki67 and increased immunostaining of endothelial and pericyte markers were observed in xenografts after only 6 days of exposure to prexasertib, potentially indicating a swift reduction in tumor volume and/or a direct effect on tumor vasculature.Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate that prexasertib is a specific inhibitor of CHK1 in neuroblastoma and leads to DNA damage and cell death in preclinical models of this devastating pediatric malignancy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4354-63. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Prognostic Value of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK in Human Solid Carcinomas: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of reports on focal adhesion kinase (FAK as a vital therapeutic target in solid carcinomas has increased; however, the prognostic role of FAK status remains poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic effect of FAK by means of a meta-analysis.We performed a systematic literature search in order to examine the correlation between expression of FAK and overall survival(OS. The hazard ratio (HR of OS was used to measure survival. A random-effects model was used to pool study statistics. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were also conducted.Thirty eligible studies involving 4702 patients were included. The median expression rate of FAK was 54%. Meta-analysis of the HRs demonstrated that high FAK expression was associated with worse OS (average HR = 2.073, 95%confidence interval[CI]:1.712-2.510, p = 0.000. Regarding cancer type, FAK was associated with worse OS in gastric cancer (HR = 2.646,95% CI:1.743-4.017, p = 0.000, hepatocellular carcinoma (HR = 1.788,95% CI:1.228-2.602, p = 0.002, ovarian cancer (HR = 1.815, 95% CI: 1.193-2.762, p = 0.005, endometrial cancer (HR = 4.149, 95% CI:2.832-6.079, p = 0.000, gliomas (HR = 2.650, 95% CI: 1.205-5.829, p = 0.015, and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 1,696, 95% CI: 1.030-2.793, p = 0.038. No association was found between HR and disease staging according to our meta-regression analysis.Our study shows that high expression of FAK is associated with a worse OS in patients with carcinomas, but the association between FAK and prognosis varies according to cancer type. The value of FAK status in clinical prognosis in cancer needs further research.

  16. Effect of Biodentine and Bioaggregate on odontoblastic differentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J-Y; Woo, S-M; Lee, B-N; Koh, J-T; Nör, J E; Hwang, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the mineralization inductive capacity of Biodentine and Bioaggregate with Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and to investigate possible signaling pathways of mineralization in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Viability of HDPCs in response to Biodentine, Bioaggregate, and MTA was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. To investigate their potential to induce odontoblast differentiation, expression of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentine matrix protein1 (DMP1) mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR. For the mineralized nodule assay, Alizarin red staining was performed. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, activated MAPKs were investigated by Western blot and the effect of MAPK inhibitor was examined by Alizarin red S staining. The results were statistically analysed using one-way anova and the Bonferroni test. The effects of MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate on cell viability were similar. Biodentine and Bioaggregate enhanced DSPP and DMP1 mRNA expression compared to the control group, but to the same extent as MTA (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased the area of calcified nodules compared to the control (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MAPK inhibitors attenuated mineralized nodule formation, which was increased by MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate, respectively (P Biodentine and Bioaggregate stimulated odontoblastic differentiation and mineralization nodule formation by activating the MAPK pathway as did MTA. This suggests that the new materials could be useful for regenerative endodontic procedures. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Curcumin specifically binds to the human calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Nasimul; Naz, Huma; Jameel, Ehtesham; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Dey, Sharmistha; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan; Jayaram, B

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4) plays significant role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression, and thus, it is involved in varieties of cellular functions such as cell signaling and neuronal survival. On the other hand, curcumin, a naturally occurring yellow bioactive component of turmeric possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, and it is widely used to treat atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. It also acts as an antioxidant. Here, we studied the interaction of curcumin with human CAMK4 at pH 7.4 using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, fluorescence binding, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods. We performed MD simulations for both neutral and anionic forms of CAMK4-curcumin complexes for a reasonably long time (150 ns) to see the overall stability of the protein-ligand complex. Molecular docking studies revealed that the curcumin binds in the large hydrophobic cavity of kinase domain of CAMK4 through several hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonded interactions. Additionally, MD simulations studies contributed in understanding the stability of protein-ligand complex system in aqueous solution and conformational changes in the CAMK4 upon binding of curcumin. A significant increase in the fluorescence intensity at 495 nm was observed (λexc = 425 nm), suggesting a strong interaction of curcumin to the CAMK4. A high binding affinity (KD = 3.7 × 10(-8) ± .03 M) of curcumin for the CAMK4 was measured by SPR further indicating curcumin as a potential ligand for the CAMK4. This study will provide insights into designing a new inspired curcumin derivatives as therapeutic agents against many life-threatening diseases.

  18. Conserved retinoblastoma protein-binding motif in human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase minimally impacts viral replication but affects susceptibility to maribavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Sunwen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UL97 kinase has been shown to phosphorylate and inactivate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and has three consensus Rb-binding motifs that might contribute to this activity. Recombinant viruses containing mutations in the Rb-binding motifs generally replicated well in human foreskin fibroblasts with only a slight delay in replication kinetics. Their susceptibility to the specific UL97 kinase inhibitor, maribavir, was also examined. Mutation of the amino terminal motif, which is involved in the inactivation of Rb, also renders the virus hypersensitive to the drug and suggests that the motif may play a role in its mechanism of action.

  19. Functional characterization of human RSK4, a new 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase, reveals constitutive activation in most cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümmler, Bettina A; Hauge, Camilla; Silber, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    characterization of a predicted new human RSK homologue, RSK4. We showed that RSK4 is a predominantly cytosolic protein with very low expression and several characteristics of the RSK family kinases, including the presence of two functional kinase domains and a C-terminal docking site for ERK. Surprisingly......, however, in all cell types analyzed, endogenous RSK4 was maximally (constitutively) activated under serum-starved conditions where other RSKs are inactive due to their requirement for growth factor stimulation. Constitutive activation appeared to result from constitutive phosphorylation of Ser232, Ser372...

  20. Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréoletti, Olivier; Orge, Leonor; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Beringue, Vincent; Litaise, Claire; Simon, Stéphanie; Le Dur, Annick; Laude, Hubert; Simmons, Hugh; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Costes, Pierrette; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Lacroux, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was first identified in 1998 in Norway. It is now considered as a worldwide disease of small ruminants and currently represents a significant part of the detected transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) cases in Europe. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were reported in ARR/ARR sheep, which are highly resistant to BSE and other small ruminants TSE agents. The biology and pathogenesis of the Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent in its natural host is still poorly understood. However, based on the absence of detectable abnormal PrP in peripheral tissues of affected individuals, human and animal exposure risk to this specific TSE agent has been considered low. In this study we demonstrate that infectivity can accumulate, even if no abnormal PrP is detectable, in lymphoid tissues, nerves, and muscles from natural and/or experimental Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases. Evidence is provided that, in comparison to other TSE agents, samples containing Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity could remain PrPSc negative. This feature will impact detection of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases in the field, and highlights the need to review current evaluations of the disease prevalence and potential transmissibility. Finally, an estimate is made of the infectivity loads accumulating in peripheral tissues in both Atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie cases that currently enter the food chain. The results obtained indicate that dietary exposure risk to small ruminants TSE agents may be higher than commonly believed. PMID:21347349

  1. Theoretical studies of the role of C-terminal cysteines in the process of S-nitrosylation of human Src kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Fernanda R; dos Santos, Paloma Freire; Rando, Daniela G

    2016-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are a family of non-receptor proteins that are responsible for the growth process, cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Lack of Src kinase control has been associated with the development of certain human cancers. This family of proteins is constituted of four domains, with SH1 being the kinase or catalytic domain. SH1 also presents three important regulatory sites. Two residues, Tyr416 and Tyr527, are responsible for important phosphorylation processes that lead to, respectively, activation and deactivation of these kinases. More recently, however, a set of four cysteine residues located near the C-terminus-Cys483, Cys487, Cys496 and Cys498-has been associated with the activation of the Src kinases through S-nitrosylation reactions. Particularly, the Cys498 has been specified as a fundamental residue when considering this regulatory mechanism. Aiming to understand the role of these four cysteines in S-nitrosylation, theoretical studies of electrostatic, steric and hydrophobic properties were performed with a sequence of 20 amino acids, enclosing the four cysteine residues under study, extracted from the PDB coordinates of the crystal obtained from the inactive state of Src kinase. Results indicate that Cys498 is buried deeply in the protein, in hydrophobic surroundings in which NO is more likely to suffer decomposition into the electrophilic intermediates known to be responsible for S-nitrosylation reactions. Electronic calculated properties, such as punctual atomic charges, electrostatic potentials and molecular orbital energy, also demonstrated the good nucleophilic potential of Cys498. Graphical Abstract Structure of Src kinase with zoomed area representing the 20 amino acids comprising the CC motif extracted from the whole protein structure. Right upper panel Electrostatic potential map, right lower panel hydrophilic map in anterior view.

  2. Protein kinase D regulates the human cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel through serine 1884.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Yusuke; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Hirose, Shigehisa; Maturana, Andrés D

    2011-12-15

    Protein kinase D (PKD) regulates the activity of the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, the functional target residues of PKD on the L-type calcium channel remain to be identified. Our aim was to identify the functional phosphorylation sites of PKD on the human L-type calcium channel. The pore subunit of the human CaV1.2 (hCaV1.2) was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Both the expression of a dominant-negative mutant of PKD and the mutation of serine 1884 but not serine 1930, putative targets of PKD, strongly reduced L-type calcium currents and single channel activity without affecting the channel's expression at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that serine 1884 is essential for the regulation of hCaV1.2 by PKD. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of p21 activated kinase (PAK reduces airway responsiveness in vivo and in vitro in murine and human airways.

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    Wyn C Hoover

    Full Text Available The p21-activated protein kinases (Paks have been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility, but the physiologic effects of Pak activation on airway reactivity in vivo are unknown. A mouse model with a genetic deletion of Pak1 (Pak1(-/- was used to determine the role of Pak in the response of the airways in vivo to challenge with inhaled or intravenous acetylcholine (ACh. Pulmonary resistance was measured in anesthetized mechanically ventilated Pak1(-/- and wild type mice. Pak1(-/- mice exhibited lower airway reactivity to ACh compared with wild type mice. Tracheal segments dissected from Pak1(-/- mice and studied in vitro also exhibited reduced responsiveness to ACh compared with tracheas from wild type mice. Morphometric assessment and pulmonary function analysis revealed no differences in the structure of the airways or lung parenchyma, suggesting that that the reduced airway responsiveness did not result from structural abnormalities in the lungs or airways due to Pak1 deletion. Inhalation of the small molecule synthetic Pak1 inhibitor, IPA3, also significantly reduced in vivo airway responsiveness to ACh and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-Ht in wild type mice. IPA3 inhibited the contractility of isolated human bronchial tissues to ACh, confirming that this inhibitor is also effective in human airway smooth muscle tissue. The results demonstrate that Pak is a critical component of the contractile activation process in airway smooth muscle, and suggest that Pak inhibition could provide a novel strategy for reducing airway hyperresponsiveness.

  4. Bioelectrocatalytic sensor for triglycerides in human skin sebum based on enzymatic cascade reaction of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerophosphate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chi Yong; Han, Yong Duk; Yoon, Jae Ho; Yoon, Hyun C

    2014-04-10

    We report the development of an electrochemical biosensor for the quantification of triglycerides in human skin sebum, based on a multienzyme cascade reaction. The presence of excessive triglycerides in human sebum is one of the leading causes of various skin ailments. However, to the best of our knowledge, no bioelectrocatalytic approach for the quantification of sebum triglycerides has been made. In order to develop triglyceride biosensor, we fabricated a multienzyme-associated electrode incorporating lipase, glycerol kinase, and glycerophosphate oxidase. Enzymes were deposited by electrostatic force and further stabilized via crosslinking between enzymes and polymer matrices. The enzyme-modified biosensing electrode maintained its bioelectrocatalytic activity for five days. An additional constraint was the limited solubility of sebum triglycerides in aqueous electrolytes, impeding the analysis. To address this issue, triglyceride samples were prepared in the form of micelles, enabling efficient sample preparation for biosensor signaling. Calibration tests revealed that the designed assay had a detection range of 15-200mg/dL of micellar triglyceride, which covered the required determination range. The developed biosensing approach was successfully used to determine triglyceride concentrations in real sebum samples of unknown triglyceride content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase is involved in the mechanism of action of methylenecyclopropane analogs with 6-ether and -thioether substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Chou, Sunwen; Prichard, Mark N; Hartline, Caroll B; Cardinale, Steven C; Comeau, Katelyn; Williams, John D; Khan, Atiyya R; Peet, Norton P; Bowlin, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Methylenecyclopropane nucleoside (MCPN) analogs are being investigated for treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection because of favorable preclinical data and limited ganciclovir cross-resistance. Monohydroxymethyl MCPNs bearing ether and thioether functionalities at the purine 6 position have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in addition to HCMV. The role of the HCMV UL97 kinase in the mechanism of action of these derivatives was examined. When tested against a kinase-inactive UL97 K355M virus, a moderate 5- to 7-fold increase in 50% effective concentration (EC50) was observed, in comparison to a 13- to 25-fold increase for either cyclopropavir or ganciclovir. Serial propagation of HCMV under two of these compounds selected for three novel UL97 mutations encoding amino acid substitutions D456N, C480R,and Y617del. When transferred to baseline laboratory HCMV strains, these mutations individually conferred resistance to all of the tested MCPNs, ganciclovir, and maribavir. However, the engineered strains also demonstrated severe growth defects and abnormal cytopathic effects similar to the kinase-inactive mutant. Expressed and purified UL97 kinase showed in vitro phosphorylation of the newly tested MCPNs. Thus, HCMV UL97 kinase is involved in the antiviral action of these MCPNs, but the in vitro selection of UL97-defective viruses suggests that their activity against more typical ganciclovir-resistant growth-competent UL97 mutants may be relatively preserved.

  6. Cloning and partial characterization of the human tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, P W; Daft, E L; Murray, J C

    1998-11-27

    The Tie-2 receptor plays a key role in vascular development, although little is known about the factors controlling its expression. Here we report the first cloning and characterisation of the 5' regulatory region of human tie-2. Multiple transcription start sites were identified between -414 and -265 bp upstream of the start codon using 5' RACE, fluorescent primer extension, and RNase protection assays. The human tie-2 promoter contains several transcription factor-binding sequences including ets, SP-1, AP-1, and GATA-1, but there are no canonical TATA or CCAAT initiation sequences proximal to the transcription start sites. Human tie-2 reporter constructs demonstrated approximately 10-fold greater activity in endothelial cells compared with fibroblasts. In endothelial cells the tie-2 promoter exhibited 5 and 16% of the activity of human tie-1 (830 bp) and KDR (1.1 kb) promoters, respectively. This promoter will be a useful tool for studying factors that regulate tie-2 expression and targeting the vasculature. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Neurosyphilis

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    L C Anand

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of neurospyhilis with atypical manifestation have been reported. Of these four cases presented as acute neurological illness and showed variable recovery after antisyp′iiilitic therapy. One of these cases had parinaud sip which was unaffected by treatment One case presented as dementia and gave poor response to therapy. In only one of these five cases was reagin in CSF demonstrated. Lange′s colloidal gold test was negative in all. As such failure to demonstrate reagin in CSF does not rule out the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. In an antibiotic era patients may inadvertently receive some antibiotics prior to presentation to a clinician and therefore are unlikely to present with typical neurological and laboratory findings.

  8. [Atypical bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Christian

    2009-04-20

    Some epidemiologic data reveal how difficult detecting atypic bipolar disorders is: 9 years of progression before the diagnosis is properly established and a specific treatment is initiated, and intervention of 4 to 5 different specialists. Incomplete symptomatology, impulsive actions, periodic alcohol abuse, compulsive buying behaviors, acute delusional episodes, medicolegal actions and comorbidities can hide or modify bipolar symptomatology. Bipolarity should be systematically screened for in case of substance abuse (40 to 60 percent of bipolar disorders), anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders etc.) and feeding disorders. In these various situations, history taking and clinical examination will help to detect signs of bipolarity: reaction to antidepressants, inefficiency, paradoxical worsening, development of behavior disorders and mood changes. Besides screening for thymic disorders, the examination will be completed by history taking of thymic disorders, suicide, toxic abuse, anxiety disorders, personal history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood, depression or postpartum psychosis in women, as well as premenstrual depressive manifestations.

  9. Atypical odontalgia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Harish; Pedersen, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Since persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body, dentists are more likely to encounter these rather complex cases in their practices. This article is a review and update on atypical odontalgia (AO). AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction, or it may be of idiopathic origin. Details concerning its characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and treatment are made. The aim of this article is to help the clinician with the diagnosis and management of AO. The prognosis for AO is most often only fair, and the administration of tricyclic antidepressants often resolves symptoms. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are not recommended.

  10. A point mutation at tyrosine-809 in the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor impairs mitogenesis without abrogating tyrosine kinase activity, association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or induction of c-fos and junB genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, M.F. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (USA)); Shurtleff, S.A.; Downing, J.R. (Saint Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA)); Sherr, C.J. (Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis (USA) Saint Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Substitution of phenylalanine for tyrosine-809 in the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibited its ability to transduce ligand-dependent mitogenic signals in mouse NIH 3T3 cells. When combined with an activating mutation at codon 301 that induces constitutive CSF-1R tyrosine kinase activity, the codon 809 mutation suppressed ligand-independent cell transformation. Comparative mapping tryptic phosphopeptides from mutant and wild-type CSF-1R indicated that tyrosine-809 is a site of ligand-dependent receptor phosphorylation in vivo. The mutant receptor was active as a tyrosine kinase in vitro and in vivo, underwent CSF-1-dependent association with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and induced expression of the protooncogenes c-fos and junB, underscoring its ability to trigger some of the known cellular responses to CSF-1. The mutant receptor is likely to be impaired in its ability to interact with critical cellular effectors whose activity is required for mitogenesis.

  11. ATYPICAL KAWASAKI DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovski, Ljiljana; Milankov, Olgica; Vislavski, Melanija; Savić, Radojica; Bjelica, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis which occurs primarily in children under the age of 5. The etiology of the disease is still unknown. Diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki disease are fever and at least four of the five additional clinical signs. Incomplete Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in case of all children with unexplained fever for more than 5 days, associated with 2 or 3 of the main clinical findings of Kawasaki disease. The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease is based on echocardiographic findings indicating the involvement of the coronary arteries. Cardiac complications, mostly coronary artery aneurysm, can occur in 20% to 25% of untreated patients and in 4% of treated patients. CASE REPORT. In this report we present a case of atypical Kawasaki disease in a 3.5-month-old infant. As soon as the diagnosis was made, the patient received high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, with the initial introduction of ibuprofen, then aspirin with a good clinical response. Due to the presence of aneurysm of coronary arteries, further therapy involved aspirin and clopidogrel over the following 3 months, and then only aspirin for 2 years. There was a gradual regression of the changes in the coronary blood vessels to the normalization of the echocardiographic findings after 2 years. Kawasaki disease is the second most common vasculitis of childhood, so it should be included in the differential diagnosis for any child with a prolonged unexplained fever. Atypical Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in cases when not all clinical criteria are present but coronary abnormalities are documented.

  12. Atypical depression: current perspectives

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    Łojko D

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Łojko,1 Janusz K Rybakowski1,2 1Department of Adult Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better

  13. Atypical depression: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojko, Dorota; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-01-01

    The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better specification of diagnostic criteria and description of clinical picture, a genome-wide association study of AD, and establishing updated treatment recommendations for this clinical phenomenon should be

  14. Effects of Acrylamide on the Activity and Structure of Human Brain Creatine Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qing; Zou, He-Chang; Lü, Zhi-Rong; Zou, Fei; Park, Yong-Doo; Yan, Yong-Bin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is widely used worldwide in industry and it can also be produced by the cooking and processing of foods. It is harmful to human beings, and human brain CK (HBCK) has been proposed to be one of the important targets of acrylamide. In this research, we studied the effects of acrylamide on HBCK activity, structure and the potential binding sites. Compared to CKs from rabbit, HBCK was fully inactivated at several-fold lower concentrations of acrylamide, and exhibited distinct properties upon acrylamide-induced inactivation and structural changes. The binding sites of acrylamide were located at the cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains of CK, and Glu232 was one of the key binding residues. The effects of acrylamide on CK were proposed to be isoenzyme- and species-specific, and the underlying molecular mechanisms were discussed. PMID:20057941

  15. Genes influenced by the non-muscle isoform of Myosin light chain kinase impact human cancer prognosis.

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    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available The multifunctional non-muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK is critical to the rapid dynamic coordination of the cytoskeleton involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration. We identified 45 nmMLCK-influenced genes by bioinformatic filtering of genome-wide expression in wild type and nmMLCK knockout (KO mice exposed to preclinical models of murine acute inflammatory lung injury, pathologies that are well established to include nmMLCK as an essential participant. To determine whether these nmMLCK-influenced genes were relevant to human cancers, the 45 mouse genes were matched to 38 distinct human orthologs (M38 signature (GeneCards definition and underwent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in training and validation cohorts. These studies revealed that in training cohorts, the M38 signature successfully identified cancer patients with poor overall survival in breast cancer (P<0.001, colon cancer (P<0.001, glioma (P<0.001, and lung cancer (P<0.001. In validation cohorts, the M38 signature demonstrated significantly reduced overall survival for high-score patients of breast cancer (P = 0.002, colon cancer (P = 0.035, glioma (P = 0.023, and lung cancer (P = 0.023. The association between M38 risk score and overall survival was confirmed by univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis of overall survival in the both training and validation cohorts. This study, providing a novel prognostic cancer gene signature derived from a murine model of nmMLCK-associated lung inflammation, strongly supports nmMLCK-involved pathways in tumor growth and progression in human cancers and nmMLCK as an attractive candidate molecular target in both inflammatory and neoplastic processes.

  16. Antitumor activity of sorafenib in human cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

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    Floriana Morgillo

    Full Text Available Treatment of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and colorectal cancer (CRC have substantially changed in the last years with the introduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors in the clinical practice. The understanding of mechanisms which regulate cells sensitivity to these drugs is necessary for their optimal use.An in vitro model of acquired resistance to two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI targeting the EGFR, erlotinib and gefitinib, and to a TKI targeting EGFR and VEGFR, vandetanib, was developed by continuously treating the human NSCLC cell line CALU-3 and the human CRC cell line HCT116 with escalating doses of each drug. MTT, western blot analysis, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony forming assays were conducted in vitro and experiments with established xenografts in athymic nude mice were performed in vivo in sensitive, wild type (WT and TKI-resistant CALU-3 and HCT116 cell lines.As compared to WT CALU-3 and HCT116 human cancer cells, TKI-resistant cell lines showed a significant increase in the levels of activated, phosphorylated AKT, MAPK, and of survivin. Considering the role of RAS and RAF as downstream signals of both the EGFR and VEGFR pathways, we treated resistant cells with sorafenib, an inhibitor of C-RAF, B-RAF, c-KIT, FLT-3, RET, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and PDGFR-β. Sorafenib reduced the activation of MEK and MAPK and caused an inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion, migration, anchorage-independent growth in vitro and of tumor growth in vivo of all TKI-resistant CALU-3 and HCT116 cell lines.These data suggest that resistance to EGFR inhibitors is predominantly driven by the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway and can be overcame by treatment with sorafenib.

  17. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

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    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  18. Expression of serine/threonine protein-kinases and related factors in normal monkey and human retinas: the mechanistic understanding of a CDK2 inhibitor induced retinal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Grazia; Pesenti, Manuela; Cavazzoli, Cristiano; Rossi, Anna; Giusti, Anna M; Gierke, Berthold; Pawlak, Michael; Venturi, Miro

    2007-12-01

    Protein-kinase inhibitors are among the most advanced compounds in development using the new drug discovery paradigm of developing small-molecule drugs against specific molecular targets in cancer. After treatment with a cyclin dependent kinase CDK2 inhibitor in monkey, histopathological analysis of the eye showed specific cellular damage in the photoreceptor layer. Since this CDK2 inhibitor showed activity also on other CDKs, in order to investigate the mechanism of toxicity of this compound, we isolated cones and rods from the retina of normal monkey and humans by Laser Capture Microdissection. Using Real-Time PCR we first measured the expression of cyclin dependent protein-kinases (CDK)1, 2, 4, 5, Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and microtubule associated protein TAU. We additionally verified the presence of these proteins in monkey eye sections by immuno-histochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis and afterwards quantified GSK3beta, phospho-GSK3beta and TAU by Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays. With this work we demonstrate how complementary gene expression and protein-based technologies constitute a powerful tool for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of a CDK2 inhibitor induced toxicity. Moreover, this investigative approach is helpful to better understand and characterize the mechanism of species-specific toxicities and further support a rational, molecular mechanism-based safety assessment in humans.

  19. Src kinases are required for a balanced production of IL-12/IL-23 in human dendritic cells activated by Toll-like receptor agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen recognition by dendritic cells (DC is crucial for the initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs by microbial molecular patterns leads to the maturation of DC, which present the antigen and activate T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Cytokine production by DC is critical for shaping the adaptive immune response by regulating T helper cell differentiation. It was previously shown by our group that Src kinases play a key role in cytokines production during TLR4 activation in human DC. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we investigated the role of Src kinases during different TLRs triggering in human monocyte-derived DC (MoDC. We found that Src family kinases are important for a balanced production of inflammatory cytokines by human MoDC upon stimulation of TLR3 and 8 with their respective agonists. Disruption of this equilibrium through pharmacological inhibition of Src kinases alters the DC maturation pattern. In particular, while expression of IL-12 and other inflammatory cytokines depend on Src kinases, the induction of IL-23 and co-stimulatory molecules do not. Accordingly, DC treated with Src inhibitors are not compromised in their ability to induce CD4 T cell proliferation and to promote the Th17 subset survival but are less efficient in inducing Th1 differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the pharmacological modulation of DC maturation has the potential to shape the quality of the adaptive immune response and could be exploited for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.

  20. Human papillomavirus viral load expressed as relative light units (RLU) correlates with the presence and grade of preneoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origoni, M; Carminati, G; Rolla, S; Clementi, M; Sideri, M; Sandri, M T; Candiani, M

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive and has higher negative predictive value (NPV) than the Pap test for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytology, but has low specificity, leading to high referral rates to second-level triage. Our goal was to identify the prognostic significance of HPV viral load figures. We evaluated whether a correlation between viral load, expressed as relative light units/cutoff (RLU/CO), and the severity of cervical lesions existed in 614 ASCUS cases. Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2®) RLU/CO values, categorised into five classes, were correlated to clinical outcomes and statistically analysed. A significant correlation (p 1,000 (p ASCUS cases significantly correlates with the severity of cervical cancer precursors. These data may have prognostic value, as they significantly correlate with the probability of a CIN2+ .

  1. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone 1–34 Enhances Osteogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Regulating Protein Kinase

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    Shu-Wen Kuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts and are regulated by chemical cues. The recombinant N-terminal (1–34 amino acids fragment of the parathyroid hormone (PTH (1–34 is identified to promote osteogenesis. The osteoanabolic effects of intermittent PTH (1–34 treatment are linked to a complex consisting of signaling pathways; additionally, protein kinase C (PKC act as mediators of multifunctional signaling transduction pathways, but the role of PKC δ (PKCδ, a downstream target in regulating osteoblast differentiation during intermittent administration of PTH (1–34 is less studied and still remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of PKCδ during intermittent and continuous PTH (1–34 administration using osteoblast-lineage-committed hMSCs. Relative gene expression of osteoblast-specific genes demonstrated significant upregulation of RUNX2, type I Collagen, ALP, and Osterix and increased alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of PTH (1–34. Intermittent PTH (1–34 administration increased PKC activity at day 7 of osteogenic differentiation, whereas inhibition of PKC activity attenuated these effects. In addition, the specific isoform PKCδ was activated upon treatment. These findings demonstrate that intermittent PTH (1–34 treatment enhances the osteogenesis of hMSCs by upregulating osteoblast-specific genes via PKCδ activation.

  2. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol sensitizes human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Kazumi; Shiraki, Katsuya; Fuke, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yumi; Yamamoto, Norihiko; Ito, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Nakano, Takeshi

    2006-08-01

    Flavopiridol was one of the first cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors demonstrated to have an antitumor effect in several cancer types. Here, we investigated the effects of flavopiridol on TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HLE and HepG2, and evaluated the role of flavopiridol in apoptosis. To better understand the mechanism of increased TRAIL sensitivity in HCC cells, we determined the effect of flavopiridol on cell surface expression of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors using flow cytometry analysis. The levels of survivin, FLIP, Bcl-xL and X-chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) in treated and untreated cells was also determined. Flavopiridol decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in the two HCC cell lines tested. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK did not inhibit the effect. However, subtoxic levels of flavopiridol dramatically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in both cells. Flavopiridol up-regulated TRAIL, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in both cell lines. In addition, flavopiridol down-regulated expression of survivin in both cell lines, and expression of FLIP and Bcl-xL were down-regulated in HLE cells. In summary, flavopiridol augmented TRAIL sensitivity by up-regulation of TRAIL receptors and down-regulation of survivin, FLIP and Bcl-xL. Thus, combining flavopiridol with a TRAIL agonist may prove to be an effective new strategy for treatment of HCC.

  3. Gravity loading induces adenosine triphosphate release and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mai; Arakawa, Toshiya; Okayama, Miki; Shitara, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2014-11-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) receives mechanical stress (MS) from dental occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. Mechanical stress is thought to be a trigger for remodeling of the PDL and alveolar bone, although its signaling mechanism is still unclear. So we investigated the effect of MS on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in PDL cells. Mechanical stress was applied to human PDL cells as centrifugation-mediated gravity loading. Apyrase, Ca(2+)-free medium and purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists were utilized to analyze the contribution of purinergic receptors to ERK phosphorylation. Gravity loading and ATP increased ERK phosphorylation by 5 and 2.5 times, respectively. Gravity loading induced ATP release from PDL cells by tenfold. Apyrase and suramin diminished ERK phosphorylation induced by both gravity loading and ATP. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions the phosphorylation by gravity loading was partially decreased, whereas ATP-induced phosphorylation was unaffected. Receptors P2Y4 and P2Y6 were prominently expressed in the PDL cells. Gravity loading induced ATP release and ERK phosphorylation in PDL fibroblasts, and ATP signaling via P2Y receptors was partially involved in this phosphorylation, which in turn would enhance gene expression for the remodeling of PDL tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Sequential Events in the Irreversible Thermal Denaturation of Human Brain-Type Creatine Kinase by Spectroscopic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Song Gao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-cooperative or sequential events which occur during protein thermal denaturation are closely correlated with protein folding, stability, and physiological functions. In this research, the sequential events of human brain-type creatine kinase (hBBCK thermal denaturation were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, CD, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. DSC experiments revealed that the thermal denaturation of hBBCK was calorimetrically irreversible. The existence of several endothermic peaks suggested that the denaturation involved stepwise conformational changes, which were further verified by the discrepancy in the transition curves obtained from various spectroscopic probes. During heating, the disruption of the active site structure occurred prior to the secondary and tertiary structural changes. The thermal unfolding and aggregation of hBBCK was found to occur through sequential events. This is quite different from that of muscle-type CK (MMCK. The results herein suggest that BBCK and MMCK undergo quite dissimilar thermal unfolding pathways, although they are highly conserved in the primary and tertiary structures. A minor difference in structure might endow the isoenzymes dissimilar local stabilities in structure, which further contribute to isoenzyme-specific thermal stabilities.

  5. Potent Sensitisation of Cancer Cells to Anticancer Drugs by a Quadruple Mutant of the Human Deoxycytidine Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiatou T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available Identifying enzymes that, once introduced in cancer cells, lead to an increased efficiency of treatment constitutes an important goal for biomedical applications. Using an original procedure whereby mutant genes are generated based on the use of conditional lentivector genome mobilisation, we recently described, for the first time, the identification of a human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK mutant (G12 that sensitises a panel of cancer cell lines to treatment with the dCK analogue gemcitabine. Here, starting from the G12 variant itself, we generated a new library and identified a mutant (M36 that triggers even greater sensitisation to gemcitabine than G12. With respect to G12, M36 presents an additional mutation located in the region that constitutes the interface of the dCK dimer. The simple presence of this mutation halves both the IC50 and the proportion of residual cells resistant to the treatment. Furthermore, the use of vectors with self-inactivating LTRs leads to an increased sensitivity to treatment, a result compatible with a relief of the transcriptional interference exerted by the U3 promoter on the internal promoter that drives the expression of M36. Importantly, a remarkable effect is also observed in treatments with the anticancer compound cytarabine (AraC, for which a 10,000 fold decrease in IC50 occurred. By triggering the sensitisation of various cancer cell types with poor prognosis to two commonly used anticancer compounds M36 is a promising candidate for suicide gene approaches.

  6. Structural Injury after Lithium Treatment in Human and Rat Kidney involves Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Positive Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glyco......Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition...... of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β and pGSK-3β was investigated in a developing series of rat kidney cortex and medulla. Li+ was given to female wistar rats with litters through food pellets at postnatal (P) days 7-28. In human fetal and adult kidney the expression of GSK-3β was examined and also....... Lithium causes proliferation, structural injury and increases inactive pGSK-3β abundance in these segments. The data are compatible with epithelial entry of lithium and a causal role for GSK-3β in postnatal developing cortical collecting duct epithelium....

  7. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  8. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) supports the growth of aggressive experimental human breast cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderoute, Keith R; Calaoagan, Joy M; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G

    2014-08-15

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [(13)C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. A Pan-BCL2 inhibitor renders bone-marrow-resident human leukemia stem cells sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Daniel J; Court Recart, Angela; Sadarangani, Anil; Chun, Hye-Jung; Barrett, Christian L; Krajewska, Maryla; Leu, Heather; Low-Marchelli, Janine; Ma, Wenxue; Shih, Alice Y; Wei, Jun; Zhai, Dayong; Geron, Ifat; Pu, Minya; Bao, Lei; Chuang, Ryan; Balaian, Larisa; Gotlib, Jason; Minden, Mark; Martinelli, Giovanni; Rusert, Jessica; Dao, Kim-Hien; Shazand, Kamran; Wentworth, Peggy; Smith, Kristen M; Jamieson, Christina A M; Morris, Sheldon R; Messer, Karen; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Hudson, Thomas J; Marra, Marco; Frazer, Kelly A; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Jamieson, Catriona H M

    2013-03-07

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) play a pivotal role in the resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and its progression to blast crisis (BC), in part, through the alternative splicing of self-renewal and survival genes. To elucidate splice-isoform regulators of human BC LSC maintenance, we performed whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing, splice-isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), nanoproteomics, stromal coculture, and BC LSC xenotransplantation analyses. Cumulatively, these studies show that the alternative splicing of multiple prosurvival BCL2 family genes promotes malignant transformation of myeloid progenitors into BC LSCS that are quiescent in the marrow niche and that contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notably, sabutoclax, a pan-BCL2 inhibitor, renders marrow-niche-resident BC LSCs sensitive to TKIs at doses that spare normal progenitors. These findings underscore the importance of alternative BCL2 family splice-isoform expression in BC LSC maintenance and suggest that the combinatorial inhibition of prosurvival BCL2 family proteins and BCR-ABL may eliminate dormant LSCs and obviate resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retinoic acids and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induce human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Sook; Huang, Boli; Ho Jeoung, Nam; Wu, Pengfei; Steussy, Calvin N; Harris, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) conserves glucose and substrates for gluconeogenesis and thereby helps regulate blood glucose levels during starvation. We report here that retinoic acids (RA) as well as Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), regulate PDK4 gene expression. Two retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) to which retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) bind and activate transcription are present in the human PDK4 (hPDK4) proximal promoter. Sp1 and CCAAT box binding factor (CBF) bind to the region between two RAREs. Mutation of either the Sp1 or the CBF site significantly decreases basal expression, transactivation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA, and the ability of TSA to stimulate hPDK4 gene transcription. By the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, RA and TSA increase acetylation of histones bound to the proximal promoter as well as occupancy of CBP and Sp1. Interaction of p300/CBP with E1A completely prevented hPDK4 gene activation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA and TSA. The p300/CBP may enhance acetylation of histones bound to the hPDK4 promoter and cooperate with Sp1 and CBF to stimulate transcription of the hPDK4 gene in response to RA and TSA.

  11. AKT serine/threonine protein kinase modulates baicalin-triggered autophagy in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Michael T; Peng, Shu-Fen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lee, Miau-Rong; Amagaya, Sakae; Huang, Wen-Wen; Wu, Tian-Shung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-03-01

    Baicalin is one of the major compounds in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell autophagy induced by baicalin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Baicalin inhibited cell survival as shown by MTT assay and increased cell death by trypan blue exclusion assay in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalin did not induce apoptotic cell death in T24 cells by TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay. Baicalin induced the acidic vesicular organelle cell autophagy marker, manifested by acridine orange (AO) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). The protein expression levels of the Atg 5, Atg 7, Atg 12, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were upregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyl-adenine (an inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; 3-MA) reduced the cleavage of LC3 in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Furthermore, protein expression levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and enzyme activity of AKT were downregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. In conclusion, baicalin triggered cell autophagy through the AKT signaling pathway in T24 cells.

  12. Human respiratory syncytial virus in children with lower respiratory tract infections or influenza-like illness and its co-infection characteristics with viruses and atypical bacteria in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinfen; Kou, Yu; Xia, Daozong; Li, Jun; Yang, Xuhui; Zhou, Yinyan; He, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral pathogen in children. However, its epidemic patterns and co-infection characteristics are not fully understood. We attempted to determine the level of genetic variation of RSV, and describe the prevalence and co-infection characteristics of RSV in Hangzhou during two epidemic seasons. Single respiratory samples from 1820 pediatric patients were screened for RSV and genotyped by RT-PCR and sequencing. In all RSV positive specimens, we screened for viruses and atypical bacteria. Demographic and clinical information was recorded and analyzed. A total of 34.5% and 3.8% of samples from acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were positive for RSV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 61.1% of the selected 167 RSV strains were NA1, 31.1% were BA, 3.6% were ON1, 2.4% were CB1, and 1.8% were NA3. A new genotype, BA11 was identified, which comprised 98.1% of BA strains in this study, while the rest were BA10. A total of 36.4% and 9.1% of RSV-positive children with ALRI and ILI respectively were found to be co-infected. Rhinovirus was the most common additional respiratory virus, followed by human metapneumovirus. Except for fever, no significant differences in other clinical presentation between the RSV mono-infection and co-infection groups were observed. The circulating RSV strains had high genetic variability with RSV-B showing a more local pattern. In ALRI cases, co-infection of RSV with other viruses or atypical bacteria has no significant effect on the clinical presentation except fever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  14. Downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase inhibits tumor growth via G2/M arrest in human endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiamiao; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Wanxue; Xie, Yiran; Wang, Huating; Yang, Yihua

    2017-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, about 80% of which is endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. Dysregulation of spindle assembly checkpoint plays a vital role in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to explore how tyrosine threonine kinase, a spindle assembly checkpoint-related protein, promotes the endometrial endometrioid carcinoma progression. We found that both messenger RNA and protein levels of tyrosine threonine kinase in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma tissues are higher than those in normal endometrial tissues, and its expression is associated with tumor stages. Genetic depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase by RNA interference in two endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell lines significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, depletion of tyrosine threonine kinase induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Collectively, tyrosine threonine kinase is significantly upregulated in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, and downregulation of tyrosine threonine kinase can suppress endometrial endometrioid carcinoma cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine threonine kinase can be a potential therapeutic target for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma treatment.

  15. Apple polyphenols affect protein kinase C activity and the onset of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Böhmer, Frank D; Marko, Doris

    2007-06-27

    Polyphenol-rich apple extracts have been reported to suppress human colon cancer cell growth in vitro. The protein kinase C (PKC) is among the signaling elements known to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether apple polyphenols affect PKC activity and induce apoptosis in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. A polyphenol-rich apple juice extract (AE02) was shown to inhibit cytosolic PKC activity in a cell-free system. In contrast, incubation of HT29 cells for 1 or 3 h with AE02 up to 2 mg/mL did not affect the cytosolic PKC activity. After prolonged incubation (24 h), cytosolic PKC activity was modulated, albeit a u-shaped curve of effectiveness was observed, with an initial inhibitory effect followed by the recurrence and even induction of enzyme activity. Concomitantly, in the cytosol, a significant decrease of the protein levels of PKCalpha, PKCbetaII, and PKCgamma together with a significant increase of a proapoptotic PKCdelta fragment was observed. However, the effects on the protein levels of these PKC isoforms in the cytosol were not associated with translocation between the different cellular compartments but might instead result from the onset of apoptosis. Indeed, the treatment with AE02 was shown to induce apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3, DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase. So far, identified and available constituents of the apple extract did not contribute substantially to the observed effects on PKC and apoptosis induction. In summary, apple polyphenols were found to inhibit PKC activity in a cell-free system. However, our results indicate that within intact cells PKC does not represent the primary target of apple polyphenols but appears to be affected in the course of apoptosis induction.

  16. Creatine kinase rate constant in the human heart measured with 3D‐localization at 7 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Matthew D.; Neubauer, Stefan; Rodgers, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We present a new Bloch‐Siegert four Angle Saturation Transfer (BOAST) method for measuring the creatine kinase (CK) first‐order effective rate constant kf in human myocardium at 7 tesla (T). BOAST combines a variant of the four‐angle saturation transfer (FAST) method using amplitude‐modulated radiofrequency pulses, phosphorus Bloch‐Siegert B1+‐mapping to determine the per‐voxel flip angles, and nonlinear fitting to Bloch simulations for postprocessing. Methods Optimal flip angles and repetition time parameters were determined from Monte Carlo simulations. BOAST was validated in the calf muscle of two volunteers at 3T and 7T. The myocardial CK forward rate constant was then measured in 10 volunteers at 7T in 82 min (after 1H localization). Results BOAST kfCK values were 0.281 ± 0.002 s−1 in the calf and 0.35 ± 0.05 s−1 in myocardium. These are consistent with literature values from lower fields. Using a literature values for adenosine triphosphate concentration, we computed CK flux values of 4.55 ± 1.52 mmol kg−1 s−1. The sensitive volume for BOAST depends on the B1 inhomogeneity of the transmit coil. Conclusion BOAST enables measurement of the CK rate constant in the human heart at 7T, with spatial localization in three dimensions to 5.6 mL voxels, using a 10‐cm loop coil. Magn Reson Med 78:20–32, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27579566

  17. pH-dependent relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability in the denaturation of human phosphoglycerate kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Angel L

    2014-08-01

    Human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (hPGK1) is a glycolytic enzyme essential for ATP synthesis, and it is implicated in different pathological conditions such as inherited diseases, oncogenesis and activation of drugs for cancer and viral treatments. Particularly, mutations in hPGK1 cause human PGK1 deficiency, a rate metabolic conformational disease. We have recently found that most of these mutations cause protein kinetic destabilization by significant changes in the structure/energetics of the transition state for irreversible denaturation. In this work, we explore the relationships between protein conformation, thermodynamic and kinetic stability in hPGK1 by performing comprehensive analyses in a wide pH range (2.5-8). hPGK1 remains in a native conformation at pH 5-8, but undergoes a conformational transition to a molten globule-like state at acidic pH. Interestingly, hPGK1 kinetic stability remains essentially constant at pH 6-8, but is significantly reduced when pH is decreased from 6 to 5. We found that this decrease in kinetic stability is caused by significant changes in the energetic/structural balance of the denaturation transition state, which diverge from those found for disease-causing mutations. We also show that protein kinetic destabilization by acidic pH is strongly linked to lower thermodynamic stability, while in disease-causing mutations seems to be linked to lower unfolding cooperativity. These results highlight the plasticity of the hPGK1 denaturation mechanism that responds differently to changes in pH and in disease-causing mutations. New insight is presented into the different factors contributing to hPGK1 thermodynamic and kinetic stability and the role of denaturation mechanisms in hPGK1 deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Atypical manifestations of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Balaji, Krishan; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is an illness with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and severe illness affects nearly all organ systems. Serious and potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of acute leptospirosis are caused by both direct tissue invasion by spirochaetes and by the host immune responses. In its severe form, leptospirosis can cause multi-organ dysfunction and death in a matter of days. Therefore it is critical to suspect and recognize the disease early, in order to initiate timely treatment. While the classical presentation of the disease is easily recognized by experienced clinicians practising in endemic regions, rarer manifestations can be easily missed. In this systematic review, we summarize the atypical manifestations reported in literature in patients with confirmed leptospirosis. Awareness of these unusual manifestations would hopefully guide clinicians towards early diagnosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Aulma R; Petluru, Pavankumar N; Nienaber, Vicki L; Zhao, Min; Ayala, Philippe Y; Badger, John; Chie-Leon, Barbara; Sridhar, Vandana; Logan, Cheyenne; Kochat, Harry; Hausheer, Frederick H

    2015-01-01

    BNP7787 (Tavocept, disodium 2,2'-dithio-bis-ethanesulfonate) is a novel, investigational, water-soluble disulfide that is well-tolerated and nontoxic. In separate randomized multicenter Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, treatment with BNP7787 in combination with standard chemotherapy resulted in substantial increases in the overall survival of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung in the first-line treatment setting. We hypothesized that BNP7787 might interact with and modify human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). At least seven different variants of ALK fusions with the gene encoding the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) are known to occur in NSCLC. EML4-ALK fusions are thought to account for approximately 3% of NSCLC cases. Herein, we report the covalent modification of the kinase domain of human ALK by a BNP7787-derived mesna moiety and the functional consequences of this modification in ALK assays evaluating kinase activity. The kinase domain of the ALK protein crystallizes as a monomer, and BNP7787-derived mesna-cysteine adducts were observed at Cys 1235 and Cys 1156. The BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 is located in close proximity to the active site and results in substantial disorder of the P-loop and activation loop (A-loop). Comparison with the P-loop of apo-ALK suggests that the BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 interferes with the positioning of Phe 1127 into a small pocket now occupied by mesna, resulting in a destabilization of the loop's binding orientation. Additionally, in vitro kinase activity assays indicate that BNP7787 inhibits ALK catalytic activity and potentiates the activity of the ALK-targeted drug crizotinib.

  20. 'INDOTEST' in atypical hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, F; Nuti, A; Cafforio, G; Lucetti, C; Logi, C; Cipriani, G; Orlandi, G; Bonuccelli, U

    2008-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is an indomethacin-responsive headache characterized by a chronic, strictly unilateral, side-locked without side-shifting, persistent headache. We report three cases of HC with atypical features in which an acute administration of indomethacin 50 mg IM (INDOTEST) was performed. In all three cases INDOTEST predicted chronic responsiveness to indomethacin. Thus, in cases of HC with atypical features, INDOTEST could help for a correct diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus induce Erk-MAP kinase activation and c-Fos expression in S9 and 16HBE14o- human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Below, Sabine; Konkel, Anne; Zeeck, Cathrin; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2009-03-01

    Part of the innate defense of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is regulated secretion of salt, water, and mucus as well as defensins and cytokines involving MAP kinase activation and alterations in early gene expression. We tested two different types of immortalized human airway epithelial cells (S9, 16HBE14o-) for activation of Erk-type MAP kinases and for expression of c-Fos on treatment with Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatants from the stationary growth phase [optical density (OD)(540 nm) = 10] or with recombinant S. aureus hemolysins A and B (Hla, Hlb). OD10 supernatants activated Erk-type MAP kinases and c-Fos expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Hla induced Erk-type kinase phosphorylation in S9 but not in 16HBE14o- cells. Hlb induced Erk activation in either cell type. Basal and stimulated levels of Erk-type MAP kinase phosphorylation were sensitive to the Mek1 inhibitor PD-98059, indicating that the bacterial products activated the entire signaling cascade that coregulates IL-8 induction and secretion. While c-Fos expression was enhanced by OD10 supernatants, Hla, and Hlb in S9 cells, 16HBE14o- cells responded to OD10 supernatant and Hlb but not to Hla. In S9 cells, PD-98059 suppressed c-Fos upregulation by OD10 supernatant, Hla, or Hlb, indicating that c-Fos expression requires activation of Erk-type MAP kinases. In 16HBE14o- cells, however, c-Fos expression by OD10 supernatant was sensitive to PD-98059, while that induced by Hlb was not. This indicates that ingredients of OD10 supernatants other than Hla or Hlb are activating Erk-type MAP kinases in 16HBE14o- cells and that other intracellular signaling systems apart from Erk-type MAP kinases contribute to Hlb-mediated regulation of c-Fos. Thus interaction of bacterial factors with airway epithelial cells may be highly cell type specific.

  2. [Therapeutic effect of flavopiridol, a small molecular cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in human ovarian carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Shen, Keng; Tang, Ping-ping

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of flavopiridol in ovarian cancer. After the treatment with flavopiridol of AO cells, cell apoptotic rate and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometer and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL). Real time PCR was used to detect the expression of cyclin D and active caspase-3 in AO cells. Subcutaneous tumor models and abdominally spread tumor models of human ovarian carcinoma using AO cells in BALB/c nude mice were established. The mouse survival rates were measured for abdominally spread tumor models and the volume of tumor nodules was determined for subcutaneous tumor models following the treatments of flavopiridol. TUNEL was used to detect cell apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure microvessel density (MVD) in tumor tissues. AO cells showed apoptotic rates of 4.1%, 10.7% and 7.6% following the treatments with flavopiridol at 150, 300 and 500 nmol/L respectively, accompanied by an increase in G(1) progression and a decrease in S phase progression. The level of active caspase-3 increased (2.55 vs 2.49) and the level of cyclin D expression decreased significantly (0.25 vs 0.69, P flavopiridol. Flavopiridol prolonged mouse survival [mean survival time of (141 +/- 14) days] and suppressed tumor growth significantly (tumor growth suppression rate of 40%), when compared with treatment using phosphate-buffered saline [(106 +/- 11) days, P flavopiridol. MVD of tumor tissue was 12 +/- 5 following flavopiridol treatment, significantly higher than that of 35 +/- 10 treated with phosphate-buffered saline (P Flavopiridol results in significant suppression of ovarian carcinoma cell growth and prolongs survival of mice.

  3. Subcellular proteomic approach for identifying the signaling effectors of protein kinase C-?2 under high glucose conditions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Fang; Chen, Fangfang; Zhou, Bo; DUAN, YAQIAN; SU, HONG; LIN, XUEBO

    2015-01-01

    The high glucose-induced activation of protein kinase C-?2 (PKC-?2) has an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes-associated vascular disease. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in high and normal glucose conditions prior to being infected with a recombinant adenovirus to induce the overexpression of PKC-?2. The activity of PKC-?2 was also decreased using a selective PKC-?2 inhibitor. A series of two-dimensional electrophoresis image...

  4. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells

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    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50–100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted...

  5. axl, a transforming gene isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells, encodes a novel receptor tyrosine kinase

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    O' Bryan, J.P.; Frye, R.A.; Cogswell, P.C.; Neubauer, A.; Kitch, B.; Prokop, C.; Earp, H.S.; Liu, E.T. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Espinosa, R. III; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Using a sensitive transfection-tumorigenicity assay, the authors have isolated a novel transforming gene from the DNA of two patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Sequence analysis indicates that the product of this gene, axl, is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of axl cDNA in NIH 3T3 cells induces neoplastic transformation with the concomitant appearance of a 140-kDa axl tyrosine-phosphorylated protein. Expression of axl cDNA in the baculovirus system results in the expression of the appropriate recombinant protein that is recognized by antophosphotyrosine antibodies, confirming that the axl protein is a tyrosine kinase. The juxtaposition of fibronectin type II and immunoglobulinlike repeats in the extracellular domain, as well as distinct amino acid sequences in the kinase domain, indicate that the axl protein represents a novel subclass of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  6. Interferon-mediated antiviral state in human MRC5 cells in the absence of detectable levels of 2-5A synthetase and protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, E; Hovanessian, A G; Montagnier, L

    1981-02-01

    Treatment of human HeLa and MRC5 cells with human alpha (leukocyte) and beta (fibroblast) interferon results in the development of an antiviral state against two types of viruses: vesicular stomatitis virus (rhabdovirus) and encephalomyocarditis virus (picornavirus). These cells, however, differ in their ability to synthesize the two double-stranded (ds) RNA-dependent enzymatic activities, pppA(2'p5'A)n synthetase (2-5A synthetase) and protein kinase which have been reported to be induced in several cell lines by interferon. Both the 2-5A synthetase and the protein kinase are enhanced by several fold in HeLa cells on treatment with interferon. In contrast, neither the 2-5A synthetase nor the protein kinase can be detected in MRC5 cell treated or not treated with interferon. The lack of detection of the 2-5A synthetase in MRC5 cells is not associated with the absence of the other components of the 2-5A system (2-5A dependent nuclease and 2'-phosphodiesterase). We have previously shown that MRC5 cells are sensitive to the action of 2-5A and furthermore the inhibitory action of 2-5A on these cells is transient. Mixing experiments between HeLa and MRC5 cell fractions after partial purification on columns of poly(I).poly(C)-Sepharose, showed that the absence of detection of the protein kinase activity in MRC5 cells cannot be attributed to the presence of phosphatases or other inhibitors of phosphorylation in control or interferon-treated MRC5 cell extracts. In addition, we show that the interferon-mediated protein kinase activity in HeLa cell extracts can be precipitated by treatment at pH 5, a procedure which leads to an enhanced level of detectable protein kinase activity in general. Once again, however, MRC5 cell extracts fail to show any interferon-mediated protein kinase activity. These results suggest that either the two enzyme activities are not necessary for the development of the antiviral response induced by interferon or the intracellular events leading to

  7. Direct association of heat shock protein 20 (HSPB6 with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K in human hepatocellular carcinoma: regulation of the PI3K activity.

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    Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available HSP20 (HSPB6, one of small heat shock proteins (HSPs, is constitutively expressed in various tissues and has several functions. We previously reported that the expression levels of HSP20 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells inversely correlated with the progression of HCC, and that HSP20 suppresses the growth of HCC cells via the AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. However, the exact mechanism underlying the effect of HSP20 on the regulation of these signaling pathways remains to be elucidated. To clarify the details of this effect in HCC, we explored the direct targets of HSP20 in HCC using human HCC-derived HuH7 cells with HSP20 overexpression. HSP20 proteins in the HuH7 cells were coimmunoprecipitated with the p85 regulatory subunit and p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, an upstream kinase of AKT. Although HSP20 overexpression in HCC cells failed to affect the expression levels of PI3K, the activity of PI3K in the unstimulated cells and even in the transforming growth factor-α stimulated cells were downregulated by HSP20 overexpression. The association of HSP20 with PI3K was also observed in human HCC tissues in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that HSP20 directly associates with PI3K and suppresses its activity in HCC, resulting in the inhibition of the AKT pathway, and subsequently decreasing the growth of HCC.

  8. Escherichia coli-derived and Staphylococcus aureus-derived extracellular vesicles induce MUC5AC expression via extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang Hoon; Choi, Yoon Seok; Song, Si-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Yong-Dae

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release extracellular vesicles (EVs). E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs are associated with neutrophilic respiratory inflammation. In neutrophilic respiratory inflammation of human, expression of mucin is increased in airway epithelial cells and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. However, no study on the effects of EVs on expression of mucin genes has been reported in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to examine the effects and the brief signaling pathways of E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs on MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. In mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, the effects and signaling pathways of E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs on MUC5AC expression were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblot analysis with several specific inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA). E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC expression. E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs significantly activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK. ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor, p38 MAPK inhibitor, ERK1/2 MAPK siRNA, and p38 MAPK siRNA significantly blocked E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The results of this study suggest that E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC expression via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human airway epithelial cells. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and proliferation in the human gastric cancer cells KATO-III by obestatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Yolanda; Alvarez, Carlos J P; Camiña, Jesus P; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2007-12-01

    Obestatin, the ghrelin-associated peptide, activates cell proliferation in the gastric cancer cell line KATO-III. The results showed that this peptide induced cell proliferation by mitogen-activated kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. A sequential analysis of the obestatin transmembrane signalling pathway indicated that the ERK1/2 activity is partially blocked after preincubation of the cells with pertussis toxin, as well as by wortmannin (an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)), staurosporine (an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC)) and 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2, which inhibits the non receptor tyrosine kinase Src). Upon administration of obestatin, the intracellular levels of phospho-PKCepsilon- and theta-isoenzymes rise with similar time-courses, from which PKCepsilon appears to be the responsible for ERK1/2 response. Based on the experimental data, a signalling pathway involving the consecutive activation of G(i), PI3K, novel PKCepsilon and Src for ERK1/2 activation is proposed. These results point to a functionally active peptide that regulates proliferation of the gastric cancer cells KATO-III.

  10. Effects of combined therapy of Phosphatidylinositol 3p-Kinase and Paclitaxel in human lung cancer nude mice model

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    Yajuan REN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant activation of PI3K/Akt is involved in many human cancers, and that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway might be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The aims of this study is to evaluate the effects of combined therapy of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase inhibitor(LY294002 and Paclitaxel in athymic mice xenogeneic transplant model of lung cancer and to reveal the possible mechanisms involved.Methods Eighteen athymic mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, paclitaxel alone and paclitaxel plus LY294002, and were treated respectively. Athymic mice xenogeneic transplant model was establishedby inoculation (sc with A549 lung cancer cells. Body mass (BM and diameter of tumor mass were measured. Furthermore,the protein expressions of CyclinD1,bcl-2 and bax in tumor tissues were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. Results The tumor-inhibiting rate of paclitaxel plus LY294002 (92.47% was significantly higher than the paclitaxel alone (65.59%(P<0.05.The protein expression of bcl-2 in paclitaxel plus LY294002 group were significantly higher, while bax wassignificantly lower than that in the other two groups (P <0.05. The protein expression of CyclinD1 was significantly lower than the control group (P <0.05. Conclusion LY294002 can enhance the effects of paclitaxel in the treatment of lung cancer and CyclinD1, bcl-2 and bax may be involved in its inhibitory effects.

  11. Cyclooxygenase 2-dependent and independent activation of Akt through casein kinase 2α contributes to human bladder cancer cell survival

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    Fujimoto Kiyohide

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival rate for patients presenting muscle invasive bladder cancer is very low, and useful therapeutic target has not been identified yet. In the present study, new COX2 downstream signals involved in urothelial carcinoma cell survival were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods COX2 gene was silenced by siRNA transfection. Orthotopic implantation animal model and transurethral instillation of siRNA with atelocollagen was constructed to examine the effects of COX2 knockdown in vivo. Cell cycle was examined by flowcytoketry. Surgical specimens derived from patients with urinary bladder cancer (all were initially diagnosed cases were used for immunohistochemical analysis of the indicated protein expression in urothelial carcinoma cells. Results Treatment with the COX2 inhibitor or knockdown of COX2 reduced expression of casein kinase (CK 2 α, a phophorylated Akt and urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA, resulting in p27 induction, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cell growth suppression in human urothelial carcinoma cell lines expressing COX2. Silencing of CK2α exhibited the similar effects. Even in UMUC3 cells lacking the COX2 gene, COX2 inhibition also inhibited cell growth through down-regulation of the CK2α-Akt/uPA axis. The mouse orthotropic bladder cancer model demonstrated that the COX2 inhibitor, meloxicam significantly reduced CK2α, phosphorylated Akt and uPA expression, whereas induced p27 by which growth and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were strongly inhibited. Immunohistochemically, high expression of COX2, CK2α and phosphorylated form of Akt was found in high-grade, invasive carcinomas as well as carcinoma in situ, but not in low-grade and noninvasive phenotypes. Conclusions COX2-dependent and independent activation of CK2α-Akt/uPA signal is mainly involved in urothelial carcinoma cell survival, moreover, not only COX2 but also CK2α could be direct targets of COX2 inhibitors.

  12. The relation between deoxycytidine kinase activity and the radiosensitising effect of gemcitabine in eight different human tumour cell lines

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    Peters Godefridus J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemcitabine (dFdC is an active antitumour agent with radiosensitising properties, shown both in preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, the relation between deoxycytidine kinase (dCK activity and the radiosensitising effect of gemcitabine was investigated in eight different human tumour cell lines. Methods Tumour cells were treated with dFdC (0–100 nM for 24 h prior to radiotherapy (RT (γ-Co60, 0–6 Gy, room temperature. Cell survival was determined 7, 8, or 9 days after RT by the sulforhodamine B test. dCK activity of the cells was determined by an enzyme activity assay. Results A clear concentration-dependent radiosensitising effect of dFdC was observed in all cell lines. The degree of radiosensitisation was also cell line dependent and seemed to correlate with the sensitivity of the cell line to the cytotoxic effect of dFdC. The dCK activity of our cell lines varied considerably and differed up to three fold from 5 to 15 pmol/h/mg protein between the tested cell lines. In this range dCK activity was only weakly related to radiosensitisation (correlation coefficient 0.62, p = 0.11. Conclusion Gemcitabine needs to be metabolised to the active nucleotide in order to radiosensitise the cells. Since dFdCTP accumulation and incorporation into DNA are concentration dependent, the degree of radiosensitisation seems to be related to the extent of dFdCTP incorporated into DNA required to inhibit DNA repair. The activity of dCK does not seem to be the most important factor, but is clearly a major factor. Other partners of the intracellular metabolism of gemcitabine in relation to the cell cycle effects and DNA repair could be more responsible for the radiosensitising effect than dCK activity.

  13. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  14. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-g5 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling and stimulates trophoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, YiFan; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; So, Kam-Hei; Gao, Jing; Yeung, William S B; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class Ib HLA molecule that is secreted from blastocysts. Soluble HLA-G modulates the immune tolerance of the mother and can be used as a prognostic factor for the clinical pregnancy rate. However, the underlying mechanism of how soluble HLA-G5 affects pregnancy remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that soluble HLA-G5 promotes successful implantation and pregnancy by modulating trophoblast invasion through receptor binding and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Recombinant HLA-G5 protein over-expressed in E. coli BL21 was purified to near homogeneity. We studied the expression of HLA-G5 and its receptors, the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B1 (LILRB1) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4), in primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic (JAr and JEG-3) cell lines by florescence-labeled HLA-G5. HLA-G5 was detected in the primary trophoblasts and JEG-3 cells. The LILRB1 and KIR2DL4 receptors were expressed in both primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic cell lines. HLA-G5 stimulated cell invasion (ptrophoblastic cells. HLA-G5 activated the ERK signaling pathway and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the trophoblastic cell lines. Addition of ERK inhibitors (U0126 and PD98059) nullified the stimulatory effect of HLA-G5 on trophoblastic cell invasion. Taken together, HLA-G5 induced trophoblast invasion by binding to KIR2DL4 and LILRB1, by increasing uPA and MMPs expressions and by activating the ERK signaling pathway.

  15. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-g5 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling and stimulates trophoblast invasion.

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    YiFan Guo

    Full Text Available Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G is a non-classical class Ib HLA molecule that is secreted from blastocysts. Soluble HLA-G modulates the immune tolerance of the mother and can be used as a prognostic factor for the clinical pregnancy rate. However, the underlying mechanism of how soluble HLA-G5 affects pregnancy remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that soluble HLA-G5 promotes successful implantation and pregnancy by modulating trophoblast invasion through receptor binding and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK signaling pathway. Recombinant HLA-G5 protein over-expressed in E. coli BL21 was purified to near homogeneity. We studied the expression of HLA-G5 and its receptors, the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B1 (LILRB1 and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4, in primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic (JAr and JEG-3 cell lines by florescence-labeled HLA-G5. HLA-G5 was detected in the primary trophoblasts and JEG-3 cells. The LILRB1 and KIR2DL4 receptors were expressed in both primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic cell lines. HLA-G5 stimulated cell invasion (p<0.05 and increased urokinase (uPA and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs transcripts and their activity (p<0.05 in trophoblastic cells. HLA-G5 activated the ERK signaling pathway and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the trophoblastic cell lines. Addition of ERK inhibitors (U0126 and PD98059 nullified the stimulatory effect of HLA-G5 on trophoblastic cell invasion. Taken together, HLA-G5 induced trophoblast invasion by binding to KIR2DL4 and LILRB1, by increasing uPA and MMPs expressions and by activating the ERK signaling pathway.

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Kinase Activity Is Required for the Hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma Protein and Inhibits the Formation of Nuclear Aggresomes

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    Prichard, Mark N.; Sztul, Elizabeth; Daily, Shannon L.; Perry, Amie L.; Frederick, Samuel L.; Gill, Rachel B.; Hartline, Caroll B.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Varnum, Susan M.; Smith, Richard D.; Kern, Earl R.

    2008-05-01

    Cells infected with human cytomegalovirus in the absence of UL97 kinase activity produce large nuclear aggregates that sequester considerable quantities of viral proteins. A transient expression assay suggested that pp71 and IE1 were also involved in this process, and this suggestion was significant, since both proteins have been reported to interact with components of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (ND10) and also interact functionally with retinoblastoma pocket proteins (RB). PML bodies have been linked to the formation of nuclear aggresomes, and colocalization studies suggested that viral proteins were recruited to these structures and that UL97 kinase activity inhibited their formation. Proteins associated with PML bodies were examined by Western blot analysis, and pUL97 appeared to specifically affect the phosphorylation of RB in a kinasedependent manner. Three consensus RB binding motifs were identified in the UL97 kinase, and recombinant viruses were constructed in which each was mutated to assess a potential role in the phosphorylation of RB and the inhibition of nuclear aggresome formation. The mutation of either the conserved LxCxE RB binding moti for the lysine required for kinase activity impaired the ability of the virus to stabilize and phosphorylate RB. We concluded from these studies that both UL97 kinase activity and the LxCxE RB binding motif are required for the phosphorylation and stabilization of RB in infected cells and that this effect can be antagonized by the antiviral drug maribavir. These data also suggest a potential link between RB function and the formation of aggresomes.

  17. Dual Inhibition of Topoisomerase II and Tyrosine Kinases by the Novel Bis-Fluoroquinolone Chalcone-Like Derivative HMNE3 in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

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    Yong-Chao Ma

    Full Text Available Both tyrosine kinase and topoisomerase II (TopII are important anticancer targets, and their respective inhibitors are widely used in cancer therapy. However, some combinations of anticancer drugs could exhibit mutually antagonistic actions and drug resistance, which further limit their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report that HMNE3, a novel bis-fluoroquinolone chalcone-like derivative that targets both tyrosine kinase and TopII, induces tumor cell proliferation and growth inhibition. The viabilities of 6 different cancer cell lines treated with a range of HMNE3 doses were detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cellular apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay. The expression of activated Caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemistry. The tyrosine kinase activity was measured with a human receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK detection kit using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP-conjugated phosphotyrosine (pY20 antibody as the substrate. The topoisomerase II activity was measured using agarose gel electrophoresis with the DNA plasmid pBR322 as the substrate. The expression levels of the P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, -8, -9, p-cSrc, c-Src and topoisomerase II proteins were detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of five of the six cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by HMNE3 at 0.312 to 10 μmol/L in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of the Capan-1 and Panc-1 cells with 1.6 to 3.2 μM HMNE3 for 48 h significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells (P<0.05, and this effect was accompanied by a decrease in tyrosine kinase activity. HMNE3 potentially inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vitro with an IC50 value of 0.64±0.34 μmol/L in Capan-1 cells and 3.1±0.86 μmol/L in Panc-1 cells. The activity of c-Src was significantly inhibited by HMNE3 in a dose

  18. Creatine kinase rate constant in the human heart measured with 3D-localization at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William T; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan; Rodgers, Christopher T

    2017-07-01

    We present a new Bloch-Siegert four Angle Saturation Transfer (BOAST) method for measuring the creatine kinase (CK) first-order effective rate constant kf in human myocardium at 7 tesla (T). BOAST combines a variant of the four-angle saturation transfer (FAST) method using amplitude-modulated radiofrequency pulses, phosphorus Bloch-Siegert B1+-mapping to determine the per-voxel flip angles, and nonlinear fitting to Bloch simulations for postprocessing. Optimal flip angles and repetition time parameters were determined from Monte Carlo simulations. BOAST was validated in the calf muscle of two volunteers at 3T and 7T. The myocardial CK forward rate constant was then measured in 10 volunteers at 7T in 82 min (after 1 H localization). BOAST kfCK values were 0.281 ± 0.002 s-1 in the calf and 0.35 ± 0.05 s-1 in myocardium. These are consistent with literature values from lower fields. Using a literature values for adenosine triphosphate concentration, we computed CK flux values of 4.55 ± 1.52 mmol kg-1 s-1 . The sensitive volume for BOAST depends on the B1 inhomogeneity of the transmit coil. BOAST enables measurement of the CK rate constant in the human heart at 7T, with spatial localization in three dimensions to 5.6 mL voxels, using a 10-cm loop coil. Magn Reson Med 78:20-32, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

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    Xiao, Feng; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Qing-Xian

    2012-12-28

    To investigate the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were cultured in vitro. Following thermotherapy at 43°C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 h, the cells were cultured for a further 24 h with or without the JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125 for 2 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by immunohistochemistry [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)] and flow cytometry (Annexin vs propidium iodide). Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The production of p-JNK, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. The expression of JNK at mRNA level was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells was significantly inhibited following thermotherapy, and was 32.7%, 30.6%, 43.8% and 52.9% at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post-thermotherapy, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an increased population of SGC-790l cells in G0/G1 phase, but a reduced population in S phase following thermotherapy for 1 or 2 h, compared to untreated cells (P thermotherapy for 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 h, compared to the untreated group (46.5% ± 0.23%, 39.9% ± 0.53%, 56.6% ± 0.35% and 50.4% ± 0.29% vs 7.3% ± 0.10%, P thermotherapy, compared to mock-inhibitor treatment, which was in line with the decreased rate of apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-2 was consistent with thermotherapy alone. Thermotherapy induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by promoting p-JNK at the mRNA and protein levels, and up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins. Bcl-2 may play a protective role during thermotherapy. Activation of JNK via the Bax-caspase-3 pathway may be important in thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

  20. Endothelial sphingosine kinase/SPNS2 axis is critical for vessel-like formation by human mesoangioblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Cencetti, Francesca; Serratì, Simona; Bruno, Gennaro; Japtok, Lukasz; Bianchini, Francesca; Torre, Eugenio; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    The interaction between endothelial cells and pericytes is crucial for the stabilization of newly formed vessels in angiogenesis. The comprehension of the mechanisms regulating pericyte recruitment might open therapeutical perspectives on vascular-related pathologies. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that derives from sphingomyelin catabolism and regulates biological functions in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of S1P axis in the intercellular communication between human mesenchymal progenitor mesoangioblasts (MAB) and endothelial cells (human microvascular endothelial cells (H-MVEC)) in the formation of capillary-like structures. We demonstrated that the S1P biosynthetic pathway brought about by sphingosine kinases (SK) SK1 and SK2 as well as spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) transporter in H-MVEC is crucial for MAB migration measured by Boyden chambers and for the formation and stabilization of capillary-like structures in a 3D Matrigel culture. Moreover, the conditioned medium (CM) harvested from H-MVEC, where SK1, SK2, and SPNS2 were down-regulated, exerted a significantly diminished effect on MAB capillary morphogenesis and migration. Notably, we demonstrated that S1P1 and S1P3 receptors were positively involved in CM-induced capillary-like formation and migration, while S1P2 exerted a negative role on CM-induced migratory action of MAB. Finally, SK inhibition as well as MAB S1P1 and S1P3 down-regulation impaired H-MVEC-MAB cross-talk significantly reducing in vivo angiogenesis evaluated by Matrigel plug assay. These findings individuate novel targets for the employment of MAB in vascular-related pathologic conditions. • Down-regulation of SK1/2 in H-MVEC impaired vessel formation when cultured with MAB. • H-MVEC SPNS2 is critical for morphogenesis and migration induced by H-MVEC CM of MAB. • CM from SK1- and SK2-siRNA H-MVEC impaired morphogenesis and migration of MAB.

  1. Pb2+ induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Pin; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Joseph T; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Shiurba, Robert; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-02-01

    Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  3. Structure of the Human Protein Kinase CK2 Catalytic Subunit CK2α′ and Interaction Thermodynamics with the Regulatory Subunit CK2β

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Nils; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Raaf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly "casein kinase 2") is composed of a central dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2β) binding two catalytic subunits. In humans, there are two isoforms of the catalytic subunit (and an additional splicing variant), one of which (CK2α) is well characterized. To supplement...... of CK2α' for CK2β is about 12 times lower than that of CK2α and is less driven by enthalpy. This result fits the observation that the β4/β5 loop, a key element of the CK2α/CK2β interface, adopts an open conformation in CK2α', while in CK2α, it opens only after assembly with CK2β. The open β4/β5 loop...

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human dental pulp and embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Hsien; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Liu, Cheing-Meei; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng

    2013-11-01

    Methacrylate resin-based materials could release components into adjacent environment even after polymerization. The major components leached include triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA has been shown to induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying TEGDMA-induced COX-2 in 2 oral cell types, the primary culture of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and the human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts, and to propose potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues. TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in HDP and HEPM cells. The inhibition of TEGDMA-induced COX-2 protein expression using various dietary phytochemicals was investigated. COX-2 protein expression was increased after exposure to TEGDMA at concentrations as low as 5 μmol/L. TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression was associated with reaction oxygen species, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in HDP and HEPM cells. The activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was directly associated with reactive oxygen species. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed TEGDMA-induced COX-2 expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Cells exposed to low concentrations of TEGDMA may induce inflammatory responses of the adjacent tissues, and this should be taken into consideration during common dental practice. Green tea, which has a long history of safe beverage consumption, may be a useful agent for the prevention or treatment of TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxic Activity of 3,6-Dihydroxyflavone in Human Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Therapeutic Effect on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF is a potent agonist of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (hPPAR with cytotoxic effects on human cervical cancer cells. To date, the mechanisms by which 3,6-DHF exerts its antitumor effects on cervical cells have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrated that 3,6-DHF exhibits a novel antitumor activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 25 μM and 9.8 μM after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. We also showed that the anticancer effects of 3,6-DHF are mediated via the toll-like receptor (TLR 4/CD14, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We found that 3,6-DHF showed a similar IC50 (113 nM value to that of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (IC50 = 118 nM in a JNK1 kinase assay. Binding studies revealed that 3,6-DHF had a strong binding affinity to JNK1 (1.996 × 105 M−1 and that the 6-OH and the carbonyl oxygen of the C ring of 3,6-DHF participated in hydrogen bonding interactions with the carbonyl oxygen and the amide proton of Met111, respectively. Therefore, 3,6-DHF may be a candidate inhibitor of JNKs, with potent anticancer effects.

  6. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  7. National atypical mycobacteria survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Infections with atypical mycobacteria in Australia during 2000 occurred at a rate of 1.8 cases per 100,000 population. The main sites of disease were the respiratory tract, soft tissue, and the lymphatics. The Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common group of mycobacteria isolated from respiratory, lymphatic sites, and blood. The rapidly growing mycobacteria, predominantly the M. fortuitum-M. abscessus-M. chelonae group were the most common soft tissue infections. Atypical mycobacteria were isolated from significant numbers of sputum 'smear positive' patients, requiring further tests to exclude M. tuberculosis. Geographical differences were observed for some Mycobacterium species, notably the isolation of M. haemophilum from Western Australia, and M. ulcerans from Victoria and Queensland. Newer molecular techniques, while improving precision and accuracy of identification, raise additional questions about the ecology of the atypical mycobacteria and their role in disease.

  8. AMG 900, a potent inhibitor of aurora kinases causes pharmacodynamic changes in p-Histone H3 immunoreactivity in human tumor xenografts and proliferating mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Gloria; Bush, Tammy L; Ma, Connie; Manoukian, Raffi; Chung, Grace; Hawkins, Jennifer M; Zoog, Stephen; Kendall, Richard; Radinsky, Robert; Loberg, Robert; Friberg, Greg; Payton, Marc

    2014-11-04

    The Aurora family of serine-threonine kinases are essential regulators of cell division in mammalian cells. Aurora-A and -B expression and kinase activity is elevated in a variety of human cancers and is associated with high proliferation rates and poor prognosis. AMG 900 is a highly potent and selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor that has entered clinical evaluation in adult patients with advanced cancers. In mice, oral administration of AMG 900 blocks the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine-10 (p-Histone H3), a proximal substrate of aurora-B and inhibits the growth of multiple human tumor xenografts, including multidrug-resistant models. In order to establish a preclinical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship for AMG 900 that could be translated to the clinic, we used flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry detection platforms to assess the effects on p-Histone H3 inhibition in terms of sensitivity, precision, and specificity, in human tumor xenografts in conjunction with mouse skin and bone marrow tissues. Mice with established COLO 205 tumors were administered AMG 900 at 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg and assessed after 3 hours. Significant suppression of p-Histone H3 in mouse skin was only observed at 15 mg/kg (p Histone H3 in tumors and surrogate tissues (although tissues such as skin may be less sensitive for assessing PD effects). To further extend our work, we evaluated the feasibility of measuring p-Histone H3 using fine-needle aspirate (FNA) tumor xenograft biopsies. Treatment with AMG 900 significantly inhibited p-Histone H3 (>99% inhibition, p Histone H3 positive cells using mock FNAs from primary human breast tumor tissues. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is a useful biomarker to determine the pharmacodynamics (PD) activity of AMG 900. FNA biopsies may be a viable approach for assessing AMG 900 PD effects in the clinic.

  9. Protein kinase A enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by human gingival fibroblasts

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    Ara Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and the chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 are known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. Recently, we reported that the protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H-89 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. In the present study, the relevance of the PKA activity and two PKA-activating drugs, aminophylline and adrenaline, to LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8 and PGE2 by HGFs were examined. Methods HGFs were treated with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis and H-89, the cAMP analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, aminophylline, or adrenaline. After 24 h, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Results H-89 did not affect LPS-induced IL-6 production, but suppressed IL-8 and PGE2 production. In contrast, dbcAMP significantly increased LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production. Up to 10 μg/ml of aminophylline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at 100 μg/ml. Similarly, 0.01 μg/ml of adrenaline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml. In the absence of LPS, H-89, dbcAMP, aminophylline, and adrenaline had no relevance to IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production. Conclusion These results suggest that the PKA pathway, and also PKA-activating drugs, enhance LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by HGFs. However, aminophylline may not have an effect on the production of these molecules at concentrations used in clinical settings (8 to 20 μg/ml in serum. These results suggest that aminophylline does not affect inflammatory responses in periodontal disease.

  10. Identification of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1 as a reference gene for quantitative gene expression measurements in human blood RNA

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    Unger Elizabeth R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Quantitative gene expression measurements require normalization of target genes to reference genes that are stable and independent from variables being tested in the experiment. Because there are no genes that are useful for all situations, reference gene selection is an essential step to any quantitative reverse transcription-PCR protocol. Many publications have described appropriate genes for a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions, however, reference genes that may be suitable for the analysis of CFS, or human blood RNA derived from whole blood as well as isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, have not been described. Findings Literature review and analyses of our unpublished microarray data were used to narrow down the pool of candidate reference genes to six. We assayed whole blood RNA from Tempus tubes and cell preparation tube (CPT-collected PBMC RNA from 46 subjects, and used the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms to select the most stable reference genes. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1 was one of the optimal normalization genes for both whole blood and PBMC RNA, however, additional genes differed for the two sample types; Ribosomal protein large, P0 (RPLP0 for PBMC RNA and Peptidylprolyl isomerase B (PPIB for whole blood RNA. We also show that the use of a single reference gene is sufficient for normalization when the most stable candidates are used. Conclusions We have identified PGK1 as a stable reference gene for use with whole blood RNA and RNA derived from PBMC. When stable genes are selected it is possible to use a single gene for normalization rather than two or three. Optimal normalization will improve the ability of results from PBMC RNA to be compared with those from whole blood RNA and potentially allows comparison of

  11. Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells via a cyclin-dependent kinase-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Yang, Xinhui; Yan, Xinyan; Wang, Yanming; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity is involved in apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells induced by isoliquiritigenin (ISL). The viability of T24 cells was estimated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Cell morphological changes were examined using Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptotic rate was determined by staining cells with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide labeling. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured using 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1, 3,3-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Alterations in the apoptosis-related regulators B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), apoptotic protease-activating facter-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9 and caspase-3 were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR methods. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. CDK2 activity was measured using a spectrometric assay. Following treatment with ISL (between 30 and 70 µg/ml) for 24 h, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed in T24 cells, exhibiting an edge set of chromosomes, nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and other morphological features. Treatment with ISL increased the apoptotic ratio of T24 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and induced a decrease in the ΔΨm in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with ISL upregulated the expression of Bax, Bim, Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3, downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, and increased CDK2 activity. MK-8776 (an inhibitor of CDK2) antagonized the apoptosis induced by ISL, and, compared with treatment with ISL alone, pretreatment with MK-8776 inhibited the decrease in ΔΨm, downregulated the mRNA expression of Bax, Bim, Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3, and upregulated Bcl-2 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis demonstrated

  12. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and down-regulation of olfactomedin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kam-Hei; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Li, Raymond H W; Chiu, Philip C N; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on olfactomedin-1 (Olfm1) expression and spheroid attachment in human fallopian tube epithelial cells in vitro. Experimental study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Healthy nonpregnant women. No patient interventions. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and Olfm1 expression in fallopian tube epithelium cell line (OE-E6/E7 cells). OE-E6/E7 cells treated with hCG, U0126 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, or XAV939 Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor were analyzed by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro spheroid attachment assay. Human chorionic gonadotropin increased spheroid attachment on OE-E6/E7 cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 and activation of Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. U0126 down-regulated both MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and up-regulated Olfm1 expression. XAV939 down-regulated only the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but up-regulated Olfm1 expression. Human chorionic gonadotropin activated both ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and enhanced spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 expression. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of SRC-related kinase Lyn with the interleukin-2 receptor and its role in maintaining constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuh, Maureen; Morse, Barry A; Heidecker, Gisela; Derse, David

    2011-05-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and transformation are associated with an incremental switch in the expression of the Src-related protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Lyn. We examined the physical and functional interactions of Lyn with receptors and signal transduction proteins in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Lyn coimmunoprecipitates with the interleukin-2 beta receptor (IL-2Rβ) and JAK3 proteins; however, the association of Lyn with the IL-2Rβ and Lyn kinase activity was independent of IL-2 stimulation. Phosphorylation of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) and signal transducers and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) proteins was reduced by treatment of cells with the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 or by ectopic expression of a dominant negative Lyn kinase protein.

  14. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  15. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are

  16. Protein kinase CK2 inhibition is associated with the destabilization of HIF-1α in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Rasmussen, Tine D. L.; Schnitzler, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Screening for protein kinase CK2 inhibitors of the structural diversity compound library (DTP NCI/NIH) led to the discovery of 4-[(E)-(fluoren-9-ylidenehydrazinylidene)-methyl]benzoic acid (E9). E9 induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines and upon hypoxia, the compound suppresses...

  17. Irofulven (6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene, MGI 114)-induced apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells is mediated by ERK and JNK kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Waters, Stephen J; MacDonald, John R; Roth, Caleb; Shentu, Shujun; Freeman, James; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Miller, Alexander R

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma resists chemotherapeutic mediation of apoptosis. Irofulven (MGI 114, 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene) is a novel illudin S analogue that we have shown to induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Westem blot analysis and kinase assays were used to demonstrate the activation of Erk 1/2 and JNK1 kinases following Irofulven administration in the presence and absence of selective kinase inhibitors. Irofulven activates JNK1 and Erk1/2, but not p38. The addition of the MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 and PD98059 (targeting JNK1 and Erk1/2 activation, respectively), prevents kinase activation and blocks Irofulven-induced activation of caspases -3, -7, -8 and -9. Blockade of either JNK1 or Erk1/2 results in a 50% decrease in apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with Irofulven. Our data demonstrated that JNK1 and Erk1/2 are activated by Irofulven treatment and that blockade of either MAPK subfamily decreases apoptosis by rendering Irofulven incapable of inducing caspase activation.

  18. Phenotypic profiling of the human genome reveals gene products involved in plasma membrane targeting of SRC kinases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzerfeld, J.; Remmele, S.; Wang, T.; Temmerman, K.; Brugger, B.; Wegehingel, S.; Tournaviti, S.; Strating, J.R.P.M.; Wieland, F.T.; Neumann, B.; Ellenberg, J.; Lawerenz, C.; Hesser, J.; Erfle, H.; Pepperkok, R.; Nickel, W.

    2011-01-01

    SRC proteins are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play key roles in regulating signal transduction by a diverse set of cell surface receptors. They contain N-terminal SH4 domains that are modified by fatty acylation and are functioning as membrane anchors. Acylated SH4 domains are both necessary

  19. wKinMut: An integrated tool for the analysis and interpretation of mutations in human protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria; Vazquez, Miguel; del Pozo, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein kinases are involved in relevant physiological functions and a broad number of mutations in this superfamily have been reported in the literature to affect protein function and stability. Unfortunately, the exploration of the consequences on the phenotypes of each individual...

  20. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT FOR ATYPICAL HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME IN A PUERPERA

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    O. N. Ulitkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the problems of differential diagnosis and treatment of atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a 23-year-old patient.Results. Eculizumab (Soliris, (Alexon Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA that is a glycosylated humanized monoclonal antibody to immunoglobulins (IgG2/4k is shown to be effective in treating this disease.Conclusion. Atypical hemolytical-uremic syndrome in pregnancy is a disease, whose treatment difficulties are largely associated with the problem of differential diagnosis with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and man-ifestations of multiple organ dysfunction. The treatment for this disease gives a key role to Eculizumab.

  1. Stability of the Human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 Chaperone Complex against Nucleotides and Hsp90 Inhibitors, and the Influence of Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sanne H.; Ingles, Donna J.; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P.; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I.; Tash, Joseph S.; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in-vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands. PMID:25608045

  2. Gastrin decreases Na+,K+-ATPase activity via a PI 3-kinase- and PKC-dependent pathway in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbing; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Yang, Yu; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    The natriuretic effect of gastrin suggests a role in the coordinated regulation of sodium balance by the gastrointestinal tract and the kidney. The renal molecular targets and signal transduction pathways for such an effect of gastrin are largely unknown. Recently, we reported that gastrin induces NHE3 phosphorylation and internalization via phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and PKCα. In this study, we show that gastrin induced the phosphorylation of human Na(+),K(+)-ATPase at serine 16, resulting in its endocytosis via Rab5 and Rab7 endosomes. The gastrin-stimulated phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was dependent on PI 3-kinase because the phosphorylation was blocked by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. The phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was also blocked by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor, Gö-6976, a conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor, and BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelator, suggesting the importance of cPKC and intracellular calcium in the gastrin signaling pathway. The gastrin-mediated phosphorylation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was also inhibited by U-73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. These results suggest that gastrin regulates sodium hydrogen exchanger and pump in renal proximal tubule cells at the apical and basolateral membranes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Stability of the human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 chaperone complex against nucleotides and Hsp90 inhibitors, and the influence of phosphorylation by casein kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sanne H; Ingles, Donna J; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I; Tash, Joseph S; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-19

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands.

  4. Stability of the Human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 Chaperone Complex against Nucleotides and Hsp90 Inhibitors, and the Influence of Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne H. Olesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein–protein interaction (PPI inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2 did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM, while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands.

  5. Effect of Saturated Stearic Acid on MAP Kinase and ER Stress Signaling Pathways during Apoptosis Induction in Human Pancreatic β-Cells Is Inhibited by Unsaturated Oleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šrámek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that saturated fatty acids (FAs have a detrimental effect on pancreatic β-cells function and survival, leading to apoptosis, whereas unsaturated FAs are well tolerated and are even capable of inhibiting the pro-apoptotic effect of saturated FAs. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction and regulation by FAs in β-cells remain unclear; however, mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling pathways may be involved. In this study, we tested how unsaturated oleic acid (OA affects the effect of saturated stearic acid (SA on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathways as well as the ER stress signaling pathways during apoptosis induction in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. We demonstrated that OA is able to inhibit all effects of SA. OA alone has only minimal or no effects on tested signaling in NES2Y cells. The point of OA inhibitory intervention in SA-induced apoptotic signaling thus seems to be located upstream of the discussed signaling pathways.

  6. Barium Promotes Anchorage-Independent Growth and Invasion of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes via Activation of c-SRC Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl2) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5–50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5–5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro. PMID:22022425

  7. 5-Azacytidine regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and the migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells via PI3-kinase and ERK1/2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal methylation of promoter CpG islands is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, and is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases. 5-azacytidine (5-aza C), a methyltransferase inhibitor, can cause demethylation of promoter regions of diverse genes. Epigenetic processes contribute to the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. However, little is known about the mechanisms and effects of 5-aza C on the invasive and migratory capacities of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. In the present study, we found that 5-aza C induces MMP-9 activity, as determined by zymography. HT1080 cell proliferation was determined following 5-aza C administration by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. 5-aza C treatment inhibited cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, 5-aza C significantly promoted migration and invasion of HT1080 cells. 5-aza C treatment enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide (PI)3-kinase/Akt, and their inhibitors blocked MMP-9 activity induction, and cellular invasion and migration. Together, these findings suggest that promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms modulating MMP-9 levels in HT1080 cells, and that 5-aza C-induced MMP-9 production is associated with the activation of ERK and PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

  8. Humanized thymidine kinase-NOG mice can be used to identify drugs that cause animal-specific hepatotoxicity: a case study with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Michie, Sara A; Zheng, Ming; Takeda, Saori; Wu, Manhong; Peltz, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Interspecies differences have limited the predictive utility of toxicology studies performed using animal species. A drug that could be a safe and effective treatment in humans could cause toxicity in animals, preventing it from being used in humans. We investigated whether the use of thymidine kinase (TK)-NOG mice with humanized livers could prevent this unfortunate outcome (i.e., "rescue" a drug for use in humans). A high dose of furosemide is known to cause severe liver toxicity in mice, but it is a safe and effective treatment in humans. We demonstrate that administration of a high dose of furosemide (200 mg/kg i.p.) causes extensive hepatotoxicity in control mice but not in humanized TK-NOG mice. This interspecies difference results from a higher rate of production of the toxicity-causing metabolite by mouse liver. Comparison of their survival curves indicated that the humanized mice were more resistant than control mice to the hepatotoxicity caused by high doses of furosemide. In this test case, humanized TK-NOG mouse studies indicate that humans could be safely treated with a high dose of furosemide. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Reduced corporal fibrosis to protect erectile function by inhibiting the Rho-kinase/LIM-kinase/cofilin pathway in the aged transgenic rat harboring human tissue kallikrein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that erectile function was preserved in aged transgenic rats (TGR harboring the human tissue kallikrein 1 (hKLK1, while the molecular level of hKLK1 on corporal fibrosis to inhibit age-related erectile dysfunction (ED is poorly understood. Male wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats (WTR and TGR harboring the hKLK1 gene were fed to 4- or 18-month-old and divided into three groups: young WTR (yWTR as the control, aged WTR (aWTR, and aged TGR (aTGR. Erectile function of all rats was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation method. Masson′s trichrome staining was used to evaluate corporal fibrosis in the corpus cavernosum. We found that the erectile function of rats in the aWTR group was significantly lower than that of other two groups. Masson′s trichrome staining revealed that compared with those of the yWTR and aTGR groups, the ratio of smooth muscle cell (SMC/collagen (C was significantly lower in the aWTR group. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis were performed, and results demonstrated that expression of α-SMA was lower, while expressions of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β1, RhoA, ROCK1, p-MYPT1, p-LIMK2, and p-cofilin were higher in the aWTR group compared with those in other two groups. However, LIMK2 and cofilin expressions did not differ among three groups. Taken together, these results indicated that the RhoA/ROCK1/LIMK/cofilin pathway may be involved in the corporal fibrosis caused by advanced age, and hKLK1 may reduce this corporal fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of this pathway to ameliorate age-related ED.

  10. PI 3 kinase related kinases-independent proteolysis of BRCA1 regulates Rad51 recruitment during genotoxic stress in human cells.

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    Ian Hammond-Martel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The function of BRCA1 in response to ionizing radiation, which directly generates DNA double strand breaks, has been extensively characterized. However previous investigations have produced conflicting data on mutagens that initially induce other classes of DNA adducts. Because of the fundamental and clinical importance of understanding BRCA1 function, we sought to rigorously evaluate the role of this tumor suppressor in response to diverse forms of genotoxic stress.We investigated BRCA1 stability and localization in various human cells treated with model mutagens that trigger different DNA damage signaling pathways. We established that, unlike ionizing radiation, either UVC or methylmethanesulfonate (MMS (generating bulky DNA adducts or alkylated bases respectively induces a transient downregulation of BRCA1 protein which is neither prevented nor enhanced by inhibition of PIKKs. Moreover, we found that the proteasome mediates early degradation of BRCA1, BARD1, BACH1, and Rad52 implying that critical components of the homologous recombination machinery need to be functionally abrogated as part of the early response to UV or MMS. Significantly, we found that inhibition of BRCA1/BARD1 downregulation is accompanied by the unscheduled recruitment of both proteins to chromatin along with Rad51. Consistently, treatment of cells with MMS engendered complete disassembly of Rad51 from pre-formed ionizing radiation-induced foci. Following the initial phase of BRCA1/BARD1 downregulation, we found that the recovery of these proteins in foci coincides with the formation of RPA and Rad51 foci. This indicates that homologous recombination is reactivated at later stage of the cellular response to MMS, most likely to repair DSBs generated by replication blocks.Taken together our results demonstrate that (i the stabilities of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes are regulated in a mutagen-specific manner, and (ii indicate the existence of mechanisms that may be required to

  11. Reduced corporal fibrosis to protect erectile function by inhibiting the Rho-kinase/LIM-kinase/cofilin pathway in the aged transgenic rat harboring human tissue kallikrein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Luan, Yang; Wang, Tao; Zhuan, Li; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shao-Gang; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wang, Dao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that erectile function was preserved in aged transgenic rats (TGR) harboring the human tissue kallikrein 1 (hKLK1), while the molecular level of hKLK1 on corporal fibrosis to inhibit age-related erectile dysfunction (ED) is poorly understood. Male wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats (WTR) and TGR harboring the hKLK1 gene were fed to 4- or 18-month-old and divided into three groups: young WTR (yWTR) as the control, aged WTR (aWTR), and aged TGR (aTGR). Erectile function of all rats was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation method. Masson's trichrome staining was used to evaluate corporal fibrosis in the corpus cavernosum. We found that the erectile function of rats in the aWTR group was significantly lower than that of other two groups. Masson's trichrome staining revealed that compared with those of the yWTR and aTGR groups, the ratio of smooth muscle cell (SMC)/collagen (C) was significantly lower in the aWTR group. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis were performed, and results demonstrated that expression of α-SMA was lower, while expressions of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β1), RhoA, ROCK1, p-MYPT1, p-LIMK2, and p-cofilin were higher in the aWTR group compared with those in other two groups. However, LIMK2 and cofilin expressions did not differ among three groups. Taken together, these results indicated that the RhoA/ROCK1/LIMK/cofilin pathway may be involved in the corporal fibrosis caused by advanced age, and hKLK1 may reduce this corporal fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of this pathway to ameliorate age-related ED. PMID:27678468

  12. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in crystalline silica-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Makoto; Matsuoka, Masato

    2011-09-01

    We examined the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in crystalline silica-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an important mediator of airway inflammation, in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The levels of COX-2 mRNA increased after a 30-min exposure, and COX-2 protein increased after a 2-h exposure to crystalline silica. Both remained elevated at 8 h; however, no change was observed in the expression of the constitutive COX-1 isoform. The level of prostaglandin E(2), a major product of COX enzymes, increased in response to crystalline silica exposure. Phosphorylated forms of MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 were also increased after crystalline silica exposure. COX-2 expression was markedly suppressed by treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and mildly suppressed by the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Treatment with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, markedly suppressed silica-induced COX-2 expression. These results show that crystalline silica exposure induces COX-2 expression in A549 cells in a manner that is dependent on the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Although a marked induction of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 expression was observed in A549 cells exposed to crystalline silica, the silencing of MKP-1 expression using short interference RNA did not affect silica-induced COX-2 expression, suggesting that the down-regulation of COX-2 expression by MKP-1 is unlikely.

  13. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  14. Atypical odontalgia: phantom tooth pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R E; Stewart, C M

    1991-10-01

    The findings in 30 cases diagnosed as atypical odontalgia are presented. The clinical characteristics of these cases are compared with other cases reported in the literature. Three cases are described in detail. Patient understanding and treatment with tricyclic antidepressants are discussed together with medication side effects and interactions. The importance of deferring invasive procedures is emphasized.

  15. Phosphatase and tensin homologue/protein kinase B pathway linked to motor neuron survival in human superoxide dismutase 1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Janine; Ning, Ke; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Heath, Paul R; Ismail, Azza; Kuo, Su-Wei; Valori, Chiara F; Cox, Laura; Sharrack, Basil; Wharton, Stephen B; Ince, Paul G; Shaw, Pamela J; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2011-02-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used previously with spinal cord homogenates and laser capture microdissected motor neurons to determine the mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, while cellular and animal model work has focused on superoxide dismutase 1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the transcriptional profile of human mutant superoxide dismutase 1 motor neurons has remained undiscovered. The aim of this study was to apply gene expression profiling to laser captured motor neurons from human superoxide dismutase 1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neurologically normal control cases, in order to determine those pathways dysregulated in human superoxide dismutase 1-related neurodegeneration and to establish potential pathways suitable for therapeutic intervention. Identified targets were then validated in cultured cell models using lentiviral vectors to manipulate the expression of key genes. Microarray analysis identified 1170 differentially expressed genes in spinal cord motor neurons from superoxide dismutase 1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, compared with controls. These genes encoded for proteins in multiple functional categories, including those involved in cell survival and cell death. Further analysis determined that multiple genes involved in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signalling cascade were differentially expressed in motor neurons that survived the disease process. Functional experiments in cultured cells and primary motor neurons demonstrate that manipulating this pathway by reducing the expression of a single upstream target, the negative phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase regulator phosphatase and tensin homology, promotes a marked pro-survival effect. Therefore, these data indicate that proteins in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway could represent a target for therapeutic manipulation in motor neuron degeneration.

  16. Requirement of ERα and basal activities of EGFR and Src kinase in Cd-induced activation of MAPK/ERK pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiulong, E-mail: songxiulong@hotmail.com; Wei, Zhengxi; Shaikh, Zahir A., E-mail: zshaikh@uri.edu

    2015-08-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental toxicant and an established carcinogen. Epidemiological studies implicate Cd with human breast cancer. Low micromolar concentrations of Cd promote proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. The growth promotion of breast cancer cells is associated with the activation of MAPK/ERK pathway. This study explores the mechanism of Cd-induced activation of MAPK/ERK pathway. Specifically, the role of cell surface receptors ERα, EGFR, and Src kinase was evaluated in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with 1–3 μM Cd. The activation of ERK was studied using a serum response element (SRE) luciferase reporter assay. Receptor phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analyses. Cd treatment increased both the SRE reporter activity and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. Cd treatment had no effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, blocking the entry of Cd into the cells with manganese did not diminish Cd-induced activation of MAPK/ERK. These results suggest that the effect of Cd was likely not caused by intracellular ROS generation, but through interaction with the membrane receptors. While Cd did not appear to activate either EGFR or Src kinase, their inhibition completely blocked the Cd-induced activation of ERK as well as cell proliferation. Similarly, silencing ERα with siRNA or use of ERα antagonist blocked the effects of Cd. Based on these results, it is concluded that not only ERα, but also basal activities of EGFR and Src kinase are essential for Cd-induced signal transduction and activation of MAPK/ERK pathway for breast cancer cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Low micromolar concentrations of Cd rapidly activate ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells. • Signal transduction and resulting cell proliferation require EGFR, ERα, and Src. • These findings implicate Cd in promotion of breast cancer.

  17. Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker AR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aulma R Parker,1 Pavankumar N Petluru,1 Vicki L Nienaber,2 Min Zhao,1 Philippe Y Ayala,1 John Badger,2 Barbara Chie-Leon,2 Vandana Sridhar,2 Cheyenne Logan,2 Harry Kochat,1 Frederick H Hausheer1 1BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Zenobia Therapeutics, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: BNP7787 (Tavocept, disodium 2,2’-dithio-bis-ethanesulfonate is a novel, investigational, water-soluble disulfide that is well-tolerated and nontoxic. In separate randomized multicenter Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, treatment with BNP7787 in combination with standard chemotherapy resulted in substantial increases in the overall survival of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung in the first-line treatment setting. We hypothesized that BNP7787 might interact with and modify human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. At least seven different variants of ALK fusions with the gene encoding the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4 are known to occur in NSCLC. EML4–ALK fusions are thought to account for approximately 3% of NSCLC cases. Herein, we report the covalent modification of the kinase domain of human ALK by a BNP7787-derived mesna moiety and the functional consequences of this modification in ALK assays evaluating kinase activity. The kinase domain of the ALK protein crystallizes as a monomer, and BNP7787-derived mesna-cysteine adducts were observed at Cys 1235 and Cys 1156. The BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 is located in close proximity to the active site and results in substantial disorder of the P-loop and activation loop (A-loop. Comparison with the P-loop of apo-ALK suggests that the BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 interferes with the positioning of Phe 1127 into a small pocket now occupied by mesna, resulting in a destabilization of the loop's binding orientation. Additionally, in vitro kinase activity assays indicate that BNP7787

  18. Current possibilities of cervical precancerous lesions screening in Slovakia: prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in patients with cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnikova, G; Ondrusova, M; Repiska, V; Drobna, R; Marinova, P; Meciarova, I; Rampalova, J; Ondrias, F

    2014-01-01

    It has been confirmed, that there is a causal relationship between persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and the development of cervical cancer. In population of women older than 30 years HPV infection becomes a significant etiological factor of precancerous lesion of the cervix, but HPV infection may spontaneously regress in the majority of the cases. The analysed study group consisted of 397 samples with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). All cases underwent HPV DNA testing using the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. We analysed prevalence of HR-HPV and a viral load expressed as relative light units/cut off ratio (RLU/CO) in different age groups with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS. The prevalence of HR-HPV with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS was detected in 44 %. The prevalence of HR-HPV between patients aged 17-29 and between patients aged 30-40 was 55 % and 48 % respectively and we detected significant reduction of prevalence (28 %) in patients older than 41 years. Based on the results of presented study we assumed that age the 40 and over is crucial for the development of serious precancerous lesions in Slovakia, thus this age group is the most suitable for HPV triage of ASCUS. As a refinement of that type of ASCUS triage we recommend to add to the algorithm quantitative measurement of viral load in the specimens in the form of RLU/CO ratio (Fig. 3, Ref. 27).

  19. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  20. Discovery of a novel mode of protein kinase inhibition characterized by the mechanism of inhibition of human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) protein autophosphorylation by ARQ 197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Palma, Rocio; Volckova, Erika; Hirschi, Marscha; France, Dennis S; Ashwell, Mark A; Chan, Thomas C K

    2011-06-10

    A number of human malignancies exhibit sustained stimulation, mutation, or gene amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinase human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met). ARQ 197 is a clinically advanced, selective, orally bioavailable, and well tolerated c-Met inhibitor, currently in Phase 3 clinical testing in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Herein, we describe the molecular and structural basis by which ARQ 197 selectively targets c-Met. Through our analysis we reveal a previously undisclosed, novel inhibitory mechanism that utilizes distinct regulatory elements of the c-Met kinase. The structure of ARQ 197 in complex with the c-Met kinase domain shows that the inhibitor binds a conformation that is distinct from published kinase structures. ARQ 197 inhibits c-Met autophosphorylation and is highly selective for the inactive or unphosphorylated form of c-Met. Through our analysis of the interplay between the regulatory and catalytic residues of c-Met, and by comparison between the autoinhibited canonical conformation of c-Met bound by ARQ 197 to previously described kinase domains of type III receptor tyrosine kinases, we believe this to be the basis of a powerful new in silico approach for the design of similar inhibitors for other protein kinases of therapeutic interest.

  1. Growth inhibitory effects of the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI-166 on human prostate cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Tran, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L

    2002-09-15

    Experiments with human prostate cancer cell lines have shown that forced overexpression of the ErbB2-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) promotes androgen-independent growth and increases androgen receptor-transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent fashion. To investigate the relationship between ErbB-RTK signaling and androgen in genetically unmanipulated human prostate cancer, we performed biochemical and biological studies with the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 RTK inhibitor PKI-166 using human prostate cancer xenograft models with isogenic sublines reflecting the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth. In the presence of low androgen concentrations, PKI-166 showed profound growth-inhibitory effects on tumor growth, which could be partially reversed by androgen add-back. At physiological androgen concentrations, androgen withdrawal greatly enhanced the ability of PKI-166 to retard tumor growth. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation correlated with the response to PKI-166 treatment, whereas the expression levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 did not. These results suggest that ErbB1/ErbB2 RTKs play an important role in the biology of androgen-independent prostate cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of inhibitors targeted to this pathway.

  2. Ursolic acid-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-you; Jin, Feng-suo; Yao, Chen; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Guo-hui; Ai, Xing

    2012-03-23

    Ursolic acid (UA) has shown the anti-tumor properties against a number of human cancers both in vivo and in vitro, however, its effect in bladder cancer and the corresponding mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here we found that UA dose-dependently induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may contribute to the process. Our Western-blot results demonstrated a significant AMPK activation after UA treatment in T24 cells. Notably, knockdown of AMPKα by the targeted shRNA largely inhibited UA-induced T24 cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, while an AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or a constitutively active form of AMPK mimic UA's effect. We found the ceramide level was increased after UA treatment in T24 cells, and UA-induced AMPK activation and T24 cell apoptosis were inhibited by ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, and was enhanced by exogenously adding cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6), suggesting that ceramide might serve as an upstream signal for AMPK activation. Further, activation of AMPK by UA promoted c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, but inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling to cause survivin down-regulation. Our study suggests that activation of AMPK by UA contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Osthole Suppresses the Migratory Ability of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells via Inhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common type of primary and malignant tumor occurring in the adult central nervous system. GBM often invades surrounding regions of the brain during its early stages, making successful treatment difficult. Osthole, an active constituent isolated from the dried C. monnieri fruit, has been shown to suppress tumor migration and invasion. However, the effects of osthole in human GBM are largely unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is important for the metastasis of cancer cells. Results from this study show that osthole can not only induce cell death but also inhibit phosphorylation of FAK in human GBM cells. Results from this study show that incubating GBM cells with osthole reduces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 expression and cell motility, as assessed by cell transwell and wound healing assays. This study also provides evidence supporting the potential of osthole in reducing FAK activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility in human GBM cells.

  4. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  5. The catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 structurally deviates from its maize homologue in complex with the nucleotide competitive inhibitor emodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    The Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha) attached to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits. Together with the cyclin-dependent kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, CK2alpha belongs to the CMGC family of...

  6. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in acquired gemcitabine-resistant human urothelial carcinoma sublines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of how resistance arises and what molecular alterations correlate with resistance is the key to developing novel effective therapeutic strategies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of gemcitabine (Gem resistance and provide possible therapeutic options, three Gem-resistant urothelial carcinoma sublines were established (NG0.6, NG0.8, and NG1.0. These cells were cross-resistant to arabinofuranosyl cytidine and cisplatin, but sensitive to 5-fluorouracil. The resistant cells expressed lower values of [hENT1 × dCK/RRM1 × RRM2] mRNA ratio. Two adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins ABCD1 as well as multidrug resistance protein 1 were elevated. Moreover, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 were upregulated, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activity were repressed significantly. Administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the Gem sensitivity in NTUB1 cells, whereas that of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor did not. Furthermore, the Gem-resistant sublines also exhibited higher migration ability. Forced expression of p38 MAPK impaired the cell migration activity and augmented Gem sensitivity in NG1.0 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that complex mechanisms were merged in acquiring Gem resistance and provide information that can be important for developing therapeutic targets for treating Gem-resistant tumors.

  7. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  8. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  9. Mixed lineage kinase-3/JNK1 axis promotes migration of human gastric cancer cells following gastrin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prajna; Senthivinayagam, Subramanian; Rangasamy, Velusamy; Sondarva, Gautam; Rana, Basabi

    2010-03-01

    Gastrin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone, secreted by the gastric G cells and can exist as a fully processed amidated form (G17) or as unprocessed forms. All forms of gastrin possess trophic properties towards the gastrointestinal mucosa. An understanding of the signaling pathways involved is important to design therapeutic approaches to target gastrin-mediated cellular events. The studies described here were designed to identify the signaling pathways by which amidated gastrin (G17) mediates cancer cell migration. These studies indicated a time- and dose-dependent increase in gastric cancer cell migration after G17 stimulation, involving cholecystokinin 2 receptor. G17-induced migration was preceded by activation of MAPK pathways and was antagonized after pretreatment with SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Knockdown of endogenous JNK1 expression via small interference RNA (JNK1-siRNA) inhibited G17-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun and migration, and overexpression of wild-type JNK1 or constitutive active JNK1 promoted G17-induced migration. Studies designed to identify the MAPK kinase kinase member mediating JNK activation indicated the involvement of mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK3), which was transiently activated upon G17 treatment. Inhibition of MLK3 pathway via a pan-MLK inhibitor or knockdown of MLK3 expression by MLK3-siRNA antagonized G17-induced migration. Incubation with G17 also resulted in an induction of matrix metalloproteinase 7 promoter activity, which is known to mediate migration and invasion pathways in cancer cells. Modulation of MLK3, JNK1, and c-Jun pathways modulated G17-induced matrix metalloproteinase 7 promoter activation. These studies indicate that the MLK3/JNK1 axis mediates G17-induced gastric cancer cell migration, which can be targeted for designing novel therapeutic strategies for treating gastric malignancies.

  10. Integrating the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM) and optical instrument models to model complete visual optical systems inclusive of the typical or atypical eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William J., III

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: To present a commercially available optical modeling software tool to assist the development of optical instrumentation and systems that utilize and/or integrate with the human eye. METHODS: A commercially available flexible eye modeling system is presented, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). AHEM is a module that the engineer can use to perform rapid development and test scenarios on systems that integrate with the eye. Methods include merging modeled systems initially developed outside of AHEM and performing a series of wizard-type operations that relieve the user from requiring an optometric or ophthalmic background to produce a complete eye inclusive system. Scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources through integrated systems. Uses include, but are not limited to, optimization, telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, contact and intraocular lenses, ocular aberrations, cataract simulation and scattering, and twin eye model (binocular) systems. RESULTS: Metrics, graphical data, and exportable CAD geometry are generated from the various modeling scenarios.

  11. Downregulation of NIMA-related kinase-7 inhibits cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in human retinoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yongkang

    2018-02-01

    NIMA-related kinase-7 (Nek7) is a centrosomal kinase involved in various types of cancer, including gallbladder cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological function and the potential underlying mechanism of Nek7 in retinoblastoma remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of Nek7 in retinoblastoma cells. The expression of Nek7 was initially determined and observed to be commonly upregulated in retinoblastoma cell lines (Y79, SO-RB50 and WERI-RB1) as compared with that in normal retinal pigment epithelium cells. Next, the endogenous expression of Nek7 was efficiently knocked down in Y79 and SO-RB50 cells using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference approach, as confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Loss-of-function assays, including MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry, indicated that knockdown of Nek7 significantly inhibited cell growth, impaired the colony formation ability and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, mechanistic studies demonstrated that silencing of Nek7 resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels in vitro . In conclusion, the present study highlights the crucial role of Nek7 in promoting retinoblastoma cell proliferation, and Nek7-silencing may serve as a novel therapeutic target for retinoblastoma.

  12. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...

  13. Effects of small interfering RNA inhibit Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase on human gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Yu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Kui; Wu, Yong-You; Cheng, Xiao-Li; Wu, Yong; Zhong, Feng-Yun; Gong, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Xing, Chun-Gen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Class I PI3K) signal transduction on the proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of gastric cancer SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. METHODS: We constructed the recombinant replication adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNA interference (RNAi)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and control adenovirus NC-RNAi-GFP, and infected it into human gastric cancer cells. MTT assay was used to determine the growth rate of the gastric cancer cells. Activation of autophagy was monitored with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining after adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP and control adenovirus NC-RNAi-GFP treatment. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. The expression of autophagy was monitored with MDC, LC3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to detect p53, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, and LC3 protein expression in the culture supernatant. RESULTS: The viability of gastric cancer cells was inhibited after siRNA targeting to the Class I PI3K blocked Class I PI3K signal pathway. MTT assays revealed that, after SGC7901 cancer cells were treated with adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP, the rate of inhibition reached 27.48% ± 2.71% at 24 h, 41.92% ± 2.02% at 48 h, and 50.85% ± 0.91% at 72 h. After MGC803 cancer cells were treated with adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP, the rate of inhibition reached 24.39% ± 0.93% at 24 h, 47.00% ± 0.87% at 48 h, and 70.30% ± 0.86% at 72 h (P p53 protein expression was significantly increased from 24 to 72 h. We also found that Bcl-2 protein expression down-regulated with the treatment of adenovirus PI3K(I)-RNAi-GFP (50 MOI). A number of isolated membranes, possibly derived from ribosome-free endoplasmic reticulum, were seen. These isolated membranes were elongated and

  14. The apoptotic mechanism of action of the sphingosine kinase 1 selective inhibitor SKI-178 in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Taryn E; Hengst, Jeremy A; Fox, Todd E; Colledge, Ashley L; Kale, Vijay P; Sung, Shen-Shu; Sharma, Arun; Amin, Shantu; Loughran, Thomas P; Kester, Mark; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

    2015-03-01

    We previously developed SKI-178 (N'-[(1E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylidene]-3-(4-methoxxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carbohydrazide) as a novel sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) selective inhibitor and, herein, sought to determine the mechanism-of-action of SKI-178-induced cell death. Using human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines as a model, we present evidence that SKI-178 induces prolonged mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further examination of the mechanism of action of SKI-178 implicated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) as critical factors required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. In cell cycle synchronized human AML cell lines, we demonstrate that entry into mitosis is required for apoptotic induction by SKI-178 and that CDK1, not JNK, is required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. We further demonstrate that the sustained activation of CDK1 during prolonged mitosis, mediated by SKI-178, leads to the simultaneous phosphorylation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, as well as the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of Mcl-1. Moreover, multidrug resistance mediated by multidrug-resistant protein1 and/or prosurvival Bcl-2 family member overexpression did not affect the sensitivity of AML cells to SKI-178. Taken together, these findings highlight the therapeutic potential of SKI-178 targeting SphK1 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AML, including multidrug-resistant/recurrent AML subtypes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Methyl gallate isolated from Spondias pinnata exhibits anticancer activity against human glioblastoma by induction of apoptosis and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Singh, Sudhir Shankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Spondias pinnata has been reported for its efficient anticancer effects, but the studies were mostly focused on its extract. Since its bioactive compounds are largely unknown, this study was designed to characterize the lead components present in it and their anticancer activity against human glioblastoma cell line (U87). Major compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by column chromatography and their anticancer potentials against U87 cells were evaluated. Furthermore, flow cytometric and immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate the mechanism of apoptosis inducing activity of methyl gallate (MG) against U87 cell line. Four major compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Amongst these, two compounds showed promising activities and with the help of different spectroscopic methods they were identified as gallic acid and MG. Flow cytometric studies revealed that MG-induced apoptosis in U87 cells dose-dependently; the same was confirmed by activation of caspases through cleavage of endogenous substrate poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. MG treatment also induced the expression of p53 and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and cleavage of BH3 interacting-domain with a concomitant decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 expression. Moreover, MG-induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in U87 cells with no change in the phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal of stress-activated protein kinases, p38). MG is a potent antioxidant and it induces sustained ERK1/2 activation and apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87, and provide a rationale for evaluation of MG for other brain carcinoma cell lines for the advancement of glioblastoma therapy.

  16. Transforming growth factor-β1 downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor-D expression in human lung fibroblasts via the Jun NH2-terminal kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Osorio, Juan C; Risquez, Cristobal; Wang, Hao; Shi, Ying; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2014-03-20

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF.

  17. Locostatin, a disrupter of Raf kinase inhibitor protein, inhibits extracellular matrix production, proliferation, and migration in human uterine leiomyoma and myometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjusevic, Milijana; Greco, Stefania; Islam, Md Soriful; Castellucci, Clara; Ciavattini, Andrea; Toti, Paolo; Petraglia, Felice; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the presence of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) in human myometrium and leiomyoma as well as to determine the effect of locostatin (RKIP inhibitor) on extracellular matrix (ECM) production, proliferation, and migration in human myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Laboratory study. Human myometrium and leiomyoma. Thirty premenopausal women who were admitted to the hospital for myomectomy or hysterectomy. Myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were used to investigate the localization and the expression level of RKIP through immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Myometrial and leiomyoma cells were treated with locostatin (10 μM) to measure ECM expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction, GSK3β expression by Western blotting, cell migration by wound-healing assay, and cell proliferation by MTT assay and immunocytochemistry. The expression of RKIP in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue; ECM components and GSK3β expression, migration, and proliferation in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. RKIP is expressed in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue. Locostatin treatment resulted in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway (ERK phosphorylation), providing a powerful validation of our targeting protocol. Further, RKIP inhibition by locostatin reduces ECM components. Moreover, the inhibition of RKIP by locostatin impaired cell proliferation and migration in both leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Finally, locostatin treatment reduced GSK3β expression. Therefore, even if the activation of MAPK pathway should increase proliferation and migration, the destabilization of GSK3β leads to the reduction of proliferation and migration of myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Our results indicate that RKIP may be involved in leiomyoma pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Src family kinases overcomes anoikis resistance induced by spheroid formation and facilitates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Ryoji; Fujita, Yumiko; Tabata, Chiharu; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Nakano, Takashi; Fujimori, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor arising from mesothelial cells of serous membranes, and forms spheroid-like cell aggregates in pleural and peritoneal effusions. We examined the levels of anoikis, apoptosis induced by the detachment of cells from the extracellur matrix, in suspension culture in the human mesothelioma cell line NCI-H2052. NCI-H2052 cells were adherent in conventional monolayer cultures, but were found to form spheroids in suspension cultures using dishes with ultra-low cell binding capacity. NCI-H2052 cells proliferated in both cultures, but the proliferation rate was markedly lower in suspension cultures than in monolayer cultures. In addition, NCI-H2052 cells in suspension cultures showed little apoptosis, suggesting that the suspension culture induces anoikis resistance. Western blot analysis revealed that suspension cultures induced activation of Src family kinases (SFK) after spheroid formation. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of multi-tyrosine kinases including SFK, abolished anoikis resistance in suspension cultures, indicating that SFK activated by spheroid formation are responsible for anoikis resistance. Cisplatin induced apoptosis in NCI-H2052 cells, but the apoptotic rate was significantly lower in suspension cultures than in monolayer cultures, suggesting that spheroid formation is involved in cisplatin resistance. Furthermore, a combination of dasatinib and cisplatin induced apoptosis more significantly than either alone in suspension cultures. These results suggest that spheroid formation induces resistance to anoikis and to cisplatin through SFK activation and that dasatinib facilitates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human mesothelioma cells.

  19. Geldanamycin induces apoptosis in human gastric carcinomas by affecting multiple oncogenic kinases that have synergic effects with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Liang-Qing; Pan, Dun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of geldanamycin (GA) on the treatment of human gastric carcinomas and to investigate the molecular mechanism that provides the basis for the combination of GA with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induction strategy. The expression of target proteins at the mRNA level was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and apoptosis was evaluated with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining methods. Phosphorylation of targeted kinases was studied using immunocytochemistry methods, and malignant phenotypes were studied using in vitro assays. GA treatment inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, most likely by decreasing the expression of B-RAF and by phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and ERK. The inhibitory role of AKT in TRAIL regulation holds considerable potential for achieving a synergic effect in clinical therapy, using a combination of GA treatment and TRAIL induction. The present study provides a basis for the future application of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, such as GA, in the clinical treatment of gastric cancer, particularly in combination therapies with TRAIL inducers.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni induces an anti-inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone

    2011-01-01

    to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and induce pro-inflammatory interleukin-8(IL-8) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human intestinal epithelial cell line Colo 205. The signalling pathways PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP)kinases ERK and p38 were involved in C....... jejuni-induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression. Inhibition of PI3K resulted in augmentation of C. jejuni-induced IL-8 production, concomitant with down-regulation of IL-10 mRNA, indicating an anti-inflammatory response was activated and associated with the activation of P13K/Akt. Similar effect was observed...... for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrated that heat-killed bacteria were able to induce IL-8 and IL-10 expression to a lower level than live bacteria. We therefore conclude that C. jejuni activate a PI3K/Akt-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in human intestinal...

  1. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... and magnetic resonance imaging data and obtained follow-up (FU) information on 77 of these patients over a mean duration of 4 years. The AIIDLs presented as a single lesion in 72 (80 %) patients and exhibited an infiltrative (n = 35), megacystic (n = 16), Baló (n = 10) or ring-like (n = 16) lesion appearance...... in 77 (86 %) patients. Additional multiple sclerosis (MS)-typical lesions existed in 48 (53 %) patients. During FU, a further clinical attack occurred rarely (23-35 % of patients) except for patients with ring-like AIIDLs (62 %). Further attacks were also significantly more often in patients...

  2. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Koranne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  3. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (C...

  4. Atypical odontalgia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Harish; Koratkar, Sonal

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain is not uncommon; however, reaching a definitive diagnosis in these cases can be a complex challenge. Dentists are most likely to face this situation, because persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body. However, the complexities and diagnostic challenges mean that misdiagnosing neuropathic pain is common. This article presents a case of atypical odontalgia and illustrates the complexities involved when diagnosing the condition.

  5. Activation of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP promotes adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Bingbing; Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells are primary multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several cell types including adipocytes when cultured under defined in vitro conditions. In the present study we investigated the role of cAMP signaling and its downstream effectors, protein kinase A (PKA......) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in adipocyte conversion of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (hMADS). We show that cAMP signaling involving the simultaneous activation of both PKA- and Epac-dependent signaling is critical for this process even in the presence...... of the strong adipogenic inducers insulin, dexamethasone, and rosiglitazone, thereby clearly distinguishing the hMADS cells from murine preadipocytes cell lines, where rosiglitazone together with dexamethasone and insulin strongly promotes adipocyte differentiation. We further show that prostaglandin I(2) (PGI...

  6. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  7. Genetic Mapping and Functional Studies of a Natural Inhibitor of the Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase: The Mouse Ortholog of Human α2-HS Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón, Vivian J.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Chi, Kenneth D.; Gross, Jason P.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Goustin, Anton Scott

    2000-01-01

    Fetuin/α2-HS glycoprotein (α2-HSG) homologs have been identified in several species including rat, sheep, pig, rabbit, guinea pig, cattle, mouse and human. Multiple physiological roles for these homologs have been suggested, including ability to bind to hydroxyapatite crystals and to specifically inhibit the tyrosine kinase (TK) activity of the insulin receptor (IR). In this study we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of the mouse Ahsg gene and its function as an IR-TK inhibitor. Genomic clones derived from a mouse Svj 129 genomic library were sequenced in order to characterize the intron–exon organization of the mouse Ahsg gene, including an 875 bp subclone containing 154 bp upstream from the transcription start site, the first exon, and part of the first intron. A second genomic subclone harboring a 3.45 kb Bgl II fragment contained exons 2, 3 and 4 in addition to two adjacent elements within the first intron-a repetitive element of the B1 family (92 bp) and a 271 bp tract of (T,C)n * (A,G)n. We have mapped mouse Ahsg at 16 cM adjacent to the Diacylglycerol kinase 3 (Dagk3) gene on chromosome 16 by genotyping interspecific backcross panels between C57BL/6J and Mus spretus. The position is syntenic with human chromosome 3q27, where the human AHSG gene resides. Using recombinant mouse α2-HSG expressed from a recombinant baculovirus, we demonstrate that mouse α2-HSG inhibits insulin–stimulated IR autophosphorylation and IR-TKA in vitro. In addition, mouse α2-HSG (25μg/ml) completely abolishes insulin-induced DNA synthesis in H-35 rat hepatoma cells. Based on the sequence data and functional analysis, we conclude that the mouse Ahsg gene is the true ortholog of the human AHSG gene. PMID:11467416

  8. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...... for these receptors. Besides SCH 23390, only NNC 112, fluphenazine and bulbocapnine were able to discriminate between the two states of the D1b receptor. In case of the D1a receptor, the Ki values obtained in binding experiments were very similar to Ki values obtained from inhibition of dopamine stimulated adenylyl...... cyclase. In the D1b expressing cell line, the Ki values obtained from inhibition of the dopamine stimulated adenylyl cyclase indicated a significantly better correlation with the state of the D1b receptor showing high affinity for antagonists. In agreement with observations from binding experiments...

  9. A Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, enhances adhesion, viability and differentiation of human term placenta-derived trophoblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kenichiro; Okada, Naoko; Morita, Hideaki; Hara, Mariko; Tamari, Masato; Orimo, Keisuke; Matsuda, Go; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Matsuda, Akio; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Fujieda, Mikiya; Sago, Haruhiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Although human term placenta-derived primary cytotrophoblasts (pCTBs) represent a good human syncytiotrophoblast (STB) model, in vitro culture of pCTBs is not always easily accomplished. Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), reportedly prevented apoptosis and improved cell-to-substrate adhesion and culture stability of dissociated cultured human embryonic stem cells and human corneal endothelial cells. The Rho kinase pathway regulates various kinds of cell behavior, some of which are involved in pCTB adhesion and differentiation. In this study, we examined Y-27632's potential for enhancing pCTB adhesion, viability and differentiation. pCTBs were isolated from term, uncomplicated placentas by trypsin-DNase I-Dispase II treatment and purified by HLA class I-positive cell depletion. Purified pCTBs were cultured on uncoated plates in the presence of epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml) and various concentrations of Y-27632. pCTB adhesion to the plates was evaluated by phase-contrast imaging, viability was measured by WST-8 assay, and differentiation was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, expression of fusogenic genes and hCG-β production. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1; one of the effector proteins of the Rho family) and protein kinase A (PKA) involvement was evaluated by using their specific inhibitors, NSC-23766 and H-89. We found that Y-27632 treatment significantly enhanced pCTB adhesion to plates, viability, cell-to-cell fusion and hCG-β production, but showed no effects on pCTB proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, NSC-23766 and H-89 each blocked the effects of Y-27632, suggesting that Y-27632 significantly enhanced pCTB differentiation via Rac1 and PKA activation. Our findings suggest that Rac1 and PKA may be interactively involved in CTB differentiation, and addition of Y-27632 to cultures may be an effective method for creating a stable culture model for studying CTB and STB biology

  10. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Yuan; Rodgers, William H.; Kauderer, James; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Walker, Joan L.; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Carter, Randy; Hatae, Masayuji; Levine, Lyuba; Spirtos, Nick M; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia but its role in detecting glandular lesions is unclear. In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix. The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC). H-HPV was detected using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in liquid based cytology and CA-IX immunoreactivity was studied on conventional Pap smears. Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. CA-IX testing alone (n=403) had a sensitivity of 75%, 95%, or 65% for SCLs, significant glandular lesions (GLs) or squamous lesions (SLs), respectively, with a specificity of 88%, and a false negative rate (FNR defined as one minus negative predictive value) of 10%. Testing for H-HPV (n=122) had a sensitivity of 97%, 100%, or 96% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a specificity of 87%, and a FNRof 1%. The combination of CA-IX and H-HPV testing (n=122), collectively, had the same sensitivity, specificity and FNR for SCLs, GLs or SLs as H-HPV testing alone. The conclusions of this study are that both H-HPV and CA-IX testing are useful diagnostic markers for GLs. However, H-HPV testing is a better diagnostic marker for SLs. The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone. PMID:19670419

  11. Comparison of human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV tests in a population of women referred for colposcopy following detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance by Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n=988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P=1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P≤0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Thomas; He, Jie; Yelensky, Roman; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Botton, Thomas; Yeh, Iwei; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Brennan, Kristina; Murali, Rajmohan; Garrido, Maria; Miller, Vincent A.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Berger, Michael F.; Sparatta, Alyssa; Palmedo, Gabriele; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Busam, Klaus J.; Kutzner, Heinz; Cronin, Maureen T.; Stephens, Philip J.; Bastian, Boris C.

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid neoplasms are a group of melanocytic tumours with distinctive histopathological features. They include benign tumours (Spitz naevi), malignant tumours (spitzoid melanomas) and tumours with borderline histopathological features and uncertain clinical outcome (atypical Spitz tumours). Their genetic underpinnings are poorly understood, and alterations in common melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent. Here we show that spitzoid neoplasms harbour kinase fusions of ROS1 (17%), NTRK1 (16%), ALK (10%), BRAF (5%) and RET (3%) in a mutually exclusive pattern. The chimeric proteins are constitutively active, stimulate oncogenic signalling pathways, are tumourigenic and are found in the entire biologic spectrum of spitzoid neoplasms, including 55% of Spitz naevi, 56% of atypical Spitz tumours and 39% of spitzoid melanomas. Kinase inhibitors suppress the oncogenic signalling of the fusion proteins in vitro. In summary, kinase fusions account for the majority of oncogenic aberrations in spitzoid neoplasms and may serve as therapeutic targets for metastatic spitzoid melanomas.

  13. Urea-induced denaturation of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: a combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Haque, Md Anzarul; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2017-02-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is a multifunctional enzyme which belongs to the Ser/Thr kinase family. CaMKIV plays important role in varieties of biological processes such as gene expression regulation, memory consolidation, bone growth, T-cell maturation, sperm motility, regulation of microtubule dynamics, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis. To measure stability parameters, urea-induced denaturation of CaMKIV was carried out at pH 7.4 and 25°C, using three different probes, namely far-UV CD, near-UV absorption, and tryptophan fluorescence. A coincidence of normalized denaturation curves of these optical properties suggests that urea-induced denaturation is a two-state process. Analysis of these denaturation curves gave values of 4.20 ± 0.12 kcal mol-1, 2.95 ± 0.15 M, and 1.42 ± 0.06 kcal mol-1 M-1 for [Formula: see text] (Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD) in the absence of urea), Cm (molar urea concentration ([urea]) at the midpoint of the denaturation curve), and m (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]), respectively. All these experimental observations have been fully supported by 30 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates PAX3-FKHR-mediated cell proliferation in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fu-Yue; Dong, Hanqing; Cui, Jimmy; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Taosheng

    2009-01-01

    Patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have poorer response to conventional chemotherapy and lower survival rates than those with embryonal RMS (ERMS). To identify compounds that preferentially block the growth of ARMS, we conducted a small-scale screen of 160 kinase inhibitors against the ARMS cell line Rh30 and ERMS cell line RD and identified inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), including TWS119 as ARMS-selective inhibitors. GSK3 inhibitors inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis more effectively in Rh30 than RD cells. Ectopic expression of fusion protein PAX3-FKHR in RD cells significantly increased their sensitivity to TWS119. Down-regulation of GSK3 by GSK3 inhibitors or siRNA significantly reduced the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. These results suggest that GSK3 is directly involved in regulating the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. Also, GSK3 phosphorylated PAX3-FKHR in vitro, suggesting that GSK3 might regulate PAX3-FKHR activity via phosphorylation. These findings support a novel mechanism of PAX3-FKHR regulation by GSK3 and provide a novel strategy to develop GSK inhibitors as anti-ARMS therapies. PMID:19995556

  15. High-resolution crystal structure of human Mapkap kinase 3 in complex with a high affinity ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Robert; Felicetti, Brunella; Palan, Shilpa; Toogood-Johnson, Ian; Scheich, Christoph; Barker, John; Whittaker, Mark; Hesterkamp, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Mapkap kinases 2 and 3 (MK2 and MK3) have been implicated in intracellular signaling pathways leading to the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. MK2 has been pursued by the biopharmaceutical industry for many years for the development of a small molecule anti-inflammatory treatment and drug-like inhibitors have been described. The development of some of these compounds, however, has been slowed by the absence of a high-resolution crystal structure of MK2. Herein we present a high-resolution (1.9 A) crystal structure of the highly homologous MK3 in complex with a pharmaceutical lead compound. While all of the canonical features of Ser/Thr kinases in general and MK2 in particular are recapitulated in MK3, the detailed analysis of the binding interaction of the drug-like ligand within the adenine binding pocket allows relevant conclusions to be drawn for the further design of potent and selective drug candidates.

  16. Structural basis for specificity and potency of a flavonoid inhibitor of human CDK2, a cell cycle kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira de Azevedo, W. Jr.; Mueller-Dieckmann, H.J.; Schulze-Gahmen, U. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-02

    The central role of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in cell cycle regulation makes them a promising target for studying inhibitory molecules that can modify the degree of cell proliferation. The discovery of specific inhibitors of CDKs such as polyhydroxylated flavones has opened the way to investigation and design of antimitotic compounds. A novel flavone, (-)-cis-5,7-dihydroxyphenyl-8-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl)piperidinyl]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride hemihydrate (L868276), is a potent inhibitor of CDKs. A chlorinated form, flavopiridol, is currently in phase I clinical trials as a drug against breast tumors. We determined the crystal structure of a complex between CDK2 and L868276 at 2.33-{Angstrom} resolution and refined to an R{sub factor} of 20.3%. The aromatic portion of the inhibitor binds to the adenine-binding pocket of CDK2, and the position of the phenyl group of the inhibitor enables the inhibitor to make contacts with the enzyme not observed in the ATP complex structure. The analysis of the position of this phenyl ring not only explains the great differences of kinase inhibition among the flavonoid inhibitors but also explains the specificity of L868276 to inhibit CDK2 and CDC2. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Identification of S664 TSC2 phosphorylation as a marker for extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediated mTOR activation in tuberous sclerosis and human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Bonner, Pauline; Bernardi, Rosa; Franz, David Neal; Witte, David; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk1/2) is frequently implicated in human cancers. Recently, aberrantly activated Erk was also found in brain lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis (TSC). We reported previously that Erk might contribute to tumorigenesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at specific residues, particularly S664. In our present study, 25 TSC-related cortical tubers or subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, as well as tissue microarrays of six types of human cancers, were analyzed for the expression of phospho-Erk (pErk) 1/2, S664-phospho-TSC2 (pTSC2), and phospho-S6 (pS6) by immunohistochemistry. We found that Erk-mediated TSC2 phosphorylation occurred at a high incidence and positively correlated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in TSC-associated brain lesions as well as in various cancers. Interestingly, in certain types of cancers (e.g., breast carcinoma and colon carcinoma), S664-pTSC2 seemed to be a more sensitive marker than pErk. Furthermore, most of the pTSC2-positive samples ( approximately 75%) were positive for pS6, but only 40% to 55% of the pS6-positive tumors exhibited TSC2 phosphorylation. Our results show that S664 TSC2 phosphorylation is a marker for Erk-mediated (as opposed to Akt-mediated) mTOR activation in TSC and human cancer. On the basis of these findings, TSC2 phosphorylation at S664 can be used to identify patients that may benefit from antitumor therapy with MAPK and mTOR inhibitors. Importantly, our results indicate that Erk-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of TSC2 can be critical in development of hamartomatous lesions in TSC and cancer pathogenesis.

  18. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  19. Advanced glycation end products induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from human platelets through the Src-family kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Fuse, Ichiro; Iwakura, Yuriko; Sotoyama, Hidekazu; Hanyu, Osamu; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Sone, Hirohito; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2017-02-08

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts beneficial effects not only on diabetic neuropathies but also on cardiovascular injury. There is argument regarding the levels of serum BDNF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Because BDNF in peripheral blood is rich in platelets, this may represent dysregulation of BDNF release from platelets. Here we focused on advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are elevated in patients with DM and have adverse effects on cardiovascular functions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of AGEs in the regulation of BDNF release from human platelets. Platelets collected from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were incubated with various concentrations of AGE (glycated-BSA) at 37 °C for 5 min with or without BAPTA-AM, a cell permeable Ca(2+) chelator, or PP2, a potent inhibitor of Src family kinases (SFKs). Released and cellular BDNF were measured by ELISA and calculated. Phosphorylation of Src and Syk, a downstream kinase of SFKs, in stimulated platelets was examined by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. AGE induced BDNF release from human platelets in a dose-dependent manner, which was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and SFKs. We found that AGE induced phosphorylation of Src and Syk. AGE induces BDNF release from human platelets through the activation of the Src-Syk-(possibly phospholipase C)-Ca(2+) pathway. Considering the toxic action of AGEs and the protective roles of BDNF, it can be hypothesized that AGE-induced BDNF release is a biological defense system in the early phase of diabetes. Chronic elevation of AGEs may induce depletion or downregulation of BDNF in platelets during the progression of DM.

  20. Synergistic antitumor effect of adenovirus armed with Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase and nucleoside analogs for human breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Miao; Zu, Cong; He, Anning; Wang, Wenqian; Chen, Bo; Zheng, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide gene therapy in cancer can selectively kill tumors without damaging normal tissues. Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK), an original suicide kinase, makes use of the carcinomatous suicide gene therapy for broader substrate specificity and a higher catalytic rate. Methods To enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of Dm-dNK and maintain its substrate specificity and safety control in the meantime, the conditionally replicative gene–viral system, ZD55–dNK (which contains the selective replication adenovirus, ZD55, encoded with Dm-dNK), was investigated in pushing a deeper development of this strategy. Selective replication, cell killing efficacy, and cytotoxicity, in combination with chemotherapy, were applied to two breast cell lines (MDA231 and MCF7 cells), two normal cell lines (WI38 and MRC5 cells), and the MCF7 xenograft model in vivo. Results The preclinical study showed that ZD55–dNK, combined with 2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine (DFDC), synergistically inhibited adenovirus replication in vitro but maintained specifically cancer cell killing efficacy. ZD55–dNK also greatly improved the antineoplastic effect in vitro and in breast cancer xenograft in vivo. Conclusion The concomitant use of ZD55–dNK and DFDC is possibly a novel and promising approach to breast cancer treatment, and further investigation on the safe control of excessive virus replication and the efficacy of this approach in humans is warranted. PMID:26203222

  1. Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Optic neuritis (ON is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or "typical" ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to "atypical" causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision.

  2. Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Ishii, Takeo; Inomata, Minoru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kokuho, Nariaki; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Miya, Toshimichi; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate. Signalling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors are known to be involved in lung fibrosis, and this knowledge has led to the development of the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), for the treatment of IPF. Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), an important biomarker of IPF, reportedly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate the effect of nintedanib on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we treated mice with nintedanib to examine its in vivo effect on SP-D levels in lungs. These experiments showed that nintedanib up-regulated SP-D messenger RNA expression in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations up to 5 μM, with significant SP-D induction observed at concentrations of 3 μM and 5 μM, in comparison with that observed in vehicle controls. Nintedanib stimulated a rapid increase in phosphorylated JNK in A549 cells within 30 min of treatment and stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Additionally, nintedanib was found to activate AP-1. A549 cell proliferation was not affected by nintedanib at any of the tested

  3. Anti-VEGF strategies - from antibodies to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: background and clinical development in human cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Korpanty, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels supporting tumour growth and metastasis) is a result of complex interactions between the tumour and the surrounding microenvironment. Targeting tumours with anti-angiogenic therapy remains an exciting area of preclinical and clinical studies. Although many significant advances have been achieved and the clinical use of anti-angiogenic drugs is now well recognized in many solid malignancies, these therapies fall short of their anticipated clinical benefits and leave many unanswered questions like exact mechanism of action, patients\\' selection and monitoring response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Tumour angiogenesis is controlled by complex signaling cascades and ongoing research into molecular mechanisms of tumour angiogenesis not only helps to understand its basic mechanisms but hopefully will identify new therapeutic targets. In 2012, both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain the two major clinically useful therapeutic options that interfere with tumour angiogenesis in many solid malignancies.

  4. Phosphorylation of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase by casein kinase 2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, M; Issinger, O G; Lascu, I

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorylation of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and of homologous NDPK from different species by human casein kinase 2 (CK-2). The human NDPK isotypes A and B were phosphorylated by CK-2 in vitro both when the purified proteins and total lysate of HL-60 leukemia...

  5. Integrin-linked kinase is a functional Mn2+-dependent protein kinase that regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3beta phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Maydan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrin-linked kinase (ILK is a highly evolutionarily conserved, multi-domain signaling protein that localizes to focal adhesions, myofilaments and centrosomes where it forms distinct multi-protein complexes to regulate cell adhesion, cell contraction, actin cytoskeletal organization and mitotic spindle assembly. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ILK can regulate the phosphorylation of various protein and peptide substrates in vitro, as well as the phosphorylation of potential substrates and various signaling pathways in cultured cell systems. Nevertheless, the ability of ILK to function as a protein kinase has been questioned because of its atypical kinase domain.Here, we have expressed full-length recombinant ILK, purified it to >94% homogeneity, and characterized its kinase activity. Recombinant ILK readily phosphorylates glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 peptide and the 20-kDa regulatory light chains of myosin (LC(20. Phosphorylation kinetics are similar to those of other active kinases, and mutation of the ATP-binding lysine (K220 within subdomain 2 causes marked reduction in enzymatic activity. We show that ILK is a Mn-dependent kinase (the K(m for MnATP is approximately 150-fold less than that for MgATP.Taken together, our data demonstrate that ILK is a bona fide protein kinase with enzyme kinetic properties similar to other active protein kinases.

  6. Atypical temporomandibular joint pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Charles G; Wold, Courtney C; Stoll, Ethan M; Dolwick, M Franklin

    2014-12-01

    Atypical temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain can consist of an unusual intensity, location or set of pain descriptors that do not match what is traditionally observed for TMJ capsular pain, disc displacements or arthritic conditions. Presented in this case report is an atypical pain report regarding a unilateral TMJ pain as the chief complaint. An overview of typical vs atypical TMJ pain is also reviewed to highlight unusual signs and symptoms so that the clinician can identify these atypical presentations and pursue further diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...... of atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification.......Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...

  8. Is atypical odontalgia a psychological problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, S B; Solberg, W K

    1993-05-01

    Several authors have asserted that psychological factors are the underlying cause of atypical odontalgia. However, objective evidence is lacking to support this claim. In this study, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to assess psychological functioning of an atypical odontalgia population. Means of the standard scores for each Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale were within normal ranges. Standard scores for atypical odontalgia profiles compared with standard scores for a chronic headache group (matched for age, sex, and chronicity) were similar and scales for both groups were within normal ranges. These findings fail to support psychological dysfunction as a primary condition associated with patients suffering from atypical odontalgia.

  9. The mouse/human cross-species heterodimer of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2: possible significance in the transgenic model mouse of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, T; Ohta, E; Kawada, H; Maekawa, T; Obata, F

    2015-02-19

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) is the causal molecule of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously reported that intracellular degradation of wild-type (WT) LRRK2 is promoted by formation of heterodimers with the I2020T mutant LRRK2. In the present study, we investigated whether this is also the case for mouse/human cross-species heterodimers, which could be formed in transgenic mice. First, by co-transfection and immunoprecipitation, we identified the cross-species heterodimer of mouse LRRK2 and human LRRK2. Next, we found that the protein level of mouse LRRK2 decreased when co-transfected with human I2020T LRRK2, but not with human WT LRRK2. These results suggested that degradation of mouse LRRK2 was promoted by formation of a cross-species heterodimer with the mutant LRRK2. In I2020T LRRK2-transgenic mice, the lower protein level of brain LRRK2 in comparison with control mice, together with higher expression of the mRNA, suggested that endogenous LRRK2 was degraded by formation of cross-species heterodimers. Our results suggest a new concept of cross-species dimer/oligomer formation in transgenic disease-model mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Atypical courses of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, W

    1979-04-01

    For the investigation of the question of atypical forms of course selected findings of a multicentric electronic data processing investigation carried out on 1,000 patients with manifest rheumatoid arthritis were attracted. In these cases differences of the clinical symptomatology in the sexes were the result, at a different moment of the beginning and concerning serological findings. The latter was concerned clearly by the titres of rheumatoid factors, only suggestively cases with antinuclear factors. These differences, however, were not regarded as special forms in the sense of separated disease units. They rather represent only statistically provable deviations, the borderlines of which are by far transgressed by individual characteristics.

  11. JAK protein kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James E

    2005-06-01

    In humans, the Janus protein tyrosine kinase family (JAKs) contains four members: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2. JAKs phosphorylate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) simultaneously with other phosphorylations required for activation, and there are several cellular mechanisms in place to inhibit JAK/STAT signaling. That one might be able to modulate selected JAK/STAT-mediated cellular signals by inhibiting JAK kinase activity to effect a positive therapeutic outcome is a tantalizing prospect, as yet incompletely realized. While current data suggest no therapeutic use for JAK1 and TYK2 inhibition, JAK2 inhibition seems a promising but not definitively tested mechanism for treatment of leukemia. More promising, however, are data indicating a possible therapeutic use of JAK3 inhibition. The restriction of the JAK3-deficient phenotype to the hematopoietic system and the resulting profound immune suppression suggest that JAK3 could be a target for immunosuppressive therapies used to prevent organ transplant rejection.

  12. TGFβ activated kinase 1 (TAK1 at the crossroad of B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathways in human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Szili

    Full Text Available B cell development and activation are regulated by combined signals mediated by the B cell receptor (BCR, receptors for the B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF-R and the innate receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these signals cooperate in human B cells remain unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the key signaling molecules at the crossroads of BCR, BAFF-R and TLR9 mediated pathways and to follow the functional consequences of costimulation.Therefore we stimulated purified human B cells by combinations of anti-Ig, B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF and the TLR9 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Phosphorylation status of various signaling molecules, B cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, plasma blast generation and the frequency of IgG producing cells were investigated. We have found that BCR induced signals cooperate with BAFF-R- and TLR9-mediated signals at different levels of cell activation. BCR and BAFF- as well as TLR9 and BAFF-mediated signals cooperate at NFκB activation, while BCR and TLR9 synergistically costimulate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38. We show here for the first time that the MAP3K7 (TGF beta activated kinase, TAK1 is responsible for the synergistic costimulation of B cells by BCR and TLR9, resulting in an enhanced cell proliferation, plasma blast generation, cytokine and antibody production. Specific inhibitor of TAK1 as well as knocking down TAK1 by siRNA abrogates the synergistic signals. We conclude that TAK1 is a key regulator of receptor crosstalk between BCR and TLR9, thus plays a critical role in B cell development and activation.

  13. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-βI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase

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    Beili Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•− generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-α, PKC-β or PKC-βI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•− by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-βI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•− production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-βI and NADPH oxidase.

  14. The cell division control protein 42-Src family kinase-neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein pathway regulates human proplatelet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, A; Bluteau, O; Messaoudi, K; Marangoni, F; Chang, Y; Souquere, S; Pierron, G; Lapierre, V; Zheng, Y; Vainchenker, W; Raslova, H; Debili, N

    2016-12-01

    Essentials The role of the cytoskeleton during megakaryocyte differentiation was examined. Human megakaryocytes are derived from in vitro cultured CD34(+) cells. Cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) positively regulates proplatelet formation (PPF). Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, the main effector of CDC42 with Src positively regulates PPF. Background Cytoskeletal rearrangements are essential for platelet release. The RHO small GTPase family, as regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, play an important role in proplatelet formation (PPF). In the neuronal system, CDC42 is involved in axon formation, a process that combines elongation and branching as for PPF. Objective To analyze the role of CDC42 and its effectors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family in PPF. Methods Human megakaryocytes (MKs) were obtained from CD34(+) cells. Inhibition of CDC42 in MKs was performed with the chemical inhibitor CASIN or with an active or a dominant-negative form of CDC42. The knock-down of N-WASP was obtained with a small hairpin RNA strategy Results Herein, we show that CDC42 activity increased during MK differentiation. The use of the chemical inhibitor CASIN or of an active or a dominant-negative form of CDC42 demonstrated that CDC42 positively regulated PPF in vitro. We determined that N-WASP, but not WASP, regulated PPF. We found that N-WASP knockdown led to a marked decrease in PPF, owing to a defect in the demarcation membrane system (DMS). This was associated with RHOA activation, and a concomitant augmentation in the phosphorylation of mysosin light chain 2. Phosphorylation of N-WASP, creating a primed form of N-WASP, increased during MK differentiation. Phosphorylation inhibition by two Src family kinase inhibitors decreased PPF. Conclusions We conclude that N-WASP positively regulates DMS development and PPF, and that the Src family kinases in association with CDC42 regulate PPF through N-WASP. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and

  15. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression of

  16. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language: Computational techniques are presented to analyze and model expressed and perceived human behavior-variedly characterized as typical, atypical, distressed, and disordered-from speech and language cues and their applications in health, commerce, education, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G

    2013-02-07

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion.

  17. Platelet-rich plasma stimulates human dermal fibroblast proliferation via a Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomoya; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a high concentration of several growth factors and contributes to soft-tissue engineering and wound healing. However, the effect of PRP on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and responses is unknown. This was investigated in the present study using PRP prepared from the whole human blood using the double-spin method. Human dermal fibroblast cultures were established from skin samples collected during plastic surgery. Platelet concentration and growth factor levels in PRP were estimated, and a cell proliferation assay was carried out after PRP treatment. The role of Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the effects of PRP was investigated in human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing ERK1/2 expression with an inhibitor or by short interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown, and assessing ERK1/2 phosphorylation by western blotting as well as proliferation in PRP-treated cells. We found that PRP stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation, which was suppressed by ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment (P < 0.01). ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in the presence of PRP, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 blocked cell proliferation normally induced by PRP treatment (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that PRP induces human dermal fibroblast proliferation via activation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our findings provide a basis for the development of agents that can promote wound healing and can be applied to soft-tissue engineering.

  18. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  19. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JP

    2015-02-01

    , but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA, and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2 and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Erk1/2 also remarkably increased the level of LC3-II in MCF7 cells. Moreover, Danu inhibited EMT in both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with upregulated E

  20. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

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    Cong Haolong

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  1. Enterovirus 71 VP1 Activates Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Results in the Rearrangement of Vimentin in Human Astrocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human. PMID:24073199

  2. Effects of sodium lactate Ringer's injection on transfection of human protein kinase C-α antisense oligonucleotide in A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z H; Sun, W W; Han, Y L; Ma, Z

    2016-08-26

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection. The cell viability and transfection efficiency were determined. The results demonstrated that when SLRI was used as either the growth solution or both the growth solution and diluent for aprinocarsen transfection in A549 cells, the effects were close to the best effects observed with DMEM as the growth solution and OPTI-MEM as the diluent, which supported the transfection of aprinocarsen into the cells. Moreover, SLRI resulted in higher transfection efficiency than those of PBS and NaCl. In in vitro experiments, aprinocarsen effectively induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, SLRI may replace PBS or NaCl in clinical trials as a transfection solution readily accepted by the human body. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of SLRI as a transfection solution in lung-cancer cell lines.

  3. The Natural Stilbenoid Piceatannol Decreases Activity and Accelerates Apoptosis of Human Neutrophils: Involvement of Protein Kinase C

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    Viera Jancinova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are able to release cytotoxic substances and inflammatory mediators, which, along with their delayed apoptosis, have a potential to maintain permanent inflammation. Therefore, treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation should be focused on neutrophils; formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis of these cells represent two promising targets for pharmacological intervention. Piceatannol, a naturally occurring stilbenoid, has the ability to reduce the toxic action of neutrophils. This substance decreased the amount of oxidants produced by neutrophils both extra- and intracellularly. Radicals formed within neutrophils (fulfilling a regulatory role were reduced to a lesser extent than extracellular oxidants, potentially dangerous for host tissues. Moreover, piceatannol did not affect the phosphorylation of p40phox—a component of NADPH oxidase, responsible for the assembly of functional oxidase in intracellular (granular membranes. The stilbenoid tested elevated the percentage of early apoptotic neutrophils, inhibited the activity of protein kinase C (PKC—the main regulatory enzyme in neutrophils, and reduced phosphorylation of PKC isoforms α, βII, and δ on their catalytic region. The results indicated that piceatannol may be useful as a complementary medicine in states associated with persisting neutrophil activation and with oxidative damage of tissues.

  4. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Shyue [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  5. Hub nodes in the network of human Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways: Characteristics and potential as drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. MD Aksam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in the cross-talk between ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK, and P38 signalling pathways integrate the network of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways. Graph theory-based approach is used to construct the network of MAPK pathways, and to observe the network organisational principles. Connectivity pattern reveals rich-club among the hubs, enabling structural ordering. A positive correlation between the degree of the nodes and percentage of essential protein showed hubs are central to the network architecture and function. Furthermore, attributes like connectivity, inter/intra-pathway class, position in the pathway, protein type and subcellular localization of the essential and non-essential proteins are characterizing complex functional roles. Shared properties of 34 cancerous essential proteins lack to be drug targets. We identified the seven nodes overlapping properties of the hub, essential and causing side effects on targeting them. We exploit the strategy of cancerous, non-hub and non-essential proteins as potential drug targets and identified 4EBP1, BAD, CHOP10, GADD45, HSP27, MKP1, RNPK, MLTKa/b, cPLA2, eEF2K and elF4E. We have illustrated the implication of targeting hub nodes and proposed network-based drug targets which would cause less side effect.

  6. Exploring the interaction between human focal adhesion kinase and inhibitors: a molecular dynamic simulation and free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiu-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Long; Wang, Yan; Li, Ye; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Zheng, Qing-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Focal adhesion kinase is an important target for the treatment of many kinds of cancers. Inhibitors of FAK are proposed to be the anticancer agents for multiple tumors. The interaction characteristic between FAK and its inhibitors is crucial to develop new inhibitors. In the present article, we used Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation method to explore the characteristic of interaction between FAK and three inhibitors (PHM16, TAE226, and ligand3). The MD simulation results together with MM-GB/SA calculations show that the combinations are enthalpy-driven process. Cys502 and Asp564 are both essential residues due to the hydrogen bond interactions with inhibitors, which was in good agreement with experimental data. Glu500 can form a non-classical hydrogen bond with each inhibitor. Arg426 can form electrostatic interactions with PHM16 and ligand3, while weaker with TAE226. The electronic static potential was employed, and we found that the ortho-position methoxy of TAE226 has a weaker negative charge than the meta-position one in PHM16 or ligand3. Ile428, Val436, Ala452, Val484, Leu501, Glu505, Glu506, Leu553, Gly563 Leu567, Ser568 are all crucial residues in hydrophobic interactions. The key residues in this work will be available for further inhibitor design of FAK and also give assistance to further research of cancer.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Udaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT is a rare malignant intracranial neoplasm more commonly diagnosed in young children. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with a long standing history of slowly progressive weight loss, fatigue, and weakness over 1.5 years whose magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneous enhancing dorsally exophytic lower brainstem mass. Examination revealed extreme cachexia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, dysphagia, dysarthria, bilateral dysmetria, and global weakness without ambulation. The protracted history and neuroimaging features were most suggestive of a low grade glioma. However, pathology revealed a hypercellular tumor with large hyperchromatic nucleoli and loss of INI-1 staining on immunohistochemistry consistent with a diagnosis of an ATRT. The child died shortly after surgery due to complications from his brainstem infiltrative disease. This case illustrates the diverse presentation of ATRT in childhood that can clinically and radiographically mimic that of low grade glioma.

  8. Constrictive Pericarditis Associated with Atypical Antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-chin Jean Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful surgical intervention in a case of constrictive pericarditis after long-term use of atypical antipsychotics. Pericarditis developed in our patient with a longstanding history of schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics. Pericardiectomy was undertaken, and the patient's presenting symptom of shortness of breath resolved subsequently with an uneventful postoperative course.

  9. MHC class I ligation of human T cells activates the ZAP70 and p56lck tyrosine kinases, leads to an alternative phenotype of the TCR/CD3 zeta-chain, and induces apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1997-01-01

    Cross-linking of MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules on human T cells induces signal-transduction events, including activation of tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1, and elevation of the intracellular free calcium concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that the ...

  10. Characterization and mapping of the human rhodopsin kinase gene and screening of the gene for mutations in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, S.C.; Lin, D.; Magovcevic, I. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Rhodopsin kinase (RK) is a cytosolic enzyme in rod photoreceptors that initiates the deactivation of the phototransductions cascade by phosphorylating photoactivated rhodopsin. Although the cDNA sequence of bovine RK has been determined previously, no human cDNA or genomic sequence has thus far been available for genetic studies. In order to investigate the possible role of this candidate gene in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and allied diseases, we have isolated and characterized human cDNA and genomic clones derived from the RK locus. The coding sequence of the human gene is 1692 nucleotides in length and is split into seven exons. The human and the bovine sequence show 84% identity at the nucleotide level and 92% identity at the amino acid level. Thus far, the intronic sequences flanking each exon except for one have been determined. We have also mapped the human RK gene to chromosome 13q34 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. To our knowledge, no RP gene has as yet been linked to this region. However, since the substrate for RK (rhodopsin) and other members of the phototransduction cascade have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RP, it is conceivable that defects in RK can also cause some forms of this disease. We are evaluating this possibility by screening DNA from 173 patients with autosomal recessive RP and 190 patients with autosomal dominant RP. So far, we have found 11 patients with variant bands. In one patient with autosomal dominant RP we discovered the missense change Ser536Leu. Cosegregation studies and further sequencing of the variant bands are currently underway.

  11. Role of protein kinase A in the inhibition of human mast cell histamine release by β-adrenergic receptor agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Kato

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions: The present results suggest that PKA activation induced by β-adrenergic receptor agonists plays a crucial role in inhibiting IgE-mediated histamine release from human cultured mast cells through suppressing PKC translocation.

  12. Synergistic antitumor effect of adenovirus armed with Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase and nucleoside analogs for human breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Miao Tang,1 Cong Zu,2 Anning He,2 Wenqian Wang,1 Bo Chen,1 Xinyu Zheng1,2 1Department of Breast Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, 2Laboratory 1, Cancer Institute, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Suicide gene therapy in cancer can selectively kill tumors without damaging normal tissues. Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK, an original suicide kinase, makes use of the carcinomatous suicide gene therapy for broader substrate specificity and a higher catalytic rate.Methods: To enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of Dm-dNK and maintain its substrate specificity and safety control in the meantime, the conditionally replicative gene–viral system, ZD55–dNK (which contains the selective replication adenovirus, ZD55, encoded with Dm-dNK, was investigated in pushing a deeper development of this strategy. Selective replication, cell killing efficacy, and cytotoxicity, in combination with chemotherapy, were applied to two breast cell lines (MDA231 and MCF7 cells, two normal cell lines (WI38 and MRC5 cells, and the MCF7 xenograft model in vivo.Results: The preclinical study showed that ZD55–dNK, combined with 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (DFDC, synergistically inhibited adenovirus replication in vitro but maintained specifically cancer cell killing efficacy. ZD55–dNK also greatly improved the antineoplastic effect in vitro and in breast cancer xenograft in vivo.Conclusion: The concomitant use of ZD55–dNK and DFDC is possibly a novel and promising approach to breast cancer treatment, and further investigation on the safe control of excessive virus replication and the efficacy of this approach in humans is warranted. Keywords: Dm-dNK, oncolytic adenovirus, cancer suicide gene therapy, nucleoside analogs, safety control

  13. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells by downregulating the protein kinase B signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zeyuan; Xu, Huali; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuchen; Huang, Long; Jin, Xin; Sui, Dayun

    2018-02-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor for children aged S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a ginsenoside extracted from Pananx quinquefolium L ., which inhibits tumor growth in several cancer cell lines. The purpose of the present study was to assess the anticancer activities of 20(S)-PPD in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of 20(S)-PPD on HepG2 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected using DAPI staining and flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-associated proteins was identified by western blotting. The results demonstrated that 20(S)-PPD inhibited the viability of HepG2 cell in a dose and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values were 81.35, 73.5, 48.79 µM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Topical morphological changes of apoptotic body formation following 20(S)-PPD treatment were detected by DAPI staining. The percentage of Annexin V-fluoroscein isothyiocyanate positive cells were 3.73, 17.61, 23.44 and 65.43% in HepG2 cells treated with 0, 40, 50 and 60 µM of 20(S)-PPD, respectively. Furthermore, 20(S)-PPD upregulated the expression of Bax and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and also activated caspases-3 and -9, and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase cleavage. In addition, 20(S)-PPD inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt; Ser473). The results indicate that 20(S)-PPD inhibits the viability of HepG2 cells and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  14. Atypical manifestations of tinea faciei

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    Mittal R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 58 paitents of tinea faciei was conducted. Twenty five (43.1% patients had history of photosensitivity. Twenty eight (48.2% patients were applying topical steroids, 2 (3.4% patients were on 10 mg of prednisolone daily. Associated tinea of other sites were observed in 14 (24.13%. 23 (39.6% patients had typical circinate, arcuate, annular plaques with raised margin showing vesiculo-pustules. Atypical manifestations were in the form of arcuate plaques on the pinna in 4 patients, erythematous plaques full of vesiculo-pustules without central clearing in 3. Thirty two (55.17% patients had plaques with broad edges and indistinct central clearing. In 2 patients lesions resembled discoid lupus erythematosus. Skin scrapings for fungus was positive in 36 (62.06% cases. All patients responded to systemic griseofulvin 10mg/kg with 1% clotrimazole topicaly in 4-8 weeks.

  15. Atypical presentations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa Adriana Luminita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the association of celiac disease in 81 children with autoimmune disease and genetic syndromes over a two years periods (January 2014 to July 2016 in Pediatric Clinic in Constanta. Because the extraintestinal symptoms are an atypical presentation of celiac disease we determined in these children the presence of celiac disease antibodies: Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgA and IgA total serum level as a screening method followeds in selective cases by Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody IgG, anti-endomysial antibodies, deamidated gliadin antibodies IgA and IgG and intestinal biopsia. In our study 8 patients had been diagnosed with celiac disease with extraintestinal symptoms, of which 4 with type 1 diabetes, 1 patient with ataxia, 2 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and 1 patient with Down syndrome that associate also autoimmune thyroiditis, alopecia areata, enamel hypoplasia.

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  17. Angiotensin II activates MAP kinase and NF-kappaB through angiotensin II type I receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Koji; Ohta, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Shimizu, Koichi; Miwa, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal cancer has higher angiotensin II concentrations compared with normal pancreas or other solid tumors. This study examined angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor expression and the role of angiotensin II in proliferation and survival of human pancreatic cancer cells. All three pancreatic cancer cell lines studied, from well to poorly-differentiated types, HPAF-II, AsPC-1, and Panc-1, showed strong expression of AT1 receptor. In contrast, HT-29 human colon cancer cells showed extremely weak expression. Angiotensin II stimulated the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through MAP kinase activation but had no significant effect on proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells. In addition, angiotensin II significantly prevented cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis through NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent production of anti-apoptotic molecules, including survivin and Bcl-XL, in pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that angiotensin II plays a role in the growth and chemoresistance of AT1-positive pancreatic cancer cells through its action as a potent mitogen and anti-apoptotic molecule.

  18. An Active Form of Sphingosine Kinase-1 Is Released in the Extracellular Medium as Component of Membrane Vesicles Shed by Two Human Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatrice Rigogliuso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK-1 correlates with a poor survival rate of tumor patients. This effect is probably due to the ability of SphK-1 to be released into the extracellular medium where it catalyzes the biosynthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a signaling molecule endowed with profound proangiogenic effects. SphK-1 is a leaderless protein which is secreted by an unconventional mechanism. In this paper, we will show that in human hepatocarcinoma Sk-Hep1 cells, extracellular signaling is followed by targeting the enzyme to the cell surface and parallels targeting of FGF-2 to the budding vesicles. We will also show that SphK-1 is present in a catalitycally active form in vesicles shed by SK-Hep1 and human breast carcinoma 8701-BC cells. The enzyme substrate sphingosine is present in shed vesicles where it is produced by neutral ceramidase. Shed vesicles are therefore a site for S1P production in the extracellular medium and conceivably also within host cell following vesicle endocytosis.

  19. Citron kinase - renaissance of a neglected mitotic kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2017-05-15

    Cell division controls the faithful segregation of genomic and cytoplasmic materials between the two nascent daughter cells. Members of the Aurora, Polo and cyclin-dependent (Cdk) kinase families are known to regulate multiple events throughout cell division, whereas another kinase, citron kinase (CIT-K), for a long time has been considered to function solely during cytokinesis, the last phase of cell division. CIT-K was originally proposed to regulate the ingression of the cleavage furrow that forms at the equatorial cortex of the dividing cell after chromosome segregation. However, studies in the last decade have clarified that this kinase is, instead, required for the organization of the midbody in late cytokinesis, and also revealed novel functions of CIT-K earlier in mitosis and in DNA damage control. Moreover, CIT-K mutations have recently been linked to the development of human microcephaly, and CIT-K has been identified as a potential target in cancer therapy. In this Commentary, I describe and re-evaluate the functions and regulation of CIT-K during cell division and its involvement in human disease. Finally, I offer my perspectives on the open questions and future challenges that are necessary to address, in order to fully understand this important and yet unjustly neglected mitotic kinase. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. fNIRS Studies on Hemispheric Asymmetry in Atypical Neural Function in Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Functional lateralization is highly replicable trait of human neural system. Many previous studies have indicated the possibility that people with attention-deficits/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hemispheric asymmetry in atypical neural function. However, despite the abundance of relevant studies, there is still ongoing controversy over this issue. In the present mini-review, we provide an overview of the hemispheric asymmetry in atypical neural function observed in fNIRS studies on people with these conditions. Atypical neural function is defined as group-difference in the task-related concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin. The existing fNIRS studies give support to the right-lateralized atypicalty in children with ADHD. At the same time, we did not find clear leftward-lateralization in atypical activation in people with ASD. On the basis of these, we discuss the current states and limitation of the existing studies.

  1. WNT5A induces osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells via rho-associated kinase Rock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, A.; Bakker, A.D.; de Blieck-Hogervorst, J.M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background aims. Human (h) adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC) constitute an interesting cellular source for bone tissue engineering applications. Wnts, for example Wnt5a, are probably important regulators of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, but the role of Wnt5a in hASC

  2. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals a network of exercise-regulated kinases and AMPK substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism and whole-body insulin sensitivity. To explore the exercise signaling network, we undertook a global analysis of protein phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle biopsies from untrained healthy males before and after a single high...

  3. Pseudoarthrosis in atypical femoral fracture: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, S; Bottai, V; Dell'Osso, G; De Paola, G; Ghilardi, M; Guido, G

    2013-11-01

    Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment; they have a high frequency of delayed healing. The authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy. Atypical femoral fractures can be subsequent to a long-term biphosphonates treatment even if, in the literature, there is no clarity on the exact pathogenetic mechanism. The Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research described the major and minor features to define atypical fractures and recommends that all the five major features must be present while minor features are not necessary. Another controversial aspect regarding the atypical femoral fractures is the higher frequency of the delayed healing that can be probably related to a suppressed bone turnover caused by a prolonged period of bisphosphonates treatment. This concept could be corroborated by the Spet Tc exam. In the case of a pseudoarthrosis, there is not a standardization of the treatment. In this report, the authors describe a femoral pseudoarthrosis of an atypical fracture treated with intramedullary nailing in a female after prolonged alendronate therapy; the patient was studied with clinical, bioumoral end SPECT-Tc exam of both femurs. Many studies show the relationship between bisphosphonates and the presence of atypical fractures. These fractures should be monitored more closely due to the risk of nonunion and they require considering an initial treatment with pharmacological augmentation to reduce the complications for the patient and the health care costs.

  4. Effect of the cancer specific shorter form of human 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase on the metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejc, Darjan; Možir, Alenka; Legiša, Matic

    2017-05-08

    At first glance, there appears to be a high degree of similarity between the metabolism of yeast (the Crabtree effect) and human cancer cells (the Warburg effect). At the root of both effects is accelerated metabolic flow through glycolysis which leads to overflows of ethanol and lactic acid, respectively. It has been proposed that enhanced glycolytic flow in cancer cells is triggered by the altered kinetic characteristics of the key glycolytic regulatory enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Pfk). Through a posttranslational modification, highly active shorter Pfk-M fragments, which are resistant to feedback inhibition, are formed after the proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus of the native human Pfk-M. Alternatively, enhanced glycolysis is triggered by optimal growth conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To assess the deregulation of glycolysis in yeast cells, the sfPFKM gene encoding highly active human shorter Pfk-M fragments was introduced into pfk-null S. cerevisiae. No growth of the transformants with the sfPFKM gene was observed on glucose and fructose. Glucose even induced rapid deactivation of Pfk1 activities in such transformants. However, Pfk1 activities of the sfPFKM transformants were detected in maltose medium, but the growth in maltose was possible only after the addition of 10 mM of ethanol to the medium. Ethanol seemed to alleviate the severely unbalanced NADH/NADPH ratio in the sfPFKM cells. However, the transformants carrying modified Pfk-M enzymes grew faster than the transformants with the human native human Pfk-M enzyme in a narrow ecological niche with a low maltose concentration medium that was further improved by additional modifications. Interestingly, periodic extracellular accumulation of phenylacetaldehyde was detected during the growth of the strain with modified Pfk-M but not with the strain encoding the human native enzyme. Highly active cancer-specific shorter Pfk-M fragments appear to trigger several controlling

  5. Mitogen-actived protein kinase activation is an early event in melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia; Zavala-Pompa, Angel; Sequeira, Judy H; Shoji, Mamoru; Sexton, Deborah G; Cotsonis, George; Cerimele, Francesca; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Macaron, Nada; Arbiser, Jack L

    2002-12-01

    Melanoma is the most common cause of death from cutaneous malignancy, and is the cancer that is most rapidly rising in incidence. Because current therapeutic methods for metastatic melanoma are poorly efficacious, enhanced understanding of signal transduction in melanoma progression is warranted. Prior experimental studies in murine models and human tissues have shown a correlation among activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Because of these findings, we wanted to assess the role of MAPK signaling in melanoma progression and angiogenesis. We studied expression of phosphorylated (active) MAPK and two target genes known to be induced by MAPK signaling, tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, in 131 melanocytic lesions, ranging from atypical nevi to metastatic melanoma. We observed little staining for activated (phosphorylated) MAPK and low amounts of angiogenesis in atypical nevi, but angiogenesis and MAPK activation were activated in radial growth melanoma and in later stage lesions. Our findings implicate MAPK activation as an early event in melanoma progression, and MAPK may be a potential target for pharmacologic intervention.

  6. Clinical utilization of atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the available literature regarding the safety of atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation in order to recommend evidence-based strategies for pharmacologic management of psychosis in these conditions. We summarized the results from articles identified via MEDLINE/PubMed/TOXNET (1993-January 31, 2004), using the key terms pregnancy, lactation, breast-feeding, human milk, psychotropic drugs, atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, clozapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Retrospective studies, clinical observations, and case reports regarding the 6 atypical antipsychotics mentioned above were selected and analyzed. Extensive manual review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. Reviewed studies show that olanzapine and clozapine apparently do not increase the teratogenic risk if administered to pregnant women, while evidence on quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone is still limited. In contrast, available information is not able to exclude unwanted serious effects associated with the use of all atypical antipsychotics on mother-infant dyads. Furthermore, more than a few studies suggest increased hyperglycemic risk for pregnant women related to atypical antipsychotic therapy during gestation. Finally, published evidence about the effects on long-term infant neurodevelopment of drug exposure through both placenta and breast milk is represented only by sporadic case reports. It is well known that potential consequences of an untreated psychotic episode may be severe and may lead to the mother attempting suicide and/or infanticide. For these reasons, clinicians need to help mothers weigh both fetal and neonatal risks of exposure to drugs against the potential risk they and their infant may incur if the psychiatric illness is not treated. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotics in pregnancy and breast-feeding do not show evident advantages in safety when compared with typical neuroleptic

  7. Human telomerase reverse-transcriptase promoter-controlled and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-armed adenoviruses for renal cell carcinoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian DW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dawei Tian,1–4 Yan Sun,3 Yang Yang,2,3 Mingde Lei,3 Na Ding,3 Ruifa Han2,31Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Urinary Surgery, 3Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: New treatment strategies are required for renal cell carcinoma (RCC due to its relative insensitivity to conventional radio- and chemotherapies. The promising strategy of tumor inhibition using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-controlled herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV in the hTERT promoter-driven HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene system was investigated. Tumor volume, weight, relative proliferation rate, and cell-apoptosis levels were examined in mice injected with adenovirus (Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK and GCV. Increased cell death occurred following treatment with Ads carrying hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV or cytomegalovirus promoter-controlled (CMV-HSV-TK/GCV for human RCC 786-0 and fibroblast MRC-5 cells. In mice, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV more specifically inhibited tumor and RCC xenograft growth than Ad-CMV-HSV-TK/GCV (P < 0.05. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV did not significantly damage normal fibroblasts or organ systems (heart, lung, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen. Thus, Ad-hTERT-HSV-TK/GCV is an effective RCC inhibitor in human cells in vitro and in vivo mouse models, indicating potential usefulness in RCC-targeted gene therapy.Keywords: hTERT promoter, HSV-TK/GCV, renal cell carcinoma, adenovirus

  8. Cryopreservation of Brain Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Enhanced