This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.
Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai
Background/purpose: Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. Methods: We estimate the probability of
Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai
Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos
Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.
Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.
Full Text Available The sense of presence is crucial for evaluating audio-visual equipment and content. To clarify the multidimensional attributes of the sense, we conducted three experiments on audio, visual, and audio-visual content items. Initially 345 adjectives, which express the sense of presence, were collected and the number of adjectives was reduced to 40 pairs based on the KJ method. Forty scenes were recorded with a high-definition video camera while their sounds were recorded using a dummy head. Each content item was reproduced with a 65-inch display and headphones in three conditions of audio-only, visual-only and audio-visual. Twenty-one subjects evaluated them using the 40 pairs of adjectives by the Semantic Differential method with seven-point scales. The sense of presence in each content item was also evaluated using a Likert scale. The experimental data was analyzed by the factor analysis and four, five and five factors were extracted for audio, visual, and audio-visual conditions, respectively. The multiple regression analysis revealed that audio and audio-visual presences were explained by the extracted factors, although further consideration is required for the visual presence. These results indicated that the factors of psychological loading and activity are relevant for the sense of presence.
Isaacs, Larry D.
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the performer's ability to visually discriminate parts of an object when there is relative motion between the target and the performer. According to research findings, this visual attribute may play a key role in motor-task performance. Researchers have found a significant relationship between DVA and…
Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.
Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…
He, M.; Gu, H.; Wang, F.
It has been proved that seismic attributes can be used to predict reservoir. The joint of multi-attribute and geological statistics, data mining, artificial intelligence, further promote the development of the seismic attribute analysis. However, the existing methods tend to have multiple solutions and insufficient generalization ability, which is mainly due to the complex relationship between seismic data and geological information, and undoubtedly own partly to the methods applied. Visual attention is a mechanism model of the human visual system which can concentrate on a few significant visual objects rapidly, even in a mixed scene. Actually, the model qualify good ability of target detection and recognition. In our study, the targets to be predicted are treated as visual objects, and an object representation based on well data is made in the attribute dimensions. Then in the same attribute space, the representation is served as a criterion to search the potential targets outside the wells. This method need not predict properties by building up a complicated relation between attributes and reservoir properties, but with reference to the standard determined before. So it has pretty good generalization ability, and the problem of multiple solutions can be weakened by defining the threshold of similarity.
One of the cornerstone principles of deep models is their abstraction capacity, i.e. their ability to learn abstract concepts from ‘simpler’ ones. Through extensive experiments, we characterize the nature of the relationship between abstract concepts (specifically objects in images) learned by popular and high performing convolutional networks (conv-nets) and established mid-level representations used in computer vision (specifically semantic visual attributes). We focus on attributes due to their impact on several applications, such as object description, retrieval and mining, and active (and zero-shot) learning. Among the findings we uncover, we show empirical evidence of the existence of Attribute Centric Nodes (ACNs) within a conv-net, which is trained to recognize objects (not attributes) in images. These special conv-net nodes (1) collectively encode information pertinent to visual attribute representation and discrimination, (2) are unevenly and sparsely distribution across all layers of the conv-net, and (3) play an important role in conv-net based object recognition.
Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)
This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the
Ang, Teri; Harkness, Elaine F.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Lim, Yit Y.; Emsley, Richard; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Astley, Susan; Gadde, Soujanya
Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and has potential use in breast cancer risk prediction, with subjective methods of density assessment providing a strong relationship with the development of breast cancer. This study aims to assess intra- and inter-observer variability in visual density assessment recorded on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) among trained readers, and examine whether reader age, gender and experience are associated with assessed density. Eleven readers estimated the breast density of 120 mammograms on two occasions 3 years apart using VAS. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and variation between readers visualised on Bland-Altman plots. The mean scores of all mammograms per reader were used to analyse the effect of reader attributes on assessed density. Excellent intra-observer agreement (ICC>0.80) was found in the majority of the readers. All but one reader had a mean difference of gender, or with reading time. Overall, the readers were consistent in their scores, although some large variations were observed. Reader evaluation and targeted training may alleviate this problem.
Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily
This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed.
Kohmura, Yoshimitsu; Murakami, Shigeki; Aoki, Kazuhiro
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of colored lenses on visual attributes related to sports activities. The subjects were 24 students (11 females, 13 males; average age 21.0 ±1.2 years) attending a sports university. Lenses of 5 colors were used: colorless, light yellow, dark yellow, light gray, and dark gray. For each lens, measurements were performed in a fixed order: contrast sensitivity, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity. The conditions for the measurements of visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity were in the order of Evening, Evening+Glare, Day, and Day+Glare. There were no significant differences among lenses in dynamic visual acuity and depth perception. For hand-eye coordination, time was significantly shorter with colorless than dark gray lenses. Contrast sensitivity was significantly higher with colorless, light yellow, and light gray lenses than with dark yellow and dark gray lenses. The low-contrast visual acuity test in the Day+Glare condition showed no significant difference among the lenses. In the Evening condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless and light yellow lenses than with dark gray lenses, and in the Evening+Glare condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless lenses than with the other colors except light yellow. Under early evening conditions and during sports activities, light yellow lenses do not appear to have an adverse effect on visual attributes.
Umberger, Wendy J.; Mueller, Simone C.
A unique discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to estimate the relative importance of quality attributes to Australian beef consumers. In the DCE, consumers choose their preferred beef steaks from options varying in a large number of intrinsic (marbling and fat trim) and extrinsic/credence (brand, health, forage, meat standards/quality, and production and process claims) attributes. This study is the only known DCE to present these attributes to consumers visually – in a manner that more r...
Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles
The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.
Zhang, Bao; Zhang, John X; Kong, Lingyue; Huang, Sai; Yue, Zhenzhu; Wang, Suiping
Recent work shows that items maintained in working memory could guide the orienting of attention in visual search, demonstrating an interesting interaction between working memory and attention. For such guidance effect, some studies emphasize the importance of search task type: for fixed-target search, task-irrelevant memory items stay inside the attentional focus and guides attention; for varied-target search, these items stay outside attentional focus and do not guide attention. With two experiments, we showed that stimulus attribute of items held in working memory can play an important role in attentional guidance. The first behavioral experiment duplicated a previous fixed-target search paradigm demonstrating robust guidance effect but failed to find such effect when the stimuli was simply changed from colored shapes to complex artificial shapes. The second event-related potential experiment duplicated a previous varied-target search paradigm that used complex shapes but did not observe any guidance effect. A clear guidance effect was found when we changed the stimuli to colored shapes. The results suggest that attentional guidance from working memory depends on stimulus attributes of the items held in working memory. When effective attribute is used, task-irrelevant items that stay outside the attentional focus are still able to guide attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emam, Mahmoud M.
The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…
This study tested the predictions derived from two explanatory theoretical models of the effects of colored filters on reading speed: the theory of attributional bias and the theory of visual stress associated with reading. The experimental group consisted of 27 secondary school students (14 boys, 13 girls) diagnosed with the Meares-Irlen syndrome; the control group had 27 students paired in age and sex with the experimental group. The mean age of the sample was 12 years, 10 months (SD = 8.9 mo.). The effects of colored filters on reading speed and accuracy were tested using a word reading test and a visual stress induction text. The presentation method tapped individuals' visual sensitivity and response criteria. The results support some predictions of the theory of attributional bias, but more research is needed to assess each theory of reading speed.
Blubaugh, Morgan V; Uslan, Mark M
The vast majority of diabetes-related self-management technology utilizes small visual displays (SVDs) that often produce a low level of contrast and suffer from high levels of reflection (glare). This is a major accessibility issue for the 3.5 million Americans with diabetes who have reduced vision. The purpose of this article is to gather comparative data on the key display attributes of the SVDs used in blood glucose meters (BGMs) and home blood pressure monitors (HBPMs) on the market today and determine which displays offer the best prospect for being accessible to people with reduced vision. Nine BGMs and eight HBPMs were identified for this study on the basis of amount of devices sold, fullfunctionality speech output, and advanced display technologies. An optical instrumentation system obtained contrast, reflection (glare), and font height measurements for all 17 displays. The contrast, reflection, and font-height values for the BGMs and HBPMs varied greatly between models. The Michelson contrast values for the BGMs ranged from 11% to 98% and font heights ranged 0.39-1.00 in. for the measurement results. The HBPMs had Michelson contrast values ranging 55-96% and font height ranging 0.28-0.94 in. for the measurement results. Due largely to the lack of display design standards for the technical requirements of SVDs, there is tremendous variability in the quality and readability of BGM and HBPM displays. There were two BGMs and one HBPM that exhibited high-contrast values and large font heights, but most of the devices exhibited either poor contrast or exceptionally high reflection. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
Spits, Christine; Wallace, Luke; Reinke, Karin
Visual assessment, following guides such as the Overall Fuel Hazard Assessment Guide (OFHAG), is a common approach for assessing the structure and hazard of varying bushfire fuel layers. Visual assessments can be vulnerable to imprecision due to subjectivity between assessors, while emerging techniques such as image-based point clouds can offer land managers potentially more repeatable descriptions of fuel structure. This study compared the variability of estimates of surface and near-surface fuel attributes generated by eight assessment teams using the OFHAG and Fuels3D, a smartphone method utilising image-based point clouds, within three assessment plots in an Australian lowland forest. Surface fuel hazard scores derived from underpinning attributes were also assessed. Overall, this study found considerable variability between teams on most visually assessed variables, resulting in inconsistent hazard scores. Variability was observed within point cloud estimates but was, however, on average two to eight times less than that seen in visual estimates, indicating greater consistency and repeatability of this method. It is proposed that while variability within the Fuels3D method may be overcome through improved methods and equipment, inconsistencies in the OFHAG are likely due to the inherent subjectivity between assessors, which may be more difficult to overcome. This study demonstrates the capability of the Fuels3D method to efficiently and consistently collect data on fuel hazard and structure, and, as such, this method shows potential for use in fire management practices where accurate and reliable data is essential.
Lu, Weiquan; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Feiner, Steven; Zhao, Qi
Goal-oriented visual search is performed when a person intentionally seeks a target in the visual environment. In augmented reality (AR) environments, visual search can be facilitated by augmenting virtual cues in the person's field of view. Traditional use of explicit AR cues can potentially degrade visual search performance due to the creation of distortions in the scene. An alternative to explicit cueing, known as subtle cueing, has been proposed as a clutter-neutral method to enhance visual search in video-see-through AR. However, the effects of subtle cueing are still not well understood, and more research is required to determine the optimal methods of applying subtle cueing in AR. We performed two experiments to investigate the variables of scene clutter, subtle cue opacity, size, and shape on visual search performance. We introduce a novel method of experimentally manipulating the scene clutter variable in a natural scene while controlling for other variables. The findings provide supporting evidence for the subtlety of the cue, and show that the clutter conditions of the scene can be used both as a global classifier, as well as a local performance measure.
Social networks have become more complex, in particular considering the fact that elements in social networks are not only abstract topological nodes and links, but contain rich social attributes and reflecting diverse social relationships. For example, in a co-authorship social network in a scientific community, nodes in the social network, which…
Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin
To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16-39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA≤6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72-21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56-3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54-1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Emotion recognition from speech may play a crucial role in many applications related to human–computer interaction or understanding the affective state of users in certain tasks, where other modalities such as video or physiological parameters are unavailable. In general, a human’s emotions may be recognized using several modalities such as analyzing facial expressions, speech, physiological parameters (e.g., electroencephalograms, electrocardiograms etc. However, measuring of these modalities may be difficult, obtrusive or require expensive hardware. In that context, speech may be the best alternative modality in many practical applications. In this work we present an approach that uses a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN functioning as a visual feature extractor and trained using raw speech information. In contrast to traditional machine learning approaches, CNNs are responsible for identifying the important features of the input thus, making the need of hand-crafted feature engineering optional in many tasks. In this paper no extra features are required other than the spectrogram representations and hand-crafted features were only extracted for validation purposes of our method. Moreover, it does not require any linguistic model and is not specific to any particular language. We compare the proposed approach using cross-language datasets and demonstrate that it is able to provide superior results vs. traditional ones that use hand-crafted features.
Ennis, G; Kirshbaum, M; Waheed, N
We seek to understand what is known about the use of visual art-making for people who have a cancer diagnosis, and to explore how art-making may help address fatigue in the cancer care context. Art-making involves creating art or craft alone or in a group and does not require an art-therapist as the emphasis is on creativity rather than an overt therapeutic intention. An integrative review was undertaken of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies on art-making for people who have cancer, at any stage of treatment or recovery. An adapted version of Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory (ART) was used to interpret the themes found in the literature. Fifteen studies were reviewed. Nine concerned art-making programmes and six were focused on individual, non-facilitated art-making. Review results suggested that programme-based art-making may provide participants with opportunities for learning about self, support, enjoyment and distraction. Individual art-making can provides learning about self, diversion and pleasure, self-management of pain, a sense of control, and enhanced social relationships. When viewed through the lens of ART, art-making can be understood as an energy-restoring activity that has the potential to enhance the lives of people with a diagnosis of cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In this article, the authors perform an analysis in order to assess adaptation of magnetic force-directed algorithms for context-based information extraction from multi-attributed graphs during visualization sessions. Theoretic standings behind magnetic force-directed approach are stated together with review on how particular features of respective algorithms in combination with appropriate visual techniques are especially suitable for improved processing and presenting of knowledge that is captured in form of graphs. The complexity of retrieving multi-attributed information within the proposed approach is handled with dedicated tools, such as selective attraction of nodes to MFE (Magnetic Force Emitter based on search criteria, localization of POI (Point of Interest regions, graph node anchoring, etc. Implicit compatibility of aforementioned tools with interactive nature of data exploration is distinguished. Description of case study, based on bibliometric network analysis is given, which is followed by the review of existing related works in this field. Conclusions are made and further studies in the field of visualization of multi-attributed graphs are defined.
Manning, Flori H.; Lawless, Kimberly A.
The present study examined students' first impressions of different aesthetic treatments for the same web-based lesson about the experiences of British soldiers during World War I as expressed through examples of trench poetry. Holding site content and functionality constant, the interface design's visual presentation was manipulated along two…
In Brockhoff et al (2016), the close link between Cohen's d, the effect size in an ANOVA framework, and the so-called Thurstonian (Signal detection) d-prime was used to suggest better visualizations and interpretations of standard sensory and consumer data mixed model ANOVA results. The basic...... mechanisms inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....
Nießner, Christine; Winklhofer, Michael
The radical-pair hypothesis of magnetoreception has gained a lot of momentum, since the flavoprotein cryptochrome was postulated as a structural candidate to host magnetically sensitive chemical reactions. Here, we first discuss behavioral tests using radio-frequency magnetic fields (0.1-10 MHz) to specifically disturb a radical-pair-based avian magnetic compass sense. While disorienting effects of broadband RF magnetic fields have been replicated independently in two competing labs, the effects of monochromatic RF magnetic fields administered at the electronic Larmor frequency (~1.3 MHz) are disparate. We give technical recommendations for future RF experiments. We then focus on two candidate magnetoreceptor proteins in birds, Cry1a and Cry1b, two splice variants of the same gene (Cry1). Immunohistochemical studies have identified Cry1a in the outer segments of the ultraviolet/violet-sensitive cone photoreceptors and Cry1b in the cytosol of retinal ganglion cells. The identification of the host neurons of these cryptochromes and their subcellular expression patterns presents an important advance, but much work lies ahead to gain some functional understanding. In particular, interaction partners of cryptochrome Cry1a and Cry1b remain to be identified. A candidate partner for Cry4 was previously suggested, but awaits independent replication.
Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used in a variety of environments; a wireless network infrastructure, established to communicate and exchange information in a monitoring area, has also been applied in different environments. However, for sensitive applications, security is the paramount issue. In this paper, we propose using bilinear pairing to design dynamic key management and authentication scheme of the hierarchical sensor network. We use the dynamic key management and the pairing-based cryptography (PBC to establish the session key and the hash message authentication code (HMAC to support the mutual authentication between the sensors and the base station. In addition, we also embed the capability of the Global Positioning System (GPS to cluster nodes to find the best path of the sensor network. The proposed scheme can also provide the requisite security of the dynamic key management, mutual authentication, and session key protection. Our scheme can defend against impersonation attack, replay attack, wormhole attack, and message manipulation attack.
Chae, Myong-Ho; Krull, Florian; Knapp, Ernst-Walter
The DOcking decoy-based Optimized Potential (DOOP) energy function for protein structure prediction is based on empirical distance-dependent atom-pair interactions. To optimize the atom-pair interactions, native protein structures are decomposed into polypeptide chain segments that correspond to structural motives involving complete secondary structure elements. They constitute near native ligand-receptor systems (or just pairs). Thus, a total of 8609 ligand-receptor systems were prepared from 954 selected proteins. For each of these hypothetical ligand-receptor systems, 1000 evenly sampled docking decoys with 0-10 Å interface root-mean-square-deviation (iRMSD) were generated with a method used before for protein-protein docking. A neural network-based optimization method was applied to derive the optimized energy parameters using these decoys so that the energy function mimics the funnel-like energy landscape for the interaction between these hypothetical ligand-receptor systems. Thus, our method hierarchically models the overall funnel-like energy landscape of native protein structures. The resulting energy function was tested on several commonly used decoy sets for native protein structure recognition and compared with other statistical potentials. In combination with a torsion potential term which describes the local conformational preference, the atom-pair-based potential outperforms other reported statistical energy functions in correct ranking of native protein structures for a variety of decoy sets. This is especially the case for the most challenging ROSETTA decoy set, although it does not take into account side chain orientation-dependence explicitly. The DOOP energy function for protein structure prediction, the underlying database of protein structures with hypothetical ligand-receptor systems and their decoys are freely available at http://agknapp.chemie.fu-berlin.de/doop/. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Kapatkin, Amy S; Rita, Hannu J
To assess validity and reliability for a visual analogue scale (VAS) used by owners to measure chronic pain in their osteoarthritic dogs. 68, 61, and 34 owners who completed a questionnaire. Owners answered questionnaires at 5 time points. Criterion validity of the VAS was evaluated for all dogs in the intended-to-treat population by correlating scores for the VAS with scores for the validated Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) and a relative quality-of-life scale. Intraclass correlation was used to assess repeatability of the pain VAS at 2 baseline evaluations. To determine sensitivity to change and face validity of the VAS, 2 blinded, randomized control groups (17 dogs receiving carprofen and 17 receiving a placebo) were analyzed over time. Significant correlations existed between the VAS score and the quality-of-life scale and HCPI scores. Intraclass coefficient (r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.82) for the VAS indicated good repeatability. In the carprofen and placebo groups, there was poor correlation between the 2 pain evaluation methods (VAS and HCPI items) at the baseline evaluation, but the correlation improved in the carprofen group over time. No correlation was detected for the placebo group over time. Although valid and reliable, the pain VAS was a poor tool for untrained owners because of poor face validity (ie, owners could not recognize their dogs' behavior as signs of pain). Only after owners had seen pain diminish and then return (after starting and discontinuing NSAID use) did the VAS have face validity.
Uchinomiya, Shohei; Ojida, Akio; Hamachi, Itaru
Protein-labeling methods serve as essential tools for analyzing functions of proteins of interest under complicated biological conditions such as in live cells. These labeling methods are useful not only to fluorescently visualize proteins of interest in biological systems but also to conduct protein and cell analyses by harnessing the unique functions of molecular probes. Among the various labeling methods available, an appropriate binding pair consisting of a short peptide and a de novo designed small molecular probe has attracted attention because of its wide utility and versatility. Interestingly, most peptide tag/probe pairs exploit metal-ligand coordination interactions as the main binding force responsible for their association. Herein, we provide an overview of the recent progress of these coordination-chemistry-based protein-labeling methods and their applications for fluorescence imaging and functional analysis of cellular proteins, while highlighting our originally developed labeling methods. These successful examples clearly exemplify the utility and versatility of metal coordination chemistry in protein functional analysis.
Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne
It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.
Full Text Available This paper presents a classification approach based on attribute learning for high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. To explore the representative and discriminative attributes of SAR images, first, an iterative unsupervised algorithm is designed to cluster in the low-level feature space, where the maximum edge response and the ratio of mean-to-variance are included; a cross-validation step is applied to prevent overfitting. Second, the most discriminative clustering centers are sorted out to construct an attribute dictionary. By resorting to the attribute dictionary, a representation vector describing certain categories in the SAR image can be generated, which in turn is used to perform the classifying task. The experiments conducted on TerraSAR-X images indicate that those learned attributes have strong visual semantics, which are characterized by bright and dark spots, stripes, or their combinations. The classification method based on these learned attributes achieves better results.
Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua
The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23939586
Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua
The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.
Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav
Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...
Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang
The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.
Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution. John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. London & .... theory) does. Husserl says,. Rather phenomenology wants to establish itself, not as a science of matters of fact, but as a science of essences (as an “eidetic” ...
Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.
Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…
Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.
Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav
Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.
Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.
the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...
Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.
One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.
Full Text Available There is little consensus concerning the truth or reference conditions for evaluative terms such as “good” and “bad.” In his paper “Good and Evil,” Geach (1956 proposed that we distinguish between attributive and predicative uses of “good.” Foot (2001, Thomson (2008, Kraut (2011, and others have put this distinction to use when discussing basic questions of value theory. In §§1-2, I outline Geach’s proposal and argue that attributive evaluation depends on a prior grasp of the kind of thing that is evaluated, which is another way of saying a prior grasp of a thing’s nature. In §§3-4, I discuss the evaluation of artifacts, which provide the clearest examples of attributive evaluation. This allows me to address a series of problems apparently facing the idea of attributive goodness. In §5, I consider the neo-Aristotelian idea that we can extend attributive accounts of goodness to human lives, and I pay attention to Foot’s account of natural goodness. This leads me to consider the goodness of human life as a whole in §6. At this point. I depart from Geach’s approach and argue that questions of attributive goodness finally give rise to questions of predicative or absolute goodness.
.... The experiment focused on the use of Java and Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) technologies as used in the development of a software visualization demonstrator application (the Attribute Cafe...
reproductive unit and nitrogen ﬁxing attributes (Carruthers er. al., 2000). In combination with various lupin and forages, these authors showed that soybean grain yield was decreased by most treatments. In order to limit over population and pollution risks, low nitrogen fertilizer agricultural systems are likely to be advocated.
Koenig, Kathleen; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of mental retardation, involves a myriad of physical and behavioral problems. Poor social adjustment has been reported, but the origin of this difficulty is unknown. The Social Attribution Task, a measure of one's ability to make appropriate social attributions from an ambiguous visual display [Klin…
consonant syllables takes a long time to learn but is forgotten no more rapidly than is a list of common words. The lack of forgetting over a few...semantic memory were generally unrelated. Among the measures of episodic learning , clustering was found to be unrelated to performance on other tasks...trial , the false alarms observed were attributed to the visual- phonetic -articulatory responses of the ~1ements which were evoked on both the stud y and
Sarfraz, M. Saquib; Schumann, Arne; Wang, Yan; Stiefelhagen, Rainer
Pedestrian attribute inference is a demanding problem in visual surveillance that can facilitate person retrieval, search and indexing. To exploit semantic relations between attributes, recent research treats it as a multi-label image classification task. The visual cues hinting at attributes can be strongly localized and inference of person attributes such as hair, backpack, shorts, etc., are highly dependent on the acquired view of the pedestrian. In this paper we assert this dependence in ...
Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.
In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not
Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry
This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....
Robinson, Jessica A.
Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…
Sebald, Alexander Christopher
, in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and...
Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro
We demonstrate a stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Full quantum state tomographic measurement performed on the photon-pairs has revealed a very high state purity of 0.94, and an entanglement fidelity exceeding 0.96 at the low-rate-regime. At higher rates, entanglement quality degrades due to emission of multiple-pairs. Using a new model, we have confirmed that the observed degradation is largely due to double- and triple-pair emissions.
MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M
This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.
Largeron, Christine; Mougel, Pierre-Nicolas; Rabbany, Reihaneh; Zaïane, Osmar R
.... When nodes are described with a set of attributes we have an attributed network. Nodes and their relationships tend to naturally form into communities or clusters, and discovering these communities is paramount to many applications...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...
Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...
Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Zhang, Kang; VINCI'09
Visual Information Communication is based on VINCI'09, The Visual Information Communications International Conference, September 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Topics covered include The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration, The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages, Methods for Visual Analytics and Knowledge Discovery, Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization, Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing. This cutting-edge book addresses the issues of knowledge discovery, end-user programming, modeling, rapid systems prototyping, education, and design activities. Visual Information Communications is an edited volume whose contributors include well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including architects, artists, engineers, and scientists. Visual Information Communication is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of digital design and visual communications. This volume i...
Palmer, Douglas J.
Drawing from the attributional investigations of Bernard Weiner and colleagues in the area of achievement motivation, this review addresses attribution theory and its implications for labeling of handicapped children. It is concluded that attributions, not the presence or absence of formal labels, may be the critical variable of concern.…
Neufeld, Eric; Bickis, Mikelis; Grant, Kevin
In much of Bertin's Semiology of Graphics, marks representing individuals are arranged on paper according to their various attributes (components). Paper and computer monitors can conveniently map two attributes to width and height, and can map other attributes into nonspatial dimensions such as texture, or colour. Good visualizations exploit the human perceptual apparatus so that key relationships are quickly detected as interesting patterns. Graphical models take a somewhat dual approach with respect to the original information. Components, rather than individuals, are represented as marks. Links between marks represent conceptually simple, easily computable, and typically probabilistic relationships of possibly varying strength, and the viewer studies the diagram to discover deeper relationships. Although visually annotated graphical models have been around for almost a century, they have not been widely used. We argue that they have the potential to represent multivariate data as generically as pie charts represent univariate data. The present work suggests a semiology for graphical models, and discusses the consequences for information visualization.
Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat
There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.
Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.
The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique
Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan
This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering written information, as well as its superabundance, calls for rethinking of semiotic features of Latin letters as the basic units of written communication in the Western world, especially in terms of marketing communication and its effectiveness. The written expression is the major tool of branding and getting closer to target market segments. Social development influences the development of communication, which is visible through numerous brands and signs, i.e. symbols that make products and companies recognizable in the market. The distinct sign forms of the alphabet are used to suggest the story of a brand, product or service. A constituent element of its comprehension is conscious or unconscious knowledge drawn from different sources in the environment. The history of human literacy, the development of each particular letter, the communication rules of the contemporary marketplace, the impact of brands and information superabundance make up the basis for further research into communication features of the alphabet, semantics of written forms and their redefinition in the context of effective marketing communication.
Grant, E.; Sahm, S.; Zabihi, M.; Gerven, M.A.J. van
Judgments about personality based on facial appearance are strong effectors in social decision making, and are known to have impact on areas from presidential elections to jury decisions. Recent work has shown that it is possible to predict perception of memorability, trustworthiness, intelligence
Filip Cvitić; Jasna Horvat; Mirna Leko Šimić
Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering wri...
The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.
Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.
In order to better understand decision maker’s perceptions of the importance of attributes, Goldstein (1990) differentiates between global and local interpretations of attribute importance. While the appreciation for the distinction is growing, research on the relationship between measures of global
Two shortcomings of attributional therapy and therapy-related research are pointed out. First, crucial comparisons between attributional inductions are not being made, so that the variables mediating change remain uncertain and, secondly, the full theory is not being used, thereby greatly limiting the possible change programmes.
Tennyson, Matthew F.
Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…
Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...
Causal attribution theory, including the concept of learned helplessness, has been used to explain student motivation and achievement in school. In this paper, a model is developed which explains how attribution theory could explain student effort and achievement in mathematics. According to the model, student perceptions of success or failure in…
Aydin Er, Rahime; Sehiralti, Mine; Akpinar, Aslihan
The opinions of students regarding the attributes of a good nurse can make a major contribution to the planning and the conducting of professional education. There are few studies which aim at identifying the qualifications of a good nurse from the perspectives of nursing students. To determine the opinions of first- and fourth-year nursing students concerning the 'attributes of a good nurse', and whether and how their views change depending on their year of study. Descriptive research. Participants and research context: This study was conducted in the nursing department of a vocational school of health in the 2010/2011 academic year. The study participants consisted of first-year and intern students. A survey form was used to identify characteristics of participants, and students were asked the following open-ended question about their opinions related to the attributes of a good nurse. Ethical considerations: The permission was taken from the school administration. Informed consent was obtained, and anonymity was ensured for participating students. A total of 120 students participated in this study. Most frequently expressed attributes were 'professional competence' in first-year and 'responsibility' in fourth-year students. While first-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes of 'geniality', 'patience', 'calmness', 'love of nursing', 'loyalty to nursing' and 'not attaching importance to material values', fourth-year students emphasized the attributes of 'empathy', 'honesty', 'responsibility' and 'scientific curiosity' significantly more. Fourth-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes which the students are expected to acquire through a nursing program and clinical experience. However, they mentioned the attributes related to a good nurse-patient relationship and communication significantly less. Appropriate ethical training methods and good role models can help students acquire attributes that are important for the nursing
Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Adlnasab, Laleh; Shekari, Nafiseh
Ion-pair based hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (IP-HFLPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was applied for the preconcentration and determination of methimazole in biological samples and animal feed. Optimization of the conditions for the high extraction efficiency was studied simultaneously using the experimental design. For the first step, the Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the significant factors on the extraction efficiency. Central composite design (CCD) was then used for the optimization of important factors and the response surface equations were obtained. The optimum experimental conditions were donor phase pH, 12.2; extraction temperature, 45°C; extraction time, 50 min; sodium perchlorate concentration, 1.5 M; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentration, 0.65 mM, and without salt addition in donor phase. The limit of detection and the dynamic linear range were in the range of 0.1-0.7 μg L(-1) and 0.5-1000 μg L(-1), respectively. Preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 93-155 in different matrices. Finally, the performance of the proposed method was tested for the determination of trace amounts of methimazole in plasma, urine, bovine milk, and animal feed samples, and satisfactory results were obtained (RSDs < 7.1%). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Michael H. Herzog
Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.
Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez
inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...
Shawver, Lois; Pines, Ayala
This study examines value-attribution found in encounter groups. Group members tend to refer to themselves in neutralizing negative valuations. Group leaders were negative in describing group members. Published group transcripts are more positive than unpublished, private transcripts. (MFD)
Md Shamimul Hasan; Normah Omar; Rashidah Abdul Rahman; Syed Zabid Hossain
... (discretionary accruals) in Bangladesh. The behaviour of corporate accruals is explained by corporate attributes such as asset size, turnover, earnings per share, number of shareholders, year of listing, international link of audit firm...
This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....
Full Text Available the statuses. Status models the normal behaviour of the life cycle in the real world, items are first scheduled, then become active, can be suspended and reactivated again and finally may become disabled, when they reached their expiry. These are the four... of the four status attributes, while scheduled, suspended and disabled classes can only have their corresponding attributes, i.e. scheduled, suspended or disabled only. Transition records migration of elements from source to target element, be they objects...
Pemberton, Steven; Adida, Ben; Birbeck, Mark; Raman, T.V.; Schwerdtfeger, R.
htmlabstractThe Role Attribute defined in this specification allows the author to annotate markup languages with machine-extractable semantic information about the purpose of an element. Use cases include accessibility, device adaptation, server-side processing, and complex data description. This attribute can be integrated into any markup language. In particular, schema implementations are provided to facilitate with languages based upon XHTML Modularization [XHTML-MODULARIZATION11-2e]. The ...
Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite
A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...
Two fundamental principles from attribution theory were examined for the role they might play in the psychology of the consumer. They are: (1) perceptions of causality along a stability dimension influence the anticipated likelihood of product satisfaction, and (2) perceptions of causality along a controllability dimension influence judgments of responsibility and retributive actions. Comments about the longevity of an attributional framework, methodological recommendations, and the heuristic...
Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck
False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.
Koenderink, Jan J.
Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their
Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha
Full Text Available Community detection is an important tool for exploring and classifying the properties of large complex networks and should be of great help for spatial networks. Indeed, in addition to their location, nodes in spatial networks can have attributes such as the language for individuals, or any other socio-economical feature that we would like to identify in communities. We discuss in this paper a crucial aspect which was not considered in previous studies which is the possible existence of correlations between space and attributes. Introducing a simple toy model in which both space and node attributes are considered, we discuss the effect of space-attribute correlations on the results of various community detection methods proposed for spatial networks in this paper and in previous studies. When space is irrelevant, our model is equivalent to the stochastic block model which has been shown to display a detectability-non detectability transition. In the regime where space dominates the link formation process, most methods can fail to recover the communities, an effect which is particularly marked when space-attributes correlations are strong. In this latter case, community detection methods which remove the spatial component of the network can miss a large part of the community structure and can lead to incorrect results.
The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples.......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...
Cowan, Nelson; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott
It has been debated on the basis of change-detection procedures whether visual working memory is limited by the number of objects, task-relevant attributes within those objects, or bindings between attributes. This debate, however, has been hampered by several limitations, including the use of conditions that vary between studies and the absence of appropriate mathematical models to estimate the number of items in working memory in different stimulus conditions. We re-examined working memory limits in two experiments with a wide array of conditions involving color and shape attributes, relying on a set of new models to fit various stimulus situations. In Experiment 2, a new procedure allowed identical retrieval conditions across different conditions of attention at encoding. The results show that multiple attributes compete for attention, but that retaining the binding between attributes is accomplished only by retaining the attributes themselves. We propose a theoretical account in which a fixed object capacity limit contains within it the possibility of the incomplete retention of object attributes, depending on the direction of attention. PMID:22905929
Kraak, M.J.; Wright, James D.
The cartographic visualization process, based on the statement “How do I say what to whom, and is it effective?” is explained for both presenting and exploring spatiotemporal data. The visualization environment and required functionality are described
Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas
Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.
Visual scripting is the coordination of words with pictures in sequence. This book presents the methods and viewpoints on visual scripting of fourteen film makers, from nine countries, who are involved in animated cinema; it contains concise examples of how a storybook and preproduction script can be prepared in visual terms; and it includes a…
Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger
A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... in this work. As the academic abilities of students evolve during their studies, so does their writing style. These changes in writing style form a type of temporal context, which we study for the authorship attribution process by focussing on the students’ more recent writing samples. Experiments with real...
Riis, Hanne; Skyum, Sven
It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations.......It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations....
Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.
S. Pemberton (Steven); B. Adida (Ben); M. Birbeck (Mark); T.V. Raman; R. Schwerdtfeger
htmlabstractThe Role Attribute defined in this specification allows the author to annotate markup languages with machine-extractable semantic information about the purpose of an element. Use cases include accessibility, device adaptation, server-side processing, and complex data description. This
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.
It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...
Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J
Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara
Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.
Song, Michael; Chen, Yan
Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility
Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Luck, Steven J.
Research has shown that performing visual search while maintaining representations in visual working memory displaces up to one object’s worth of information from memory. This memory displacement has previously been attributed to a nonspecific disruption of the memory representation by the mere presentation of the visual search array, and the goal of the present study was to determine whether it instead reflects the use of visual working memory in the actual search process. The first hypothes...
Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...
Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must
Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.
Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo
Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.
Stalder, Daniel R.
Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.
Full Text Available Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predications; and content validity becomes a matter of judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.
Lourembam Surjit Singh
Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language
Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel
International audience; We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentat...
Elizabeth M Visser
Full Text Available This qualitative research focused on identifying those store image attributes perceived as important by a selected group of female apparel consumers. In addition, their perception of Lindquist’s proposed dimensions of store image attributes was examined. Data were collected by means of eight focus groups. The non-verbal quali-quantive Schutte Visual Scale was employed to quantify responses. Results indicated that Merchandise and Clientele were perceived as the most important dimensions, followed by Service. The dimension Physical facilities was perceived as the least important. Differences between age and population groups were investigated. The store image attribute dimensions generated by the respondents differed slightly from those proposed by Lindquist. Implications for retailers and for further research were formulated.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...
Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru
Software evolution visualization is a promising technique for assessing the software development process. We study how complex correlations of software evolution attributes can be made using multivariate visualization techniques. We use a combination of color and textures to depict up to four
Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru
We present a set of techniques and design principles for the visualization of large dynamic software logs consisting of attributed change events, such as obtained from instrumenting programs or mining software repositories. We enhance the visualization scalability with importance-based antialiasing
Melewar, T. C.; John Saunders
This study examines the influences on the international standardization of corporate visual identity for a sample of U.K. multinationals. The results suggest that market entry form and equity holding are associated with the degree of corporate visual identity standardization. Further findings show the influence of culture, nationalism and product attributes on corporate visual identity standardization.© 1999 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1999) 30, 583–598
Serrano Mena, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41124115X; Hage, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229637221
Attribute grammars provide a framework to de ne compu- tations over trees, by decorating those trees with attributes. Attribute grammars have been successfully applied in many areas, including compiler construction and natural language processing. In this paper we present a translation of attribute
Toet, A.; Bijl, P.
Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is
Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise
The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...
Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.
Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving...
Butler, T. M.
Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both
Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals. To understand the origins of confidence judgments, investigators have developed two competing frameworks. The approach based on signal decision theory is popular but fails to account for response times. In contrast, the approach based on accumulation of evidence models naturally includes the dynamics of perceptual decisions. These models can explain a range of results, including the apparently paradoxical dissociation between performance and confidence that is sometimes observed.
This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.
Lieberman, Michael D; Taheri, Sima; Guo, Huimin; Mirrashed, Fatemeh; Yahav, Inbal; Aris, Aleks; Shneiderman, Ben
Though biomedical research often draws on knowledge from a wide variety of fields, few visualization methods for biomedical data incorporate meaningful cross-database exploration. A new approach is offered for visualizing and exploring a query-based subset of multiple heterogeneous biomedical databases. Databases are modeled as an entity-relation graph containing nodes (database records) and links (relationships between records). Users specify a keyword search string to retrieve an initial set of nodes, and then explore intra- and interdatabase links. Results are visualized with user-defined semantic substrates to take advantage of the rich set of attributes usually present in biomedical data. Comments from domain experts indicate that this visualization method is potentially advantageous for biomedical knowledge exploration.
Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.
A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.
Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.
Barker, Randolph T.; Pearce, C. Glenn
Analyzed 17 personal attributes of 160 undergraduate students who wrote reports on a computer or by hand, and compared differences in the quality of computer and handwritten reports with each student's personal attributes. Concludes that some attributes do relate to computer writing quality. (JMV)
Fullin, Christine; Mills, Brett D.
This paper reviews the development of attribution theory as it relates to sport from Fritz Heider's original model of attribution theory in 1958 to the present. The original model explains that individuals use four attribution factors to interpret and predict the outcome of an event--ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. Bernard Weiner built…
Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down.
Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou
Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes...
This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.
Bona Frazila Russ
Full Text Available Access has become a crucial issue for the persons with disabilities (PWDs, in which the inconvenient transportation facilities is contributed to the dependent living issue of PWD, specifically the visual impaired person. As a primary aspect of transportation, the walking facilities further needs to be carefully considered for facilitating their moving activities. Recently, the effect of built environment on walking behavior has obtained significant attention, which is generally constructed within the framework of walkability concept. The walkability has been extensively used for evaluating the physical attributes of pedestrian facilities by comparing it to the walker perception. Hence, the evaluation result can directly answer the needs of pedestrian. Despite of their recent research achievements, the walkability concept is mostly unsuccessful to take into account the blind walker characteristics. This paper then explore physical attributes of walkability environment in order to provide the friendly pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrian, which is rarely explored. The research is established based on the blind walker perspectives within the micro-level analysis that incorporates a smaller unit of measurement (i.e., the street-level physical attributes. The physical attributes result are thus potentially to be utilized for analyzing the required pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrians.
Vessel, Edward A.; Stahl, Jonathan; Maurer, Natalia; Denker, Alexander; Starr, G. G.
How is visual information linked to aesthetic experience, and what factors determine whether an individual finds a particular visual experience pleasing? We have previously shown that individuals' aesthetic responses are not determined by objective image features but are instead a function of internal, subjective factors that are shaped by a viewers' personal experience. Yet for many classes of stimuli, culturally shared semantic associations give rise to similar aesthetic taste across people. In this paper, we investigated factors that govern whether a set of observers will agree in which images are preferred, or will instead exhibit more "personalized" aesthetic preferences. In a series of experiments, observers were asked to make aesthetic judgments for different categories of visual stimuli that are commonly evaluated in an aesthetic manner (faces, natural landscapes, architecture or artwork). By measuring agreement across observers, this method was able to reveal instances of highly individualistic preferences. We found that observers showed high agreement on their preferences for images of faces and landscapes, but much lower agreement for images of artwork and architecture. In addition, we found higher agreement for heterosexual males making judgments of beautiful female faces than of beautiful male faces. These results suggest that preferences for stimulus categories that carry evolutionary significance (landscapes and faces) come to rely on similar information across individuals, whereas preferences for artifacts of human culture such as architecture and artwork, which have fewer basic-level category distinctions and reduced behavioral relevance, rely on a more personalized set of attributes.
Frikha, Mayssa; Fendri, Emna; Hammami, Mohamed
Using semantic attributes such as gender, clothes, and accessories to describe people's appearance is an appealing modeling method for video surveillance applications. We proposed a midlevel appearance signature based on extracting a list of nameable semantic attributes describing the body in uncontrolled acquisition conditions. Conventional approaches extract the same set of low-level features to learn the semantic classifiers uniformly. Their critical limitation is the inability to capture the dominant visual characteristics for each trait separately. The proposed approach consists of extracting low-level features in an attribute-adaptive way by automatically selecting the most relevant features for each attribute separately. Furthermore, relying on a small training-dataset would easily lead to poor performance due to the large intraclass and interclass variations. We annotated large scale people images collected from different person reidentification benchmarks covering a large attribute sample and reflecting the challenges of uncontrolled acquisition conditions. These annotations were gathered into an appearance semantic attribute dataset that contains 3590 images annotated with 14 attributes. Various experiments prove that carefully designed features for learning the visual characteristics for an attribute provide an improvement of the correct classification accuracy and a reduction of both spatial and temporal complexities against state-of-the-art approaches.
Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.
Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica
Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon ...
Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti
techniques to give a rapid overview of trafﬁc data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for trafﬁc visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (trafﬁc management employees, trafﬁc police...
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.
Nguyen, Thong Tien
, orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study....
Supersaxo, A.; And Others
This study examined whether pupils' causal attribution tendencies could be influenced by teachers' attributions of their performance. In addition, the relationship between pupils' causal attributions and their school anxiety was studied. Based on Weiner's (1979) taxonomy of attributions that distinguishes between external versus internal and…
Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou
Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants’ causal attribution belief for their tas...
Attributes that are common, or overlapping, across alternatives in two-alternative forced preferential choice tasks are often non-diagnostic. In many settings, attending to and evaluating these attributes does not help the decision maker determine which of the available alternatives is the most desirable. For this reason, many existing behavioural theories propose that decision makers ignore common attributes while deliberating. Across six experiments, we find that decision makers do direct their attention selectively and ignore attributes that are not present in or associated with either of the available alternatives. However, they are as likely to attend to common attributes as they are to attend to attributes that are unique to a single alternative. These results suggest the need for novel theories of attention in preferential choice.
Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun
In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.
Lowery, B J; Jacobsen, B S
The Weiner et al. attribution model has generated a great deal of research on attributions for success and failure in academic achievement situations. Studies of success and failure attributions in real-life situations of high personal concern are limited. If the attribution model is to lead to a general theory of motivation, such tests in real-life situations are critical. In this study, causal attributions for success and failure outcomes of chronically ill patients were examined. Results indicated at least partial support for the model. Patients tended to attribute success internally and failure externally, but stability and expectations were not linked in this sample. Moreover, a tendency to respond with no cause to an open-ended measure and to hold little commitment to any causes on a closed-ended measure was characteristic of failure subjects.
Webster, Anthony J
Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...
Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.
Whitfield, J.; Webber, D. J.
This study identifies exhibition attributes deemed important by attendees’ in determining their attendance at the UK biennial MICROSCIENCE 2008 exhibition using a self-administered internet-based questionnaire. Perceived performance of attributes by attendees is also established. Attendees consider meeting specialists as well as gaining product and technical information to be very important attributes for exhibition selection. Application of an Importance Performance Analysis suggests that re...
the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore, this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart...... is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms, but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...
Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.
Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna
Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.
Arnett, Peter A.
Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767
Depictive expressions of thought predate written language by thousands of years. They have evolved in communities through a kind of informal user testing that has refined them. Analyzing common visual communications reveals consistencies that illuminate how people think as well as guide design; the process can be brought into the laboratory and accelerated. Like language, visual communications abstract and schematize; unlike language, they use properties of the page (e.g., proximity and place: center, horizontal/up-down, vertical/left-right) and the marks on it (e.g., dots, lines, arrows, boxes, blobs, likenesses, symbols) to convey meanings. The visual expressions of these meanings (e.g., individual, category, order, relation, correspondence, continuum, hierarchy) have analogs in language, gesture, and especially in the patterns that are created when people design the world around them, arranging things into piles and rows and hierarchies and arrays, spatial-abstraction-action interconnections termed spractions. The designed world is a diagram. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro
To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.
Ahlstrom, C; Muellner, P; Spencer, S E F; Hong, S; Saupe, A; Rovira, A; Hedberg, C; Perez, A; Muellner, U; Alvarez, J
Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data, assessment of whether attribution results logically reflect the data trends and identification of patterns within the data that might explain the detailed contribution of different sources to the disease burden. Here, more than 12,000 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human, bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey sources that originated in Minnesota were analysed. A modified Bayesian source attribution model (available in a dedicated R package), accounting for non-sampled sources of infection, attributed 4,672 human cases to sources assessed here. Most (60%) cases were attributed to chicken, although there was a spike in cases attributed to a non-sampled source in the second half of the study period. Molecular epidemiological analysis methods were used to supplement risk modelling, and a visual attribution application was developed to facilitate data exploration and comprehension of the large multiyear data set assessed here. A large amount of within-source diversity and low similarity between sources was observed, and visual exploration of data provided clues into variations driving the attribution modelling results. Results from this pillared approach provided first attribution estimates for Salmonella in Minnesota and offer an understanding of current data gaps as well as key pathogen population features, such as serotype frequency, similarity and diversity across the sources. Results here will be used to inform policy and management strategies ultimately intended to prevent and control Salmonella infection in the state. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sagatun, Inger J.
This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…
Entrepreneurial attributes such as desire for achievement, locus of control, risk taking propensity, proactiveness, tolerance for ambiguity, creativity and others have been viewed by several researchers as predictors of entrepreneurial actions. Relating these attributes to youth's entrepreneurship, this paper is aimed to ...
Zuckerman, June Trop
Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…
Ibraimi, L.; Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, M.
An attribute-based digital signature system comprises a signature generation unit (1) for signing a message (m) by generating a signature (s) based on a user secret key (SK) associated with a set of user attributes, wherein the signature generation unit (1) is arranged for combining the user secret
Cramer, W.; Yohe, G.W.; Auffhammer, M.; Huggel, C.; Molau, U.; Dias, M.A.F.S.; Leemans, R.
This chapter synthesizes the scientific literature on the detection and attribution of observed changes in natural and human systems in response to observed recent climate change. For policy makers and the public, detection and attribution of observed impacts will be a key element to determine the
An attribute grammar (AG) is in reduced form if in all its derivation trees every attribute contributes to the translation. We prove that, eventhough AG are generally not in reduced form, they can be reduced, i.e., put into reduced form, without modifying their translations. This is shown first for
Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.
Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…
Terrain attributes derived from grid digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used in distributed hydrologic models. However, many attribute estimations are biased by DEM grid cell size. For example, land surface slopes estimated from 30-m DEMs are, on average, less than slopes estimated from ...
Lyon, Bernadette M.
Examined attributions used by pre- and postmenopausal women (N=105) to explain mood. After reading a diary written by a middle-aged woman, participants rated menopausal symptoms, environment, and age as likely causes of the woman's mood. Menopausal symptoms were rated as a salient source of attribution for negative mood. (NRB)
Rempel, J K; Ross, M; Holmes, J G
The attributional statements intimate partners communicate to one another were examined as a function of trust. In discussions by 35 married couples, 850 attributions and corresponding events were coded on dimensions of valence, globality, and locus. Results of regression and contingency analyses indicate that attributional statements expressed in high-trust relationships emphasized positive aspects of the relationship. Medium-trust couples actively engaged issues but focused more on negative events and explanations. Low-trust couples expressed more specific, less affectively extreme attributional statements that minimized the potential for increased conflict. Results could not be accounted for by relationship satisfaction. These findings also highlight the importance of focusing on features of the events for which attributions are expressed.
... is unified in our mind even if not in the image. The construction of these entities is the task of visual cognition and, in almost all cases, each construct is a choice among an infinity of possibilities, chosen based on likelihood, bias, or a whim, but chosen by rejecting other valid competitors. The entities are not limited to static surfaces or structures but also include dynamic structures that only emerge over time – from dots that appear to be walking like a human or a moon orbiting a planet, to the...
Gulson, B L; Yui, L A; Howarth, D
Three children were born in the Broken Hill Australia lead mining community with delayed visual maturation of the optic nerve (blindness) within a period of 19 months. Because of the association with the lead pollution, the delayed visual maturation was attributed to lead exposure of the fetus during pregnancy. Lead isotopic analyses of the shed deciduous teeth from the three children demonstrate that they were not exposed to increased levels of lead from a mining or any other source during pregnancy and the etiology of the delayed visual maturation must be sought elsewhere.
Rakow, Neal A; Wendland, Michael S; Trend, John E; Poirier, Richard J; Paolucci, Dora M; Maki, Stephen P; Lyons, Christopher S; Swierczek, Mary J
We describe herein a novel approach for visual indication of trace organic vapors. The sensor utilizes a microporous material within a visual thin film transducer to produce changes in color upon exposure to a very wide range of volatile organic compounds. Visual indication at 5 parts per million (ppm) is demonstrated, with optoelectronic detection achieved to below 50 parts per billion (ppb). Through a thoughtful design of the sensor, we are able to avoid interference from water vapor, a critical attribute needed for practical application.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...
Wegner, Daniel M.
This research focused on the development and articulation of the attributes given by individuals in describing others. Of special interest was the generality with which the individual uses an attribute to characterize stimulus persons. (Editor)
Morgan, G Scott; Mullen, Elizabeth; Skitka, Linda J
Conservatives tend to make dispositional whereas liberals make situational attributions for social problems and alleged misconduct (the "ideo-attribution effect"). Three studies demonstrated a reversal of the ideo-attribution effect. Conservatives made stronger situational attributions than liberals for the behavior of Marines accused of killing Iraqi civilians (Studies 1 and 2) and police officers accused of wrongly killing a cougar running loose in a Chicago neighborhood (Study 3). Reversals of the ideo-attribution effect occurred because conservative values were more consistent with excusing the Marines' and police officers' behavior, whereas liberal values were more consistent with blaming the Marines and police officers. These results suggest that the ideo-attribution effect-and attributions more generally-are shaped by whether people's attributional conclusions are consistent or inconsistent with their salient values.
Full Text Available The answer as to how visual attributes processed in different brain loci at different speeds are bound together to give us our unitary experience of the visual world remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bound representations arise, as commonly assumed, through physiological interactions between cells in the visual areas. In a focal attentional task in which correct responses from either bound or unbound representations were possible, participants discriminated the colour or orientation of briefly presented single bars. On the assumption that representations of the two attributes are bound, the accuracy of reporting the colour and orientation should co-vary. By contrast, if the attributes are not mandatorily bound, the accuracy of reporting the two attributes should be independent. The results of our psychophysical studies reported here supported the latter, non-binding, relationship between visual features, suggesting that binding does not necessarily occur even under focal attention. We propose a task-contingent binding mechanism, postulating that binding occurs at late, post-perceptual, stages through the intervention of memory.
Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer
Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…
Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele
The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... exactly attribute-based communication and its impact on the above mentioned kind of systems is considered. An AbC system consists of a set of parallel components each of which is equipped with a set of attributes. Communication takes place in a broadcast fashion and communication links among components...
Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.
Shaverdian, Anna A; Zhou, Hao; Michailidis, George; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V
Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data.
Visual analytics is an interdisciplinary field that facilitates the analysis of the large volume of data through interactive visual interface. This dissertation focuses on the development of visual analytics techniques in scalable visualization environments. These scalable visualization environments offer a high-resolution, integrated virtual space, as well as a wide-open physical space that affords collaborative user interaction. At the same time, the sheer scale of these environments poses ...
Yewlin E. Chee
Conclusions and importance: Poor presenting acuity is a known risk factor for poor visual outcome after open globe injury. We hypothesize this remarkable visual recovery could be attributable to the presence of a massive choroidal hemorrhage and limited intraocular hemorrhage elsewhere. In rare cases, vision can improve from the no light perception level after secondary vitreoretinal surgery.
Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE
Pennington, Wayne D.
This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.
Fan, Shaojing; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Koenig, Bryan L; Herberg, Jonathan S; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Zhiqi; Zhao, Qi
Visual realism is defined as the extent to which an image appears to people as a photo rather than computer generated. Assessing visual realism is important in applications like computer graphics rendering and photo retouching. However, current realism evaluation approaches use either labor-intensive human judgments or automated algorithms largely dependent on comparing renderings to reference images. We develop a reference-free computational framework for visual realism prediction to overcome these constraints. First, we construct a benchmark dataset of 2520 images with comprehensive human annotated attributes. From statistical modeling on this data, we identify image attributes most relevant for visual realism. We propose both empirically-based (guided by our statistical modeling of human data) and CNN-learned features to predict visual realism of images. Our framework has the following advantages: (1) it creates an interpretable and concise empirical model that characterizes human perception of visual realism; (2) it links computational features to latent factors of human image perception.
Stringham, James M; Garcia, Paul V; Smith, Peter A; McLin, Leon N; Foutch, Brian K
One theory of macular pigment's (MP) presence in the fovea is to improve visual performance in glare. This study sought to determine the effect of MP level on three aspects of visual performance in glare: photostress recovery, disability glare, and visual discomfort. Twenty-six subjects participated in the study. Spatial profiles of MP optical density were assessed with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Glare was delivered via high-bright-white LEDs. For the disability glare and photostress recovery portions of the experiment, the visual task consisted of correct identification of a 1° Gabor patch's orientation. Visual discomfort during the glare presentation was assessed with a visual discomfort rating scale. Pupil diameter was monitored with an infrared (IR) camera. MP level correlated significantly with all the outcome measures. Higher MP optical densities (MPODs) resulted in faster photostress recovery times (average P disability glare contrast thresholds (average P visual discomfort (P = 0.002). Smaller pupil diameter during glare presentation significantly correlated with higher visual discomfort ratings (P = 0.037). MP correlates with three aspects of visual performance in glare. Unlike previous studies of MP and glare, the present study used free-viewing conditions, in which effects of iris pigmentation and pupil size could be accounted for. The effects described, therefore, can be extended more confidently to real-world, practical visual performance benefits. Greater iris constriction resulted (paradoxically) in greater visual discomfort. This finding may be attributable to the neurobiologic mechanism that mediates the pain elicited by light.
Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie
This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse......, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management succeeded in just such a shift....
Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie
This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia – the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack on – differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management...
Kelly, Yin T.; Webb, Taylor W.; Meier, Jeffrey D.; Arcaro, Michael J.; Graziano, Michael S. A.
What is the relationship between your own private awareness of events and the awareness that you intuitively attribute to the people around you? In this study, a region of the human cerebral cortex was active when people attributed sensory awareness to someone else. Furthermore, when that region of cortex was temporarily disrupted, the person’s own sensory awareness was disrupted. The findings suggest a fundamental connection between private awareness and social cognition.
Kinderman, P; Bentall, R P
Causal attributions for positive and negative hypothetical social events made by paranoid patients, depressed patients, and nonpatient participants were examined via a novel measure of causal locus, the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire. Depressed patients tended to attribute negative social events to internal (self-blaming) causes. Nonpatient participants and patients with delusions of persecution tended to avoid such self-blame. However, whereas nonpatient participants tended to choose situational or circumstantial external attributions, paranoid patients tended to choose external attributions that located blame in other individuals. These findings support R. P. Bentall, P. Kinderman, and S. Kaney's (1994) defensive attributional model of persecutory delusions, suggest some modifications to that model, and have implications for the understanding of the relationship between causal attributions and social and self-perception.
Brenneman, Anthony E; Goldgar, Constance; Hills, Karen J; Snyder, Jennifer H; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Lane, Steven
Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity. The need for these noncognitive attributes in clinicians is being reinforced by changes in the US health care system, including shifting patient demographics and a growing emphasis on team-based care and patient satisfaction, and the need for clinicians to help patients interpret complex medical information. The 2016 Physician Assistant Education Association Stakeholder Summit revealed certain behavioral and affective qualities that employers of PAs value and sometimes find lacking in new graduates. Although there are still gaps in the evidence base, some tools and technologies currently exist to more accurately measure noncognitive variables. We propose some possible strategies and tools that PA programs can use to formalize the way they select for noncognitive attributes. Since PA programs have, on average, only 27 months to educate students, programs may need to focus more resources on selecting for these attributes than teaching them.
Amelie M. Achim
Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.
Lechner, Joseph H.
This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.
Radis, M.; Iacomussi, P.; Aghemo, C.
The aim of this study is to evaluate experimentally how well available metrics are able to evaluate how lighting sources affect the perception of visual attributes of artworks exhibited, providing useful indications for works of art exhibition designers. The study considers objective investigations on optical material properties (i.e. spectral reflection factor) compared to subjective tests on colour attributes evaluation of artworks lighted by common lamps (incandescent and fluorescent lamps) and LED lighting sources. Commission International Eclairage (CIE) developed several mathematical methods to predict colour rendering of lighting source, as well visual attributes of materials, but are only an approximation of the material appearance: too many parameters of influence, subjects expectancy included, influence the appearance. In artwork exhibition visual appearance is of fundamental importance and currently no reliable and robust appearance model is available. Comparing objective evaluations and subjective results for lighting set up comparable to works of art exhibition, will provide useful indications on the applicability of colorimetric calculation to artwork exhibition when LED are involved. Visual attributes (hue, saturation, brightness…) of six different colours under LED and not-LED sources at the same Correlate Colour Temperature were compared to the associate objective characteristics calculated from the spectral reflectance. The results show that the perception of visual attributes differs from objective data when SSL sources are involved and when colours are perceived in complex samples: in some cases the visual system is not coherent with the suggestions arising from the calculations.
Folorunso Olufemi A.
Full Text Available This paper addressed the development of an augmented reality (AR based scientific visualization system prototype that supports identification, localisation, and 3D visualisation of oil leakages sensors datasets. Sensors generates significant amount of multivariate datasets during normal and leak situations which made data exploration and visualisation daunting tasks. Therefore a model to manage such data and enhance computational support needed for effective explorations are developed in this paper. A challenge of this approach is to reduce the data inefficiency. This paper presented a model for computing information gain for each data attributes and determine a lead attribute.The computed lead attribute is then used for the development of an AR-based scientific visualization interface which automatically identifies, localises and visualizes all necessary data relevant to a particularly selected region of interest (ROI on the network. Necessary architectural system supports and the interface requirements for such visualizations are also presented.
Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Pei-Yu
The use of visual aids is expected to have a positive effect on students' learning. However, not all visual aids work equally well. A recent meta-analytic research which examined 42 studies has found that the use of animated visuals does not facilitate learning (Anglin, Vaez & Cunnincham, 2004). The failure of visual aids can be attributed to…
Selective and sensitive speciation analysis of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water samples by fiber optic-linear array detection spectrophotometry after ion pair based-surfactant assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.
Yousefi, Seyedeh Mahboobeh; Shemirani, Farzaneh
A simple ion pair based-surfactant assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IP-SA-DLLME) was evaluated for extraction and preconcentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in aqueous samples. In this method, which was used for the first time for chromium speciation analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as both ion-pairing and disperser agent. Cr(VI) ions were converted into their cationic complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and then extracted into 1-octanol dispersed in aqueous solution. Cr(III) ion also can be determined by this procedure after oxidation to Cr(VI). After extraction and phase separation, upper organic phase was transferred to a micro cell of a fiber optic-linear array detection spectrophotometry (FO-LADS). The effects of various parameters on the extraction recovery were investigated. Under the optimized conditions and preconcentration of 10 mL of sample, the enrichment factor of 159 and the detection limit of 0.05 μgL(-1) were obtained. Validation of the method was performed by spiking-recovery method and comparison of results with those obtained by ET-AAS method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth
Estimate the mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey, while data on associated mortality were extracted from the National Statistic Institute. Population attributable fractions were applied and mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index was calculated for people between 35 and 79 years. In 2006, among the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 25,671 lives (16,405 males and 9,266 women) were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index. Mortality attributable was 15.8% of total deaths in males and 14.8% in women, but if we refer to those causes where excess body weight is a risk factor, it is about a 30% of mortality (31.6% in men and 28% in women). The most important individual cause was cardiovascular disease (58%), followed by cancer. The individual cause with a major contribution to deaths was type 2 diabetes; nearly 70% in males and 80% in women. Overweight accounted for 54.9% deaths in men and 48.6% in women. Excess body weight is a major public health problem, with an important associated mortality. Attributable deaths are a useful tool to know the real situation and to monitor for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.
Wang, Shangping; Zhao, Duqiao; Zhang, Yaling
Attribute based encryption (ABE) is a good way to achieve flexible and secure access control to data, and attribute revocation is the extension of the attribute-based encryption, and the keyword search is an indispensable part for cloud storage. The combination of both has an important application in the cloud storage. In this paper, we construct a searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage, the keyword search in our scheme is attribute based with access control, when the search succeeds, the cloud server returns the corresponding cipher text to user and the user can decrypt the cipher text definitely. Besides, our scheme supports multiple keywords search, which makes the scheme more practical. Under the assumption of decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman exponent (q-BDHE) and decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) in the selective security model, we prove that our scheme is secure.
Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P weight gain. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir
Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which convey visual information non-invasively through sounds. We tested whether one critical concept--visual parsing, which is highly-impaired in sight-restored patients--can be learned using SSD. To this end, congenitally blind adults participated in a unique, relatively short (~70 hours), SSD-'vision' training. Following this, participants successfully parsed 2D and 3D visual objects. Control individuals naïve to SSDs demonstrated that while some aspects of parsing with SSD are intuitive, the blind's success could not be attributed to auditory processing alone. Furthermore, we had a unique opportunity to compare the SSD-users' abilities to those reported for sight-restored patients who performed similar tasks visually, and who had months of eyesight. Intriguingly, the SSD-users outperformed the patients on most criteria tested. These suggest that with adequate training and technologies, key high-order visual features can be quickly acquired in adulthood, and lack of visual-experience during critical-periods can be somewhat compensated for. Practically, these highlight the potential of SSDs as standalone-aids or combined with invasive restoration approaches.
In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.
Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.
Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker
Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.
Weiner, B; Perry, R P; Magnusson, J
In two experiments, we examined the perceived controllability and stability of the causes of 10 stigmas. Guided by attribution theory, we also ascertained the affective reactions of pity and anger, helping judgments, and the efficacy of five intervention techniques. In the first study we found that physically based stigmas were perceived as onset-uncontrollable, and elicited pity, no anger, and judgments to help. On the other hand, mental-behavioral stigmas were perceived as onset-controllable, and elicited little pity, much anger, and judgments to neglect. In addition, physically based stigmas were perceived as stable, or irreversible, whereas mental-behavioral stigmas were generally considered unstable, or reversible. The perceived efficacy of disparate interventions was guided in part by beliefs about stigma stability. In the second study we manipulated perceptions of causal controllability. Attributional shifts resulted in changes in affective responses and behavioral judgments. However, attributional alteration was not equally possible for all the stigmas.
The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.
Guo, Hua; Huang, Jeff; Laidlaw, David H
When visualizing data with uncertainty, a common approach is to treat uncertainty as an additional dimension and encode it using a visual variable. The effectiveness of this approach depends on how the visual variables chosen for representing uncertainty and other attributes interact to influence the user's perception of each variable. We report a user study on the perception of graph edge attributes when uncertainty associated with each edge and the main edge attribute are visualized simultaneously using two separate visual variables. The study covers four visual variables that are commonly used for visualizing uncertainty on line graphical primitives: lightness, grain, fuzziness, and transparency. We select width, hue, and saturation for visualizing the main edge attribute and hypothesize that we can observe interference between the visual variable chosen to encode the main edge attribute and that to encode uncertainty, as suggested by the concept of dimensional integrality. Grouping the seven visual variables as color-based, focus-based, or geometry-based, we further hypothesize that the degree of interference is affected by the groups to which the two visual variables belong. We consider two further factors in the study: discriminability level for each visual variable as a factor intrinsic to the visual variables and graph-task type (visual search versus comparison) as a factor extrinsic to the visual variables. Our results show that the effectiveness of a visual variable in depicting uncertainty is strongly mediated by all the factors examined here. Focus-based visual variables (fuzziness, grain, and transparency) are robust to the choice of visual variables for encoding the main edge attribute, though fuzziness has stronger negative impact on the perception of width and transparency has stronger negative impact on the perception of hue than the other uncertainty visual variables. We found that interference between hue and lightness is much greater than that
Andrade, André Q; Blondé, Ward; Hastings, Janna; Schulz, Stefan
Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal-) functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.
Andrade André Q
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...
Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.
N.Bellustin; Y. Kalafati
The objective of this work is to provide a simple and yet efficient tool for human attributes like gender, age and ethnicity by the human facial image in the real time image as we all aware this term that “Real-Time frame rate is a vital factor for practical deployment of computer vision system”. In this particular paper we are trying to presents the progress towards face detection and human attributes classification system. We have developed an algorithm for the classification of gender, age...
McCleaf, Kathy J
Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States.
Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund
information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...
Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke
Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle
Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.
Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle
2 Department of Plant and Horticultural Sciences College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O.Box 5 Hawassa, Ethiopia. 1. Evaluating ... Biophysical attributes of environmentally degraded landscapes in Adwa district, northern Ethiopia, were evaluated using ...... famine and environmental degradation in. Ethiopian ...
Klaassen, Chris A.J.
Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a
WARFARE CENTER DIVISION, KEYPORT NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION, NEWPORT PACIFIC MISSILE RANGE FACILITY 30TH SPACE WING 45TH SPACE WING...96TH TEST WING 412TH TEST WING ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally...2-1 2.2 Attribute General Syntax and Semantics
Werner, Stacy H; Bleich, Michael R
Leaders are tasked with making decisions that have substantial impact on an organization's well-being. Decision making requires critical thinking and requisite action taking. The nature of critical thinking and how professional development educators can strengthen this attribute are presented. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(1):9-11. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold
This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...
Biophysical attributes of environmentally degraded landscapes in Adwa district, northern Ethiopia, were evaluated using LANDSAT ETM data and GIS. Satellite remote sensing (RS) has captured the spatial distribution and variability of Adwa land covers (75% classification accuracy, 73% Kappa statistic). GIS-based ...
Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John
Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)
Hart, Ann Weaver
Administrator succession can have varied effects on organizational performance. Although most studies have focused on performance outcomes, this paper reports the personal sense making of a successor to the principalship. The successor found that leadership validation and attribution influenced her transformation from an interloper to an effective…
Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne; Rosenquist, J. T.
This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected...
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann
Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...
Perse, Elizabeth M.; Rubin, Rebecca B.
Examines social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Finds subjects' relationships with soap opera characters, like social relationships with real people, are based on reduction of uncertainty and ability to predict the character's feelings and attitudes. Discusses implications for uncertainty reduction theory…
The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result showed significant joint influence of academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age on school burnout. Academic self-efficacy had significant ...
Performance attribution style plays a significant role in determining whether or not students engage on academic dishonesty more especially in cheating during examination. This, according to Nelson (1995), is an assault upon the basic integrity and meaning of a university. This study explores the relationship between ...
Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.
Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…
Simendinger, Earl; El-Kassar, Abdul-Nasser; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Alejandra; Crawford, John; Thomason, Stephanie; Reynet, Philippe; Kjellander, Björn; Edwards, Judson
Purpose: Determining the attributes of effective business teachers is critical to schools as they strive to attract and retain students, assure learning, obtain and maintain reputation and accreditations, and place their alumni in the competitive job market. The purpose of this paper is to examine students and faculty perceptions of teaching…
Microbiological characteristics and sensory quality attributes of potassium sorbate treated and untreated smoked freshwater snail ( Lanistes libycus ) ... While no fungi were detected in the fresh sample, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp and Mucor sp were detected on the smoked samples. The aroma of the smoked ...
Simendinger, Earl; El-Kassar, Abdul-Nasser; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Alejandra; Crawford, John; Thomason, Stephanie; Reynet, Philippe; Kjellander, Björn; Edwards, Judson
Purpose: Determining the attributes of effective business teachers is critical to schools as they strive to attract and retain students, assure learning, obtain and maintain reputation and accreditations, and place their alumni in the competitive job market. The purpose of this paper is to examine students and faculty perceptions of teaching…
Sheldon, Brooke E.
Discusses attributes of library leaders that are based on a study of library leaders from academic, public, and school libraries; library school deans; and national library association executives. Four recurring characteristics are highlighted: intensity; communication and listening skills; consistency and the ability to develop trust; and…
Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and
Falbo, Toni; And Others
This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…
A temporal theory of motivation is proposed in which causes, causal dimensions, psychological consequences (expectancy and affect), and behavioral outcomes play a role in the dynamics of action. The discussion of methodological errors in attribution research that follows examines shortcomings at each of these conceptual stages in the motivational…
Speth, Carol A.; And Others
Attribution theory suggests four major explanations for behavioral outcomes: ability, effort, luck, and task-ease. The theory suggests that explanations given for an applicant's success-potential may influence evaluations of that applicant. The research indicates male and female applicants may be affected differently by gender-stereotyped…
Arkin, Robert M.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.
College students attributed their own performance and the performance of the average student to ability, test difficulty, preparation, and luck. Successful students perceived internal factors and unsuccessful students perceived external factors as more important causes of their own performance. Students' anxiety and their ratings of the course and…
Weiner examines Sohn's previous article on attribution and affective reactions. Both researchers' data suggest that emotions in addition to pride and shame are experienced in achievement settings, and that these affects are not necessarily augmented by effort ascriptions. (Author/GDC)
Child, Stephanie T; Schoffman, Danielle E; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Forthofer, Melinda; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan
To examine the association between specific attributes of neighborhood environments and four social environment measures. Data were collected as part of a baseline survey among participants enrolling in a walking intervention. Participants were recruited from a metropolitan area in a Southeastern state. Participants (n = 294) were predominantly African-American (67%) and female (86%), with some college education (79%) and a mean age of 49. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Environment Module assessed perceptions about neighborhood attributes. The social environment was assessed using three distinct scales: social cohesion, social interactions with neighbors, and social support for physical activity from family and friends. Multiple regression models examined associations between neighborhood attributes and social environment measures, adjusting for demographic variables. Having walkable destinations and having access to amenities and transit stops were associated with increased interactions with neighbors (b = 1.32, 1.04, and 1.68, respectively, p bike lanes, racks) were associated with social support for physical activity from family and friends (b = .43 and .30, respectively, p < .05). The study highlights key attributes of neighborhood environments that may be associated with the social context of such settings. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
... teachers denied being the ones who cause students' massive failure instead the ministry concerned and students were the root cause. The ministry of education has to set implementable plans and the students invest time in learning that is supported by parents. Keywords:attributions, motivations, Tanzania and academic ...
The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves and number of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, while the dry matter allocated to root and reproductive ...
ABSTRACT. The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level ...
Grunig, Larissa A.
Describes how to teach interviewing to journalism students. Advocates a course informed by attribution theory, based on a creative, dialogical definition of the interview. Suggests using tape recorders or videotapes to help students objectively evaluate their own and others' performances. (SR)
Tollefson, Nona; Chen, Ju Shan
Teachers were asked whether they gave higher ratings on liking, praising, and helping, and lower ratings on expectancy of success when student failure was attributed to low ability, illness, or low effort. Respondents indicated they would be most willing to help students with low ability, with low expectation of success. (JD)
Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V
Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Journal of Research in Personality , 10...Developmental Psychology, 1, 124-128. V Frieze, I. H. (1976). Causal attributions and information seeking to explain success and failure. Journal of Research in Personality , 10...Clore, G. L. (1979). Actor-observer attributions in a mulitrait-multimethod matrix. Journal of Research in Personality , 13, 1-15. House, W. C.
Hughes, W. Jay
Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.
Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Ghamari, Farhad; Yamini, Yadollah; Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Koolivand, Ali
In the current study, a novel technique for extraction and determination of trans,trans-muconic acid, hippuric acid, and mandelic acid was developed by means of ion-pair-based hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in the three-phase mode. Important factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the method were investigated and optimized. These metabolites were extracted from 10 mL of the source phase into a supported liquid membrane containing 1-octanol and 10% w/v of Aliquat 336 as the ionic carrier followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The organic phase immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber was back-extracted into 24 μL of a solution containing 3.0 mol/L sodium chloride placed inside the lumen of the fiber. A very high preconcentration of 212- to 440-fold, limit of detection of 0.1-7 μg/L, and relative recovery of 87-95% were obtained under the optimized conditions of this method. The relative standard deviation values for within-day and between-day precisions were calculated at 2.9-8.5 and 4.3-11.2%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to urine samples from volunteers at different work environments. The results demonstrated that the method can be used as a sensitive and effective technique for the determination of the metabolites in urine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; Silver, Michael A; Robertson, Lynn C
It has previously been reported that visual crowding of a target by flankers is stronger in the upper visual field than in the lower, and this finding has been attributed to greater attentional resolution in the lower hemifield (He, Cavanagh, & Intriligator, 1996). Here we show that the upper/lower asymmetry in visual crowding can be explained by natural variations in the borders of each individual's visual field. Specifically, asymmetry in crowding along the vertical meridian can be almost entirely accounted for by replacing the conventional definition of visual field location, in units of degrees of visual angle, with a definition based on the ratio of the extents of an individual's upper and lower visual field. We also show that the upper/lower crowding asymmetry is eliminated when stimulus eccentricity is expressed in units of percentage of visual field extent but is present when the conventional measure of visual angle is used. We further demonstrate that the relationship between visual field extent and perceptual asymmetry is most evident when participants are able to focus their attention on the target location. These results reveal important influences of visual field boundaries on visual perception, even for visual field locations far from those boundaries. © 2015 ARVO.
Summers, I R; Du, J
Experiments have been carried out in which subjects were required to discriminate time-varying visual and tactile stimuli presented simultaneously via a 2D array of light-emitting diodes and a vibrator on the fingertip. Contrary to expectations, no problems in parallel visual and tactile perception were apparent. Similar results were obtained in a second experiment in which subjects were require to lipread from a video image and simultaneously identify speech-derived tactile stimuli. The generally poor performance of tactile aids to lipreading has been attributed to problems of parallel perception, but such problems are clearly not present in all circumstances.
Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.
Ozkaya, Ipek; Kazman, Rick; Klein, Mark
.... Architectural patterns can be used to achieve quality attribute requirements. Consequently, architectural patterns generate value based on the present and future utility of the quality attributes they achieve...
Full Text Available This research purposes to know how perception auditors about determining factors of audit fee based on Client Attributes, Auditor Attributes, and Engagement Attributes at The Public Accountant Firm residing in Bandung. In this research, the indicator that is used to characterize the Client Attributes are size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability, leverage and liquidity, and industry. While the indicator to characterize the Auditor Attributes are auditor’s specialization, audit tenure, and location. And the indicators to characterize the Engagement Attributes are audit problems, audit report lag, busy season, and number of reports. The Method that is used in this research is a descriptive method. The population in this research is a public accountant in Bandung. Based on sampling techniques that saturated and qualified then it take about 11 offices of public accountant. SmartPLS ver 2.0 M3 are used as a Statistical analysis. The result of this research with count the loading factor and bootstrapping method are, the first one that the perception of the auditor based on client attributes of audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is size, complexity, profitability, inherent risk, industry, and leverage & liquidty, the second states that perception based on auditor attributes audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is audit tenure, location, and specialization. And the third states that the perception of auditor engagement attributes based determinants of audit fee which is very important to not important audit report lag, busy season, audit problems and number of reports.
Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference"). Subjects may perceive light flashes or geometrical figures containing recurrent patterns ("Elementary imagery and hallucinations") influenced by auditory stimuli ("Audiovisual synesthesia"), or they may envision images of people, animals, or landscapes ("Complex imagery and hallucinations") without any physical stimuli supporting their percepts. This wide assortment of visual phenomena suggests that one single neuropsychopharmacological mechanism is unlikely to explain such vast phenomenological diversity. Starting with mechanisms that act at the cellular level, the key role of 5-HT2A receptor activation and the subsequent increased cortical excitation will be considered. Next, it will be shown that area specific anatomical and dynamical features link increased excitation to the specific visual contents of hallucinations. The decrease of alpha oscillations by hallucinogens will then be introduced as a systemic mechanism for amplifying internal-driven excitation that overwhelms stimulus-induced excitations. Finally, the hallucinogen-induced parallel decrease of the N170 visual evoked potential and increased medial P1 potential will be discussed as key mechanisms for inducing a dysbalance between global integration and early visual gain that may explain several hallucinogen-induced visual experiences, including visual hallucinations, illusions
Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.
Assarzadegan, Farhad; Hesami, Omid; Aryani, Omid; Mansouri, Behnam; Beladi moghadam, Nahid
Mild (140 to 159/90 to 99 mmHg) or moderate (160 to 179/100 to 109 mmHg) chronic arterial hypertension does not appear to cause headache. Whether moderate hypertension predisposes patients to headache at all remains controversial, but there is little evidence that it does. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with mild and moderate hypertension has shown no convincing relationship between blood pressure fluctuations over a 24-hour period and presence or absence of headache. However, headaches are associated to various disorders that lead to abrupt, severe, and paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure. In this paper, the secondary headaches attributed to acute crises of hypertension and the criteria for diagnosing each of them have been reviewed. These are headaches attributed to pheochromocytoma, hypertensive crisis without encephalopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and acute pressure response to exogenous agents. PMID:24250915
Cook, M J
To identify the attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders. A grounded theory research approach was adopted, using two research techniques: observation and interview. The literature review revealed that the role of the clinical nurse leader was ill-defined and addressed only in sparse, opinion-based literature. Novel outcomes of the research included: Identifying five attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders--highlighting, respecting, influencing, creativity and supporting. Distinguishing five typologies of effective clinical nurse leaders--discoverer, valuer, enabler, shaper and modifier. Elucidating factors that constrain and facilitate the development of effective clinical nurse leadership. The results imply that to enhance clinical nursing, leadership factors that enable and constrain clinical nursing leadership have to be identified and acted upon by individuals and those who they report to professionally.
Sahai, Amit; Waters, Brent
We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In fuzzy IBE, we view an identity as a set of descriptive attributes. A fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity,ωù, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, ùω´, if and only if the identities ùω and ùω´are close to each other as measured by the "set overlap" distance metric. A fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that fuzzy IBE can be used for a type of application that we term "attribute-based encryption."
Edwards, Benjamin; Furnas, Alexander; Forrest, Stephanie; Axelrod, Robert
Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice for the victim depends on the vulnerability of the attacker, the knowledge level of the victim, payoffs for different outcomes, and the beliefs of each player about their opponent. The resulting blame game allows analysis of four policy-relevant questions: the conditions under which peace (i.e., no attacks) is stable, when attacks should be tolerated, the consequences of asymmetric technical attribution capabilities, and when a mischievous third party or an accident can undermine peace. Numerous historical examples illustrate how the theory applies to cases of cyber or kinetic conflict involving the United States, Russia, China, Japan, North Korea, Estonia, Israel, Iran, and Syria.
Discrete temporal transitions occur in a variety of domains, but this work is mainly motivated by applications in molecular biology: explaining and analyzing observed transcriptome and proteome time series by literature and database knowledge. The starting point of a formal concept analysis model is presented. The objects of a formal context are states of the interesting entities, and the attributes are the variable properties defining the current state (e.g. observed presence or absence of proteins). Temporal transitions assign a relation to the objects, defined by deterministic or non-deterministic transition rules between sets of pre- and postconditions. This relation can be generalized to its transitive closure, i.e. states are related if one results from the other by a transition sequence of arbitrary length. The focus of the work is the adaptation of the attribute exploration algorithm to such a relational context, so that questions concerning temporal dependencies can be asked during the exploration pr...
In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...
Ludu, Surabhi Singh
This paper reviews literature from 2011 to 2013 on how Latent attributes like gender, political leaning etc. can be inferred from a person's twitter and neighborhood data. Prediction of demographic data can bring value to businesses, can prove instrumental in legal investigation. Moreover, political leanings can be inferred from the wide variety of user data available on-line. The motive of this review is to understand how large data sets can be made from available twitter data. The tweeting ...
control systems, (3) mastery of multiple open and closed operating systems, and (4) detailed knowledge of tele- communications and legal regimes.24...control systems ► Mastery of multiple operating systems ► Detailed knowledge of telecommunications and legal regimes Actors and activities necessary...Attribution: A Vocabulary for National Responsibility for Cyber Attacks” (Vienna, VA: Cyber Conflict Studies Association, 2010). The cyber retaliation
Alrabaee, Saed; Shirani, Paria; Debbabi, Mourad; Wang, Lingyu
There are many occasions in which the security community is interested to discover the authorship of malware binaries, either for digital forensics analysis of malware corpora or for thwarting live threats of malware invasion. Such a discovery of authorship might be possible due to stylistic features inherent to software codes written by human programmers. Existing studies of authorship attribution of general purpose software mainly focus on source code, which is typically based on the style ...
Trust and speech are both essential aspects of human interaction. On the one hand, trust is necessary for vocal communication to be meaningful. On the other hand, humans have developed a way to infer someone’s trustworthiness from their voice, as well as to signal their own. Yet, research on trustworthiness attributions to speakers is scarce and contradictory, and very often uses explicit data, which do not predict actual trusting behaviour. However, measuring behaviour is very...
Mączyński Jerzy; Sułkowski Łukasz
The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers (CEOs) from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 resea...
attribution," in Proceedings of the SIGIR Workshop on Plagiarism Analysis, Authorship Identification, and Near-Duplicate Detection , PAN 2007... REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson
1972) has presented some evidence indicating that people are ’ Prone to primacy effects (i.e., relying on the first sufficient explanation ti"" comes...ME. Probability learning and a negative recency effect in the serial anticipation of alternative symbols. JournalofExperimental Psychology. 1951...however, is the difference in the picture of men and women which emerges fronrthem. Attribution researchers find people to be effective processors of
virulence organisms present in the female lower genital tract, we are beginning to identify some of their virulence attributes. Examples from the work of our laboratory include the hemolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis and an immunosuppressive mycotoxin produced by Candida albicans. Demonstrating the coordinate expression (or other control mechanisms of virulence factors in these sometimes innocuous and sometimes inimical organisms represents the next frontier in the study of normal vaginal microbiology.
Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.
Jawad Alkhateeb; Khaled Musa
The quality of software is essential to corporations in making their commercial software. Good or poorquality to software plays an important role to some systems such as embedded systems, real-time systems,and control systems that play an important aspect in human life. Software products or commercial off theshelf software are usually programmed based on a software quality model. In the software engineeringfield, each quality model contains a set of attributes or characteristics that drives i...
Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth
To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.
Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi
This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.
Silson, Edward H; Reynolds, Richard C; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I
toward the fovea; and (2) ventral pRFs exhibit higher aspect ratios and cover larger areas than dorsal pRFs. These results suggest that ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC sample visual space differently and that such differential sampling likely contributes to different functional roles attributed to the ventral and dorsal pathways, such as object recognition and visually guided attention, respectively. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/382294-10$15.00/0.
Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first c...
Wayne D. Pennington
The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off
Rawlusyk, Kevin James
Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0
Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil
Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.
Olsen, Søren I.
This paper presents an approach of visual shape recognition based on exemplars of attributed keypoints. Training is performed by storing exemplars of keypoints detected in labeled training images. Recognition is made by keypoint matching and voting according to the labels for the matched keypoint....... The matching is insensitive to rotations, limited scalings and small deformations. The recognition is robust to noise, background clutter and partial occlusion. Recognition is possible from few training images and improve with the number of training images....
Chan Raymond CK
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.
Li, Zhangtao; Liu, Jing; Wu, Kai
Most of the existing community detection algorithms are based on vertex connectivity. While in many real networks, each vertex usually has one or more attributes describing its properties which are often homogeneous in a cluster. Such networks can be modeled as attributed graphs, whose attributes sometimes are equally important to topological structure in graph clustering. One important challenge is to detect communities considering both topological structure and vertex properties simultaneously. To this propose, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on structural and attribute similarities (MOEA-SA) is first proposed to solve the attributed graph clustering problems in this paper. In MOEA-SA, a new objective named as attribute similarity SA is proposed and another objective employed is the modularity Q. A hybrid representation is used and a neighborhood correction strategy is designed to repair the wrongly assigned genes through making balance between structural and attribute information. Moreover, an effective multi-individual-based mutation operator is designed to guide the evolution toward the good direction. The performance of MOEA-SA is validated on several real Facebook attributed graphs and several ego-networks with multiattribute. Two measurements, namely density T and entropy E, are used to evaluate the quality of communities obtained. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of MOEA-SA and the systematic comparisons with existing methods show that MOEA-SA can get better values of T and E in each graph and find more relevant communities with practical meanings. Knee points corresponding to the best compromise solutions are calculated to guide decision makers to make convenient choices.
Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...
Liu, Shusen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, Bei [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer -Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
We propose a multivariate volume visualization framework that tightly couples dynamic projections with a high-dimensional transfer function design for interactive volume visualization. We assume that the complex, high-dimensional data in the attribute space can be well-represented through a collection of low-dimensional linear subspaces, and embed the data points in a variety of 2D views created as projections onto these subspaces. Through dynamic projections, we present animated transitions between different views to help the user navigate and explore the attribute space for effective transfer function design. Our framework not only provides a more intuitive understanding of the attribute space but also allows the design of the transfer function under multiple dynamic views, which is more flexible than being restricted to a single static view of the data. For large volumetric datasets, we maintain interactivity during the transfer function design via intelligent sampling and scalable clustering. As a result, using examples in combustion and climate simulations, we demonstrate how our framework can be used to visualize interesting structures in the volumetric space.
Wu, Lin; Wang, Yang; Pan, Shirui
It is now well established that sparse representation models are working effectively for many visual recognition tasks, and have pushed forward the success of dictionary learning therein. Recent studies over dictionary learning focus on learning discriminative atoms instead of purely reconstructive ones. However, the existence of intraclass diversities (i.e., data objects within the same category but exhibit large visual dissimilarities), and interclass similarities (i.e., data objects from distinct classes but share much visual similarities), makes it challenging to learn effective recognition models. To this end, a large number of labeled data objects are required to learn models which can effectively characterize these subtle differences. However, labeled data objects are always limited to access, committing it difficult to learn a monolithic dictionary that can be discriminative enough. To address the above limitations, in this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised dictionary learning method to automatically learn a discriminative dictionary by fully exploiting visual attribute correlations rather than label priors. In particular, the intrinsic attribute correlations are deployed as a critical cue to guide the process of object categorization, and then a set of subdictionaries are jointly learned with respect to each category. The resulting dictionary is highly discriminative and leads to intraclass diversity aware sparse representations. Extensive experiments on image classification and object recognition are conducted to show the effectiveness of our approach.
Dake, Dennis M.; Roberts, Brian
This paper presents an approach to understanding visual metaphor which uses metaphoric analysis and comprehension by graphic and pictorial means. The perceptible qualities of shape, line, form, color, and texture, that make up the visual structure characteristic of any particular shape, configuration, or scene, are called physiognomic properties;…
Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as
Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi
Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....
Tribushinina, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31511780X; Mak, W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215700392
This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., soft pillow) as they hear them and to predict the noun (pillow) on the basis of the adjective meaning (soft). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The
Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin; Prof. Sid Ahmed Elshafia; Prof. Daoud Alzubair Ahmed
Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness L values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as 35.40 and 29.56 respectively. Redness a values was significantly P 0.01 between the types of meat studied hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as 19.60 and 16.45 respectively. The yellowness b values were s...
Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.
whether a general vocabulary for discussing aesthetics and perceptions in industrial design can be established and then assigned to specific products or materials. We do this by surveying design reviews, museum exhibitions and other commentaries on products, searching for a common language; in conjunction...... with this survey, we measure the responses of a test group to selected products with regard to this language. The results indicate general agreement when assigning key aesthetic and perceived attributes to products, but less so with materials. This research suggests the possibility of including a more complete...
Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source
Full Text Available The activity of the management has a millennial existence, during it have been realized multiple progresses which have contributed to the developement of the society in its assembly. The evolution of the human society makes possible the progress in the science of conducting. In all kinds of companies, without keeping into account their domain of activity (industry, trading, tourism, agriculture etc. or their dimensions, it appears the atributes of the conducting. In each organization the attributes of the conducting are present at all hierarchical levels. Each manager disposes on authority, power, responsability; they differ sensibly from a hierarchical level to another.
Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat
This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.
Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...
Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...
Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication email@example.com Anna Harper - Media Relations ...
Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh
The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...
Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication firstname.lastname@example.org Anna Harper - Media Relations ...
... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...
Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Health Information Frequently asked questions ...
Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? ...
....6 The North Carolina State University Libraries have an ambitious data visualization project that aims to visualize the usage of reference services, course tools, computer workstations, and group study rooms...
Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.
Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.
Full Text Available ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...
... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...
Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L. [and others
Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status.
Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie
The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into
Wayne D. Pennington
The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we
Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huu; Grunert, Klaus G
The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya
Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...... several, often contradictory, remarks about remaining visual experience. This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight....
Palus, Charles J
Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.
Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478
Shneiderman, Ben; Aris, Aleks
Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on user-defined semantic substrates, which are non-overlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations.
Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica
Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.
Office 2004 Test Drive User
1. 10 Data Visualization Tips. Data visualizations are an effective tool to communicate research. But to realize their potential, designers should follow these tips to help readers decode their visualizations. 1. Keep it simple! This is the golden rule. Always choose the simplest way to convey your information. 2. Have a specific ...
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 3. METHODS... INTRODUCTION Neon is a novel departure from conventional information visualization: the goal was not to develop a typical visualization toolkit but instead...development philosophies . We assisted in creating a demo using Neon and VINI STTR tools as a visualization mechanism for MUSE. With Memex, we
This paper identifies the types of visual resource changes occurring in rural landscapes. These types include changes due to agricultural technology and land use patterns. The changes are described in relative dimensions of the landscape elements both as patterns and as individual visual elements. This paper relates visual resource changes to various countryside...
Full Text Available The requirements for up-to-date tree data in city parks and forests are increasing, and an important question is how to keep the digital databases current for various applications. Traditional map-updating procedures, such as visual interpretation of digital aerial images or field measurements using tachymeters, are either inaccurate or expensive. Recently, the development of laser-scanning technology has opened new opportunities for tree mapping and attributes updating. For a detailed measurement and attributes update of urban trees, we tested the use of a multisource single-tree inventory (MS-STI for heterogeneous urban forest conditions. MS-STI requires an existing tree map as input information in addition to airborne laser-scanning (ALS data. In our study, the tested input tree map was produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and by using a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Tree attributes were either measured from ALS or predicted by using metrics extracted from ALS data. Stem diameter-at-breast height (DBH was predicted and compared to the field measures, and tree height and crown area were directly measured from ALS data at the two different urban-forest areas. The results indicate that MS-STI can be used for updating urban-forest attributes. The accuracies of DBH estimations were improved compared to the existing attribute information in the city of Helsinki’s urban-tree register. In addition, important attributes, such as tree height and crown dimensions, were extracted from ALS and added as attributes to the urban-tree register.
Nielsen, Anders Busse; Heyman, Erik; Richnau, Gustav
There is broad agreement that in determination of preferences the spatial configurations and content-based properties of the landscape interact with each other and with cognitive constructive. This interaction and how it is influenced by changes in landscape appearance was explored here in a site-specific context where 32 respondents took their own photos of liked and disliked attributes while walking a pre-defined trail of 2 km through a recreational forest landscape with extensive variation in landscape appearance and management regimes. Each respondent provided five photos of features that contributed positively to their landscape experiences and five that contributed negatively and recorded the location and reason in a photo-log, resulting in a total of 320 photos and photo-log pairs. Photos of content-based attributes were more frequent than photos of the landscape's spatial organisation. Photos in the spatial configuration domain were dominated by liked attributes, while the content-based domain was dominated by disliked attributes. Subtle details and ephemera events constituted a large share of the captured content-based attributes, indicating that they are equally important for on-site experience of landscape character and attractiveness as larger landscape elements and their spatial organisation. Closer examination showed marked differences in the relative distribution of spatial and content-based properties between forested and open landscape units. In forested units content-based attributes dominated, while in the open unit photos motivated by the spatial configurations in the implied space dominated. We concluded therefore that changes in depth of the perceptible space alter the relative importance of spatial and content-based properties for people's visual landscape perception, and thus the type of attributes that pass through the individual's perceptual and cognitive filters and become decisive in determining preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier
Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund
Objectives. Discrete choice experiments in which participants choose between alternatives differing on attribute levels are an important research method for preference elicitation. In such experiments choice stimuli is typically presented in tables with verbally described attributes, in tables...... with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...... experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which...
Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng
Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.
A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste
This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co
Hashim, Rugayah Gy; Ahmad, Hashim; Ahmad, Nor'aini
The purpose of this research was to assess the andragogical attribute of adult students engaged in distance learning, specifically, with regards to the main construct, cognitive engagement versus academic achievement. Five hundred students were sampled and the response rate was 33.8%. From the analyses, the overall mean score for cognitive engagement is 3.75 from a scale of one to seven. The results indicated that knowledge gained through the e-distance learning is low and this evidence correlates to the average academic performance or CGPA of the respondents, which is between 2.50-2.99. The findings indicated a low level of integration and motivation in learning and consequently it is suggested that training programs and additional course revisions be integrated into the curriculum to ensure the chances of student success and reduce attrition rate.
Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.
Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.
Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Giavalisco, Patrick; Hummel, Jan; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo
The chemical composition of any wine sample contains numerous small molecules largely derived from three different sources: the grape berry, the yeast strain used for fermentation, and the containers used for wine making and storage. The combined sum of these small molecules present in the wine, therefore, might account for all wine specific features such as cultivar, vintage, origin, and quality. Still, most wine authentication procedures rely either on subjective human measures or if they are based on measurable features, they include a limited number of compounds. In this study, which is based on an untargeted UPLC-FT-ICR-MS-based approach, we provide data, demonstrating that unbiased and objective analytical chemistry in combination with multivariate statistical methods allows to reproducible classify/distinguish wine attributes like variety, origin, vintage, and quality.
Wortman, C B; Adesman, P; Herman, E; Greenberg, R
This experiment examined the effect of timing of an intimate disclosure and assignment of responsibility for the event disclosed on interpersonal attraction. Subjects were induced to interact with a confederate who in all cases revealed something quite personal about himself. The disclosure occurred either early or near the end of a 10-minute conversation. The confederate accepted responsibility for the event disclosed, did not mention responsibility, or assigned responsibility to external factors. Negative traits were assigned to the early disclosure, and he was liked significantly less than the late discloser. The results are explained in terms of differential attributions made to early and late disclosures. The results for the assignment of responsibility variable were surprising: The confederate who accepted responsibility for the event disclosed elicited more negative reactions than the confederate who blamed other factors or who did not mention responsibility. Some possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed.
Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout
Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co....... Nowadays, however, most LCA practitioners chose one methodology independent of their research question. Conclusions This study showed it is possible to perform both ALCA (mass and economic allocation) and CLCA (system expansion) of milk. Choices of methodology, however, resulted in differences in: total...... quantitative outcomes, hotspots, degree of understanding and quality. Recommendations and perspectives We recommend LCA practitioners to better distinguish between ALCA and CLCA in applied studies to reach a higher degree of transparency. Furthermore, we recommend LCA practitioners of different research areas...
Tronicke, Jens; Allroggen, Niklas
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established geophysical tool to explore near-surface sedimentary environments. It has been successfully used, for example, to reconstruct past depositional environments, to investigate sedimentary processes, to aid hydrogeological investigations, and to assist in hydrocarbon reservoir analog studies. Interpreting such 2D/3D GPR data, usually relies on concepts known as GPR facies analysis, in which GPR facies are defined as units composed of characteristic reflection patterns (in terms of reflection amplitude, continuity, geometry, and internal configuration). The resulting facies models are then interpreted in terms of depositional processes, sedimentary environments, litho-, and hydrofacies. Typically, such GPR facies analyses are implemented in a manual workflow being laborious and rather inefficient especially for 3D data sets. In addition, such a subjective strategy bears the potential of inconsistency because the outcome depends on the expertise and experience of the interpreter. In this presentation, we investigate the feasibility of delineating GPR facies in an objective and largely automated manner. Our proposed workflow relies on a three-step procedure. First, we calculate a variety of geometrical and physical attributes from processed 2D and 3D GPR data sets. Then, we analyze and evaluate this attribute data base (e.g., using statistical tools such as principal component analysis) to reduce its dimensionality and to avoid redundant information, respectively. Finally, we integrate the reduced data base using tools such as composite imaging, cluster analysis, and neural networks. Using field examples that have been acquired across different depositional environments, we demonstrate that the resulting 2D/3D facies models ease and improve the interpretation of GPR data. We conclude that our interpretation strategy allows to generate GPR facies models in a consistent and largely automated manner and might be helpful in
Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru
Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.
Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni
Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography  was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm  to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.
Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y
The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.
Denning, Kate S; Reinagel, Pamela
Thalamic relay cells fire bursts of action potentials. Once a long hyperpolarization "primes" (deinactivates) the T-type calcium channel, a depolarizing input will "trigger" a calcium spike with a burst of action potentials. During sleep, bursts are frequent, rhythmic, and nonvisual. Bursts have been observed in alert animals, and burst timing is known to carry visual information under light anesthesia. We extend this finding by showing that bursts without visual triggers are rare. Nevertheless, if the channel were primed at random with respect to the stimulus, then bursts would have the same visual significance as single spikes. We find, however, that visual signals influence when the channel is primed. First, natural time-varying stimuli evoke more bursts than white noise. Second, specific visual stimuli reproducibly elicit bursts, whereas others reliably elicit single spikes. Therefore, visual information is encoded by the selective tagging of some responses as bursts. The visual information attributable to visual priming (as distinct from the information attributable to visual triggering of the bursts) was two bits per burst on average. Although bursts are reportedly rare in alert animals, this must be investigated as a function of visual stimulus. Moreover, we propose methods to measure the extent of both visual triggering and visual priming of bursts. Whether or not bursts are rare, our methods could help determine whether bursts in alert animals carry a distinct visual signal.
van Ooijen, I.
This dissertation will focus on two types of attribute inferences that result from packaging design cues. First, the effects of product packaging design on quality related inferences are investigated. Second, the effects of product packaging design on healthiness related inferences are examined (See
Giuliani, Felice; D’Anselmo, Anita; Tommasi, Luca; Brancucci, Alfredo; Pietroni, Davide
The Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect has been associated with a wide range of magnitude processing. This effect is due to an implicit relationship between numbers and horizontal space, according to which weaker magnitudes and smaller numbers are represented on the left, whereas stronger magnitudes and larger numbers are represented on the right. However, for some particular type of magnitudes such as price, judgments may be also influenced by perceived quality and thus involving valence attribution biases driven by brain asymmetries. In the present study, a lateralized tachistoscopic presentation was used in a price estimation task, using a weight estimation task as a control, to assess differences in asymmetries between these two attributes. Results show a side bias in the former condition but not in the latter, thus indicating that other non-numerical mechanisms are involved in price estimation. Specifically, prices were estimated lower in the left visual field than in the right visual field. The proposed explanation is that price appraisal might involve a valence attribution mechanism leading to a better perceived quality (related to higher prices) when objects are processed primarily in the left hemisphere, and to a lower perceived quality (related to lower prices) when objects are processed primarily in the right hemisphere.
Kayser, Stephanie J.; Philiastides, Marios G.; Kayser, Christoph
Sensory discriminations, such as judgements about visual motion, often benefit from multisensory evidence. Despite many reports of enhanced brain activity during multisensory conditions, it remains unclear which dynamic processes implement the multisensory benefit for an upcoming decision in the human brain. Specifically, it remains difficult to attribute perceptual benefits to specific processes, such as early sensory encoding, the transformation of sensory representations into a motor respo...
Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid
Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we
Buss, David M.; Scheier, Michael F.
Examines whether self-consciousness, a personality disposition, affects self-attributions and attempts to replicate the research findings of Duval and Wicklund (1973) that self-awareness affects self-attributions. (Author/RK)
Wilson, Steven R.; And Others
Investigates the applicability of B. Weiner's attribution theory to compliance-gaining interactions. Finds that attributional dimensions (locus/controllability and stability) affected participants' persistence at seeking compliance, use of particular strategies, and perceptions of target sincerity. (SR)
Palmer, Douglas J.; Willson, Victor
In contrast to Weiner's attributional model, these research findings indicate that attributions for performance in an actual achievement situation are not linked to self-esteem-related affect such as pride/shame. (Author/PN)
Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Galiana, Laura; Gracia, Enrique
The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess intimate partner violence offenders’ responsibility attributions: the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale. The scale was administrated to 423 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A three factor structure (responsibility attribution to the legal system, responsibility attribution to the victim, and responsibility attributi...
Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.
This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…
Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) bean quality attributes differ based on the origin of the produce. Several agro-ecological conditions influence coffee bean quality attributes. Soil chemical properties may be some of the factors affecting the quality attributes. However, no study has so far been conducted to elucidate the association ...
Sheldon, Jane P.
A highly relevant construct that may need more emphasis in our psychology courses is genetic attributions. Attributions are causal explanations people make for specific behaviors, characteristics, occurrences, or differences. Research has found that genetic attributions are related to numerous biopsychosocial phenomena (e.g., perceptions about…
Population-attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates for the relevant disease categories for each population group. The total attributable burden for South Africa in 2000 was obtained by adding the burden attributed to high cholesterol for the four population groups.
Thomas Holmes; Brent Sohngen; Linwood Pendleton; Robert Mendelsohn
The hedonic travel cost method was used to make preliminary estimates of the economic value of ecosystem attributes found in the Southern Appalachian highlands. Travel costs were estimated using origin-destination data from Wilderness Area permits, and site attribute data were collected by field crews. Ecosystem attribute price frontiers were estimated and used to...
Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.
Multi-attribute auctions allow negotiations over multiple attributes besides price. For example in task allocation, service providers can define their service by means of multiple attributes, such as quality of service, deadlines, or delay penalties. Auction mechanisms assume that the players have
Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze
Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem
Latta, R. Michael
In testing Weiner's (1972) attribution theory of achievement behavior, success was found to produce (1) no differential attribution to effort for those high and low in achievement motivation, and (2) an early performance asymptote for those high in achievement motivation, while (3) it also facilitated performance independently of attributions. The…
Luzzo, Darrell Anthony
The recent application of Weiner's attribution theory to the career exploration and planning process has resulted in a series of investigations designed to assist college students to develop an optimistic attributional style for career decision making. This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of three attributional retraining investigations…
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce
This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…
Bell, Linda G.; And Others
When a person acts bizarre, out of role, or in other extreme ways, the perceiver often attributes to that person an extreme disposition, and the attribution is made with confidence. Two experiments were conducted to investigate a modification of this analysis of attribution (Jones & Davis, 1965). (Author/RK)
Sekerina, Irina A.; Sauermann, Antje
It is well established in language acquisition research that monolingual children and adult second language learners misinterpret sentences with the universal quantifier "every" and make quantifier-spreading errors that are attributed to a preference for a match in number between two sets of objects. The present Visual World eye-tracking…
R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard
Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....
Alan A. Ager; Robert J. McGaughey
UTOOLS is a collection of programs designed to integrate various spatial data in a way that allows versatile spatial analysis and visualization. The programs were designed for watershed-scale assessments in which a wide array of resource data must be integrated, analyzed, and interpreted. UTOOLS software combines raster, attribute, and vector data into "spatial...
Cavallo, Carla; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina
Visual elements of food products can play an important role in determining food choice through shaping the attributes perception of consumers. Symbols and logos have the role of conveying information, but they can be interpreted in different ways. The product used as a case study is Extra-Virgin
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura
In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warriner, Amy H.; Patkar, Nivedita M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Delzell, Elizabeth; Gary, Lisa; Kilgore, Meredith; Saag, Kenneth G.
Background Determining anatomic sites and circumstances under which a fracture may be a consequence of osteoporosis is a topic of ongoing debate and controversy that is important to both clinicians and researchers. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and generated an evidence report on fracture risk based on specific anatomic bone sites as well as fracture diagnosis codes. Using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness process, we convened a multi-disciplinary panel of 11 experts who rated fractures according to their likelihood of being due to osteoporosis based on the evidence report. Fracture sites (as determined by ICD-CM codes) were stratified by four clinical risk factor categories based on age, sex, race/ethnicity (African- American and Caucasian) and presence or absence of trauma. Results Consistent with current clinical experience, the fractures rated most likely due to osteoporosis were the femoral neck, pathologic fractures of the vertebrae, and lumbar and thoracic vertebral fractures. The fractures rated least likely due to osteoporosis were open proximal humerus fractures, skull, and facial bones. The expert panel rated open fractures of the arm (except proximal humerus) and fractures of the tibia/fibula, patella, ribs, and sacrum as being highly likely due to osteoporosis in older Caucasian women but a lower likelihood in younger African American men. Conclusion Osteoporosis attribution scores for all fracture sites were determined by a multidisciplinary expert panel to provide an evidence-based continuum of the likelihood of a fracture being associated with osteoporosis. PMID:21130353
Quigley, M A; Biordi, D L; Gillies, D A; Minnick, A
This study replicated another by Hanson and Chater (1983) that investigated the relationship between interest in management roles and personality, demographic, and career background characteristics of female nurses. For the present study, 128 sophomore, senior, and master's degree students were asked to participate and a self-selected convenience sample of 69 was obtained. Three instruments were used: The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), to measure personality traits; a demographic data questionnaire, to measure demographic variables; and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, to measure managerial interests. The total sample of nurses exhibited an artistic-social-intellectual profile. The subhypothesis that nurses of different education levels would exhibit different personality profiles was supported. Analysis of VPI scores demonstrated a statistically significant association between higher educational levels of nurses and higher acquiescence scores, (F = 5.1729 with a significance level of 0.0082). Analysis of variance of Vocational Preference Inventory scale scores showed a statistically significant association between nurses interested in management and higher scores on the enterprising attribute (F = 5.7753 with a significance level of 0.0266). No significant difference was found between management and nonmanagement interest groups in demographic and career characteristics. The findings of this study contribute more insight and knowledge about nurses who select management and administrative roles.
Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.
Kneckt, M C; Syrjälä, A M; Knuuttila, M L
Previous studies have proposed common psychological factors between oral health behavior and diabetes self-care. The aim here was to describe and analyse more comprehensively the relationships between dental and diabetes health behavior on the basis of attribution theory. The likeness between subjects' own assessments, similarities of the causes given to success and failure, and the predictive power of own dental assessments concerning the metabolic balance of diabetes were studied. The research population was composed of 149 IDDM patients. Data were collected by means of a quantitative questionnaire, a clinical oral examination and from patient records. It was found that from the patients reporting success with avoiding gingivitis 82% also reported success with metabolic status and they also had lower mean HbA1c levels than patients assessing failure with gingivitis. There were some correlations between causes of failure: not bothering to clean approximal surfaces correlated with non-adherence to diabetes treatment instructions, and laziness as the cause of caries correlated with non-adherence to diabetes treatment instructions and with poor motivation for diabetes care. It can be concluded that there are some common determinants for both dental health behavior and diabetes self-care. This connection should be taken into account in health education by health care professionals.
Nara Medianeira Stefano
Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.
Full Text Available The overall purpose of this paper was to compare a representative sample of Polish middle managers with a representative sample of chief executive officers (CEOs from six chosen countries, in regard to selected leadership traits and behaviors. We present a small portion of data collected under the GLOBE project, Phase 3, and longitudinal research findings concerning subordinates′ assessments of Polish middle managers in relation to their attributes from 2008 to 2012. The GLOBE, Phase 3 research is the first study to investigate several thousands of CEOs and senior management teams in 24 countries, to empirically and directly assess the relationship between culture and leadership traits and behaviors. We provide research evidence that the investigated CEOs from the United States, Austria, Germany, China, and Taiwan (with the exception of Russian CEOs and Polish middle managers were generally positively evaluated by their direct staff in regard to: inspirational, visionary, integrity, and performance-oriented leadership behaviors (constituents of charismatic leadership, team-oriented behavior, and participative leadership style. Empirical findings under the GLOBE project, Phase 3 revealed that the charismatic leadership behavior of CEOs has a huge influence on top management teams′ (TMTs dedication to organizational goals, and is the most predictive of all leadership behaviors for TMT commitment to organizations. The analyzed research findings indicate that CEOs in Russia and Polish middle managers display strong similarities. They tend to behave in less charismatic, team-oriented, and participative ways than CEOs in the remaining countries.
Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest
This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks.
Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo
Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.
Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin
Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness L values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as 35.40 and 29.56 respectively. Redness a values was significantly P 0.01 between the types of meat studied hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as 19.60 and 16.45 respectively. The yellowness b values were significantly P 0.001 different between treatments However beef recorded the higher values than in camel meat as 7.78 and 5.10 respectively. In general camel meat appeared brighter red than beef. Water holding capacity WHC was not significantly P 0.05 different among the two types of meat studied. The WHC values were 3.07 and 2.67 for camel and beef respectively. Shear force which measures muscle tenderness was not significantly P 0.05 different among the two types of meat studied. However beef recorded the lower values than in camel meat as 4.60 and 5.11 respectively. Connective tissue strength values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Hence camel meat recorded higher values than beef as 3.57 and 2.62 respectively.
Georgina Russell, Catherine; Burke, Paul F; Waller, David S; Wei, Edward
Front-of-pack attributes have the potential to affect parents' food choices on behalf of their children and form one avenue through which strategies to address the obesogenic environment can be developed. Previous work has focused on the isolated effects of nutrition and health information (e.g. labeling systems, health claims), and how parents trade off this information against co-occurring marketing features (e.g. product imagery, cartoons) is unclear. A Discrete Choice Experiment was utilized to understand how front-of-pack nutrition, health and marketing attributes, as well as pricing, influenced parents' choices of cereal for their child. Packages varied with respect to the two elements of the Australian Health Star Rating system (stars and nutrient facts panel), along with written claims, product visuals, additional visuals, and price. A total of 520 parents (53% male) with a child aged between five and eleven years were recruited via an online panel company and completed the survey. Product visuals, followed by star ratings, were found to be the most significant attributes in driving choice, while written claims and other visuals were the least significant. Use of the Health Star Rating (HSR) system and other features were related to the child's fussiness level and parents' concerns about their child's weight with parents of fussy children, in particular, being less influenced by the HSR star information and price. The findings suggest that front-of-pack health labeling systems can affect choice when parents trade this information off against marketing attributes, yet some marketing attributes can be more influential, and not all parents utilize this information in the same way. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bidot, S; Biotti, D
Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T
A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.
Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.
Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.
Baisley, R. L.
The helicopter visual aid system has been built and flight tested in situations representative of actual flight missions. The mechanisms discussed contributed greatly to the successful performance of the system throughout the 160 hours of flight testing. It has demonstrated that the visual aid concept can provide improved daytime visual capability, greatly improved nighttime capability, surveillance from greater distances and/or altitudes, covert operation at night through the use of the IR searchlight, and a photographic recording at the scene being viewed.
Cole, G F; Hungerford, J.; Jones, R B
Sixteen blind babies who were considered to be showing the characteristics of delayed visual maturation were studied prospectively. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds, and the criteria for this are discussed. All of these infants developed visual responses between 4 and 6 months of age and had normal or near normal visual acuities by 1 year of age. Long term follow up, however, has shown neurological abnormalities in some of these children.
Evans, Karla K; Cohen, Michael A; Tambouret, Rosemary; Horowitz, Todd; Kreindel, Erica; Wolfe, Jeremy M
In general, humans have impressive recognition memory for previously viewed pictures. Many people spend years becoming experts in highly specialized image sets. For example, cytologists are experts at searching micrographs filled with potentially cancerous cells and radiologists are expert at searching mammograms for indications of cancer. Do these experts develop robust visual long-term memory for their domain of expertise? If so, is this expertise specific to the trained image class, or do such experts possess generally superior visual memory? We tested recognition memory of cytologists, radiologists, and controls with no medical experience for three visual stimulus classes: isolated objects, scenes, and mammograms or micrographs. Experts were better than control observers at recognizing images from their domain, but their memory for those images was not particularly good (D' ~ 1.0) and was much worse than memory for objects or scenes (D' > 2.0). Furthermore, experts were not better at recognizing scenes or isolated objects than control observers.
This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...
Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C
By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural substrate? To address this question with a high degree of anatomic specificity, we partitioned the TPJ, a broad area often found to be recruited in theory of mind tasks, into 2 neuroanatomically specific regions of interest: Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) and Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). To maximize behavioral specificity, we designed a tightly controlled verbal task comprised of sets of single sentences--sentences identical except for the type of mental state specified in the verb (belief, emotion, perception, syntax control). Results indicated that attribution of beliefs more strongly recruited both regions of interest than did emotions or perceptions. This is especially surprising with respect to STS, since it is widely reported in the literature to mediate the detection of referential states--among them emotions and perceptions--rather than the inference of beliefs. An explanation is offered that focuses on the differences between verbal stimuli and visual stimuli, and between a process of sentence comprehension and a process of visual detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t
Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from
Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.
This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics
Nilsson, Johanna; Axelsson, Östen
Aesthetic quality is central to textile conservators when evaluating a conservation method. However, the literature on textile conservation chiefly focuses on physical properties, and little is known about what factors determine aesthetic quality according to textile conservators. The latter was explored through two experiments. Experiment 1 explored the underlying attributes of aesthetic quality of textile conservation interventions. Experiment 2 explored the relationships between these attributes and how well they predicted aesthetic quality. Rank-order correlation analyses revealed two latent factors called Coherence and Completeness. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that Coherence was the most important predictor of aesthetic quality. This means that a successful conservation intervention is visually well-integrated with the textile item in terms of the material and method.
Falkmer, Marita; Bjallmark, Anna; Larsson, Matilda; Falkmer, Torbjorn
Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed…
Vellutino, Frank R.; And Others
Presents an investigation of the hypothesis that specific reading disability is attributable to inadequate visual memory. A total of 126 subjects, ages 7-14, who were asked to demonstrate retention of randomly arranged Hebrew letters on three separate occasions, provided no evidence that deficient visual memory is a likely source of reading…
Woodward, Paul J.; And Others
A factor analysis of the Carrow Auditory-Visual Abilities Test identified common factors in a population of 1,032 nondisabled 4- through 10-year-olds and a clinical population of language-disordered or learning-disabled peers with auditory and/or visual perception problems. Most subtests fell into factors attributed to auditory or visual…
Charles S. Brennan; Kuri, Victor
This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Consumer attitudes to foods are mainly influenced by quality attributes. Ethical factors are important in some cases, but they may be overstated. The relationships between consumers' awareness of organic food, price and perceived quality of food were investigated by tests involving series of consumer panels and sensory evaluation. Sensory responses were also matched to instrumental analysis data. Results indicated that...
Rowe, Fiona J
We sought to determine stroke survivors' views on impact of stroke-related visual impairment to quality of life. Stroke survivors with visual impairment, more than 1 year post stroke onset, were recruited. Semistructured biographical narrative interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic approach to analysis of the qualitative data was adopted. Transcripts were systematically coded using NVivo10 software. Thirty-five stroke survivors were interviewed across the UK: 16 females, 19 males; aged 20-75 years at stroke onset. Five qualitative themes emerged: "Formal care," "Symptoms and self," "Adaptations," "Daily life," and "Information." Where visual problems existed, they were often not immediately recognized as part of the stroke syndrome and attributed to other causes such as migraine. Many participants did not receive early vision assessment or treatment for their visual problems. Visual problems included visual field loss, double vision, and perceptual problems. Impact of visual problems included loss in confidence, being a burden to others, increased collisions/accidents, and fear of falling. They made many self-identified adaptations to compensate for visual problems: magnifiers, large print, increased lighting, use of white sticks. There was a consistent lack of support and provision of information about visual problems. Poststroke visual impairment causes considerable impact to daily life which could be substantially improved by simple measures including early formal visual assessment, management and advice on adaptive strategies and self-management options. Improved education about poststroke visual impairment for the public and clinicians could aid earlier diagnosis of visual impairments.
Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.
We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.
Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.
The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the compacting materials relative to that of the surrounding annulus of extensional horizontal strain. The examples cited include natural systems strained only by extraction of fluids, as well as some subsequently subjected to injection. Faulting and seismicity have accompanied both decrease and subsequent increase of fluid pressures; reversal of fluid-pressure decline by injection may enhance the likelihood of subsurface faulting and seismicity due chiefly to earlier fluid pressure reduction. A consistent common denominator appears to be continuing compaction at depth; the relative effects of fluid extraction followed by injection are not easily separated. ?? 1976.
Full Text Available It is suggested that certain psychological attributes of accounting graduates are significant predictors of the later success of trainee accountants in the work environment. Since selection is a key human resources function in public accounting firms the present study investigated the relationship between academic performance, specific personality traits, examination pass rate and the work performance of a sample (N = 77 of trainee accountants from an international, mid-sized firm. The results indicate that the majority of cases could be correctly predicted as successful or not by a verbal ability variable and that the criterion measure developed for this study (Cronbach alpha = 0,95 can be used successfully to measure the work performance of trainee accountants. The importance of academic performance as well as the pass rate in the qualifying examinations are also discussed. Opsomming Daar word gesuggereer dat sekere sielkundige eienskappe van rekeningkunde gegradueerdes as voorspellers van hul latere sukses in die werkomgewing kan dien. Aangesien keuring ’n kernfunksie van die menslikehulpbronaktiwiteite binne openbare ouditeursfirmas is, het hierdie studie die verhouding tussen akademiese prestasie, spesifieke persoonlikheidstrekke, die eksamenslaagsyfer en die werkprestasie van ’n steekproef (N = 77 kwekelinggeoktrooieerde-rekenmeesters binne ’n internasionale, gemiddelde grootte firma ondersoek. Die resultate dui daarop dat die meerderheid gevalle korrek as suksesvol aldan nie voorspel kan word deur ’n verbale vermoëveranderlike en dat die kriteriuminstrument wat vir hierdie studie ontwikkel is (Cronbach alfa = 0,95, gebruik kan word om die werkprestasie van hierdie kwekelinge te meet. Die belangrikheid van akademiese prestasie en die slaagsyfer in die kwalifiserende eksamens word ook bespreek.
Wall, Emily; Das, Subhajit; Chawla, Ravish; Kalidindi, Bharath; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex
People often rank and order data points as a vital part of making decisions. Multi-attribute ranking systems are a common tool used to make these data-driven decisions. Such systems often take the form of a table-based visualization in which users assign weights to the attributes representing the quantifiable importance of each attribute to a decision, which the system then uses to compute a ranking of the data. However, these systems assume that users are able to quantify their conceptual understanding of how important particular attributes are to a decision. This is not always easy or even possible for users to do. Rather, people often have a more holistic understanding of the data. They form opinions that data point A is better than data point B but do not necessarily know which attributes are important. To address these challenges, we present a visual analytic application to help people rank multi-variate data points. We developed a prototype system, Podium, that allows users to drag rows in the table to rank order data points based on their perception of the relative value of the data. Podium then infers a weighting model using Ranking SVM that satisfies the user's data preferences as closely as possible. Whereas past systems help users understand the relationships between data points based on changes to attribute weights, our approach helps users to understand the attributes that might inform their understanding of the data. We present two usage scenarios to describe some of the potential uses of our proposed technique: (1) understanding which attributes contribute to a user's subjective preferences for data, and (2) deconstructing attributes of importance for existing rankings.Our proposed approach makes powerful machine learning techniques more usable to those who may not have expertise in these areas.
Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C
Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Adhikari, Kabindra; Chellasamy, Menaka
of predictors in Digital soil mapping of SOC. But there are no rules only few empirical guidelines on which digital terrain attributes to use. The aim of this paper was to select and the evaluate 21 digital terrain attributes and use the best for mapping. A typical 7500 km2 region located in Denmark...... was selected, total 2,514,820 data mining models were constructed by 71 differences grid from 12m to 2304m and 22 attributes, 21 attributes derived by DTM and the original elevation. Relative importance and usage of each attributes in every model were calculated. Comprehensive impact rates of each attribute...... which was processed by weighting, grouping, summation and normalization was taken as the important indicator in SOC model. The results showed that there use differences in the SOC model using different terrain attributes. Relative Slope Position(RSP), Channel Altitude(Chnl_alti),and Standard High...
Huang, Dandan; Tory, Melanie; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Bartram, Lyn; Bateman, Scott; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tang, Anthony; Woodbury, Robert
Data surrounds each and every one of us in our daily lives, ranging from exercise logs, to archives of our interactions with others on social media, to online resources pertaining to our hobbies. There is enormous potential for us to use these data to understand ourselves better and make positive changes in our lives. Visualization (Vis) and visual analytics (VA) offer substantial opportunities to help individuals gain insights about themselves, their communities and their interests; however, designing tools to support data analysis in non-professional life brings a unique set of research and design challenges. We investigate the requirements and research directions required to take full advantage of Vis and VA in a personal context. We develop a taxonomy of design dimensions to provide a coherent vocabulary for discussing personal visualization and personal visual analytics. By identifying and exploring clusters in the design space, we discuss challenges and share perspectives on future research. This work brings together research that was previously scattered across disciplines. Our goal is to call research attention to this space and engage researchers to explore the enabling techniques and technology that will support people to better understand data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs.
Chen, Ying; Chan, Hock Chuan
The difference between surface and deep structures of a spreadsheet is a major cause of difficulty in checking spreadsheets. After a brief survey of current methods of checking (or debugging) spreadsheets, new visual methods of showing the deep structures are presented. Illustrations are given on how these visual methods can be employed in various interactive local and global debugging strategies.
A major influence this generation of high school digital natives has had on the curriculum is their natural focus on visuals to convey information. They are driving the move toward visual information. In this article, one high school expands the learning environment from handhelds to videoconferencing. Sacred Heart has found that mixing the…
If you are planning to create data analysis and visualization tools in the context of science, engineering, economics, or social science, then this book is for you. With this book, you will become a visualization expert, in a short time, using Mathematica.
Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ...
Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > The Visual System All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...
As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…
Slone, Debra J.
The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…
Merlyn J. Paulson
This paper outlines a project level process (V.I.S.) which utilizes very accurate and flexible computer algorithms in combination with contemporary site analysis and design techniques for visual evaluation, design and management. The process provides logical direction and connecting bridges through problem identification, information collection and verification, visual...
Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H
A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.
Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Lead email@example.com Anna Harper - Media Relations firstname.lastname@example.org NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 ... This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...
Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.
Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders
Wade, Nicholas J
The art of visual communication is not restricted to the fine arts. Scientists also apply art in communicating their ideas graphically. Diagrams of anatomical structures, like the eye and visual pathways, and figures displaying specific visual phenomena have assisted in the communication of visual ideas for centuries. It is often the case that the development of a discipline can be traced through graphical representations and this is explored here in the context of concepts of visual science. As with any science, vision can be subdivided in a variety of ways. The classification adopted is in terms of optics, anatomy, and visual phenomena; each of these can in turn be further subdivided. Optics can be considered in terms of the nature of light and its transmission through the eye. Understanding of the gross anatomy of the eye and visual pathways was initially dependent upon the skills of the anatomist whereas microanatomy relied to a large extent on the instruments that could resolve cellular detail, allied to the observational skills of the microscopist. Visual phenomena could often be displayed on the printed page, although novel instruments expanded the scope of seeing, particularly in the nineteenth century.
Adams, Dennis M.
The computer controlled visual media, particularly television, are becoming an increasingly powerful instrument for the manipulation of thought. Powerful visual images increasingly reflect and shape personal and external reality--politics being one such example--and it is crucial that the viewing public understand the nature of these media…
Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike
Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the
The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.
Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler
Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...
Donderi, Don C.
The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…
Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru
We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator
4 This makes for an intuitive and aesthetically pleasing graph drawing that is easy to learn and manipulate . Aside from the visual aspects of the...Fig. 7). From here, there are multiple controls to interact with as well as the visualization itself. The time line can be manipulated freely...
Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel
Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...
Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.
Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to
Harel, S; Holtzman, M; Feinsod, M
Three infants, recognised as blind during the first 4 months of life, were found to be normal on neurological and ophthalmological examinations. Visual electro-diagnostic studies showed normal retinal responses, but delayed conduction velocities and impaired visually-evoked responses over the occipital cortex. After age 6 months, normal vision developed gradually and all abnormalities disappeared.
Harel, S; Holtzman, M; Feinsod, M
Three infants, recognised as blind during the first 4 months of life, were found to be normal on neurological and ophthalmological examinations. Visual electro-diagnostic studies showed normal retinal responses, but delayed conduction velocities and impaired visually-evoked responses over the occipital cortex. After age 6 months, normal vision developed gradually and all abnormalities disappeared. PMID:6189454
Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng
Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new
Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo
What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This
Velsko, S P; Allen, J E; Cunningham, C T
This report presents a general approach to inferring transmission and source relationships among microbial isolates from their genetic sequences. The outbreak transmission graph (also called the transmission tree or transmission network) is the fundamental structure which determines the statistical distributions relevant to source attribution. The nodes of this graph are infected individuals or aggregated sub-populations of individuals in which transmitted bacteria or viruses undergo clonal expansion, leading to a genetically heterogeneous population. Each edge of the graph represents a transmission event in which one or a small number of bacteria or virions infects another node thus increasing the size of the transmission network. Recombination and re-assortment events originate in nodes which are common to two distinct networks. In order to calculate the probability that one node was infected by another, given the observed genetic sequences of microbial isolates sampled from them, we require two fundamental probability distributions. The first is the probability of obtaining the observed mutational differences between two isolates given that they are separated by M steps in a transmission network. The second is the probability that two nodes sampled randomly from an outbreak transmission network are separated by M transmission events. We show how these distributions can be obtained from the genetic sequences of isolates obtained by sampling from past outbreaks combined with data from contact tracing studies. Realistic examples are drawn from the SARS outbreak of 2003, the FMDV outbreak in Great Britain in 2001, and HIV transmission cases. The likelihood estimators derived in this report, and the underlying probability distribution functions required to calculate them possess certain compelling general properties in the context of microbial forensics. These include the ability to quantify the significance of a sequence 'match' or &apos
This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/
Naiman, J. P.; Borkiewicz, Kalina; Christensen, A. J.
The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large data sets. Here, we discuss some newly developed tools used to import and manipulate astrophysical data into the three-dimensional visual effects software, Houdini. This software is widely used by visual effects artists, but a recently implemented Python API now allows astronomers to more easily use Houdini as a visualization tool. This paper includes a description of features, workflow, and various example visualizations. The project website, www.ytini.com, is aimed at a scientific audience and contains Houdini tutorials and links to the Python script Bitbucket repository to simplify the process of importing and rendering astrophysical data.
Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.
Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen
With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.
Steed, Chad A [ORNL
Interactive data visualization leverages human visual perception and cognition to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of data analysis. When combined with automated data analytics, data visualization systems orchestrate the strengths of humans with the computational power of machines to solve problems neither approach can manage in isolation. In the intelligent transportation system domain, such systems are necessary to support decision making in large and complex data streams. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to several key topics related to the design of data visualization systems. In addition to an overview of key techniques and strategies, we will describe practical design principles. The chapter is concluded with a detailed case study involving the design of a multivariate visualization tool.
Morin, P; Rivrain, Y; Eustache, F; Lambert, J; Courtheoux, P
A patient presented with visual and tactile agnosia due to a spontaneous left occipito-temporal hematoma. Major memory and spatial orientation disorders were also noted, but language, gestures, auditory and olfactory perception, and interior visual imagerie were unaffected. A review of the literature since 1970 found 6 cases of an association of this type among 17 patients with visual agnosia. There appears to be no relationship between the presence of tactile agnosia and the global or partial character of the visual agnosia, the severity of memory disturbances, the presence of visuoverbal disconnection or visual imagery disorders. In contrast, these cases differed in that the lesions were more extensive and extended beyond the internal occipital regions: they were widespread in 3 cases and in the left internal occipital and parietal region in 1 case. In the patient reported in this paper there was a wide lesion of the posterior white matter of the left hemisphere.
Langdon, Robyn; Still, Megan; Connors, Michael H; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley V
Attributional biases to externalize blame for negative events (externalizing bias) and to target other people for blame (personalizing bias) may constitute a vulnerability to psychosis. However, most research to date has only examined attributional biases in chronic patients. We examined attributional style, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis patients to assess the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to compare the attributional style of patients and controls. Correlates of attributional style were also examined. Early psychosis patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed the 'Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire'. Paranoid tendencies, suspiciousness, and depression were also assessed in both groups, while severity of current symptoms was assessed in patients. A high proportion of patients had persecutory delusions. These patients, however, did not differ from controls in externalizing or personalizing bias. Whereas suspiciousness and persecutory delusions in patients associated with externalizing bias, no bias measures associated with paranoid tendencies in either patients or controls. Counter to the pattern seen for endogenous depression, depression in patients was associated with an increased tendency to attribute events to self and a decreased tendency to attribute events to circumstances. These preliminary findings raise doubts about the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. The novel findings with regard to depression warrant further investigation and suggest that young people, who develop depression after the onset of psychosis, may experience a need to re-establish a sense of personal control over life events that appear unpredictable. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
This edited volume addresses the vast challenges of adapting Online Social Media (OSM) to developing research methods and applications. The topics cover generating realistic social network topologies, awareness of user activities, topic and trend generation, estimation of user attributes from their social content, behavior detection, mining social content for common trends, identifying and ranking social content sources, building friend-comprehension tools, and many others. Each of the ten chapters tackle one or more of these issues by proposing new analysis methods or new visualization techn
This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification. The prototype tool is described along with the requirements constraint language after a brief literature review is presented. Examples of how the tool can be used are also presented. In conclusion, the most significant advantage of this tool is to provide a first step in evaluating specification completeness, and to provide a more productive method for program comprehension and debugging. The expected payoff is increased software surety confidence, increased program comprehension, and reduced development and debugging time.
Fornaciai, Michele; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G; Park, Joonkoo
While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, we recently reported an event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrating selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortex in numerosity processing. However, which specific brain area underlies such early activation is not known. Here, we tested whether numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise specifically from the initial stages of visual cortex, aiming to localize the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the distinctive folding pattern of early occipital cortices around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are presented in the upper versus lower visual field. Dot arrays, including 8-32dots constructed systematically across various numerical and non-numerical visual attributes, were presented randomly in either the upper or lower visual hemifields. Our results show that neural responses at about 90ms post-stimulus were robustly sensitive to numerosity. Moreover, the peculiar pattern of polarity inversion of numerosity-sensitive activity at this stage suggested its generation primarily in V2 and V3. In contrast, numerosity-sensitive ERP activity at occipito-parietal channels later in the time course (210-230ms) did not show polarity inversion, indicating a subsequent processing stage in the dorsal stream. Overall, these results demonstrate that numerosity processing begins in one of the earliest stages of the cortical visual stream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We present a method for the interactive exploration of tera-scale particle data sets. Such data sets arise from molecular dynamics, particle-based fluid simulation, and astrophysics. Our visualization technique provides a focus+context view of the data that runs interactively on commodity hardware. The method is based on a hybrid multi-scale rendering architecture, which renders the context as a hierarchical density volume. Fine details in the focus are visualized using direct particle rendering. In addition, clusters like dark matter halos can be visualized as semi-transparent spheres enclosing the particles. Since the detail data is too large to be stored in main memory, our approach uses an out-of-core technique that streams data on demand. Our technique is designed to take advantage of a dual-GPU configuration, in which the workload is split between the GPUs based on the type of data. Structural features in the data are visually enhanced using advanced rendering and shading techniques. To allow users to easily identify interesting locations even in overviews, both the focus and context view use color tables to show data attributes on the respective scale. We demonstrate that our technique achieves interactive performance on a one trillionpar-ticle data set from the DarkSky simulation.
The maximal consistent extension Ext(S) of a given information system S consists of all objects corresponding to attribute values from S which are consistent with all true and realizable rules extracted from the original information system S. An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B. We show that there exists only one irreducible descriptive set of attributes. We present a polynomial algorithm for this set construction. We also study relationships between the cardinality of irreducible descriptive set of attributes and the number of attributes in S. The obtained results will be useful for the design of concurrent data models from experimental data. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Maria Cristina Barbaro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: evaluate prenatal care for adolescents in health units, in accordance with the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC guidelines. METHOD: quantitative study conducted with health professionals, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Brazil to assess the presence and extent of PHC attributes. RESULTS: for all the participating units, the attribute Access scored =6.6; the attributes Longitudinality, Coordination (integration of care, Coordination (information systems and Integrality scored =6.6, and the Essential Score =6.6. Comparing basic units with family health units, the attribute scores were equally distributed; Accessibility scored =6.6, the others attributes scored =6.6; however, in the basic units, the Essential Score was =6.6 and, in the family health units, =6.6. CONCLUSION: expanding the coverage of family health units and the training of professionals can be considered strategies to qualify health care.
P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak
Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the ...
Bernard, John C.; Pesek, John D., Jr.; Pan, Xiqian
Typical supermarket chickens are produced with novel or controversial attributes. This continues despite contrasting growth in consumer interest in organic and natural foods. This study surveyed Delaware consumersâ€™ likelihood to purchase chicken given different attributes: free range, given antibiotics, irradiated, fed genetically modified (GM) fee, GM chicken, and price. Examining conjoint analysis data with a heteroskedastic two-limit tobit model, GM chicken and other novel attributes wer...
Shah, Neil; Beutel, Alex; Hooi, Bryan; Akoglu, Leman; Gunnemann, Stephan; Makhija, Disha; Kumar, Mohit; Faloutsos, Christos
Given a network with attributed edges, how can we identify anomalous behavior? Networks with edge attributes are commonplace in the real world. For example, edges in e-commerce networks often indicate how users rated products and services in terms of number of stars, and edges in online social and phonecall networks contain temporal information about when friendships were formed and when users communicated with each other -- in such cases, edge attributes capture information about how the adj...
plot level biomass into wall-to-wall maps that provide more ecological information. We evaluated the utility of three spatial modeling approaches to address this problem: deterministic methods, geostatistical methods and an image segmentation approach. Overall, the mean pixel biomass estimated by the 3 approaches did not differ significantly but the output maps showed marked differences in the estimation precision and ability of each model to mimic the primary variable's trend across the landscape. The results emphasized the need for future satellite lidar missions to consider increasing the sampling intensity across track so that biomass observations are made and characterized at the scale at which they vary. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard to simulate ICESat-2 data. We segmented each transect into different block sizes and calculated canopy top and mean ground elevation based on the structure of the histogram of the block's aggregated photons. Our algorithm was able to compute canopy height and generate visually meaningful vegetation profiles at MABEL's signal and noise levels but a simulation of the expected performance of ICESat-2 by adjusting MABEL data's detected number of signal and noise photons to that predicted using ATLAS instrument model design cases indicated that signal photons will be substantially lower. The lower data resolution reduces canopy height estimation precision especially in areas of low density vegetation cover. Given the clear difficulties in processing simulated ATLAS data, it appears unlikely that it will provide the kind of data required for mapping of the biophysical properties of savanna vegetation. Rather, resources are better concentrated on preparing for the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, a waveform lidar mission scheduled to launch by the end of this decade. In addition to the full waveform technique
Evans, Karla K.; Cohen, Michael A.; Tambouret, Rosemary; Horowitz, Todd; Kreindel, Erica; Wolfe, Jeremy M.
In general, humans have impressive recognition memory for previously viewed pictures. Many people spend years becoming experts in highly specialized image sets. For example, cytologists are experts at searching micrographs filled with potentially cancerous cells and radiologists are expert at searching mammograms for indications of cancer. Do these experts develop robust visual long-term memory for their domain of expertise? If so, is this expertise specific to the trained image class, or do ...
The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need
Haas, Brian W; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M
The ability to identify the cause of another person's emotional reaction is an important component associated with improved success of social relationships and survival. Although many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in emotion recognition, very little is currently known regarding the processes involved during emotion attribution decisions. Research on complementary "emotion understanding" mechanisms, including empathy and theory of mind, has demonstrated that emotion understanding decisions are often made through relatively emotion- or cognitive-based processing streams. The current study was designed to investigate the behavioral and brain mechanisms involved in emotion attribution decisions. We predicted that dual processes, emotional and cognitive, are engaged during emotion attribution decisions. Sixteen healthy adults completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to characterize individual differences in tendency to make emotion- versus cognitive-based interpersonal decisions. Participants then underwent functional MRI while making emotion attribution decisions. We found neuroimaging evidence that emotion attribution decisions engage a similar brain network as other forms of emotion understanding. Further, we found evidence in support of a dual processes model involved during emotion attribution decisions. Higher scores of personal distress were associated with quicker emotion attribution decisions and increased anterior insula activity. Conversely, higher scores in perspective taking were associated with delayed emotion attribution decisions and increased prefrontal cortex and premotor activity. These findings indicate that the making of emotion attribution decisions relies on dissociable emotional and cognitive processing streams within the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole
Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.
Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels...
Powers, Maureen K; Grisham, J David; Wurm, Janice K; Wurm, William C
Even though poor readers often have poor visual skills, such as binocular coordination and oculomotor control, students' visual skills are rarely assessed. Computer assessments have the potential to assist in identifying students whose visual skills are deficient. This study compared assessments made by an Internet-based computer orthoptics program with those of an on-site vision therapist. Students (N = 41) in grades 1 through 8, reading at least 2 levels below grade, were assessed for visual skill dysfunction (including binocular fusion and tracking ability) by a vision therapist at their school in Wisconsin. The therapist determined whether the student had adequate visual skills based on clinical and behavioral observations. A "remote" investigator located in California determined the adequacy of accommodative facility, tracking, and vergence skills in the same students, based on quantitative progress through the modules of an Internet-based computer orthoptics training program during 3 assessment sessions. The on-site therapist made 33 referrals for possible visual skills training (80%). The remote investigator made 25 referrals (61%), all of which were consistent with referrals made by the on-site therapist; thus, no false-positives occurred when using the remote assessment technique. The 8 additional referrals by the therapist were attributed to the ability to observe student behavior during assessment. Remote assessment of visual skills via an Internet orthoptics program may provide a simple means to detect visual skill problems experienced by poor readers.
Full Text Available When subjects are asked to perceptually bind rapidly alternating colour and motion stimuli, the pairings they report are different from the ones actually occurring in physical reality. A possible explanation for this misbinding is that the time necessary for perception is different for different visual attributes. Such an explanation is in logical harmony with the fact that the visual brain is characterized by different, functionally specialized systems, with different processing times for each; this type of organization naturally leads to different perceptual times for the corresponding attributes. In the present review, the experimental findings supporting perceptual asynchrony are presented, together with the original theoretical explanation behind the phenomenon and its implication for visual consciousness. Alternative theoretical views and additional experimental facts concerning perceptual misbinding are also reviewed, with a particular emphasis given to the role of attention. With few exceptions, most theories converge on the idea that the observed misbinding reflects a difference in perception times, which is in turn due to differences in neuronal processing times for different attributes within the brain. These processing-time differences have been attributed to several different factors, attention included, with the possibility of co-existence between them.
Full Text Available Recent work has shown that visual fixations reflect and influence trial-to-trial variability in people’s preferences between goods. Here we extend this principle to attribute weights during decision making under risk. We measured eye movements while people chose between two risky gambles or bid on a single gamble. Consistent with previous work, we found that people exhibited systematic preference reversals between choices and bids. For two gambles matched in expected value, people systematically chose the higher-probability option but provided a higher bid for the option that offered the greater amount to win. This effect was accompanied by a shift in fixations of the two attributes, with people fixating on probabilities more during choices and on amounts more during bids. Our results suggest that the construction of value during decision making under risk depends on task context partly because the task differentially directs attention at probabilities versus amounts. Since recent work demonstrates that neural correlates of value vary with visual fixations, our results also suggest testable hypotheses regarding how task context modulates the neural computation of value to generate preference reversals.
Kim, Betty E; Seligman, Darryl; Kable, Joseph W
Recent work has shown that visual fixations reflect and influence trial-to-trial variability in people's preferences between goods. Here we extend this principle to attribute weights during decision making under risk. We measured eye movements while people chose between two risky gambles or bid on a single gamble. Consistent with previous work, we found that people exhibited systematic preference reversals between choices and bids. For two gambles matched in expected value, people systematically chose the higher probability option but provided a higher bid for the option that offered the greater amount to win. This effect was accompanied by a shift in fixations of the two attributes, with people fixating on probabilities more during choices and on amounts more during bids. Our results suggest that the construction of value during decision making under risk depends on task context partly because the task differentially directs attention at probabilities vs. amounts. Since recent work demonstrates that neural correlates of value vary with visual fixations, our results also suggest testable hypotheses regarding how task context modulates the neural computation of value to generate preference reversals.
Chen, Xia; Fu, Junhong; Cheng, Wenbo; Song, Desheng; Qu, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhuo; Zhao, Kanxing
Visual deprivation during the critical period induces long-lasting changes in cortical circuitry by adaptively modifying neuro-transmission and synaptic connectivity at synapses. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is considered a strong candidate for experience-dependent changes. However, the visual deprivation forms that affect timing-dependent long-term potentiation(LTP) and long-term depression(LTD) remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated the temporal window changes of tLTP and tLTD, elicited by coincidental pre- and post-synaptic firing, following different modes of 6-day visual deprivation. Markedly broader temporal windows were found in robust tLTP and tLTD in the V1M of the deprived visual cortex in mice after 6-day MD and DE. The underlying mechanism for the changes seen with visual deprivation in juvenile mice using 6 days of dark exposure or monocular lid suture involves an increased fraction of NR2b-containing NMDAR and the consequent prolongation of NMDAR-mediated response duration. Moreover, a decrease in NR2A protein expression at the synapse is attributable to the reduction of the NR2A/2B ratio in the deprived cortex. PMID:28520739
Striem-Amit, Ella; Dakwar, Ornella; Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir
A key question in sensory perception is the role of experience in shaping the functional architecture of the sensory neural systems. Here we studied dependence on visual experience in shaping the most fundamental division of labor in vision, namely between the ventral "what" and the dorsal "where and how" processing streams. We scanned 11 fully congenitally blind (CB) and 9 sighted individuals performing location versus form identification tasks following brief training on a sensory substitution device used for artificial vision. We show that the dorsal/ventral visual pathway division of labor can be revealed in the adult CB when perceiving sounds that convey the relevant visual information. This suggests that the most important large-scale organization of the visual system into the 2 streams can develop even without any visual experience and can be attributed at least partially to innately determined constraints and later to cross-modal plasticity. These results support the view that the brain is organized into task-specific but sensory modality-independent operators.
Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans
Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...
The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.
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Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas
The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...
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... and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy...
Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J
The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...
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Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan
This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...
Dudley, N. J.
This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.
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This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.
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Hong Zhou Panpan Xu Xiaoru Yuan Huamin Qu
The edge, which can encode relational data in graphs and multidimensional data in parallel coordinates plots, is an important visual primitive for encoding data in information visualization research...
The Introduction explores the relationship between visual and literary representations of modern warfare. What impact have paintings, cartoons, films and television had on the reporting of conflicts? How has the visual imagery of military violence – as the most extensive and damaging form of violence – changed? Here, Susan Sontag's 2003 essay Regarding the Pain of Others is used as a starting point for a wider discussion of what it means to portray, and to witness portrayals of, wartime viole...
Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel
This Poster receive the Best Poster award from the IEEE INFOVIS committee.; International audience; We present Visual Sedimentation, a new design metaphor for visualizing streaming data inspired by the geological process of sedimentation. Our work started by early experiments visualiz- ing political Twitter streams during the French 2012 presidential elections, and social interactions during a TV show. In both cases, the positive feedback we received expressed an unexpectedly high level of en...
Chalupka, Krzysztof; Perona, Pietro; Eberhardt, Frederick
We provide a rigorous definition of the visual cause of a behavior that is broadly applicable to the visually driven behavior in humans, animals, neurons, robots and other perceiving systems. Our framework generalizes standard accounts of causal learning to settings in which the causal variables need to be constructed from micro-variables. We prove the Causal Coarsening Theorem, which allows us to gain causal knowledge from observational data with minimal experimental effort. The theorem prov...
Fielder, A R; Russell-Eggitt, I R; Dodd, K L; Mellor, D H
Fifty-three infants with delayed visual maturation (DVM) are presented. These have been classified according to their ocular and systemic features into three groups: DVM as an isolated anomaly, in association with mental retardation, and ocular abnormalities accompanied by DVM. The clinical features are discussed, particularly regarding the time and speed of visual improvement in the three groups. Infants with DVM who experienced difficulties in the perinatal period have an increased risk of developing permanent neurological sequelae.
Li, Hongwei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Li, Yinggang; Hanson, Andrew
Visualization of uncertainty or error in astrophysical data is seldom available in simulations of astronomical phenomena, and yet almost all rendered attributes possess some degree of uncertainty due to observational error. Uncertainties associated with spatial location typically vary signicantly with scale and thus introduce further complexity in the interpretation of a given visualization. This paper introduces effective techniques for visualizing uncertainty in large-scale virtual astrophysical environments. Building upon our previous transparently scalable visualization architecture, we develop tools that enhance the perception and comprehension of uncertainty across wide scale ranges. Our methods include a unified color-coding scheme for representing log-scale distances and percentage errors, an ellipsoid model to represent positional uncertainty, an ellipsoid envelope model to expose trajectory uncertainty, and a magic-glass design supporting the selection of ranges of log-scale distance and uncertainty parameters, as well as an overview mode and a scalable WIM tool for exposing the magnitudes of spatial context and uncertainty.
Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.
W Alexander Escobar
Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.
The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.
O. S. Kryvenko
Full Text Available Analysis of visualization techniques for various types of graphs is done. Conclusion about the relevance of method development for metagraph visualizing is made. The paper deals with issues that arise when solving the problem of metagraph visualization, such as: the placement of nodes that belong to metavertices and do not belong to them, figures intersection of metavertices. These problems are exemplified. Criteria are proposed for the final image to be considered coherent, understandable for users and corresponding to a predetermined metagraph. The problem of metagraph visualization is posed. The method based on the principles of force algorithms is proposed for the problem solving. The rules for forces between metagraph nodes are defined in the framework of the method. These forces depend on nodes type between which they are performed and the presence of edges between them. This method does not involve human intervention during the formation of the image, thus saving time at frequent changes that require rebuilding of the image. The resulting image gives the possibility to portray clearly the entities of the subject area and the links between them. Graphical analysis methods can be applied to the image. Areas for the future researches are identified. They are: minimization of the number of edges intersections and the area occupied by the resulting image. Results of the modified visualization method can improve the visual metagraph representation.
Pomarède, Daniel; Courtois, Hélène M.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent
Cosmography, the study and making of maps of the universe or cosmos, is a field where visual representation benefits from modern three-dimensional visualization techniques and media. At the extragalactic distance scales, visualization is contributing to our understanding of the complex structure of the local universe in terms of spatial distribution and flows of galaxies and dark matter. In this paper, we report advances in the field of extragalactic cosmography obtained using the SDvision visualization software in the context of the Cosmicflows Project. Here, multiple visualization techniques are applied to a variety of data products: catalogs of galaxy positions and galaxy peculiar velocities, reconstructed velocity field, density field, gravitational potential field, velocity shear tensor viewed in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, envelope surfaces enclosing basins of attraction. These visualizations, implemented as high-resolution images, videos, and interactive viewers, have contributed to a number of studies: the cosmography of the local part of the universe, the nature of the Great Attractor, the discovery of the boundaries of our home supercluster of galaxies Laniakea, the mapping of the cosmic web, and the study of attractors and repellers.
Vehlow, Corinna; Hasenauer, Jan; Kramer, Andrei; Raue, Andreas; Hug, Sabine; Timmer, Jens; Radde, Nicole; Theis, Fabian J; Weiskopf, Daniel
Mathematical models are nowadays widely used to describe biochemical reaction networks. One of the main reasons for this is that models facilitate the integration of a multitude of different data and data types using parameter estimation. Thereby, models allow for a holistic understanding of biological processes. However, due to measurement noise and the limited amount of data, uncertainties in the model parameters should be considered when conclusions are drawn from estimated model attributes, such as reaction fluxes or transient dynamics of biological species. We developed the visual analytics system iVUN that supports uncertainty-aware analysis of static and dynamic attributes of biochemical reaction networks modeled by ordinary differential equations. The multivariate graph of the network is visualized as a node-link diagram, and statistics of the attributes are mapped to the color of nodes and links of the graph. In addition, the graph view is linked with several views, such as line plots, scatter plots, and correlation matrices, to support locating uncertainties and the analysis of their time dependencies. As demonstration, we use iVUN to quantitatively analyze the dynamics of a model for Epo-induced JAK2/STAT5 signaling. Our case study showed that iVUN can be used to perform an in-depth study of biochemical reaction networks, including attribute uncertainties, correlations between these attributes and their uncertainties as well as the attribute dynamics. In particular, the linking of different visualization options turned out to be highly beneficial for the complex analysis tasks that come with the biological systems as presented here.
Vaidya, Avinash R; Sefranek, Marcus; Fellows, Lesley K
The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments. We asked how distinct attributes of visual artworks influenced the subjective value ratings of subjects with VMF damage, compared to healthy participants and a frontal lobe damaged control group. Subjects with VMF damage were less influenced by the energy (emotion, complexity) and color radiance (warmth, saturation) of the artwork, while they were similar to control groups in considering saliency, balance and concreteness. These dissociations argue that VMF is critical for allowing certain affective content to influence subjective value, while sparing the influence of perceptual or representational information. These distinctions are important for better defining the often-underspecified concept of subjective value and developing more detailed models of the brain mechanisms underlying decision behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Celano, Mark J; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Wallace, Gregory L
Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n=41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n=58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings than did TD children in both the goal-directed and theory of mind (ToM) conditions. Results remained unchanged when the effects of verbal output (i.e., number of clause produced) and verbal IQ were included as covariates in the analyses. Whereas age was highly associated with ToM performance in the TD children, this relationship was not as strong among children with ASDs. These results indicate not only a diminished tendency among high functioning children with ASDs to attribute social meaning and intentionality to ambiguous visual displays of interactive forms but also an aberrant developmental trajectory. That is, children with ASDs may fall further behind their typically developing peers in social attribution abilities as they get older.
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.
This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…
A field test battery testing the selected physical attributes was administered. Aerobic performance, anaerobic endurance, agility, power, and 20 m and 40 m speed attributes demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.05) between professional and amateur players. Semi-professionals also exhibited a significant difference (p ...
The attributes used to describe professionalism were grouped under four main domains: attitude and personal conduct, teamwork, patient care and professional competence. These correspond, to some extent, with the Charter. Most of the students, however, stressed the humanistic attributes of professional behaviour, ...
This study was conducted to identify and economically evaluate non-yield productive and consumptive attributes that are important to farmers and their influence on the price farmers are willing to pay for seed of varieties that embody those attributes. A survey of 325 randomly selected farmers was conducted in Iganga and ...
Attributable DALYs amounted to the loss of an estimated 176. 252 healthy years of life, or 1.1% (95% uncertainty interval 0.8. - 1.3%) of all DALYs. In both males and females YLL account for. 87% of the DALYs (data not presented here). The total deaths attributable to physical inactivity are presented by age and sex in Fig.
The total attributable burden for South Africa in 2000 was obtained by adding the burden attributed to high cholesterol for the four population groups. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa. Subjects. Black African, coloured, white and Indian adults aged 30 ...
The total attributable burden for South Africa in 2000 was obtained by adding the burden attributed to high cholesterol for the four population groups. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa. Subjects. Black African, coloured, white and Indian adults aged.
Wanous, John P; Reichers, Arnon E; Austin, James T
The underlying attribution process for cynicism about organizational change is examined with six samples from four different organizations. The samples include hourly (n=777) and salaried employees (n= 155) from a manufacturing plant, faculty (n=293) and staff (n=302) from a large university, managers from a utility company (n=97), and young managers (n=65) from various organizations who were attending an evening MBA program. This form of cynicism is defined as the combination of Pessimism (about future change efforts) and a Dispositional attribution (why past efforts to change failed). Three analyses support this definition. First, an exploratory factor analysis (from the largest sample) produced two factors, one composed of Pessimism and the Dispositional attribution items and the second of the Situational attribution items. Second, the average correlation (across several samples) between Pessimism and Dispositional attribution is much higher (.59) than the average correlation between Pessimism and Situational attribution (.17). Third, scores on two different trait-based measures of cynicism correlate highest with the Dispositional attribution component of cynicism. A practical implication is that organizational leaders may minimize cynicism by managing both employees' pessimism about organizational change and employees' attributions about it. Specific suggestions for how this might be done are offered.
Passelaigue, Dominique; Munier, Valérie
"Attribute" and "measurement" are two fundamental concepts in mathematics and physics. Teaching these concepts is essential even in elementary school, but numerous studies have pointed out pupils' difficulties with them. These studies emphasized that pupils must learn about attributes before being taught how to measure these…
Spronken-Smith, Rachel; McLean, Angela; Smith, Nell; Bond, Carol; Jenkins, Martin; Marshall, Stephen; Frielick, Stanley
This article uses findings from a project on engagement with graduate outcomes across higher education institutions in New Zealand to produce a toolkit for implementing graduate attributes in geography curricula. Key facets include strong leadership; academic developers to facilitate conversations about graduate attributes and teaching towards…
Zhou, Yuqiong; Li, Zhitian
This study made an initial attempt to measure and attribute online game addiction among Chinese college students. We generated three factors of online game addiction: Control Disorder, Conflict, and Injury, as well as proposed a comprehensive model that attributed online game addiction to three groups of driving forces: environmental influences (most significant), characteristics of online games, and personal reasons.
A study was generated from six commercial potato varieties and studied for their physical, chemical, functional and processing attributes. Lady Rosetta followed by Hermes was the most appreciable varieties concerning their physical attributes. A positive correlation (R = 0.765) existed between tuber firmness and specific ...
Karsten, Frank; Slikker, M.; Borm, P.E.M.
Many cooperative games, especially ones stemming from resource pooling in queuing or inventory systems, are based on situations in which each player is associated with a single attribute (a real number representing, say, a demand) and in which the cost to optimally serve any sum of attributes is