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Sample records for attribute measurement system

  1. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  2. Attribute measurement systems prototypes and equipment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.C.; Landry, R.P.; Hsue, S.-T.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mayo, D.R.; Smith, M.K.; Nicholas, N.J.; Whiteson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Since the fall of 1997, the United States has been developing prototypical attribute verification technology for potential use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the Trilateral Initiative. The first attribute measurement equipment demonstration took place in December 1997 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This demonstration led to a series of joint Russian Federatioin/US/IAEA technical discussions that focused on attribute measurement technology that could be applied to plutonium bearing items having classified characteristics. A first prototype attribute verification system with an information barrier was demonstrated at a Trilateral Technical Workshop in June 1999 at Los Alamos. This prototype nourished further fruitful discussions between the three parties that has in turn led to the documents discussed in a previous paper. Prototype development has continued in the US, under other initiatives, using an integrated approach that includes the Trilatleral Initiative. Specifically for the Trilateral Initiative, US development has turned to some peripheral equipment that would support verifications by the IAEA. This equipment includes an authentication tool for measurement systems with information barriers and in situ probes that would facilitate inspections by reducing the need to move material out of storage locations for reverification. In this paper, we will first summarize the development of attribute verification measurement system technology in the US and then report on the status of the development of other equipment to support the Trilateral Initiative.

  3. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  4. Use of Commericially Available Software in an Attribute Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bracken, David S.; Carrillo, Louis A.; Elmont, Timothy H.; Frame, Katherine C.; Hirsch, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    A major issue in international safeguards of nuclear materials is the ability to verify that processes and materials in nuclear facilities are consistent with declaration without revealing sensitive information. An attribute measurement system (AMS) is a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that utilizes an information barrier to protect potentially sensitive information about the measurement item. A key component is the software utilized for operator interface, data collection, analysis, and attribute determination, as well as the operating system under which they are implemented. Historically, custom software has been used almost exclusively in transparency applications, and it is unavoidable that some amount of custom software is needed. The focus of this paper is to explore the extent to which commercially available software may be used and the relative merits.

  5. AVNG System Software-Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmont, T.H.; Langner, Diana C.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mayo, D.R.; Smith, M.K.; Modenov, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the software development for the plutonium attribute verification system - AVNG. A brief synopsis of the technical solution for the measurement system is presented. The main tasks for the software development that is underway are formulated. The development tasks are shown in software structural flowcharts, measurement system state diagram and a description of the software. The current status of the AVNG software development is elucidated.

  6. Progress of the AVNG System - Attribute Verification System with Information Barriers for Mass Isotopics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnikov, D.; Bulatov, M.; Jarikhine, I.; Lebedev, B.; Livke, A.; Modenov, A.; Morkin, A.; Razinkov, S.; Tsaregorodtsev, D.; Vlokh, A.; Yakovleva, S.; Elmont, T.H.; Langner, D.C.; MacArthur, D.W.; Mayo, D.R.; Smith, M.K.; Luke, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    An attribute verification system (AVNG) with information barriers for mass and isotopics measurements has been designed and its fabrication is nearly completed. The AVNG is being built by scientists at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, with support of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Such a system could be used to verify the presence of several unclassified attributes of classified material with no classified information release. The system is comprised of a neutron multiplicity counter and gamma-spectrometry system based on a high purity germanium gamma detector (nominal relative efficiency @ 1332 keV 50%) and digital gamma-ray spectrometer DSPEC PLUS . The neutron multiplicity counter is a three ring counter with 164 3 He tubes. The system was designed to measure prototype containers 491 mm in diameter and 503 mm high. This paper provides a brief history of the project and documents the progress of this effort with drawings and photographs.

  7. Measuring diversity in medical reports based on categorized attributes and international classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přečková Petra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Narrative medical reports do not use standardized terminology and often bring insufficient information for statistical processing and medical decision making. Objectives of the paper are to propose a method for measuring diversity in medical reports written in any language, to compare diversities in narrative and structured medical reports and to map attributes and terms to selected classification systems. Methods A new method based on a general concept of f-diversity is proposed for measuring diversity of medical reports in any language. The method is based on categorized attributes recorded in narrative or structured medical reports and on international classification systems. Values of categories are expressed by terms. Using SNOMED CT and ICD 10 we are mapping attributes and terms to predefined codes. We use f-diversities of Gini-Simpson and Number of Categories types to compare diversities of narrative and structured medical reports. The comparison is based on attributes selected from the Minimal Data Model for Cardiology (MDMC. Results We compared diversities of 110 Czech narrative medical reports and 1119 Czech structured medical reports. Selected categorized attributes of MDMC had mostly different numbers of categories and used different terms in narrative and structured reports. We found more than 60% of MDMC attributes in SNOMED CT. We showed that attributes in narrative medical reports had greater diversity than the same attributes in structured medical reports. Further, we replaced each value of category (term used for attributes in narrative medical reports by the closest term and the category used in MDMC for structured medical reports. We found that relative Gini-Simpson diversities in structured medical reports were significantly smaller than those in narrative medical reports except the "Allergy" attribute. Conclusions Terminology in narrative medical reports is not standardized. Therefore it is nearly

  8. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  9. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Langner, D.C.; Whiteson, R.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  10. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System - NA-243 FNI/UKC FY2017 Task 1-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-03

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only the pass/fail result is displayed as a “Mass <= Threshold Amount” or “Mass >= Threshold Amount” as shown in Figure 4. This can easily be adapted to a red/green “lights” display similar to the Detective IB system for Pu isotopics as shown in Figure 6. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  11. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  12. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Attribute-Based Digital Signature System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    An attribute-based digital signature system comprises a signature generation unit (1) for signing a message (m) by generating a signature (s) based on a user secret key (SK) associated with a set of user attributes, wherein the signature generation unit (1) is arranged for combining the user secret

  14. The Validity of Attribute-Importance Measurement: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    A critical review of the literature demonstrates a lack of validity among the ten most common methods for measuring the importance of attributes in behavioral sciences. The authors argue that one of the key determinants of this lack of validity is the multi-dimensionality of attribute importance.

  15. Attributes measurements by calorimetry in 15 to 30 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Perry, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the early portion of the power-history data collected with both of the IAEA's air-cooled bulk calorimeters has demonstrated that such calorimeters can measure the power from preheated containers of plutonium oxide with an accuracy of 2 to 5% in 15 to 30 minutes. Material accountancy at plutonium facilities has a need for such a capability for measurement of Pu scrap. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could use just two calorimeters and a gamma-ray assay system for reliable variables and attributes measurements of plutonium mass during a two-day physical-inventory verification (PIV) at a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication facility. The assay results would be free of the concerns about sample moisture, impurities, and geometry that previously have limited the accuracy of assays based on neutron measurements

  16. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    The maximal consistent extension Ext(S) of a given information system S consists of all objects corresponding to attribute values from S which are consistent with all true and realizable rules extracted from the original information system S. An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B. We show that there exists only one irreducible descriptive set of attributes. We present a polynomial algorithm for this set construction. We also study relationships between the cardinality of irreducible descriptive set of attributes and the number of attributes in S. The obtained results will be useful for the design of concurrent data models from experimental data. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  18. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  19. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  20. Assessing Precision in Conventional Field Measurements of Individual Tree Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Luoma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest resource information has a hierarchical structure: individual tree attributes are summed at the plot level and then in turn, plot-level estimates are used to derive stand or large-area estimates of forest resources. Due to this hierarchy, it is imperative that individual tree attributes are measured with accuracy and precision. With the widespread use of different measurement tools, it is also important to understand the expected degree of precision associated with these measurements. The most prevalent tree attributes measured in the field are tree species, stem diameter-at-breast-height (dbh, and tree height. For dbh and height, the most commonly used measuring devices are calipers and clinometers, respectively. The aim of our study was to characterize the precision of individual tree dbh and height measurements in boreal forest conditions when using calipers and clinometers. The data consisted of 319 sample trees at a study area in Evo, southern Finland. The sample trees were measured independently by four trained mensurationists. The standard deviation in tree dbh and height measurements was 0.3 cm (1.5% and 0.5 m (2.9%, respectively. Precision was also assessed by tree species and tree size classes; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the mensurationists for dbh or height measurements. Our study offers insights into the expected precision of tree dbh and height as measured with the most commonly used devices. These results are important when using sample plot data in forest inventory applications, especially now, at a time when new tree attribute measurement techniques based on remote sensing are being developed and compared to the conventional caliper and clinometer measurements.

  1. Attribute measurement equipment for the verification of plutonium in classified forms for the Trilateral Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Hsue, S.-T.; Macarthur, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A team of technical experts from the Russian Federation, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States have been working for almost five years on the development of a tool kit of instruments that could be used to verify plutonium-bearing items that have classified characteristics in nuclear weapons states. This suite of instruments is similar in many ways to standard safeguards equipment and includes high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, neutron multiplicity counters, gross neutron counters and gross gamma-ray detectors. In safeguards applications, this equipment is known to be robust, and authentication methods are well understood. This equipment is very intrusive, however, and a traditional safeguards application of such equipment for verification of materials with classified characteristics would reveal classified information to the inspector, Several enabling technologies have been or are being developed to facilitate the use of these trusted, but intrusive technologies. In this paper, these technologies will be described. One of the new technologies is called an Attribute Verification System with an Information Barrier Utilizing Neutron Multiplicity Counting and High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry' or AVNG. The radiation measurement equipment, comprising a neutron multiplicity counter and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, is standard safeguards-type equipment with information security features added. The information barrier is a combination of technical and procedural methods that protect classified information while allowing the inspector to have confidence that the measurement equipment is providing authentic results. The approach is to reduce the radiation data collected by the measurement equipment to a simple 'yes/no' result regarding attributes of the plutonium-bearing item. The 'yes/no' result is unclassified by design so that it can be shared with an inspector. The attributes that the Trilateral Initiative

  2. Hybrid attribute-based recommender system for learning material using genetic algorithm and a multidimensional information model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the explosion of learning materials in the web-based educational systems has caused difficulty of locating appropriate learning materials to learners. A personalized recommendation is an enabling mechanism to overcome information overload occurred in the new learning environments and deliver suitable materials to learners. Since users express their opinions based on some specific attributes of items, this paper proposes a hybrid recommender system for learning materials based on their attributes to improve the accuracy and quality of recommendation. The presented system has two main modules: explicit attribute-based recommender and implicit attribute-based recommender. In the first module, weights of implicit or latent attributes of materials for learner are considered as chromosomes in genetic algorithm then this algorithm optimizes the weights according to historical rating. Then, recommendation is generated by Nearest Neighborhood Algorithm (NNA using the optimized weight vectors implicit attributes that represent the opinions of learners. In the second, preference matrix (PM is introduced that can model the interests of learner based on explicit attributes of learning materials in a multidimensional information model. Then, a new similarity measure between PMs is introduced and recommendations are generated by NNA. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms current algorithms on accuracy measures and can alleviate some problems such as cold-start and sparsity.

  3. Online Game Addiction among Chinese College Students Measurement and Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqiong; Li, Zhitian

    2009-01-01

    This study made an initial attempt to measure and attribute online game addiction among Chinese college students. We generated three factors of online game addiction: Control Disorder, Conflict, and Injury, as well as proposed a comprehensive model that attributed online game addiction to three groups of driving forces: environmental influences (most significant), characteristics of online games, and personal reasons.

  4. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  5. Statistical Determination of Impact of Property Attributes for Weak Measurement Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the property attributes are measured on weak scales (nominal and ordinal scale. For example, land allocation in the development plan is measured on a nominal scale and such categories as proximity, equipment, access to means of communication, location, and soil and water conditions, are measured on an ordinal scale. The use of statistical measures appropriate for interval or quotient scales is wrong in such cases. Therefore, the article presents statistical measures that allow specifying the impact of the attributes on real estate prices, which can be used for the weaker scales, mainly for the ordinal scale. In the empirical illustration the proposed measures will be calculated by using the actual database of transaction prices.

  6. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    . An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B

  7. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical activity (PA adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410 completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2; environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184 = 7.82, p = .006, but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women.

  8. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Fuqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems' characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  9. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  10. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  11. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  12. Optimized spectroscopic scheme for enhanced precision CO measurements with applications to urban source attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, A.; Hoffnagle, J.; Farinas, A.; Rella, C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an urban pollutant generated by internal combustion engines which contributes to the formation of ground level ozone (smog). CO is also an excellent tracer for emissions from mobile combustion sources. In this work we present an optimized spectroscopic sampling scheme that enables enhanced precision CO measurements. The scheme was implemented on the Picarro G2401 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer which measures CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O at 0.2 Hz. The optimized scheme improved the raw precision of CO measurements by 40% from 5 ppb to 3 ppb. Correlations of measured CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O from an urban tower were partitioned by wind direction and combined with a concentration footprint model for source attribution. The application of a concentration footprint for source attribution has several advantages. The upwind extent of the concentration footprint for a given sensor is much larger than the flux footprint. Measurements of mean concentration at the sensor location can be used to estimate source strength from a concentration footprint, while measurements of the vertical concentration flux are necessary to determine source strength from the flux footprint. Direct measurement of vertical concentration flux requires high frequency temporal sampling and increases the cost and complexity of the measurement system.

  13. Incorporation of an item/material attribute system into PAMTRAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, D.A.; Waddoups, I.G.; Fox, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) mission is changing due to the number of nuclear weapon reductions by the United States and the former Soviet Union with long-term storage requirements for DOE sites increasing. New technology to ensure the integrity of special nuclear material (SNM) in storage is available to sites to supplement manual physical inventories. This allows them to decrease operating costs while keeping radiation exposure at minimal levels. We have developed a generic, real time, personnel tracking and material monitoring system named PAMTRAK. Such a system can significantly reduce the number of required, manual physical inventories at DOE sites while increasing assurance that an insider has not diverted or stolen material. Until recently Pamtrak used only material monitoring devices that provided location/containment attributes. However, Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Metrox, Inc. have recently developed hard-wired item/material attribute systems that monitor both temperature and weight. We have incorporated both of these systems into PAMTRAK. If a site employed one of these item/material attribute systems, it could decrease its manual inventory frequency to three years. This paper describes how a site might implement such a system to meet the DOE's requirements

  14. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  15. Performance Measurement Systems in Swedish Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kollberg, Beata

    2007-01-01

    In the quality management literature, measurements are attributed great importance in improving products and processes. Systems for performance measurement assessing financial and non-financial measurements were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The research on performance measurement systems has mainly been focused on the design of different performance measurement systems. Many authors are occupied with the study of the constructs of measures and developing prescriptive models of...

  16. Measuring online interpretations and attributions of social situations: Links with adolescent social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Simone P W; Raeder, Sophie M; Scerif, Gaia; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the utility of a novel, picture-based tool to measure how adolescents interpret and attribute cause to social exchanges and whether biases in these processes relate to social anxiety. Briefly presented ambiguous visual social scenes, each containing a photograph of the adolescent as the protagonist, were followed by three possible interpretations (positive, negative, neutral/unrelated) and two possible causal attributions (internal, external) to which participants responded. Ninety-five adolescents aged 14 to 17 recruited from mainstream schools, with varying levels of social anxiety rated the likelihood of positive, negative and unrelated interpretations before selecting the single interpretation they deemed as most likely. This was followed by a question prompting them to decide between an internal or external causal attribution for the interpreted event. Across scenarios, adolescents with higher levels of social anxiety rated negative interpretations as more likely and positive interpretations as less likely compared to lower socially anxious adolescents. Higher socially anxious adolescents were also more likely to select internal attributions to negative and less likely to select internal attributions for positive events than adolescents with lower levels of social anxiety. Adolescents with higher social anxiety display cognitive biases in interpretation and attribution. This tool is suitable for measuring cognitive biases of complex visual-social cues in youth populations with social anxiety and simulates the demands of daily social experiences more closely. As we did not measure depressive symptoms, we cannot be sure that biases linked to social anxiety are not due to concurrent low mood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The importance of instrumental, symbolic, and environmental attributes for the adoption of smart energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noppers, Ernst H.; Keizer, Kees; Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual model on motivations to adopt sustainable innovations (Noppers et al., 2014) proved to be successful in explaining proxies of the adoption of sustainable innovations: positive evaluations of the utility (instrumental attributes), environmental impact (environmental attributes), and specifically the extent to which the innovation says something about a person (symbolic attributes) increased interest in and intention to adopt sustainable innovations. In this paper, we examined to what extent the evaluations of these three attributes can also explain the actual adoption of smart energy systems that facilitate sustainable energy use. Results showed that adopters of smart energy systems (who agreed to participate in a project in which these systems were tested) evaluated the symbolic attributes of these systems more positively than non-adopters (who did not participate in this project), while both groups did not differ in their evaluation of the instrumental and environmental attributes of smart energy systems. A logistic regression analysis indicated that only evaluations of the symbolic attributes explained actual adoption of smart energy systems. Policy could stress and enhance the symbolic attributes of sustainable innovations to encourage adoption. - Highlights: • What drives consumer adoption of a sustainable innovation? • Evaluation of its symbolic attributes explained adoption of smart energy systems. • Evaluations of its instrumental and environmental attributes did not explain adoption. • Policy could stress and enhance symbolic attributes of smart energy systems.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFranchi, Brian W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schrader, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michelsen, Hope A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bambha, Ray P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  19. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  20. Crop Evaluation System Optimization: Attribute Weights Determination Based on Rough Sets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is mainly a continuation of our previous study, which is about a crop evaluation system development that is based on grey relational analysis. In that system, the attribute weight determination affects the evaluation result directly. Attribute weight is usually ascertained by decision-makers experience knowledge. In this paper, we utilize rough sets theory to calculate attribute significance and then combine it with weight given by decision-maker. This method is a comprehensive consideration of subjective experience knowledge and objective situation; thus it can acquire much more ideal results. Finally, based on this method, we improve the system based on ASP.NET technology.

  1. A Novel Relevance Feedback Approach Based on Similarity Measure Modification in an X-Ray Image Retrieval System Based on Fuzzy Representation Using Fuzzy Attributed Relational Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Pourghassem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance feedback approaches is used to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper, a novel relevance feedback approach based on similarity measure modification in an X-ray image retrieval system based on fuzzy representation using fuzzy attributed relational graph (FARG is presented. In this approach, optimum weight of each feature in feature vector is calculated using similarity rate between query image and relevant and irrelevant images in user feedback. The calculated weight is used to tune fuzzy graph matching algorithm as a modifier parameter in similarity measure. The standard deviation of the retrieved image features is applied to calculate the optimum weight. The proposed image retrieval system uses a FARG for representation of images, a fuzzy matching graph algorithm as similarity measure and a semantic classifier based on merging scheme for determination of the search space in image database. To evaluate relevance feedback approach in the proposed system, a standard X-ray image database consisting of 10000 images in 57 classes is used. The improvement of the evaluation parameters shows proficiency and efficiency of the proposed system.

  2. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-01-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252 Cf

  3. An Attribute Based Access Control Framework for Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Majid; Samet, Saeed; Hu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, access control is an indispensable part of the Personal Health Record and supplies for its confidentiality by enforcing policies and rules to ensure that only authorized users gain access to requested resources in the system. In other words, the access control means protecting patient privacy in healthcare systems. Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) is a new access control model that can be used instead of other traditional types of access control such as Discretionary Access Control, Mandatory Access Control, and Role-Based Access Control. During last five years ABAC has shown some applications in both recent academic fields and industry purposes. ABAC by using user’s attributes and resources, makes a decision according to an access request. In this paper, we propose an ABAC framework for healthcare system. We use the engine of ABAC for rendering and enforcing healthcare policies. Moreover, we handle emergency situations in this framework.

  4. Attributing Agency to Automated Systems: Reflections on Human-Robot Collaborations and Responsibility-Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Sven

    2017-07-18

    Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots. I argue that whereas it indeed makes sense to attribute different forms of fairly sophisticated agency to these machines, we ought not to regard them as acting on their own, independently of any human beings. Rather, the right way to understand the agency exercised by these machines is in terms of human-robot collaborations, where the humans involved initiate, supervise, and manage the agency of their robotic collaborators. This means, I argue, that there is much less room for justified worries about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps than many ethicists think.

  5. Attributes identification of nuclear material by non-destructive radiation measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear materials should be controlled under the regulation of National Safeguard System. The non-destructive analysis method, which is simple and quick, provide a effective process in determining the nuclear materials, nuclear scraps and wastes. The method play a very important role in the fields of nuclear material control and physical protection against the illegal removal and smuggling of nuclear material. The application of non-destructive analysis in attributes identification of nuclear material is briefly described in this paper. The attributes determined by radioactive detection technique are useful tolls to identify the characterization of special nuclear material (isotopic composition, enrichment etc.). (author)

  6. Assessing the empirical validity of alternative multi-attribute utility measures in the maternity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrell Jane

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-attribute utility measures are preference-based health-related quality of life measures that have been developed to inform economic evaluations of health care interventions. The objective of this study was to compare the empirical validity of two multi-attribute utility measures (EQ-5D and SF-6D based on hypothetical preferences in a large maternity population in England. Methods Women who participated in a randomised controlled trial of additional postnatal support provided by trained community support workers represented the study population for this investigation. The women were asked to complete the EQ-5D descriptive system (which defines health-related quality of life in terms of five dimensions: mobility, self care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and the SF-36 (which defines health-related quality of life, using 36 items, across eight dimensions: physical functioning, role limitations (physical, social functioning, bodily pain, general health, mental health, vitality and role limitations (emotional at six months postpartum. Their responses were converted into utility scores using the York A1 tariff set and the SF-6D utility algorithm, respectively. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the hypothetically-constructed preference rule that each set of utility scores differs significantly by self-reported health status (categorised as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. The degree to which EQ-5D and SF-6D utility scores reflected alternative dichotomous configurations of self-reported health status and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score was tested using the relative efficiency statistic and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results The mean utility score for the EQ-5D was 0.861 (95% CI: 0.844, 0.877, whilst the mean utility score for the SF-6D was 0.809 (95% CI: 0.796, 0.822, representing a mean difference in utility score of 0.052 (95% CI: 0.040, 0

  7. The design and implementation of the AVNG measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Razinkov, Sergey [RFNC-VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [RFNC-VNIIEF; Kondratov, Sergey [RFNC-VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By displaying these unclassified results only as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and displays the three unclassified attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) < 0.1.' In this presentation, we will describe the design of the AVNG neutron and gamma detector subsystems, as well as the design of the entire AMS incorporating these detectors. We will also describe the construction of the AVNG and the final design that was demonstrated in June 2009.

  8. Diagnostic and Measuring Systems of the Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the diagnostic and measuring systems dedicated for complex output tests of power transformers aswell as their diagnostic is dcscribcd. The aim of research in this area was to elaborate the problem of so-called open loop measuring system controlled by PC. The attribute "open" means the possibility to adapt the system for different electric equipment, different measurands and an zdaptation of the way of monitoring, evaluation and distribution of output information according to specific requirements the controlled transformer.

  9. [Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Song, Guide; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Chengfeng; Zheng, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaodan; Shen, Wenda

    2016-03-01

    To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance. Since 2010, the information about smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system. The measures of training, supervision, check, sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality. During the study period (2010-2014), the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰. The reporting rates of smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%, 98.63% and 98.58%, respectively. Compared with the nonsmokers, the RR of males was 1.38 (1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking, the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07 (3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking, respectively. The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.

  10. Secure distributed key generation in attribute based encryption systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pletea, D.; Sedghi, S.; Veeningen, M.; Petkovic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays usage of cloud computing is increasing in popularity and this raises new data protection challenges. In such distributed systems it is unrealistic to assume that the servers are fully trusted in enforcing the access policies. Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) is one of the solutions proposed

  11. Noncognitive Attributes in Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Anthony E; Goldgar, Constance; Hills, Karen J; Snyder, Jennifer H; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Lane, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity. The need for these noncognitive attributes in clinicians is being reinforced by changes in the US health care system, including shifting patient demographics and a growing emphasis on team-based care and patient satisfaction, and the need for clinicians to help patients interpret complex medical information. The 2016 Physician Assistant Education Association Stakeholder Summit revealed certain behavioral and affective qualities that employers of PAs value and sometimes find lacking in new graduates. Although there are still gaps in the evidence base, some tools and technologies currently exist to more accurately measure noncognitive variables. We propose some possible strategies and tools that PA programs can use to formalize the way they select for noncognitive attributes. Since PA programs have, on average, only 27 months to educate students, programs may need to focus more resources on selecting for these attributes than teaching them.

  12. The Consistency of Performance Management System Based on Attributes of the Performance Indicator: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zavadsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance management system (PMS is a metasystem over all business processes at the strategic and operational level. Effectiveness of the various management systems depends on many factors. One of them is the consistent definition of each system elements. The main purpose of this study is to explore if the performance management systems of the sample companies is consistent and how companies can create such a system. The consistency in this case is based on the homogenous definition of attributes relating to the performance indicator as a basic element of PMS.Methodology: At the beginning, we used an affinity diagram that helped us to clarify and to group various attributes of performance indicators. The main research results we achieved are through empirical study. The empirical study was carried out in a sample of Slovak companies. The criterion for selection was the existence of the certified management systems according to the ISO 9001. Representativeness of the sample companies was confirmed by application of Pearson´s chi-squared test (χ2 - test due to above standards. Findings: Coming from the review of various literature, we defined four groups of attributes relating to the performance indicator: formal attributes, attributes of target value, informational attributes and attributes of evaluation. The whole set contains 21 attributes. The consistency of PMS is based not on maximum or minimum number of attributes, but on the same type of attributes for each performance indicator used in PMS at both the operational and strategic level. The main findings are: companies use various financial and non-financial indicators at strategic or operational level; companies determine various attributes of performance indicator, but most of the performance indicators are otherwise determined; we identified the common attributes for the whole sample of companies. Practical implications: The research results have got an implication for

  13. Exploration of Scholars’ Attributions of Instructional Barriers in the Context of Pedagogical-Epistemological Belief Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz SOYSAL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two academics’ who have been employed in a private university teaching barriers and accompanied attributional reasoning were examined in the context of their belief systems with regards to learning, teaching and knowledge. This study was conducted with a basic qualitative perspective. By means of qualitative data gathering and analysis, it was aimed at estimating how the relation between teaching barriers and attributional reasoning was influenced by pedagogical-epistemological belief systems of scholars. Qualitative data was collected through two different semi-structured interview protocols and gathered data was analyzed with an inductive and interpretivist manner. The scholars’ beliefs systems’ divergences (teacher-centered vs. learner-centered allowed to explore the presumable relation of barrier-attribution in the context of pedagogical-epistemological belief systems. It was found out that the scholar who has adopted the more learner-centered modes of teaching favors more internally-oriented, controllable and non-stable attributional styles in illustrating her barrier-attribution relation. In contrast, it was also detected that the scholar who has held more teacher-centered teaching beliefs is liable to make attributions to overly external, non-controllable and stable factors in illuminating her barrier-attribution relation. Major outcomes of the study are evaluated by means of psychological (i.e., attribution theory and instructional (pedagogical-epistemological beliefs lenses and suggestions are offered in the context of higher education.

  14. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS under no-tillage (NT is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastures (2008, soybeans (2008/2009, annual winter pastures (2009, and maize (2009/10. The experiment was performed in the municipality of Castro (PR in a dystrophic Humic Rhodic Hapludox with a clay texture. The treatments included a combination of two pasture (annual ryegrass monoculture and multicropping - annual ryegrass, black oat, white clover and red clover with animal grazing during the fall-winter period with two animal weight categories (light and heavy, in a completely randomized block experimental design with 12 replications. After the maize harvest (21 months after beginning, soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers to measure soil chemical and physical attributes. The different combinations of pasture and animal weight did not alter the total organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil, but they influence the attributes of soil acidity and exchangeable cations. The monoculture pasture of ryegrass showed greater soil acidification process compared to the multicropping pasture. When using heavier animals, the multicropping pasture showed lesser increase in soil bulk density and greater macroporosity.

  15. Multi-attribute integrated measurement of node importance in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Zhao, Jinlou

    2015-11-01

    The measure of node importance in complex networks is very important to the research of networks stability and robustness; it also can ensure the security of the whole network. Most researchers have used a single indicator to measure the networks node importance, so that the obtained measurement results only reflect certain aspects of the networks with a loss of information. Meanwhile, because of the difference of networks topology, the nodes' importance should be described by combining the character of the networks topology. Most of the existing evaluation algorithms cannot completely reflect the circumstances of complex networks, so this paper takes into account the degree of centrality, the relative closeness centrality, clustering coefficient, and topology potential and raises an integrated measuring method to measure the nodes' importance. This method can reflect nodes' internal and outside attributes and eliminate the influence of network structure on the node importance. The experiments of karate network and dolphin network show that networks topology structure integrated measure has smaller range of metrical result than a single indicator and more universal. Experiments show that attacking the North American power grid and the Internet network with the method has a faster convergence speed than other methods.

  16. Resilience Attributes of Social-Ecological Systems: Framing Metrics for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Kerner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If resilience theory is to be of practical value for policy makers and resource managers, the theory must be translated into sensible decision-support tools. We present herein a set of resilience attributes, developed to characterize human-managed systems, that helps system stakeholders to make practical use of resilience concepts in tangible applications. In order to build and maintain resilience, these stakeholders must be able to understand what qualities or attributes enhance—or detract from—a system’s resilience. We describe standardized resilience terms that can be incorporated into resource management plans and decision-support tools to derive metrics that help managers assess the current resilience status of their systems, make rational resource allocation decisions, and track progress toward meeting goals. Our intention is to provide an approachable set of terms for both specialists and non-specialists alike to apply to programs that would benefit from a resilience perspective. These resilience terms can facilitate the modeling of resilience behavior within systems, as well as support those lacking access to sophisticated models. Our goal is to enable policy makers and resource managers to put resilience theory to work in the real world.

  17. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  18. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  19. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  20. Dependent Space and Attribute Reduction on Fuzzy Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From equivalence relation RBδ on discourse domain U, we can derive equivalence relation Rδ on the attribute set A. From equivalence relation Rδ on discourse domain A, we can derive a congruence relation on the attribute power set P(A and establish an object dependent space. And then,we discuss the reduction method of fuzzy information system on object dependent space. At last ,the example in this paper demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the reduction method based on the congruence relation Tδ providing an insight into the link between equivalence relation and congruence relation of dependent spaces in the rough set. In this way, the paper can provide powerful theoritical support to the combined using of reduction method, so it is of certain practical value.

  1. ŽAMPA’S SYSTEMS THEORY: A COMPREHENSIVE THEORY OF MEASUREMENT IN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines in memoriam Prof. Pavel Žampa’s concepts of system theory which enable us to devise a measurement in dynamic systems independently of the particular system behaviour. From the point of view of Žampa’s theory, terms like system time, system attributes, system link, system element, input, output, sub-systems, and state variables are defined. In Conclusions, Žampa’s theory is discussed together with another mathematical approaches of qualitative dynamics known since the 19th century. In Appendices, we present applications of Žampa’s technical approach to measurement of complex dynamical (chemical and biological systems at the Institute of Complex Systems, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.

  2. How do different humanness measures relate? Confronting the attribution of secondary emotions, human uniqueness, and human nature traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Vaes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups. Importantly, both animalized and mechanized groups were attributed similar amounts of secondary emotions. In Study 2, the groups were described in terms of their capacity to express secondary emotions. We measured the attribution of HN/HU traits. Results showed that the infrahumanized group was denied both HU/HN traits. The results highlight the importance of considering the common aspects of both approaches in understanding processes of dehumanization.

  3. Questionnaire for measuring organisational attributes in dental-care practices: psychometric properties and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Hasse, Philipp; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    The consideration of organisational aspects, such as shared goals and clear communication, within the health care team is important to ensure good quality care. In primary health care, the instrument Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care (SOAPC) is available to measure organisational attributes of care. However, there is no instrument available for dental care. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and test-retest reliability of the version of SOAPC adapted for dental care, namely the Survey of Organizational Attributes in Dental Care (SOADC). The SOADC consists of 21 items in the following four subscales: communication; decision making; stress/chaos; and history of change. Convergent construct validity was measured using the job satisfaction scale. A total of 287 dental-care practices were asked to participate in the validation study. Psychometric properties and test-retest reliability were observed. A total of 43 dental-care practices responded to the survey. At baseline, 178 dental-care staff completed the questionnaire, and 4 weeks later 138 did so. Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.718 or higher in the subscales. The test-retest reliability for each subscale and the overall SOADC score demonstrated good correlations over the 4-week test-retest interval, except for 'history of change'. A strong correlation with the aggregated job-satisfaction scale showed high convergent construct validity of SOADC. The consideration of organisational aspects from the perspective of dental-care teams is important for providing good quality of care. The SOADC is a reliable instrument with good psychometric properties and is suitable for the evaluation of organisational attributes in dental-care practices. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  5. Heuristics attribute reduction in interval-valued decision system%区间值决策信息系统的启发式属性约简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春华; 张海云

    2012-01-01

    区间值决策信息系统是单值信息系统的一种推广,借助于属性区间值的相似程度在区间值决策系统上引入α极大相容类的概念,定义了一种新的条件信息熵,提出了相对属性内(外)重要度的度量方法,进一步,给出基于α条件信息熵的启发式相对约简算法,通过实验验证了该算法的有效性.%Interval-valued decision information systems are generalized models of single-valued information systems. A kind of a maximal tolerance class is introduced by similarity grade of attribute' s interval-value in interval-valued decision system. This paper defines new conditional entropy among attributes in interval-valued information systems and proposes two types of measurement of relative attribute importance, which is inner attribute importance and outer attribute importance. Furthermore, a heuristic relative attribute reduction algorithm based on α conditional information entropy is given, and the validity of the algorithm is illustrated by some experiments.

  6. Multi-Attribute Decision Making Based on Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures under Interval Rough Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sine, cosine and cotangent similarity measures of interval rough neutrosophic sets is proposed. Some properties of the proposed measures are discussed. We have proposed multi attribute decision making approaches based on proposed similarity measures. To demonstrate the applicability, a numerical example is solved.

  7. Group attributional training as an effective approach to human resource development under team work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z M

    1994-07-01

    An experimental programme of group attributional training under team work system was conducted as part of human resource development in Chinese industrial enterprises. One hundred and ten shopfloor employees participated in the study. Among them, 58 employees took part in the factorial-designed experiment to find out the effects of attributions on performance, and 52 employees of ten work groups participated in the group attributional training programme twice a week for two months. The results showed that the group attributional training was effective in modifying employees' attributional patterns and enhancing group performance and satisfaction. On the basis of the results, an attributional model of work motivation is proposed, and its theoretical and practical implications for human resource management discussed.

  8. 区间值信息系统的启发式属性约简%Heuristics Attribute Reduction in Interval-valued Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春华; 曲开社; 张海云

    2012-01-01

    针对区间值信息系统中的属性约简问题,引入α-极大相容类的概念,定义区间值信息系统的属性间依赖度和信息熵,提出相应属性内(外)重要度的度量方法,给出一种统一的启发式属性约简算法,通过实验验证该算法的有效性,并分析不同相似水平α对约简结果的影响.%Interval-valued attribute reduction is the core problem in interval-valued information systems research. By introducing a kind of α maximal tolerance class, this paper defines the attribute dependency and conditional entropy among attributes in interval-valued information systems, and proposes two types of attribute importance measurement, which has inner attribute importance and outer attribute importance. A uniform heuristic attribute reduction algorithm is given. The validity of the algorithm is illustrated by some experiments and the effect of different level of similarity α for reduction is investigated as well.

  9. Research on efficiency evaluation model of integrated energy system based on hybrid multi-attribute decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2017-05-25

    The efficiency evaluation model of integrated energy system, involving many influencing factors, and the attribute values are heterogeneous and non-deterministic, usually cannot give specific numerical or accurate probability distribution characteristics, making the final evaluation result deviation. According to the characteristics of the integrated energy system, a hybrid multi-attribute decision-making model is constructed. The evaluation model considers the decision maker's risk preference. In the evaluation of the efficiency of the integrated energy system, the evaluation value of some evaluation indexes is linguistic value, or the evaluation value of the evaluation experts is not consistent. These reasons lead to ambiguity in the decision information, usually in the form of uncertain linguistic values and numerical interval values. In this paper, the risk preference of decision maker is considered when constructing the evaluation model. Interval-valued multiple-attribute decision-making method and fuzzy linguistic multiple-attribute decision-making model are proposed. Finally, the mathematical model of efficiency evaluation of integrated energy system is constructed.

  10. A trace-driven analysis of name and attribute caching in a distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirriff, Ken W.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of simulating file name and attribute caching on client machines in a distributed file system. The simulation used trace data gathered on a network of about 40 workstations. Caching was found to be advantageous: a cache on each client containing just 10 directories had a 91 percent hit rate on name look ups. Entry-based name caches (holding individual directory entries) had poorer performance for several reasons, resulting in a maximum hit rate of about 83 percent. File attribute caching obtained a 90 percent hit rate with a cache on each machine of the attributes for 30 files. The simulations show that maintaining cache consistency between machines is not a significant problem; only 1 in 400 name component look ups required invalidation of a remotely cached entry. Process migration to remote machines had little effect on caching. Caching was less successful in heavily shared and modified directories such as /tmp, but there weren't enough references to /tmp overall to affect the results significantly. We estimate that adding name and attribute caching to the Sprite operating system could reduce server load by 36 percent and the number of network packets by 30 percent.

  11. A Literature Review and Compilation of Nuclear Waste Management System Attributes for Use in Multi-Objective System Evaluations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samsa, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to compile a comprehensive initial set of potential nuclear waste management system attributes. This initial set of attributes is intended to serve as a starting point for additional consideration by system analysts and planners to facilitate the development of a waste management system multi-objective evaluation framework based on the principles and methodology of multi-attribute utility analysis. The compilation is primarily based on a review of reports issued by the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), but also an extensive review of the available literature for similar and past efforts as well. Numerous system attributes found in different sources were combined into a single objectives-oriented hierarchical structure. This study provides a discussion of the data sources and the descriptions of the hierarchical structure. A particular focus of this study was on collecting and compiling inputs from past studies that involved the participation of various external stakeholders. However, while the important role of stakeholder input in a country's waste management decision process is recognized in the referenced sources, there are only a limited number of in-depth studies of the stakeholders' differing perspectives. Compiling a comprehensive hierarchical listing of attributes is a complex task since stakeholders have multiple and often conflicting interests. The BRC worked for two years (January 2010 to January 2012) to "ensure it has heard from as many points of view as possible." The Canadian NWMO study took four years and ample resources, involving national and regional stakeholders' dialogs, internet-based dialogs, information and discussion sessions, open houses, workshops, round tables, public attitude research, website, and topic reports. The current compilation effort benefited from the distillation of these many varied inputs

  12. A Literature Review and Compilation of Nuclear Waste Management System Attributes for Use in Multi-Objective System Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Samsa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compile a comprehensive initial set of potential nuclear waste management system attributes. This initial set of attributes is intended to serve as a starting point for additional consideration by system analysts and planners to facilitate the development of a waste management system multi-objective evaluation framework based on the principles and methodology of multi-attribute utility analysis. The compilation is primarily based on a review of reports issued by the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), but also an extensive review of the available literature for similar and past efforts as well. Numerous system attributes found in different sources were combined into a single objectives-oriented hierarchical structure. This study provides a discussion of the data sources and the descriptions of the hierarchical structure. A particular focus of this study was on collecting and compiling inputs from past studies that involved the participation of various external stakeholders. However, while the important role of stakeholder input in a country's waste management decision process is recognized in the referenced sources, there are only a limited number of in-depth studies of the stakeholders' differing perspectives. Compiling a comprehensive hierarchical listing of attributes is a complex task since stakeholders have multiple and often conflicting interests. The BRC worked for two years (January 2010 to January 2012) to 'ensure it has heard from as many points of view as possible.' The Canadian NWMO study took four years and ample resources, involving national and regional stakeholders' dialogs, internet-based dialogs, information and discussion sessions, open houses, workshops, round tables, public attitude research, website, and topic reports. The current compilation effort benefited from the distillation of these many varied inputs conducted by the

  13. Measuring user’s influence in the Yelp recommender system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bejarano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Recommender systems collect information about users and businesses and how they are related. Such relation is given in terms of reviews and votes on reviews. User reviews gather opinions, rating scores and review influence. The latter component is crucial for determining which users are more relevant in a recommender system, that is, the users whose reviews are more popular than the average user’s reviews. Design/methodology/approach – A model of measure of user influence is proposed based on review and social attributes of the user. User influence is also used for determining how influenced has been a business being based on popular reviews. Findings – Results indicate there is a connection between social attributes and user influence. Such results are relevant for marketing, credibility estimation and Sybil detections, among others. Originality/value – The proposed model allows search parameterization based on the social attribute weights of users, reviews and businesses. Such weights defines the relevance on each attribute, which can be adjusted according to the search needs. Popularity results are then a function of weight preferences on user, reviews and businesses data join.

  14. Measurement system for large motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, R.; Davies, L.; Kalinowski, J.; Stubbs, T.

    1979-05-01

    The system used to measure the response of geologic media to stress waves generated during and after underground tests performed by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) is described. Included are descriptions of the system transducers and accelerometers, the procedures used in calibrating and packaging the system at the North Las Vegas Facility of EG and G, Inc., the positioning of equipment during fielding activities at NTS, and the procedures used at LLL's facilities in California to reduce and analyze the data recorded on magnetic tape at NTS during an underground nuclear explosion. In summarizing, the authors give the system high marks, attributing its success to good basic design, careful installation, and rigorous calibration and data analysis techniques applied with good judgement on the part of the instrumentation engineers and data analysts. 10 figures

  15. Global burden of diarrheal disease attributable to the water supply and sanitation system in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances have occurred in relation to the coverage of water supply and sanitation in Brazil, however inequalities are still observed in relation to the coverage of these services, reflecting the importance of diarrheal disease in the Brazilian epidemiological context. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of the water supply and sanitation system on diarrheal diseases among children aged under five. The global burden of diarrhea was calculated based on the attributable population fraction, using information on prevalence and relative risks from the 2000/2010 censuses and a study by Pruss et al. The north of the State of Minas Gerais, the Northeast and Jequitinhonha regions had the highest disability-adjusted life year (DALY rates and ratios. The fraction of diarrhea attributable to the water supply and sanitation system was 83%, decreasing to 78.3% where sanitation had 100% coverage. An inverse relationship was found between DALY rates and attributable fractions and per capita GDP. Broadening the scope and coverage of services and improving the quality of water available in homes is an urgent requirement. These measures will bring economic and social benefits related to the reduction of diarrheal diseases and consequent improvement of the quality of life of children aged under five.

  16. Association Between Patient Value Systems and Physician and Practice Attributes Available Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshhans, Jamie L; Harmon, Jeffrey J; Papel, Ira; Gentile, Richard; Mangat, Devinder; Byrne, Patrick; Collar, Ryan M

    2018-03-01

    The relative value of facial plastic surgeon personal and practice attributes is relevant to the broader health care system because of increasing out-of-pocket expenses to patients. To determine the relative value of specific facial plastic surgeon personal and practice attributes available online from the perspective of patients. This study consisted of an electronic survey sent to patients by email using choice-based conjoint analysis; surveys were sent between December 2015 and March 2016. Participants had agreed to join email registries to be sent email surveys and promotions at 3 private facial plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. The following surgeon personal and practice attributes and levels were compared: (1) outcome transparency (above average, average, not available); (2) surgical training affiliations (US News and World Reports rankings); (3) online rating site scores (2 [poor], 3, or 4 [excellent] stars); and (4) price ($1×, $2×, and $3× [× = $1500; average cost was set at $2×]). The relative importance of outcome transparency, surgical training affiliations, online rating scores, and price to prospective patients. Overall, 291 patients participated for a completion rate of 68%. Outcome transparency was the most valued attribute (attribute utility range = 141; attribute importance = 35.2%). Price was the least valued attribute (attribute utility range = 58.59; attribute importance = 15.1%). Assuming top-tier affiliations and 4-star ratings, share of market (SOM) was 75.5% for surgeons with above-average outcome transparency priced at $3× compared with those surgeons with no outcomes available priced at $1×. Holding price constant at $2×, surgeons with middle-tier affiliations and 2-star online ratings but above average outcomes achieved 48.4% SOM when compared with those surgeons with top-tier affiliations and 4-star online ratings without available outcomes. Facial plastic surgery patients most value surgeons who

  17. Verification of classified fissile material using unclassified attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Fearey, B.L.; Puckett, J.M.; Tape, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the most recent efforts of US technical experts to explore verification by IAEA of unclassified attributes of classified excess fissile material. Two propositions are discussed: (1) that multiple unclassified attributes could be declared by the host nation and then verified (and reverified) by the IAEA in order to provide confidence in that declaration of a classified (or unclassified) inventory while protecting classified or sensitive information; and (2) that attributes could be measured, remeasured, or monitored to provide continuity of knowledge in a nonintrusive and unclassified manner. They believe attributes should relate to characteristics of excess weapons materials and should be verifiable and authenticatable with methods usable by IAEA inspectors. Further, attributes (along with the methods to measure them) must not reveal any classified information. The approach that the authors have taken is as follows: (1) assume certain attributes of classified excess material, (2) identify passive signatures, (3) determine range of applicable measurement physics, (4) develop a set of criteria to assess and select measurement technologies, (5) select existing instrumentation for proof-of-principle measurements and demonstration, and (6) develop and design information barriers to protect classified information. While the attribute verification concepts and measurements discussed in this paper appear promising, neither the attribute verification approach nor the measurement technologies have been fully developed, tested, and evaluated

  18. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  19. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastur...

  20. Attribution style, theory and empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...

  1. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  2. Parental Health Attributions of Childhood Health and Illness: Development of the Pediatric Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; McLinden, Daniel J; Shellmer, Diana; Baker, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    The causes attributed to childhood health and illness across cultures (cultural health attributions) are key factors that are now more frequently identified as affecting the health outcomes of children. Research suggests that the causes attributed to an event such as illness are thought to affect subsequent motivation, emotional response, decision making, and behavior. To date, there is no measure of health attributions appropriate for use with parents of pediatric patients. Using the Many-Facets approach to Rasch analysis, this study assesses the psychometrics of a newly developed instrument, the Pediatric Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ), a measure designed to assess the cultural health attributions of parents in diverse communities. Results suggest acceptable Rasch model statistics of fit and reliability for the Pedi-CHAQ. A shortened version of the questionnaire was developed as a result of this study and next steps are discussed.

  3. A shielded measurement system for irradiated nuclear fuel measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, W.R.; Aumeier, S.E.; Klann, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is driving a transition toward dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), toward characterization of INF for final disposition, and toward resumption of measurement-based material control and accountability (MC and A) efforts for INF. For these reasons, the ability to efficiently acquire radiological measurements of INF in a dry environment is important. The DOE has recently developed a guidance document proposing MC and A requirements for INF. The intent of this document is to encourage the direct measurement of INF on inventory within DOE. The guidance document reinforces and clarifies existing material safeguards requirements as they pertain to INF. Validation of nuclear material contents of non-self-protecting INF must be accomplished by direct measurement, application of validated burnup codes using qualified initial fissile content, burnup data, and age or by other valid means. The fuel units must remain intact with readable identification numbers. INF may be subject to periodic inventories with visual item accountability checks. Quantitative measurements may provide greater assurance of the integrity of INF inventories at a lower cost and with less personnel exposure than visual item accountability checks. Currently, several different approaches are used to measure the radiological attributes of INF. Although these systems are useful for a wide variety of applications, there is currently no relatively inexpensive measurement system that is readily deployable for INF measurements for materials located in dry storage. The authors present the conceptual design of a shielded measurement system (SMS) that could be used for this purpose. The SMS consists of a shielded enclosure designed to house a collection of measurement systems to allow measurements on spent fuel outside of a hot cell. The phase 1 SMS will contain 3 He detectors and ionization chambers to allow for gross neutron and gamma-ray measurements. The phase 2 SMS

  4. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    playing a role in sound quality evaluation. Eight selected attributes are quantified by a panel of 39 listeners using paired-comparison judgments and probabilistic choice models, and related to overall preference. A multiple-regression model predicts preference well, and some similarities are observed......Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...

  5. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  6. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  7. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  8. Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Perceived Attributes of eHealth Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess perceived attributes of technology-based health education innovations. Methods: College students in 12 personal health courses reviewed a prototype eHealth intervention using a 30-item instrument based upon diffusion theory's perceived attributes of an innovation. Results:…

  9. Frequency Assignment, Sharing and Conservation in Systems (Aerospace). (l’Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour les systemes aeronautiques et spatiales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NETWORKS C. Bousofto-Calzön A.R. Figueiras-Vidal Dpto. Tecnologias de las Comunicaciones Univ. Carlos III de Madrid C/Butarque, 15; 28911 Leganes...Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour les systemes aeronautiques et spatiales) Papers presented at the Information Systems...PROCEEDINGS 13 Frequency Assignment, Sharing and Conservation in Systems (Aerospace) (V Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour

  10. Practical Use of the Braking Attributes Measurements Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruš Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of braking the passenger car. The measurement of braking deceleration of the vehicle Kia Cee´d 1,6 16 V was carried out by an optical device Correvit system. The measurement was carried out on the airport of the village of Rosina located close to Zilina. 10 drivers of different age, praxis, and kilometers driven participated in the measurement. The measured process was the vehicle full braking with the service brake of the initial speed of approximately 50 km.h-1. Each of the drivers had 10 attempts. In the closure of this contribution the results of the performed measurements, their evaluation and comparison are presented. Practical result from the contribution is mainly the measurement set of braking deceleration of the respective vehicle during intensive braking.

  11. Transacting generation attributes across market boundaries: Compatible information systems and the treatment of imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2002-11-01

    Voluntary markets for ''green'' power, and mandatory policies such as fuel source disclosure requirements and renewables portfolio standards, each rely on the ability to differentiate electricity by the ''attributes'' of the generation. Throughout North America, electricity markets are devising accounting and verification systems for generation ''attributes'': those characteristics of a power plant's production such as fuel source and emissions that differentiate it from undifferentiated (or ''commodity'') electricity. These accounting and verification systems are intended to verify compliance with market mandates, create accurate disclosure labels, substantiate green power claims, and support emissions markets. Simultaneously, interest is growing in transacting (importing or exporting) generation attributes across electricity market borders, with or without associated electricity. Cross-border renewable attribute transactions have advantages and disadvantages. Broad access to markets may encourage more renewable generation at lower cost, but this result may conflict with desires to assure that at least some renewable resources are built locally to achieve either local policy goals or purchaser objectives. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for those interested in and struggling with cross-border renewable attribute transactions. The report assesses the circumstances under which renewable generation attributes from a ''source'' region might be recognized in a ''sink'' region. The report identifies several distinct approaches that might be used to account for and verify attribute import and export transactions, and assesses the suitability of these alternative approaches. Because policymakers have often made systems ''compatibility'' between market areas a pre-requisite to allowing cross

  12. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  13. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  14. Privacy Protection on Multiple Sensitive Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun

    In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.

  15. [A multi-measure analysis of the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects in multi-attribute decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.

  16. Cross Entropy Measures of Bipolar and Interval Bipolar Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application for Multi-Attribute Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The bipolar neutrosophic set is an important extension of the bipolar fuzzy set. The bipolar neutrosophic set is a hybridization of the bipolar fuzzy set and neutrosophic set. Every element of a bipolar neutrosophic set consists of three independent positive membership functions and three independent negative membership functions. In this paper, we develop cross entropy measures of bipolar neutrosophic sets and prove their basic properties. We also define cross entropy measures of interval bipolar neutrosophic sets and prove their basic properties. Thereafter, we develop two novel multi-attribute decision-making strategies based on the proposed cross entropy measures. In the decision-making framework, we calculate the weighted cross entropy measures between each alternative and the ideal alternative to rank the alternatives and choose the best one. We solve two illustrative examples of multi-attribute decision-making problems and compare the obtained result with the results of other existing strategies to show the applicability and effectiveness of the developed strategies. At the end, the main conclusion and future scope of research are summarized.

  17. Limitations and corrections in measuring dynamic characteristics of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.L.

    1978-10-01

    The work deals with limitations encountered in measuring the dynamic characteristics of structural systems. Structural loading and response are measured by transducers possessing multiple resonant frequencies in their transfer function. In transient environments, the resultant signals from these transducers are shown to be analytically unpredictable in amplitude level and frequency content. Data recorded during nuclear effects simulation testing on structures are analyzed. Results of analysis can be generalized to any structure which encounters dynamic loading. Methods to improve the recorded data are described which can be implemented on a frequency selective basis during the measurement process. These improvements minimize data distortion attributable to the transfer characteristics of the measuring transducers

  18. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Attribution of irreversible loss to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Bresch, David; Hansen, Gerrit; James, Rachel; Mechler, Reinhard; Stone, Dáithí; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    The Paris Agreement (2015) under the UNFCCC has anchored loss and damage in a separate article which specifies that understanding and support should be enhanced in areas addressing loss and damage such as early warning, preparedness, insurance and resilience. Irreversible loss is a special category under loss and damage but there is still missing clarity over what irreversible loss actually includes. Many negative impacts of climate change may be handled or mitigated by existing risk management, reduction and absorption approaches. Irreversible loss, however, is thought to be insufficiently addressed by risk management. Therefore, countries potentially or actually affected by irreversible loss are calling for other measures such as compensation, which however is highly contested in international climate policy. In Paris (2015) a decision was adopted that loss and damage as defined in the respective article of the agreement does not involve compensation and liability. Nevertheless, it is likely that some sort of mechanism will eventually need to come into play for irreversible loss due to anthropogenic climate change, which might involve compensation, other forms of non-monetary reparation, or transformation. Furthermore, climate litigation has increasingly been attempted to address negative effects of climate change. In this context, attribution is important to understand the drivers of change, what counts as irreversible loss due to climate change, and, possibly, who or what is responsible. Here we approach this issue by applying a detection and attribution perspective on irreversible loss. We first analyze detected climate change impacts as assessed in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. We distinguish between irreversible loss in physical, biological and human systems, and accordingly identify the following candidates of irreversible loss in these systems: loss of glaciers and ice sheets, loss of subsurface ice (permafrost) and related loss of lake systems; loss

  20. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team…

  1. The Role of Green and Traditional Supplier Attributes on Business Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Mendoza-Fong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplier evaluation and selection are fundamental tasks since they are part of the production process and even initiate the supply chain (SC. Despite their importance in the production system, supplier evaluation and selection may be challenging activities to be performed if companies look at the wide range of available evaluation techniques and methodologies, which now seek to integrate both traditional and green attributes. In addition, companies may refuse to take into account green attributes during the supplier selection process, because they do not know their impact on commercial benefits. To overcome this limitation, this study examines the Mexican manufacturing sector and measures the impact of supplier traditional attributes and green attributes on business performance, namely production process benefits and commercial benefits. As data collection instrument, we administered a survey to 253 supplier evaluators and selectors; then, using the gathered data, we constructed a structural equation model. The model includes four variables to determine the impact of traditional and green attributes on business performance: green attributes, traditional attributes, production process benefits, and commercial benefits. The results indicate that all the latent variables have positive direct effects on one another. For instance, process benefits show the largest effects on commercial benefits, but the most significant effect is caused by traditional attributes on commercial benefits through green attributes and production process benefits.

  2. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  3. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Ceritoglu, Can; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu

    MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted) atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  4. The effect of high performance work systems utilization on firm performance: does human resource attribution of employees matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibiru Ayalew Melesse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research suggests that high performance work systems (HPWSs that enhance employees’ competencies, and motivate them, leads to competitive advantage. HPWPs are radically not ‘new practices’; they have been around for many years and have already been adopted by various organizations. However, the link between HPWS adoption & firm performance is yet blurred. The aim of this paper was to examine the moderating role of employees’ HR attributions on the relationship between adoption of HPWSs and firm performance. The current paper argues that human resource (HR attribution of employees moderates the relationship between HPWS and firm performance such that the effective adoption of high performance work systems in an organization partly depends on the type of employees’ attributions (commitment versus control of HR practices in the company. More specifically, it is proposed that adoption of HPWS can be more effective in organizations where employees’ attributions of HR practices is commitment focus than in firms where employees’ attributions of HR practice is control focus. The study contributes to understanding the ‘black box’ of HRM-performance link. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  6. Family caregivers' attributions about care-recipient behaviour: does caregiver relationship satisfaction mediate the attribution-distress relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-09-01

    The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikritzhs Tanya N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death

  8. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  9. Detection and attribution of observed impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, W.; Yohe, G.W.; Auffhammer, M.; Huggel, C.; Molau, U.; Dias, M.A.F.S.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter synthesizes the scientific literature on the detection and attribution of observed changes in natural and human systems in response to observed recent climate change. For policy makers and the public, detection and attribution of observed impacts will be a key element to determine the

  10. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Attribute grammars are a powerful specification paradigm for many language processing tasks, particularly semantic analysis of programming languages. Recent attribute grammar systems use dynamic scheduling algorithms to evaluate attributes by need. In this paper, we show how to remove the need for a

  11. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variable precision rough set for multiple decision attribute analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    A variable precision rough set (VPRS) model is used to solve the multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem with multiple conflicting decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. By introducing confidence measures and a β-reduct, the VPRS model can rationally solve the conflicting decision analysis problem with multiple decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. For illustration, a medical diagnosis example is utilized to show the feasibility of the VPRS model in solving the MADA...

  13. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  14. Diagnostic system for measurement of particle balance in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Correll, D.L.; Hill, D.N.; Wood, R.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Several diagnostics measure the particle sources and losses in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) plasma. An absolutely calibrated high-speed (0.5 ms per frame) filtered (6561 A) video camera measures the total ionization source as a function of radius. An axial view of the plasma automatically integrates the axial variations within the depth of field of the system. Another camera, viewing the plasma radially, measures the axial source variations near the deuterium fueling source. Axial ion losses are measured by an array of Faraday cups that are equipped with grids for repelling electrons and are mounted at each end of the experiment. Unequal ion and electron (nonambipolar) radial losses are inferred from net current measurements on an array of grounded plates at each end. Any differences between the measured particle losses and sources may be attributed to ambipolar radial losses and/or azimuthal asymmetries in the particle-loss profiles. Methods of system calibration, along with details of computer data acquisition and processing of this relatively large set of data, are also presented. 6 refs., 1 fig

  15. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  16. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  17. A generalized measurement model to quantify health: the multi-attribute preference response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Paul F M

    2013-01-01

    After 40 years of deriving metric values for health status or health-related quality of life, the effective quantification of subjective health outcomes is still a challenge. Here, two of the best measurement tools, the discrete choice and the Rasch model, are combined to create a new model for deriving health values. First, existing techniques to value health states are briefly discussed followed by a reflection on the recent revival of interest in patients' experience with regard to their possible role in health measurement. Subsequently, three basic principles for valid health measurement are reviewed, namely unidimensionality, interval level, and invariance. In the main section, the basic operation of measurement is then discussed in the framework of probabilistic discrete choice analysis (random utility model) and the psychometric Rasch model. It is then shown how combining the main features of these two models yields an integrated measurement model, called the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, which is introduced here. This new model transforms subjective individual rank data into a metric scale using responses from patients who have experienced certain health states. Its measurement mechanism largely prevents biases such as adaptation and coping. Several extensions of the MAPR model are presented. The MAPR model can be applied to a wide range of research problems. If extended with the self-selection of relevant health domains for the individual patient, this model will be more valid than existing valuation techniques.

  18. Causal Attributions about Disease-Onset and Relapse in Patients with Systemic Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Amudala, Naomi A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Leduc, Renée L.; Shereff, Denise; Richesson, Rachel; Fraenkel, Liana; Merkel, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients vary in their beliefs related to the cause of serious illness. The impact of these beliefs among patients with systemic vasculitis is not known. This study aimed to describe causal attributions about disease-onset and relapse in systemic vasculitis and to examine whether causal beliefs a) differ by type of vasculitis; and b) are associated with negative health outcomes. Methods Patients with vasculitis were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Categories of causal beliefs were assessed with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Differences in beliefs about disease-onset versus relapse were compared across different forms of vasculitis. Causal beliefs were assessed in association with several health outcomes including fatigue, functional impairments, and personal understanding of the condition. Results 692 patients representing 9 forms of vasculitis completed the questionnaire. The majority (90%) of patients had beliefs about the cause of their illness. Causal attributions were highly variable, but altered immunity and stress were the most commonly agreed upon causal beliefs. Frequencies of causal beliefs were strikingly similar across different forms of vasculitis, with few notable exceptions primarily in Behçet’s disease. Beliefs differed about causes of disease-onset versus relapse. Specific beliefs about disease-onset and relapse were weakly associated with fatigue, functional impairments, and understanding of the condition. Conclusion Patient beliefs related to the cause of systemic vasculitis are highly variable. Patterns of causal beliefs are associated with important negative health outcomes. Clinicians who care for patients with vasculitis should be mindful of these associations and consider asking about patients’ causal beliefs. PMID:24634202

  19. Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs

  20. Sensory Attribute Identification Time Cannot Explain the Common Temporal Limit of Binding Different Attributes and Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Fujisaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An informative performance measure of the brain's integration across different sensory attributes/modalities is the critical temporal rate of feature alternation (between, eg, red and green beyond which observers could not identify the feature value specified by a timing signal from another attribute (eg, a pitch change. Interestingly, this limit, which we called the critical crowding frequency (CCF, is fairly low and nearly constant (∼2.5 Hz regardless of the combination of attributes and modalities (Fujisaki & Nishida, 2010, IMRF. One may consider that the CCF reflects the processing time required for the brain to identify the specified feature value on the fly. According to this idea, the similarity in CCF could be ascribed to the similarity in identification time for the attributes we used (luminance, color, orientation, pitch, vibration. To test this idea, we estimated the identification time of each attribute from [Go/ No-Go choice reaction time – simple reaction time]. In disagreement with the prediction, we found significant differences among attributes (eg, ∼160 ms for orientation, ∼70 ms for pitch. The results are more consistent with our proposal (Fujisaki & Nishida, Proc Roy Soc B that the CCF reflects the common rate limit of specifying what happens when (timing-content binding by a central, presumably postdictive, mechanism.

  1. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. QuaBingo: A Prediction System for Protein Quaternary Structure Attributes Using Block Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Tung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quaternary structures of proteins are closely relevant to gene regulation, signal transduction, and many other biological functions of proteins. In the current study, a new method based on protein-conserved motif composition in block format for feature extraction is proposed, which is termed block composition. Results. The protein quaternary assembly states prediction system which combines blocks with functional domain composition, called QuaBingo, is constructed by three layers of classifiers that can categorize quaternary structural attributes of monomer, homooligomer, and heterooligomer. The building of the first layer classifier uses support vector machines (SVM based on blocks and functional domains of proteins, and the second layer SVM was utilized to process the outputs of the first layer. Finally, the result is determined by the Random Forest of the third layer. We compared the effectiveness of the combination of block composition, functional domain composition, and pseudoamino acid composition of the model. In the 11 kinds of functional protein families, QuaBingo is 23% of Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC higher than the existing prediction system. The results also revealed the biological characterization of the top five block compositions. Conclusions. QuaBingo provides better predictive ability for predicting the quaternary structural attributes of proteins.

  3. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Shirin; Schillinger, Dean; Lyles, Courtney; Ackerman, Sara; Gourley, Gato; Vittinghoff, Eric; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala

    Health policies encourage implementing quality measurement with performance targets. The 2010-2015 California Medicaid waiver mandated quality measurement and reporting. In 2013, California safety net hospitals participating in the waiver set a voluntary performance target (the 90th percentile for Medicare preferred provider organization plans) for mammography screening and cholesterol control in diabetes. They did not reach the target, and the difference-in-differences analysis suggested that there was no difference for mammography ( P = .39) and low-density lipoprotein control ( P = .11) performance compared to measures for which no statewide quality improvement initiative existed. California's Medicaid waiver was associated with improved performance on a number of metrics, but this performance was not attributable to target setting on specific health conditions. Performance may have improved because of secular trends or systems improvements related to waiver funding. Relying on condition-specific targets to measure performance may underestimate improvements and disadvantage certain health systems. Achieving ambitious targets likely requires sustained fiscal, management, and workforce investments.

  4. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  5. A Python-Based Open Source System for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA Utilizing Raster Attribute Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clewley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A modular system for performing Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, using entirely open source (General Public License compatible software, is presented based around representing objects as raster clumps and storing attributes as a raster attribute table (RAT. The system utilizes a number of libraries, developed by the authors: The Remote Sensing and GIS Library (RSGISLib, the Raster I/O Simplification (RIOS Python Library, the KEA image format and TuiView image viewer. All libraries are accessed through Python, providing a common interface on which to build processing chains. Three examples are presented, to demonstrate the capabilities of the system: (1 classification of mangrove extent and change in French Guiana; (2 a generic scheme for the classification of the UN-FAO land cover classification system (LCCS and their subsequent translation to habitat categories; and (3 a national-scale segmentation for Australia. The system presented provides similar functionality to existing GEOBIA packages, but is more flexible, due to its modular environment, capable of handling complex classification processes and applying them to larger datasets.

  6. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  7. Secure Data Access Control for Fog Computing Based on Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Signcryption with Computation Outsourcing and Attribute Revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Tan, Chengxiang; Fan, Zhijie; Zhu, Wenye; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Fujia

    2018-05-17

    Nowadays, fog computing provides computation, storage, and application services to end users in the Internet of Things. One of the major concerns in fog computing systems is how fine-grained access control can be imposed. As a logical combination of attribute-based encryption and attribute-based signature, Attribute-based Signcryption (ABSC) can provide confidentiality and anonymous authentication for sensitive data and is more efficient than traditional "encrypt-then-sign" or "sign-then-encrypt" strategy. Thus, ABSC is suitable for fine-grained access control in a semi-trusted cloud environment and is gaining more and more attention recently. However, in many existing ABSC systems, the computation cost required for the end users in signcryption and designcryption is linear with the complexity of signing and encryption access policy. Moreover, only a single authority that is responsible for attribute management and key generation exists in the previous proposed ABSC schemes, whereas in reality, mostly, different authorities monitor different attributes of the user. In this paper, we propose OMDAC-ABSC, a novel data access control scheme based on Ciphertext-Policy ABSC, to provide data confidentiality, fine-grained control, and anonymous authentication in a multi-authority fog computing system. The signcryption and designcryption overhead for the user is significantly reduced by outsourcing the undesirable computation operations to fog nodes. The proposed scheme is proven to be secure in the standard model and can provide attribute revocation and public verifiability. The security analysis, asymptotic complexity comparison, and implementation results indicate that our construction can balance the security goals with practical efficiency in computation.

  8. Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2018-06-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote 'innovations' as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented. This paper explores the key attributes of agricultural innovations by assessing how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe. The study gathered information from 13 key informants and a household survey of 239 farmer households from Gwanda and Insiza districts. Results showed a multiplicity of understandings of agricultural innovations among different stakeholders. However, novelty/newness, utility and adaptability were identified as the major attributes. In general, farmers characterized agricultural innovations as 'something new and mostly introduced by NGOs' but did not associate them with the key attributes of utility and adaptability. More crop-related innovations were identified despite the area being suitable for livestock production. The paper concludes that, rather than view the multiple and sometimes competing understandings of agricultural innovations as undesirable, this should be used to promote context specific innovations which stand a better chance of enhancing agriculture-based livelihoods.

  9. Development of the Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Dixon, Jane; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    A sequential, multi-method approach to instrument development beginning with concept analysis, followed by (a) item generation from qualitative data, (b) review of items by expert and lay person panels, (c) cognitive appraisal interviews, (d) pilot testing, and (e) evaluating construct validity was used to develop a measure of attributed dignity in older adults. The resulting positively scored, 23-item scale has three dimensions: Self-Value, Behavioral Respect-Self, and Behavioral Respect-Others. Item-total correlations in the pilot study ranged from 0.39 to 0.85. Correlations between the Attributed Dignity Scale (ADS) and both Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (0.17) and Crowne and Marlowe's Social Desirability Scale (0.36) were modest and in the expected direction, indicating attributed dignity is a related but independent concept. Next steps include testing the ADS with a larger sample to complete factor analysis, test-retest stability, and further study of the relationships between attributed dignity and other concepts.

  10. The Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS): Community-Based Validation Study of a New Scale for the Measurement of Suicidal Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spijker, B.A.J.; Batterham, P.J.; Calear, A.L.; Farrer, L.; Christensen, H.; Reynolds, J.; Kerkhof, A.

    2014-01-01

    While suicide prevention efforts are increasingly being delivered using technology, no scales have been developed specifically for web-based use. The Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS) was developed and validated as a brief, web-based measure for severity of suicidal ideation, using an

  11. Effect of agroforestry system on yield attributes of wheat (Triticum Aestivum l.) under shallow water table conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, R.; Agnihotri, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen tree rows of Eucalyptus tereticornis were planted at G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar, located in tarai region of Uttaranchal in a Nelder fan design in March 1989 at the angle of 24øN' from each other starting from north in anticlockwise direction. Area per tree was 30 m 2 . Wheat was intercropped with Eucalyptus tereticornis of 21st November, 1996. Each row of trees was one treatment. There were 15 treatments with control as sole crop. Various yield attributes, net radiation and water table depth were measured below trees and in control, simultaneously. In treatments 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 early vegetative growth was observed below trees. Higher yield attributing characters were also observed in some of the treatments below trees. In general, treatment 9 (192-216ø) gave better yield attributes than that of control

  12. Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Adriana De Gennaro

    Full Text Available Agricultural management systems can alter the physical and biological soil quality, interfering with crop development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological attributes of a Red Latosol, and its relationship to the biometric parameters of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, irrigated and grown under two management systems (conventional tillage and direct seeding, in Campinas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with a split-plot arrangement for the management system and soil depth, analysed during the 2006/7 and 2007/8 harvest seasons, with 4 replications. The soil physical and microbiological attributes were evaluated at depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The following were determined for the crop: density, number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod, thousand seed weight, total weight of the shoots and harvest index. Direct seeding resulted in a lower soil physical quality at a depth of 0.00-0.05 m compared to conventional tillage, while the opposite occurred at a depth of 0.05-0.10 m. The direct seeding showed higher soil biological quality, mainly indicated by the microbial biomass nitrogen, basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The biometric parameters in the bean were higher under the direct seeding compared to conventional tillage.

  13. The habenula governs the attribution of incentive salience to reward predictive cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Carey L.; Shepard, Paul D.; Elmer, Greg I.

    2013-01-01

    The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb), a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral cue predicting a food reward. The Pavlovian autoshaping paradigm was used in the rat as an investigative tool to dissociate Pavlovian learning processes imparting strictly predictive value from learning that attributes incentive motivational value. Electrolytic lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus (fr), the sole pathway through which descending Hb efferents are conveyed, significantly increased incentive salience as measured by conditioned approaches to a cue light predictive of reward. Conversely, generation of a fictive Hb signal via fr stimulation during CS+ presentation significantly decreased the incentive salience of the predictive cue. Neither manipulation altered the reward predictive value of the cue as measured by conditioned approach to the food. Our results provide new evidence supporting a significant role for the Hb in governing the attribution of incentive motivational salience to reward predictive cues and further imply that pathological changes in Hb activity could contribute to the aberrant pursuit of debilitating goals or avolition and depression-like symptoms. PMID:24368898

  14. The habenula governs the attribution of incentive salience to reward predictive cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey L. Danna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb, a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral cue predicting a food reward. The Pavlovian autoshaping paradigm was used in the rat as an investigative tool to dissociate Pavlovian learning processes imparting strictly predictive value from learning that attributes incentive motivational value. Electrolytic lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus (fr, the sole pathway through which descending Hb efferents are conveyed, significantly increased incentive salience as measured by conditioned approaches to a cue light predictive of reward. Conversely, generation of a fictive Hb signal via fr stimulation during CS+ presentation significantly decreased the incentive salience of the predictive cue. Neither manipulation altered the reward predictive value of the cue as measured by conditioned approach to the food. Our results provide new evidence supporting a significant role for the Hb in governing the attribution of incentive motivational salience to reward predictive cues and further imply that pathological changes in Hb activity could contribute to the aberrant pursuit of debilitating goals or avolition and depression-like symptoms.

  15. Waste assay measurement integration system user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, K.C.; Hempstead, A.R.; Becker, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Assay Measurement Integration System (WAMIS) is being developed to improve confidence in and lower the uncertainty of waste characterization data. There are two major components to the WAMIS: a data access and visualization component and a data interpretation component. The intent of the access and visualization software is to provide simultaneous access to all data sources that describe the contents of any particular container of waste. The visualization software also allows the user to display data at any level from raw to reduced output. Depending on user type, the software displays a menuing hierarchy, related to level of access, that allows the user to observe only those data sources s/he has been authorized to view. Access levels include system administrator, physicist, QA representative, shift operations supervisor, and data entry. Data sources are displayed in separate windows and presently include (1) real-time radiography video, (2) gamma spectra, (3) passive and active neutron, (4) radionuclide mass estimates, (5) total alpha activity (Ci), (6) container attributes, (7) thermal power (w), and (8) mass ratio estimates for americium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes. The data interpretation component is in the early phases of design, but will include artificial intelligence, expert system, and neural network techniques. The system is being developed on a Pentium PC using Microsoft Visual C++. Future generations of WAMIS will be UNIX based and will incorporate more generically radiographic/tomographic, gamma spectroscopic/tomographics, neutron, and prompt gamma measurements

  16. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhouyi; Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2010-02-03

    The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. In the conventional social attribution task (SAT) participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT) using animate figures (e.g. animals) to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  17. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  18. Safety significance of ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    2013-02-01

    Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Measuring trauma system performance: Right patient, right place-Mission accomplished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Tepas, Joseph J; Namias, Nicholas; Moore, Frederick A; Cha, John Y; Kerwin, Andrew; Langland-Orban, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    A regional trauma system must establish and monitor acceptable overtriage and undertriage rates. Although diagnoses from discharge data sets can be used with mortality prediction models to define high-risk injury, retrospective analyses introduce methodological errors when evaluating real-time triage processes. The purpose of this study was to determine if major trauma patients identified using field criteria correlated with those retrospectively labeled high risk and to assess system performance by measuring triage accuracy and trauma center utilization. A statewide database was queried for all injury-related International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, code discharges from designated trauma centers and nontrauma centers for 2012. Children and burn patients were excluded. Patients assigned a trauma alert fee were considered field-triage(+). The International Classification Injury Severity Score methodology was used to estimate injury-related survival probabilities, with an International Classification Injury Severity Score less than 0.85 considered high risk. Triage rates were expressed relative to the total population; the proportion of low- and high-risk patients discharged from trauma centers defined trauma center utilization. There were 116,990 patients who met study criteria, including 11,368 (10%) high-risk, 70,741 field-triage(-) patients treated in nontrauma centers and 28,548 field-triage(-) and 17,791 field-triage(+) patients treated in trauma centers. Field triage was 86% accurate, with 10% overtriage and 4% undertriage. System triage was 66% accurate, with 32% overtriage and 2% undertriage. Overtriage patients more often, and undertriage patients less often, had severe injury characteristics than appropriately triaged patients. Trauma system performance assessed using retrospective administrative data provides a convenient measure of performance but must be used with caution. Residual mistriage can partly be attributed to error introduced by

  1. Attribute Synthetic Evaluation Model for the CBM Recoverability and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal-bed methane (CBM recoverability is the basic premise of CBM development practice; in order to effectively evaluate the CBM recoverability, the attribute synthetic evaluation model is established based on the theory and method of attribute mathematics. Firstly, five indexes are chosen to evaluate the recoverability through analyzing the influence factors of CBM, including seam thickness, gas saturation, permeability, reservoir pressure gradient, and hydrogeological conditions. Secondly, the attribute measurement functions of each index are constructed based on the attribute mathematics theory, and the calculation methods of the single index attribute measurement and the synthetic attribute measurement also are provided. Meanwhile, the weight of each index is given with the method of similar number and similar weight; the evaluation results also are determined by the confidence criterion reliability code. At last, according to the application results of the model in some coal target area of Fuxin and Hancheng mine, the evaluation results are basically consistent with the actual situation, which proves that the evaluation model can be used in the CBM recoverability prediction, and an effective method of the CBM recoverability evaluation is also provided.

  2. Quality Attributes and Service-Oriented Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Liam; Bass, Len; Merson, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    .... Because software architecture is the bridge between mission/business goals and a software-intensive system, and quality attribute requirements drive software architecture design, it is important...

  3. Nursery Cultural Practices and Morphological Attributes of Longleaf Pine Bare-Root Stock as Indicators of Early Field Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyndon E. Hatchell, Research Forester, Retired Institute for Mycorrhizal Research and Development Athens, Georgia and H. David Muse, Professor Department of Mathematics University of North Alabama Florence, Alabama

    1990-01-01

    A large study of morphological attributes of longleaf pine nursery stock at the Savannah River site of the various attributes measured, only number of lateral roots and seedling diameters were related to performance. Lateral root pruning in the nursery also improved performance. Both survival and growth during the first two years were strongly correlated with larger stem diameter and larger root system development

  4. Soil attributes of a silvopastoral system in Pernambuco Forest Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo N.B. Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated soil properties in a silvopastoral system using double rows of tree legumes. Treatments were signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in monoculture or in consortium with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with 4 replications. Response variables included chemical characteristics and physical attributes of the soil. Silvopastoral systems had greater (P<0.001 soil exchangeable Ca (gliricidia = 3.2 and sabiá = 3.0 mmolc/dm3 than signalgrass monoculture (2.0 mmolc/dm3. Water infiltration rate was greater within the tree legume double rows (366 mm/h than in signalgrass (162 mm/h (P = 0.02. However, soil moisture was greater in signalgrass pastures (15.9% (P = 0.0020 than in silvopastures (14.9 and 14.8%, where soil moisture levels increased as distance from the tree rows increased. Conversely, the light fraction of soil organic matter was greater within the tree legume double rows than in the grassed area (P = 0.0019. Long-term studies are needed to determine if these benefits accumulate further and the productivity benefits which result.

  5. Survey of the perceptions of key stakeholders on the attributes of the South African Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, F G; Musekiwa, A; Blumberg, L; Rispel, L C

    2016-10-25

    An effective and efficient notifiable diseases surveillance system (NDSS) is essential for a rapid response to disease outbreaks, and the identification of priority diseases that may cause national, regional or public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs). Regular assessments of country-based surveillance system are needed to enable countries to respond to outbreaks before they become PHEICs. As part of a broader evaluation of the NDSS in South Africa, the aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of key stakeholders on the national NDSS attributes of acceptability, flexibility, simplicity, timeliness and usefulness. During 2015, we conducted a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of communicable diseases coordinators and surveillance officers, as well as members of NDSS committees. Individuals with less than 1 year experience of the NDSS were excluded. Consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information on demographic information and perceptions of the NDSS attributes. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the unconditional logistic regression model. Most stakeholders interviewed (53 %, 60/114) were involved in disease control and response. The median number of years of experience with the NDSS was 11 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 5 to 20 years). Regarding the NDSS attributes, 25 % of the stakeholders perceived the system to be acceptable, 51 % to be flexible, 45 % to be timely, 61 % to be useful, and 74 % to be simple. Health management stakeholders perceived the system to be more useful and timely compared to the other stakeholders. Those with more years of experience were less likely to perceive the NDSS system as acceptable (OR 0.91, 95 % CI: 0.84-1.00, p = 0.041); those in disease detection were less likely to perceive it as timely (OR 0.10, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.96, p = 0.046) and those participating in National Outbreak Response Team were

  6. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  7. Quality Attributes for Mission Flight Software: A Reference for Architects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Jonathan; Fesq, Lorraine; Dvorak, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the international standards for architecture descriptions in systems and software engineering (ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010), "concern" is a primary concept that often manifests itself in relation to the quality attributes or "ilities" that a system is expected to exhibit - qualities such as reliability, security and modifiability. One of the main uses of an architecture description is to serve as a basis for analyzing how well the architecture achieves its quality attributes, and that requires architects to be as precise as possible about what they mean in claiming, for example, that an architecture supports "modifiability." This paper describes a table, generated by NASA's Software Architecture Review Board, which lists fourteen key quality attributes, identifies different important aspects of each quality attribute and considers each aspect in terms of requirements, rationale, evidence, and tactics to achieve the aspect. This quality attribute table is intended to serve as a guide to software architects, software developers, and software architecture reviewers in the domain of mission-critical real-time embedded systems, such as space mission flight software.

  8. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  9. Influence of special attributes of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures on design and operation of vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapaksha, Leelananda

    2007-01-01

    The use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures introduces a number of novel issues that affect the established design and operational practices of vapour compression systems used in refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump applications. Two attributes; composition shift and temperature glide, associated with the phase changing process of zeotropic mixtures are the primary phenomena that bring in these issues. However, relevant researches are uncovering ways how careful system designs and selection of operational parameters allow improving the energy efficiency and the capacity of vapour compression refrigeration systems. Most of these concepts exploit the presence of composition shift and temperature glide. This paper qualitatively discusses how the mixture attributes influence the established heat exchanger design practices, performance and operation of conventional vapour compression systems. How the temperature glide and composition shift can be incorporated to improve the system performance and the efficiency are also discussed

  10. Data Citation in Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices for Data Identification and Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honor, Leah B; Haselgrove, Christian; Frazier, Jean A; Kennedy, David N

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and a standardized metadata schema into a XNAT-based repository workflow, allowing for identification of data at both the project and image level. These item and source level identifiers allow any newly defined combination of images, from any number of projects, to be tagged with a new group-level DOI that automatically inherits the individual attributes and provenance information of its constituent parts. This system enables the tracking of data reuse down to the level of individual images. The implementation of this type of data identification system would impact researchers and data creators, data hosting facilities, and data publishers, but the benefit of having widely accepted standards for data identification and attribution would go far toward making data citation practical and advantageous.

  11. Data Citation in Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices for Data Identification and Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah B. Honor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources, while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI and a standardized metadata schema into a XNAT-based repository workflow, allowing for identification of data at both the project and image level. These item and source level identifiers allow any newly defined combination of images, from any number of projects, to be tagged with a new group-level DOI that automatically inherits the individual attributes and provenance information of its constituent parts. This system enables the tracking of data reuse, down to the level of individual images. The implementation of this type of data identification system would impact researchers and data creators, data hosting facilities, and data publishers, but the benefit of having widely accepted standards for data identification and attribution would go far towards making data citation practical and advantageous.

  12. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  14. Team composition and chronic disease management within primary healthcare practices in eastern Ontario: an application of the Measuring Organizational Attributes of Primary Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukewich, Julia; Edge, Dana S; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Williamson, Tyler; Tranmer, Joan

    2018-04-15

    Various organizational-level attributes are being implemented in primary healthcare to improve healthcare delivery. There is a need to describe the distribution and nature of these attributes and explore differences across practices.AimThe aim of this study was to better understand organizational attributes of primary care teams, focusing specifically on team composition, nursing roles, and strategies that support chronic disease management. We employed a cross-sectional survey design. Team composition, nursing roles, availability of health services, and chronic disease management activities were described using the 'Measuring Organizational Attributes of Primary Health Care Survey.'FindingsA total of 76% (n=26 out of 34) of practice locations completed the survey, including family health teams (FHT; n=21) and community health centers (CHC; n=4). Nurse practitioners (NPs) and registered nurses (RNs) were the most common non-physician providers, and CHCs had a greater proportion of non-physician providers than FHTs. There was overlap in roles performed by NPs and RNs, and registered practical nurses engaged in fewer roles compared with NPs and RNs. A greater proportion of FHTs had systematic chronic disease management services for hypertension, depression and Alzheimer's disease compared with CHC practices. The 'Measuring Organizational Attributes of Primary Health Care Survey' was a useful tool to highlight variability in organizational attributes across PHC practices. Nurses are prominent within PHC practices, engaging in a wide range of roles related to chronic disease management, suggesting a need to better understand their contributions to patient care to optimize their roles.

  15. Causal attributions of cleft lip and palate across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Lauren; Snyder, Julie; Schook, Carolyn; Blood, Emily A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Weatherley-White, R C A

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To describe and compare the causal beliefs associated with cleft lips and/or palates across several different countries. Design : Cross-sectional survey. Setting : Operation Smile surgery screenings in six developing countries. Participants : Two hundred seventy-nine adult patients and parents of children with cleft lips and/or palates in Kenya, Russia, Cambodia, India, Egypt, and Peru. Interventions : In person interviews were conducted with interpreters. Main Outcome Measure : As part of a larger study, a semistructured questionnaire was created to explore cleft perceptions, belief systems that affect these perceptions, and social reactions to individuals with clefts. Results : Causal attributions were grouped by category (environment, self-blame, supernatural, chance, unknown, or other) and type of locus of control (external, internal, or unknown). Results indicate significant difference by country for both causal attribution category (P < .001) and type (P < .001). This difference was maintained in multivariate analyses, which controlled for differences by demographic variables between countries. Conclusions : This study provides evidence that causal attributions for clefts are influenced by culture. As harmful beliefs about cause may continue to impact affected individuals and their families even after a repair, it is insufficient to provide surgical care alone. Care of the entire person must include attempts to change misinformed cultural beliefs through educating the broader community.

  16. Measuring and managing health system performance: An update from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Linda Maree; Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim

    2017-08-01

    In July 2016, New Zealand introduced a new approach to measuring and monitoring health system performance. This 'Systems Level Measure Framework' (SLMF) has evolved from the Integrated Performance and Incentive Framework (IPIF) previously reported in this journal. The SLMF is designed to stimulate a 'whole of system' approach that requires inter-organisational collaboration. Local 'Alliances' between government and non-government health sector organisations are responsible for planning and achieving improved health system outcomes such as reducing ambulatory sensitive hospitalisation for young children, and reducing acute hospital bed days. It marks a shift from the previous regime of output and process targets, and from a pay-for-performance approach to primary care. Some elements of the earlier IPIF proposal, such as general practice quality measures, and tiered levels of performance, were not included in the SLM framework. The focus on health system outcomes demonstrates policy commitment to effective integration of health services. However, there remain considerable challenges to successful implementation. An outcomes framework makes it challenging to attribute changes in outcomes to organisational and collaborative strategies. At the local level, the strength and functioning of collaborative relationships between organisations vary considerably. The extent and pace of change may also be constrained by existing funding arrangements in the health system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Social attribution in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Hambrook, David; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2018-05-01

    People with anorexia nervosa (AN) report socioemotional difficulties; however, measurement has been criticised for lacking ecological validity and the state or trait nature of difficulties remains unclear. Participants (n = 122) were recruited across 3 groups: people who are currently ill with AN (n = 40); people who recovered (RecAN, n = 18); healthy-control participants (n = 64). Participants completed clinical questionnaires and the Social Attribution Task. The Social Attribution Task involves describing an animation of moving shapes, scored for number of propositions offered, accuracy, and social relevance. Groups were compared cross-sectionally. Those with current AN were assessed prepsychological and postpsychological treatments. People with AN provided fewer propositions than other groups and fewer salient social attributions than healthy-control participants. Those who recovered scored intermediately and not significantly different from either group. Following treatment, people with AN demonstrated (nonsignificant) improvements, and no significance between group differences were observed. Findings suggest difficulties for people with AN in providing spontaneous social narrative and in identifying social salience. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Uncertain multi-attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces methods for uncertain multi-attribute decision making including uncertain multi-attribute group decision making and their applications to supply chain management, investment decision making, personnel assessment, redesigning products, maintenance services, military system efficiency evaluation. Multi-attribute decision making, also known as multi-objective decision making with finite alternatives, is an important component of modern decision science. The theory and methods of multi-attribute decision making have been extensively applied in engineering, economics, management and military contexts, such as venture capital project evaluation, facility location, bidding, development ranking of industrial sectors and so on. Over the last few decades, great attention has been paid to research on multi-attribute decision making in uncertain settings, due to the increasing complexity and uncertainty of supposedly objective aspects and the fuzziness of human thought. This book can be used as a ref...

  19. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  20. Analytic Hierarchy Process & Multi Attribute Utility Theory Based Approach for the Selection of Lighting Systems in Residential Buildings: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Alshamrani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach developed for selecting lighting systems in residential buildings using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Multi Criteria Decision Making Technique (MCDMT. The developed approach considers four selection criteria of lighting systems: life-cycle cost, illumination, environmental performance, and life-span. The criteria of selection, along with the most widely used lighting systems in residential buildings, were determined through questionnaire surveys with suppliers, maintenance managers, and lighting experts. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi Attribute Utility Theory were utilized to assess the significant influence of the identified main and sub-criteria on the selection process, from the design point of view. The developed approach was tested on a real case project in selecting the lighting system for aresidential building in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results show that the life-cycle cost and illumination proprieties, followed by the service life were found to be the most influential measures in the selection process. The results also show that Light-Emitting Diode(LED lighting systems prove to bear the highest initial cost while sustaining the best overall performance.

  1. Searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Zhao, Duqiao; Zhang, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    Attribute based encryption (ABE) is a good way to achieve flexible and secure access control to data, and attribute revocation is the extension of the attribute-based encryption, and the keyword search is an indispensable part for cloud storage. The combination of both has an important application in the cloud storage. In this paper, we construct a searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage, the keyword search in our scheme is attribute based with access control, when the search succeeds, the cloud server returns the corresponding cipher text to user and the user can decrypt the cipher text definitely. Besides, our scheme supports multiple keywords search, which makes the scheme more practical. Under the assumption of decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman exponent (q-BDHE) and decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) in the selective security model, we prove that our scheme is secure.

  2. Clustering with Instance and Attribute Level Side Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a suitable proximity measure is one of the fundamental tasks in clustering. How to effectively utilize all available side information, including the instance level information in the form of pair-wise constraints, and the attribute level information in the form of attribute order preferences, is an essential problem in metric learning. In this paper, we propose a learning framework in which both the pair-wise constraints and the attribute order preferences can be incorporated simultaneously. The theory behind it and the related parameter adjusting technique have been described in details. Experimental results on benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  3. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  4. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  5. Changing US Attributes After CS-US Pairings Changes CS-Attribute-Assessments: Evidence for CS-US Associations in Attribute Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Attribute Conditioning (AC) refers to people's changed assessments of stimuli's (CSs) attributes due to repeated pairing with stimuli (USs) possessing these attributes; for example, when an athletic person (US) is paired with a neutral person (CS), the neutral person is judged to be more athletic after the pairing. We hypothesize that this AC effect is due to CSs' associations with USs rather than direct associations with attributes. Three experiments test this hypothesis by changing US attributes after CS-US pairings. Experiments 1 and 2 conditioned athleticism by pairing neutral men (CSs) with athletic and non-athletic USs. Post-conditioning, USs' athleticism was reversed, which systematically influenced participants' assessment of CS athleticism. Experiment 3 conditioned athleticism and changed USs' musicality after CS-US pairings. This post-conditioning change affected musicality assessments of CSs but did not influence athleticism-assessments. The results indicate that AC effects are based on an associative CS-US-attribute structure. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. AVNG system objectives and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macarthur, Duncan W.; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ( 240 Pu to 239 Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  7. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we...... on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...

  8. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and lack of sanitation and hygiene in South Africa in 2000. ... Disease burden from diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis, measured by deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. 13 434 deaths were attributable to unsafe ...

  9. [Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination among mapuche patients and discontinuation of diabetes care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Manuel S; Baeza-Rivera, María José; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Flynn, Patricia; Betancourt, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    The negative impact of perceived discrimination on health outcomes is well established. However, less attention has been directed towards understanding the effect of perceived discrimination on health behaviors relevant for the treatment of diabetes in ethnic minorities. To examine the effects of healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination on the continuity of Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) care among mapuche patients in a southern region of Chile. A non-probabilistic sample of 85 mapuche DM2 patients were recruited from public and private health systems. Eligibility criteria included having experienced at least one incident of interpersonal healthcare mistreatment. All participants answered an instrument designed to measure healthcare mistreatment and continuity of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to ethnic discrimination was associated with the discontinuation of diabetes care. Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination negatively impacted the continuity of diabetes care, a fact which may provide a better understanding of health disparities in ethnic minorities.

  10. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  11. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Based on Surveillance Attributes in RSU Haji Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spica Redina Vebrilian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance system is instrumental in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infection. The implementation of this surveillance system is necessary in the hospital. Surveillance CAUTI is one of the focus prevention and infection control program in RSU Haji Surabaya 2015. The success of surveillance system highly depends on the association of attributes inside it. Surveillance attributes are indicator that describes the characteristics ofsurveillance system. In 2015, there was a delay in the collection of data reports which exceeds the prescribed time limit and there was also a lot of blank space in the confi rmation sheet. It affects the surveillance system in RSU Haji Surabaya. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the surveillance CAUTI based on the surveillance attributes in RSU Haji Surabaya2015. This research is a descriptive evaluative research. Subjects in this study are the surveillance attributes (simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data quality, and stability CAUTI in RSU Haji Surabaya, while survey respondents are IPCN, IPCLN, and head nurse. Data collected by interview and documentation study. The results showed that the attributes of surveillance is already has simplicity, high acceptability, high sensitivity, high positive predictive value, representative, and high stability. However, other attributes were not fl exible, not timeliness, and has a low data quality. Alternative solutions that can be done are to improve the regulatory function in every unit, establish standardization of hospital data, and manage reward and punishment system. Keywords: surveillance system, surveillance attributes, evaluation, nosocomial infections, CAUTI

  12. Therapists' causal attributions of clients' problems and selection of intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, W S; Muehlke, C V

    1991-04-01

    Therapists' choices of intervention strategies are influenced by many factors, including judgments about the bases of clients' problems. To assess the relationships between such causal attributions and the selection of intervention strategies, 196 counselors, psychologists, and social workers responded to the written transcript of a client's interview by answering two questionnaires, a 1982 scale (Causal Dimension Scale by Russell) which measured causal attribution of the client's problem, and another which measured preference for emotional, rational, and active intervention strategies in dealing with the client, based on the 1979 E-R-A taxonomy of Frey and Raming. A significant relationship was found between the two sets of variables, with internal attributions linked to rational intervention strategies and stable attributions linked to active strategies. The results support Halleck's 1978 hypothesis that theories of psychotherapy tie interventions to etiological considerations.

  13. The moderating role of objective and subjective numeracy in attribute framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has found that objective numeracy moderates framing effects: People who are less numerate were found to be more susceptible to goal-framing and attribute-framing effects than people who are highly numerate. This study examined the possibility that subjective numeracy likewise moderates attribute framing in contexts where participants are presented with percentages of success or failure. The results show that compared with highly numerate participants, less numerate participants were more susceptible to the effect of attribute framing. Interestingly, this moderating effect was revealed only when using objective numeracy measures, and not when subjective numeracy measures were used. Future research is suggested to replicate these findings, to establish the generalizability of numeracy as a moderator of other cognitive biases, and to examine several possible theoretical explanations for the differential moderation of attribute-framing bias. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Social distance and behavioral attributes of developmentally handicapped and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, L W; Burgess, D E

    1985-12-01

    20 behavioral attributes predicting social distance were examined among 101 junior high school students in six classrooms. The sample included 8 developmentally handicapped students, of whom at least one of each was mainstreamed into each classroom. Subjects were predominantly white, middle-class, suburban midwesterners. A sociometric nomination measure was used to obtain behavioral attribute profiles of the students which were then used to predict a psychometric measure of social distance. Handicapped students were not more socially distant than their normal peers. Factor analysis of the 20 behavioral attributes yielded four factors, three of which were significant predictors of classroom social distance, accounting for better than half the variance in social distance. These were described as Incompetent/Unassertive, Positive/Active/Assertive, and Passive/Unassertive. Social rejection in mainstreamed classrooms is more a function of perceived behavioral attributes than the label developmentally handicapped.

  15. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  17. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II and anxiety (BAI. Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  18. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Danny J; O'Sullivan, Maura E; O'Connell, Brendan D; O'Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  19. Modeling Psychological Attributes in Psychology – An Epistemological Discussion: Network Analysis vs. Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno; Kop, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Network Analysis is considered as a new method that challenges Latent Variable models in inferring psychological attributes. With Network Analysis, psychological attributes are derived from a complex system of components without the need to call on any latent variables. But the ontological status of psychological attributes is not adequately defined with Network Analysis, because a psychological attribute is both a complex system and a property emerging from this complex system. The aim of this article is to reappraise the legitimacy of latent variable models by engaging in an ontological and epistemological discussion on psychological attributes. Psychological attributes relate to the mental equilibrium of individuals embedded in their social interactions, as robust attractors within complex dynamic processes with emergent properties, distinct from physical entities located in precise areas of the brain. Latent variables thus possess legitimacy, because the emergent properties can be conceptualized and analyzed on the sole basis of their manifestations, without exploring the upstream complex system. However, in opposition with the usual Latent Variable models, this article is in favor of the integration of a dynamic system of manifestations. Latent Variables models and Network Analysis thus appear as complementary approaches. New approaches combining Latent Network Models and Network Residuals are certainly a promising new way to infer psychological attributes, placing psychological attributes in an inter-subjective dynamic approach. Pragmatism-realism appears as the epistemological framework required if we are to use latent variables as representations of psychological attributes. PMID:28572780

  20. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2017-07-25

    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  1. Architectural patterns and quality attributes interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Me, G.; Calero Munoz, C.; Lago, P.; Muccini, H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural patterns and styles represent common solutions to recurrent problems. They encompass architectural knowledge about how to achieve holistic system quality. The relation between patterns (or styles) and quality attributes has been regularly addressed in the literature. However, there is

  2. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  3. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  5. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, A.; Beach, M.; Newby, R.J.; Fabris, L.; Heilbronn, L.H.; Hayward, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m 2 system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric

  6. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, A.; Beach, M.; Newby, R. J.; Fabris, L.; Heilbronn, L. H.; Hayward, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m2 system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric.

  7. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, A., E-mail: aiyengar@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Beach, M. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Newby, R.J.; Fabris, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heilbronn, L.H. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hayward, J.P. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m{sup 2} system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric.

  8. Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed AAMA Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open and growth stages (flowering and seed setting. Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF and Dry matter yield (DM had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 332-343

  9. SCOPE – An Integrated Framework for Multi-Attribute Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    2004-01-01

    that are supported by a methodology of both a systemic and a systematic type. Specific use is made of operational research methods such as critical systems heuristics, scenario technique, stakeholder analysis and multi‐attribute decision making (MADM). To deal with issues of complexity and ambiguity, planning......This article presents an integrated framework for multi‐attribute decision making named SCOPE (System for Combined Planning and Evaluation) that was developed to assess infrastructure policy initiatives—in complex decision environments. The framework comprises scanning as well as assessment issues...

  10. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co......-products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes...... the pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  11. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2013-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data. Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes. Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability. Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  12. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  13. Psychological Attributes in Foreign Language Reading: An Explorative Study of Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hitoshi; Leung, Chi Yui; Yoshikawa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the internal structure of psychological attributes (i.e., motivation, belief and emotion) related to foreign language reading (FLR) (hereafter FLR attributes) and checks the utility of existing FLR attribute measurements for the specific learner group (i.e., Japanese university students studying English as their foreign…

  14. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of one-axis vibration test system for measurement of biodynamic response of human hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hosoya, Naoki; Maeda, Setsuo

    2008-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) due to use of hand-held power tools leads to an increased occurrence of symptoms of disorders in the vascular, neurological, and osteo-articular systems of the upper limbs called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system to vibration can be suggestive parameters that give us better assessment of exposure to HAV and fundamental data for design of low-vibration-exposure power tools. Recently, a single axis hand-arm vibration system has been installed in the Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The aims of this study were to obtain the fundamental dynamic characteristics of an instrumented handle and to validate the performance and measurement accuracy of the system applied to dynamic response measurement. A pseudo-random vibration signal with a frequency range of 5-1,250 Hz and a power spectrum density of 1.0 (m/s2)2/Hz was used in this study. First the dynamic response of the instrumented handle without any weight was measured. After this measurement, the dynamic response measurement of the handle with weights mounted on the handle was performed. The apparent mass of a weight itself was obtained by using the mass cancellation method. The mass of the measuring cap on the instrumented handle was well compensated by using the mass cancellation method. Based on the 10% error tolerance, this handle can reliably measure the dynamic response represented by an apparent mass with a minimum weight of 2.0 g in a frequency range of 10.0 to 1,000 Hz. A marked increase in the AM magnitude of the weights of 15 g and 20 g in frequency ranges greater than 800 Hz is attributed not to the fundamental resonance frequency of the handle with weights, but to the fixation of the weight to the measuring cap. In this aspect, the peak of the AM magnitude can be reduced and hence should not be an obstacle to the biodynamic response measurement of the human hand-arm system. On the

  16. Development of the multi-attribute Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beusterien Kathleen M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Obtain utilities (preferences for a generalizable set of health states experienced by older children and adolescents who receive therapy for chronic health conditions. Methods A health state classification system, the Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM, was developed based on generic health status measures and input from children with Hunter syndrome and their caregivers. The AHUM contains six dimensions with 4–7 severity levels: self-care, pain, mobility, strenuous activities, self-image, and health perceptions. Using the time trade off (TTO approach, a UK population sample provided utilities for 62 of 16,800 AHUM states. A mixed effects model was used to estimate utilities for the AHUM states. The AHUM was applied to trial NCT00069641 of idursulfase for Hunter syndrome and its extension (NCT00630747. Results Observations (i.e., utilities totaled 3,744 (12*312 participants, with between 43 to 60 for each health state except for the best and worst states which had 312 observations. The mean utilities for the best and worst AHUM states were 0.99 and 0.41, respectively. The random effects model was statistically significant (p  Discussion The AHUM health state classification system may be used in future research to enable calculation of quality-adjust life expectancy for applicable health conditions.

  17. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  18. Personal attributes influencing school burnout among graduating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires administered on participants contained scales that measured school burnout, academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age. The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result ...

  19. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  20. Multi-attribute risk assessment for risk ranking of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.J.; Almeida, A.T. de

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a decision model for risk assessment and for risk ranking of sections of natural gas pipelines based on multi-attribute utility theory. Pipeline hazard scenarios are surveyed and the reasons for a risk assessment model based on a multi-attribute approach are presented. Three dimensions of impact and the need to translate decision-makers' preferences into risk management decisions are highlighted. The model approaches these factors by using a multi-attribute utility function, in order to produce multi-dimensional risk measurements. By using decision analysis concepts, this model quantitatively incorporates the decision-maker's preferences and behavior regarding risk within clear and consistent risk measurements. In order to support the prioritizing of critical sections of pipeline in natural gas companies, this multi-attribute model also allows sections of pipeline to be ranked into a risk hierarchy. A numerical application based on a real case study was undertaken so that the effectiveness of the decision model could be verified

  1. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify ... attributes, organisational resources, organisational openness to change, and internal and external pressures for .... munity engagement and marketing activities also may have enhanced treatment ...

  2. A keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Yaling

    2018-01-01

    Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme is a new type of data encryption primitive, which is very suitable for data cloud storage for its fine-grained access control. Keyword-based searchable encryption scheme enables users to quickly find interesting data stored in the cloud server without revealing any information of the searched keywords. In this work, we provide a keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage, which is a combination of attribute-based encryption scheme and keyword searchable encryption scheme. The new scheme supports the user's attribute update, especially in our new scheme when a user's attribute need to be updated, only the user's secret key related with the attribute need to be updated, while other user's secret key and the ciphertexts related with this attribute need not to be updated with the help of the cloud server. In addition, we outsource the operation with high computation cost to cloud server to reduce the user's computational burden. Moreover, our scheme is proven to be semantic security against chosen ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack in the general bilinear group model. And our scheme is also proven to be semantic security against chosen keyword attack under bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption.

  3. Detection and Attribution of Anthropogenic Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Neofotis, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human-influenced climate change is an observed phenomenon affecting physical and biological systems across the globe. The majority of observed impacts are related to temperature changes and are located in the northern high- and midlatitudes. However, new evidence is emerging that demonstrates that impacts are related to precipitation changes as well as temperature, and that climate change is impacting systems and sectors beyond the Northern Hemisphere. In this paper, we highlight some of this new evidence-focusing on regions and sectors that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) noted as under-represented-in the context of observed climate change impacts, direct and indirect drivers of change (including carbon dioxide itself), and methods of detection. We also present methods and studies attributing observed impacts to anthropogenic forcing. We argue that the expansion of methods of detection (in terms of a broader array of climate variables and data sources, inclusion of the major modes of climate variability, and incorporation of other drivers of change) is key to discerning the climate sensitivities of sectors and systems in regions where the impacts of climate change currently remain elusive. Attributing such changes to human forcing of the climate system, where possible, is important for development of effective mitigation and adaptation. Current challenges in documenting adaptation and the role of indigenous knowledge in detection and attribution are described.

  4. Identifying attributes of food literacy: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Perry, Elsie; Thomas, Heather; Samra, H Ruby; Edmonstone, Shannon; Davidson, Lyndsay; Faulkner, Amy; Petermann, Lisa; Manafò, Elizabeth; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I

    2017-09-01

    An absence of food literacy measurement tools makes it challenging for nutrition practitioners to assess the impact of food literacy on healthy diets and to evaluate the outcomes of food literacy interventions. The objective of the present scoping review was to identify the attributes of food literacy. A scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted and attributes of food literacy identified. Subjects included in the search were high-risk groups. Eligible articles were limited to research from Canada, USA, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The search identified nineteen peer-reviewed and thirty grey literature sources. Fifteen identified food literacy attributes were organized into five categories. Food and Nutrition Knowledge informs decisions about intake and distinguishing between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods. Food Skills focuses on techniques of food purchasing, preparation, handling and storage. Self-Efficacy and Confidence represent one's capacity to perform successfully in specific situations. Ecologic refers to beyond self and the interaction of macro- and microsystems with food decisions and behaviours. Food Decisions reflects the application of knowledge, information and skills to make food choices. These interdependent attributes are depicted in a proposed conceptual model. The lack of evaluated tools inhibits the ability to assess and monitor food literacy; tailor, target and evaluate programmes; identify gaps in programming; engage in advocacy; and allocate resources. The present scoping review provides the foundation for the development of a food literacy measurement tool to address these gaps.

  5. Is the Speech Transmission Index (STI) a robust measure of sound system speech intelligibility performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Although RaSTI is a good indicator of the speech intelligibility capability of auditoria and similar spaces, during the past 2-3 years it has been shown that RaSTI is not a robust predictor of sound system intelligibility performance. Instead, it is now recommended, within both national and international codes and standards, that full STI measurement and analysis be employed. However, new research is reported, that indicates that STI is not as flawless, nor robust as many believe. The paper highlights a number of potential error mechanisms. It is shown that the measurement technique and signal excitation stimulus can have a significant effect on the overall result and accuracy, particularly where DSP-based equipment is employed. It is also shown that in its current state of development, STI is not capable of appropriately accounting for a number of fundamental speech and system attributes, including typical sound system frequency response variations and anomalies. This is particularly shown to be the case when a system is operating under reverberant conditions. Comparisons between actual system measurements and corresponding word score data are reported where errors of up to 50 implications for VA and PA system performance verification will be discussed.

  6. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes.

  7. Quality Model Based on Cots Quality Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad Alkhateeb; Khaled Musa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of software is essential to corporations in making their commercial software. Good or poorquality to software plays an important role to some systems such as embedded systems, real-time systems,and control systems that play an important aspect in human life. Software products or commercial off theshelf software are usually programmed based on a software quality model. In the software engineeringfield, each quality model contains a set of attributes or characteristics that drives i...

  8. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  9. The “Depressive” Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the “depressive attributional style.” Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism’s view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the “depressive” attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all.

  10. Organizational Attributes Associated With Medicare ACO Quality Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Mueller, Keith; Huang, Huang; Ullrich, Fred; Vaughn, Thomas; MacKinney, A Clinton

    2018-05-08

    To evaluate associations between geographic, structural, and service-provision attributes of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) and the ACOs' quality performance. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of ACO quality performance using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and additional sources. The sample included 322 and 385 MSSP ACOs that had successfully reported quality measures in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Results show that after adjusting for other organizational factors, rural ACOs' average quality score was comparable to that of ACOs serving other geographic categories. ACOs with hospital-system sponsorship, larger beneficiary panels, and higher posthospitalization follow-up rates achieved better quality performance. There is no significant difference in average quality performance between rural ACOs and other ACOs after adjusting for structural and service-provision factors. MSSP ACO quality performance is positively associated with hospital-system sponsorship, beneficiary panel size, and posthospitalization follow-up rate. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Use of on-ground gamma-ray spectrometry to measure plant-available potassium and other topsoil attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.T.F.; Harper, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of potassium (K) deficiency is increasing in crops, pastures, and forestry in south-western Australia. Although soil K can be measured using soil sampling and analysis, γ-ray spectrometry offers a potentially cheaper and spatially more precise alternative. This could be particularly useful in precision agriculture, where inputs are applied according to need rather than by general prescription. In a study of topsoils near Jerramungup, Western Australia, strong relationships (r 2 = 0.9) were found between on-ground counts of γ-rays derived from 40 K (γ-K) and both total K and plant-available K. The success of γ-ray spectrometry in predicting available K relied on a strong relationship (r 2 0.9) between total K and available K which may not hold in all areas. Although the relationship between γ-K and available K held over the range of 36-1012 mg/kg, crop response to K fertilisers is only expected when the available K content is 2 = 0.9) were also found between γ-K and a range of other soil attributes, including clay, silt, and organic carbon content. These relationships depended on the locally strong relationship between total K and these soil attributes. Since such relationships do not hold everywhere, the utility of γ-ray spectrometry will likewise be limited. Site-specific calibrations are required if γ-ray spectrometry is to be used for soil property mapping. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Publishing

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ATTRIBUTES GEOSTRATEGIC HEGEMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bohan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern aspects of manifestation geostrategic hegemony in the context of its environmental and safety attributes that determine the appearance of new determinants of economic development and progress of the world. Specificity of the geopolitical sphere in the context of a retrospective and prospects of development of civilization, which requires the use of new system-methodological approaches to its study. Defined mechanisms to enhance the status of the hegemon, which by their nature are accompanied by threats and challenges of globalization and conflict-military factors in the fight for resources and ecological imbalance in the world. The space competition geopolitical actors are increasingly extended to third countries, thus causing their economic instability, environmental vulnerability and permanent conflict. The factors, causes and conditions for the identification of new measurements geostrategic hegemony, which can affect the configuration of world order, the balance of economic power and the establishment of constructive international dialogue aimed at security, sustainable development and well-being of all mankind.

  13. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  14. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  15. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  16. Range and nummer-of-levels effects in derived and stated attribute importances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Wittink, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  17. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  18. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  19. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  20. Recognizing and Imitating Programmer Style: Adversaries in Program Authorship Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simko Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source code attribution classifiers have recently become powerful. We consider the possibility that an adversary could craft code with the intention of causing a misclassification, i.e., creating a forgery of another author’s programming style in order to hide the forger’s own identity or blame the other author. We find that it is possible for a non-expert adversary to defeat such a system. In order to inform the design of adversarially resistant source code attribution classifiers, we conduct two studies with C/C++ programmers to explore the potential tactics and capabilities both of such adversaries and, conversely, of human analysts doing source code authorship attribution. Through the quantitative and qualitative analysis of these studies, we (1 evaluate a state-of-the-art machine classifier against forgeries, (2 evaluate programmers as human analysts/forgery detectors, and (3 compile a set of modifications made to create forgeries. Based on our analyses, we then suggest features that future source code attribution systems might incorporate in order to be adversarially resistant.

  1. A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qiang; Yang Ze-Ming; Liu Bao-Xu; Jiang Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain a...

  2. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... world data from Danish secondary school students show 84% prediction accuracy when using all available material and 71.9% prediction accuracy when using only the five most recent writing samples from each student....

  3. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  4. Evolvability as a Quality Attribute of Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Duchien, Laurence; D'Hondt, Maja; Mens, Tom

    We review the definition of evolvability as it appears on the literature. In particular, the concept of software evolvability is compared with other system quality attributes, such as adaptability, maintainability and modifiability.

  5. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Ligon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order. The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events. Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05 differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks.

  6. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  7. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Alasdair J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ferreira, Summer Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This Protocol provides a set of “best practices” for characterizing energy storage systems (ESSs) and measuring and reporting their performance. It serves as a basis for assessing how an ESS will perform with respect to key performance attributes relevant to different applications. It is intended to provide a valid and accurate basis for the comparison of different ESSs. By achieving the stated purpose, the Protocol will enable more informed decision-making in the selection of ESSs for various stationary applications. The Protocol identifies general information and technical specifications relevant in describing an ESS and also defines a set of test, measurement, and evaluation criteria with which to express the performance of ESSs that are intended for energy-intensive and/or power-intensive stationary applications. An ESS includes a storage device, battery management system, and any power conversion systems installed with the storage device. The Protocol is agnostic with respect to the storage technology and the size and rating of the ESS. The Protocol does not apply to single-use storage devices and storage devices that are not coupled with power conversion systems, nor does it address safety, security, or operations and maintenance of ESSs, or provide any pass/fail criteria.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Hearing Aid Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataille, Angela T.; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson’s Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods—a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale. PMID:22514094

  9. The adoption of domestic solar-power systems: Do consumers assess product attributes in a stepwise process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles; Cook, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of an innovation is partly dependent on the consumers' perception of the product attributes, starting with the 'relative advantage' a product may have over another existing product, and also include issues of compatibility, complexity, observability and trialability. Using diffusion of innovations theory as a conceptual framework, this paper describes a case study that investigated the innovation adoption process that a group of identified potential adopters of domestic solar thermal systems stated they would follow. Data was generated from the results of a postal survey to a group of 43 defined innovators and a group of 350 assumed 'early majority', pragmatic consumers. The survey results showed that while the pragmatic customers did follow the process as theorised in diffusion theory, the innovators disregarded the observability attributes of the innovation and went ahead with implementation without having seen the products beforehand. The group of innovators was also split in their opinion that 'complexity' may be a limiting factor. There were differences in the pragmatic group between certain demographic sub groups. Conclusions are drawn on how the findings may impact marketing activities

  10. Source attribution of Arctic black carbon constrained by aircraft and surface measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC contributes to Arctic warming, yet sources of Arctic BC and their geographic contributions remain uncertain. We interpret a series of recent airborne (NETCARE 2015; PAMARCMiP 2009 and 2011 campaigns and ground-based measurements (at Alert, Barrow and Ny-Ålesund from multiple methods (thermal, laser incandescence and light absorption with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model and its adjoint to attribute the sources of Arctic BC. This is the first comparison with a chemical transport model of refractory BC (rBC measurements at Alert. The springtime airborne measurements performed by the NETCARE campaign in 2015 and the PAMARCMiP campaigns in 2009 and 2011 offer BC vertical profiles extending to above 6 km across the Arctic and include profiles above Arctic ground monitoring stations. Our simulations with the addition of seasonally varying domestic heating and of gas flaring emissions are consistent with ground-based measurements of BC concentrations at Alert and Barrow in winter and spring (rRMSE  < 13 % and with airborne measurements of the BC vertical profile across the Arctic (rRMSE  = 17 % except for an underestimation in the middle troposphere (500–700 hPa.Sensitivity simulations suggest that anthropogenic emissions in eastern and southern Asia have the largest effect on the Arctic BC column burden both in spring (56 % and annually (37 %, with the largest contribution in the middle troposphere (400–700 hPa. Anthropogenic emissions from northern Asia contribute considerable BC (27 % in spring and 43 % annually to the lower troposphere (below 900 hPa. Biomass burning contributes 20 % to the Arctic BC column annually.At the Arctic surface, anthropogenic emissions from northern Asia (40–45 % and eastern and southern Asia (20–40 % are the largest BC contributors in winter and spring, followed by Europe (16–36 %. Biomass burning from North America is the most important

  11. Attributional style and depression in multiple sclerosis: the learned helplessness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Gray A; Arnett, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms.

  12. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Bell, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. Design The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers’ ratings. Results The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability. PMID:24358017

  13. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status

  14. From digital earth to digital neighbourhood: A study of subjective measures of walkability attributes in objectively assessed digital neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S; Ho, C S

    2014-01-01

    According to IEA report (2011), about 23% of the World's CO 2 emissions result from transport and this is one of the few areas where emissions are still rapidly increasing. The use of private vehicles is one of the principle contributors to green house gas emissions from transport sector. Therefore this paper focuses on the shift to more sustainable and low carbon forms of transportation mode such as walking. Neighbourhood built environment attributes may influence walkability. For this study, the author used a modified version of the ''Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale'' to make comparison between respondents' perceptions regarding attributes of two neighborhoods of Putrajaya. The 21st Century really needs planners to use the Digital Earth Concept, to go from global to regional to national to very local issues, using integrated, advanced technologies such as earth observation, GIS, virtual reality, etc. For this research, two (2) neighborhoods of different densities (High and Low density) were selected. A sample total of 381(195 and 186) between 7 to 65 years old participants were selected For subjective measures we used 54 questions questionnaire survey where as for the objective measures we used desktop 9.3 version of Arc GIS soft ware. Our results shows that respondents who reside in high-walkable neighbourhood precinct 9 in Putrajaya rated factors such as residential density, land use mix, proximity to destination and street connectivity, consistently higher then did respondents of the low walkable neighbourhood precinct 8 in Putrajaya

  15. Neural net generated seismic facies map and attribute facies map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addy, S.K.; Neri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of 'seismic facies maps' in the analysis of an Upper Wilcox channel system in a 3-D survey shot by CGG in 1995 in Lavaca county in south Texas was discussed. A neural net-generated seismic facies map is a quick hydrocarbon exploration tool that can be applied regionally as well as on a prospect scale. The new technology is used to classify a constant interval parallel to a horizon in a 3-D seismic volume based on the shape of the wiggle traces using a neural network technology. The tool makes it possible to interpret sedimentary features of a petroleum deposit. The same technology can be used in regional mapping by making 'attribute facies maps' in which various forms of amplitude attributes, phase attributes or frequency attributes can be used

  16. Lean leadership attributes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Teunissen, Maurits

    2017-10-09

    Purpose Emphasis on quality and reducing costs has led many health-care organizations to reconfigure their management, process, and quality control infrastructures. Many are lean, a management philosophy with roots in manufacturing industries that emphasizes elimination of waste. Successful lean implementation requires systemic change and strong leadership. Despite the importance of leadership to successful lean implementation, few researchers have probed the question of ideal leadership attributes to achieve lean thinking in health care. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into applicable attributes for lean leaders in health care. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically reviewed the literature on principles of leadership and, using Dombrowski and Mielke's (2013) conceptual model of lean leadership, developed a parallel theoretical model for lean leadership in health care. Findings This work contributes to the development of a new framework for describing leadership attributes within lean management of health care. Originality/value The summary of attributes can provide a model for health-care leaders to apply lean in their organizations.

  17. Analysis on Accuracy of Bias, Linearity and Stability of Measurement System in Ball screw Processes by Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure the quality characteristics of the product would likely be transformed through the whole manufacturing process. It is important to reduce the risk of Type I errors (acceptable goods are misjudged as defective parts and Type II errors (defective parts are misjudged as good parts. An ideal measuring system would have the statistical characteristic of zero error, but such a system could hardly exist. Hence, to maintain better control of the variance that might occur in the manufacturing process, MSA is necessary for better quality control. Ball screws, which are a key component in precision machines, have significant attributes with respect to positioning and transmitting. Failures of lead accuracy and axial-gap of a ball screw can cause negative and expensive effects in machine positioning accuracy. Consequently, a functional measurement system can incur great savings by detecting Type I and Type II errors. If the measurement system fails with respect to specification of the product, it will likely misjudge Type I and Type II errors. Inspectors normally follow the MSA regulations for accuracy measurement, but the choice of measuring system does not merely depend on some simple indices. In this paper, we examine the stability of a measuring system by using a Monte Carlo simulation to establish bias, linearity variance of the normal distribution, and the probability density function. Further, we forecast the possible area distribution in the real case. After the simulation, the measurement capability will be improved, which helps the user classify the measurement system and establish measurement regulations for better performance and monitoring of the precision of the ball screw.

  18. System Entropy Measurement of Stochastic Partial Differential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available System entropy describes the dispersal of a system’s energy and is an indication of the disorder of a physical system. Several system entropy measurement methods have been developed for dynamic systems. However, most real physical systems are always modeled using stochastic partial differential dynamic equations in the spatio-temporal domain. No efficient method currently exists that can calculate the system entropy of stochastic partial differential systems (SPDSs in consideration of the effects of intrinsic random fluctuation and compartment diffusion. In this study, a novel indirect measurement method is proposed for calculating of system entropy of SPDSs using a Hamilton–Jacobi integral inequality (HJII-constrained optimization method. In other words, we solve a nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for measuring the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs. To simplify the system entropy measurement of NSPDSs, the global linearization technique and finite difference scheme were employed to approximate the nonlinear stochastic spatial state space system. This allows the nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for the system entropy measurement to be transformed to an equivalent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs-constrained optimization problem, which can be easily solved using the MATLAB LMI-toolbox (MATLAB R2014a, version 8.3. Finally, several examples are presented to illustrate the system entropy measurement of SPDSs.

  19. Research on Attribute Reduction in Hoisting Motor State Recognition of Quayside Container Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Tang, G.; Hu, X.

    2017-07-01

    In view of too many attributes in hoisting motor state recognition of quayside container crane. Attribute reduction method based on discernibility matrix is introduced to attribute reduction of lifting motor state information table. A method of attribute reduction based on the combination of rough set and genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with the hoisting motor state decision table. Under the condition that the information system's decision-making ability is unchanged, the redundant attribute is deleted. Which reduces the complexity and computation of the recognition process of the hoisting motor. It is possible to realize the fast state recognition.

  20. Development of a questionnaire to measure the key attributes of the community palliative care specialist nurse role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Dee; Johnston, Bridget

    2015-02-01

    Recent worldwide economic events have forced an examination of the nurse's contribution to high-quality, effective, person-centred care. Since the role of specialist nurses is considered one of the least understood or valued developments in nursing, specialist nurses must demonstrate their contribution to quality, person-centred health care. To develop a questionnaire which aims to measure the quality of care provided by palliative care specialist nurses from the patients' perspective and to undertake initial validation. The process of questionnaire development involved six phases including systematic literature reviews, patient advisory groups and expert panel reviews, each of which contributed to the questionnaire face and content validity. Johnston's Expert Palliative Care Nurse Model (2002; 2005) provided an evidence-based framework for the development of the questionnaire, and enabled the identification of the key attributes of the palliative care specialist nurse role, thereby providing the themes on which to base the questionnaire. The Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing, a questionnaire, was developed. The themes identified in the questionnaire--personal characteristics, communication skills, knowledge, relationship with patient and providing comfort--aim to facilitate measurement of the quality of care provided by palliative care specialist nurses. Designed for use by palliative patients the Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing is a one-page questionnaire comprising of 15 questions. The Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing is unique since it aims to measure the quality of care provided by community palliative care specialist nurses, and could also be used to measure patient satisfaction with the quality of care provided. Further testing is recommended to ensure that this questionnaire can provide reliable and valid results.

  1. Hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Ostrov, Jamie M; Houston, Rebecca J; Schlienz, Nicolas J

    2010-04-01

    This exploratory study investigates how hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations may be related to neurocognitive processing using the P300 event-related potential. Participants were 112 (45 women) emerging adults enrolled in a large, public university in upstate New York. Participants completed self-report measures on relational aggression and hostile attribution biases and performed an auditory perseveration task to elicit the P300. It was found that hostile attribution biases for relational provocation situations was associated with a larger P300 amplitude above and beyond the role of hostile attribution biases for instrumental situations, relational aggression, and gender. Larger P300 amplitude is interpreted to reflect greater allocation of cognitive resources or enhanced "attending" to salient stimuli. Implications for methodological approaches to studying aggression and hostile attribution biases and for theory are discussed, as well as implications for the fields of developmental psychology and psychopathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application in measurements of SKODA-OZES mobile measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grof, V.; Drab, F.; Icha, K.

    A mobile digital measuring system was built at SKODA - Energeticke strojirenstvi based on digital information system CIS 3000 with the ADT 4100 computer. The system can operate in the BCS or in the RTE-C mode. Two programs are briefly described written for the purpose of measurements. The following applications of the system were tried: testing the reactivity meter on the reactor model, demonstration measurement of the temperature of the medium and display of values on the monitor, measurement of the temperature of the lid of the pressure vessel of the WWER-440 reactor during overlaying and measurement and the adaptive control of band thickness on a KVARTO 200 rolling mill. The measurement system is expected to be used in nuclear power plants and experimental reactors. (M.D.)

  3. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  4. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  5. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  6. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  7. Attributed graph distance measure for automatic detection of attention deficit hyperactive disordered subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is getting a lot of attention recently for two reasons. First, it is one of the most commonly found childhood disorders and second, the root cause of the problem is still unknown. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data has become a popular tool for the analysis of ADHD, which is the focus of our current research. In this paper we propose a novel framework for the automatic classification of the ADHD subjects using their resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data of the brain. We construct brain functional connectivity networks for all the subjects. The nodes of the network are constructed with clusters of highly active voxels and edges between any pair of nodes represent the correlations between their average fMRI time series. The activity level of the voxels are measured based on the average power of their corresponding fMRI time-series. For each node of the networks, a local descriptor comprising of a set of attributes of the node is computed. Next, the Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) technique is used to project all the subjects from the unknown graph-space to a low dimensional space based on their inter-graph distance measures. Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used on the low dimensional projected space for automatic classification of the ADHD subjects. Exhaustive experimental validation of the proposed method is performed using the data set released for the ADHD-200 competition. Our method shows promise as we achieve impressive classification accuracies on the training (70.49%) and test data sets (73.55%). Our results reveal that the detection rates are higher when classification is performed separately on the male and female groups of subjects.

  8. Attributed graph distance measure for automatic detection of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disordered subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyabrata eDey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD is getting a lot of attention recently for two reasons. First, it is one of the most commonly found childhood disorders and second, the root cause of the problem is still unknown. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data has become a popular tool for the analysis of ADHD, which is the focus of our current research. In this paper we propose a novel framework for the automatic classification of the ADHD subjects using their resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI data of the brain. We construct brain functional connectivity networks for all the subjects. The nodes of the network are constructed with clusters of highly active voxels and edges between any pair of nodes represent the correlations between their average fMRI time series. The activity level of the voxels are measured based on the average power of their corresponding fMRI time-series. For each node of the networks, a local descriptor comprising of a set of attributes of the node is computed. Next, the Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS technique is used to project all the subjects from the unknown graph-space to a low dimensional space based on their inter-graph distance measures. Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier is used on the low dimensional projected space for automatic classification of the ADHD subjects. Exhaustive experimental validation of the proposed method is performed using the data set released for the ADHD-200 competition. Our method shows promise as we achieve impressive classification accuracies on the training (70.49% and test data sets (73.55%. Our results reveal that the detection rates are higher when classification is performed separately on the male and female groups of subjects.

  9. Toward an Automated Labeling of Event Log Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbad Andaloussi, Amine; Burattin, Andrea; Weber, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    information systems often do not comply with the required maturity level, since they lack the notion of process instance, also referred in process mining as “case id”. Without a proper identification of the case id attribute in log files, the outcome of process mining algorithms is unpredictable. This paper...... proposes a new approach that aims to overcome this challenge by automatically inferring the case id attribute from log files. The approach has been implemented as a ProM plugin and evaluated with several real-world event logs. The results demonstrate a high accuracy in inferring the case id attribute.......Process mining aims at exploring the data produced by executable business processes to mine the underlying control-flow and dataflow. Most of the process mining algorithms assume the existence of an event log with a certain maturity level. Unfortunately, the logs provided by process unaware...

  10. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  11. The effects of self-handicapping on attributions and perceived judo competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Simon; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hypotheses derived from Jones and Berglas's (1978) self-handicapping model. It was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more internal attributions and report greater gains in perceived judo ability following success than individuals using few self-handicaps. In addition, it was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more external attributions and report less reduction in perceived judo ability following failure. Fifty-three judo players completed measures of trait self-handicapping, situational self-handicapping and a measure of perceived judo ability before competition. Following competition, the participants completed the Causal Dimension Scale II and the measure of perceived judo ability for a second time. Analyses of variance revealed that high self-handicappers attributed failure to more external factors than low self-handicappers. It was also found that high self-handicappers reported less of a reduction in perceived judo ability following failure than low self-handicappers. The findings therefore provide support for the potential short-term benefits of self-handicapping in sport, although further research is required to examine the long-term implications of using self-handicaps.

  12. Using Outbreak Data for Source Attribution of Human Salmonellosis and Campylobacteriosis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vigre, Håkan; Makela, Pia

    2010-01-01

    % of campylobacteriosis cases were attributed to chicken. Results also revealed regional differences in the relative importance of specific sources. We assessed the method to be of limited value to attribute human campylobacteriosis due to the limited number of outbreaks. Nevertheless, the presented source attribution...... are observed at the public health endpoint and can therefore be a direct measure of attribution at the point of exposure. An analysis or summary of outbreak investigations is useful for attributing illnesses to foods, but often the implicated foods in reported outbreaks are complex foods, containing several...... food items, many of which could be the specific source of the infection. We describe a method that is able to attribute human cases to specific food items contained in complex foods. The model is based on data from investigations of Salmonella and Campylobacter outbreaks in the European Union in 2005...

  13. Exercise identity and attribution properties predict negative self-conscious emotions for exercise relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Parminder K; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R; Spink, Kevin S

    2012-10-01

    Research on exercise identity (EXID) indicates that it is related to negative affect when exercisers are inconsistent or relapse. Although identity theory suggests that causal attributions about this inconsistency elicit negative self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, no EXID studies have examined this for exercise relapse. Weiner's attribution-based theory of interpersonal motivation (2010) offers a means of testing the attribution-emotion link. Using both frameworks, we examined whether EXID and attributional properties predicted negative emotions for exercise relapse. Participants (n = 224) read an exercise relapse vignette, and then completed EXID, attributions, and emotion measures. Hierarchical multiple regression models using EXID and the attributional property of controllability significantly predicted each of shame and guilt, R² adjusted = .09, ps ≤ .001. Results support identity theory suggestions and Weiner's specific attribution-emotion hypothesis. This first demonstration of an interlinking of EXID, controllability, and negative self-conscious emotions offers more predictive utility using complementary theories than either theory alone.

  14. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  15. Cognitive Styles, Demographic Attributes, Task Performance and Affective Experiences: An Empirical Investigation into Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Core Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rong

    As a primary digital library portal for astrophysics researchers, SAO/NASA ADS (Astrophysics Data System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have significant impacts on several efficiency-based measures. Analytic-oriented participants were observed to spent shorter time on web pages and apps, made fewer web page changes than less-Analytic-driving participants in performing common tasks, whereas AI (Analytic-Imagery) participants also completed their five tasks faster than non-AI participants. Meanwhile, self-identified Imagery participants were found to be more efficient in their task completion through multiple measures including total time on task, number of mouse clicks, and number of query revisions made. Imagery scores were negatively associated with frequency of confusion and the observed counts of being surprised. Compared to those who did not claimed to be a visual person, self-identified Imagery participants were observed to have significantly less frequency in frustration and hesitation during their task performance. Both demographic variables and past user experiences were found to correlate with task performance; query revision also correlated with multiple time-based measurements. Considered as an indicator of efficiency, query revisions were found to correlate negatively with the rate of complete with ease, and positively with several time-based efficiency measures, rate of complete with some difficulty, and the frequency of frustration. These results provide rich insights into the cognitive styles of ADS' core

  16. The application of the lake ecosystem index in multi-attribute decision analysis in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakanson, Lars; Gallego, Eduardo; Rios-Insua, Sixto

    2000-01-01

    This work gives a summary of multi-attribute analysis (MAA) and its use in decision support systems for radiological and environmental contamination problems and presents a modification of the lake ecosystem index (LEI) as a tool to give an holistic account for the environmental (and not just radiological) consequences of chemical remedial measures (lake and wet land liming, potash treatment and lake fertilisation) carried out to reduce radionuclide levels in water, sediments and biota. The first step in determining a LEI-value is to set normal or initial values of two important limnological state variables, pH and total-P. The second step involves predicting state indices describing the abundance of key functional groups (the fish yield and biomasses of phytoplankton and bottom fauna). The next step concerns the definition of a lake ecosystem index based on the state indices. The final step is the derivation of the utility function to be used in the multi-attribute analysis to compare environmental, economical and social attributes of different dimensions (ECU, kg, Bq/kg, etc.). The ecosystem index characterises the entire lake over longer periods of time (months), and not specific sites in lakes or specific sampling events

  17. Improvement attributes in healthcare: implications for integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Patrick John

    2018-04-16

    Purpose Healthcare quality improvement is a key concern for policy makers, regulators, carers and service users. Despite a contemporary consensus among policy makers that integrated care represents a means to substantially improve service outcomes, progress has been slow. Difficulties achieving sustained improvement at scale imply that methods employed are not sufficient and that healthcare improvement attributes may be different when compared to prior reference domains. The purpose of this paper is to examine and synthesise key improvement attributes relevant to a complex healthcare change process, specifically integrated care. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on an integrative literature review on systemic improvement in healthcare. Findings A central theme emerging from the literature review indicates that implementing systemic change needs to address the relationship between vision, methods and participant social dynamics. Practical implications Accommodating personal and professional network dynamics is required for systemic improvement, especially among high autonomy individuals. This reinforces the need to recognise the change process as taking place in a complex adaptive system where personal/professional purpose/meaning is central to the process. Originality/value Shared personal/professional narratives are insufficiently recognised as a powerful change force, under-represented in linear and rational empirical improvement approaches.

  18. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  19. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit

  20. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baoping; Chen, Zhuo; Wei, Yuguo; Qin, Xiaofeng

    2007-07-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  1. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng [Department of Mechatronics, College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2007-07-15

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  2. Analysis of measurement system as the mechatronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniotis, V; Grattan, K T V; Rybokas, M; Brucas, D

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.

  3. Analysis of measurement system as the mechatronics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniotis, V [Institute of Geodesy, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Grattan, K T V [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Electrical, Electronic and Information Eng, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Rybokas, M [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Brucas, D, E-mail: gi@ap.vtu.l, E-mail: k.t.v.grattan@city.ac.u, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l, E-mail: domka@ktv.l, E-mail: vg@ai.vgtu.l [Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania)

    2010-07-01

    The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.

  4. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  5. Measuring the importance of attributes that influence consumer attitudes to colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Glenn P; Solomon, Michael J; Short, Leonie; Ward, Jeanette

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to rate the importance of attributes of screening for bowel cancer. Randomly selected households in central Sydney were contacted to identify men and women aged 50-70 years who were then asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about bowel cancer screening and related issues. Seven hundred and ninety-one residents (362 men and 429 women) returned questionnaires. Respondents were asked to rate the extent to which each of 34 attributes would encourage them to participate in bowel cancer screening. The three most highly rated attributes were: if the test was recommended by their general practitioner (GP; 94% either 'strongly agreed' or 'agreed'); if the test identified early cancers (92%); and if the test would avert a premature death due to bowel cancer (90%). Having a friend or relative with bowel cancer (61%), advertising (41%) or famous people promoting the program (62%) were less influential. Respondents who were unemployed or on a pension were less likely to participate in screening than those who were employed if there was an 'out of pocket' charge of 15.00 Australian dollars (chi 2 = 7.56, 2df, P = 0.006). Respondents with higher levels of education were significantly more concerned than respondents with lower levels of education about test accuracy (chi 2 = 15.76, 2df, P < 0.001), its availability from their local chemist (chi 2 = 16.96, 2df, P < 0.001), being able to return the test kit by post (chi 2 = 21.9, 2df, P < 0.001) or deposit it with their local chemist (chi 2 = 10.0, 2df, P < 0.01). They were also less likely to be influenced by a famous person promoting bowel cancer screening (chi 2 = 18.87, 2df, P < 0.001). Our results endorse the role of the GP in bowel cancer screening. However, the study also has demonstrated that test accuracy, the convenience of the screening service and notification of test results are valued differently by subgroups in the community, according to their level of education.

  6. A procurement decision support mechanism on multi-attribute fuzzy-interval auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Procurement systems are the basis for assuring efficiency and fairness in organizations. Consequently, the development of procurement systems faces an ongoing challenge in designing trading systems that facilitate transparent competition on both price and multiple attributes, as well as ensuring...

  7. System importance measures: A new approach to resilient systems-of-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Payuna

    Resilience is the ability to withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions. While this attribute has been the focus of research in several fields, in the case of system-of-systems (SoSs), addressing resilience is particularly interesting and challenging. As infrastructure SoSs, such as power, transportation, and communication networks, grow in complexity and interconnectivity, measuring and improving the resilience of these SoSs is vital in terms of safety and providing uninterrupted services. The characteristics of systems-of-systems make analysis and design of resilience challenging. However, these features also offer opportunities to make SoSs resilient using unconventional methods. In this research, we present a new approach to the process of resilience design. The core idea behind the proposed design process is a set of system importance measures (SIMs) that identify systems crucial to overall resilience. Using the results from the SIMs, we determine appropriate strategies from a list of design principles to improve SoS resilience. The main contribution of this research is the development of an aid to design that provides specific guidance on where and how resources need to be targeted. Based on the needs of an SoS, decision-makers can iterate through the design process to identify a set of practical and effective design improvements. We use two case studies to demonstrate how the SIM-based design process can inform decision-making in the context of SoS resilience. The first case study focuses on a naval warfare SoS and describes how the resilience framework can leverage existing simulation models to support end-to-end design. We proceed through stages of the design approach using an agent-based model (ABM) that enables us to demonstrate how simulation tools and analytical models help determine the necessary inputs for the design process and, subsequently, inform decision-making regarding SoS resilience. The second case study considers the urban

  8. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  9. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  10. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    Full Text Available A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors. However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or

  11. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect performance

  12. The influence of lean manufacturing practices in cellular manufacturing qualifying attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Almeida Marodin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate how of lean production (LP influences to a manufacturing cell (MC performance, based on the theoretical study about the attributes that characterize a MC. It was necessary to develop the concept of MC in a socio-technical system perspective, incorporating a technical attribute, a social attribute and the elements of time, space and information to define a "real cell". The results show that most of LM practices aim to increase time and information. The rapid problem solving process and the use of minimal amount of inventory between the activities of the cell seeks to simultaneously reduces the processing time and increase the degree of information. Although influenced to a lesser degree, the organizational attribute and space element are also positively influenced by the practical application of PE.

  13. A formulation of multidimensional growth models for the assessment and forecast of technology attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Travis W.

    modeling technique begins to diminish. With the introduction of multiple objectives, researchers often abandon technology growth models for scoring models and technology frontiers. While both approaches possess advantages over current growth models for the assessment of multi-objective technologies, each lacks a necessary dimension for comprehensive technology assessment. By collapsing multiple system metrics into a single, non-intuitive technology measure, scoring models provide a succinct framework for multi-objective technology assessment and forecasting. Yet, with no consideration of physical limits, scoring models provide no insight as to the feasibility of a particular combination of system capabilities. They only indicate that a given combination of system capabilities yields a particular score. Conversely, technology frontiers are constructed with the distinct objective of providing insight into the feasibility of system capability combinations. Yet again, upper limits to overall system performance are ignored. Furthermore, the data required to forecast subsequent technology frontiers is often inhibitive. In an attempt to reincorporate the fundamental nature of technology advancement as bound by physical principles, researchers have sought to normalize multi-objective systems whereby the variability of a single system objective is eliminated as a result of changes in the remaining objectives. This drastically limits the applicability of the resulting technology model because it is only applicable for a single setting of all other system attributes. Attempts to maintain the interaction between the growth curves of each technical objective of a complex system have thus far been limited to qualitative and subjective consideration. This research proposes the formulation of multidimensional growth models as an approach to simulating the advancement of multi-objective technologies towards their upper limits. Multidimensional growth models were formulated by noticing and

  14. Attribute importance segmentation of Norwegian seafood consumers: The inclusion of salient packaging attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huu; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Headache attributed to masticatory myofascial pain: impact on facial pain and pressure pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Y M; Porporatti, A L; Stuginski-Barbosa, J; Bonjardim, L R; Speciali, J G; Conti, P C R

    2016-03-01

    There is no clear evidence on how a headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) can hinder the improvement of facial pain and masticatory muscle pain. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of a TMD-attributed headache on masticatory myofascial (MMF) pain management. The sample was comprised of adults with MMF pain measured according to the revised research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) and additionally diagnosed with (Group 1, n = 17) or without (Group 2, n = 20) a TMD-attributed headache. Both groups received instructions on how to implement behavioural changes and use a stabilisation appliance for 5 months. The reported facial pain intensity (visual analogue scale--VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT--kgf cm(-2)) of the anterior temporalis, masseter and right forearm were measured at three assessment time points. Two-way anova was applied to the data, considering a 5% significance level. All groups had a reduction in their reported facial pain intensity (P 0·100). A TMD-attributed headache in patients with MMF pain does not negatively impact pain management, but does change the pattern for muscle pain improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ANALISIS PERSEPSI AUDITOR MENGENAI FAKTOR PENENTU AUDIT FEE BERDASARKAN CLIENT ATTRIBUTES, AUDITOR ATTRIBUTES, DAN ENGAGEMENT ATRTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Faturachman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research purposes to know how perception auditors about determining factors of audit fee based on Client Attributes, Auditor Attributes, and Engagement Attributes at The Public Accountant Firm residing in Bandung. In this research, the indicator that is used to characterize the Client Attributes are size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability, leverage and liquidity, and industry. While the indicator to characterize the Auditor Attributes are auditor’s specialization, audit tenure, and location. And the indicators to characterize the Engagement Attributes are audit problems, audit report lag, busy season, and number of reports. The Method that is used in this research is a descriptive method. The population in this research is a public accountant in Bandung. Based on sampling techniques that saturated and qualified then it take about 11 offices of public accountant. SmartPLS ver 2.0 M3 are used as a Statistical analysis. The result of this research with count the loading factor and bootstrapping method are, the first one that the perception of the auditor based on client attributes of audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is size, complexity, profitability, inherent risk,  industry, and leverage & liquidty, the second states that perception based on auditor attributes audit fee determinants from which is very important to not important is audit tenure, location, and specialization. And the third states that the perception of auditor engagement attributes based determinants of audit fee which is very important to not important audit report lag, busy season, audit problems and number of reports.

  17. Successful language learning in a corporate setting: The role of attribution theory and its relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.

  18. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However, o...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study.......Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However......, orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...

  19. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  20. Organizational attributes that assure optimal utilization of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Underwood, Jane; MacDonald, Mary; Schoenfeld, Bonnie; Blythe, Jennifer; Knibbs, Kristin; Munroe, Val; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ehrlich, Anne; Ganann, Rebecca; Crea, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Optimal utilization of public health nurses (PHNs) is important for strengthening public health capacity and sustaining interest in public health nursing in the face of a global nursing shortage. To gain an insight into the organizational attributes that support PHNs to work effectively, 23 focus groups were held with PHNs, managers, and policymakers in diverse regions and urban and rural/remote settings across Canada. Participants identified attributes at all levels of the public health system: government and system-level action, local organizational culture of their employers, and supportive management practices. Effective leadership emerged as a strong message throughout all levels. Other organizational attributes included valuing and promoting public health nursing; having a shared vision, goals, and planning; building partnerships and collaboration; demonstrating flexibility and creativity; and supporting ongoing learning and knowledge sharing. The results of this study highlight opportunities for fostering organizational development and leadership in public health, influencing policies and programs to optimize public health nursing services and resources, and supporting PHNs to realize the full scope of their competencies.

  1. Attribute analyses of gpr data for detecting and identifying heavy minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catakli, Aycan

    Attribute analyses have been used successfully in seismic applications for many years. In this study, the application of the attribute analyses to Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data has been proposed to detect and identify heavy minerals within the Moon soil (regolith). Lunar samples are mostly composed of heavy minerals such as ilmenite, plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, a characteristic that makes lunar soil a source for elements such as titanium, oxygen and iron. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the use of GPR method for detecting and mapping heavy minerals concentrations. The attribute analyses used in this study are Attenuation Analysis (AA), Complex Trace Analysis (CTA), Texture Analysis (TA) and Center Frequency Destitution (CFD). Attribute analysis was applied to both synthetic models and prototype laboratory measurements to study its application to GPR data. The results indicate that the attribute analyses of GPR data can be useful to provide valuable subsurface information. The findings of AA show that attenuation values are function of mineralogy of the subsurface. This could be applicable to Moon and Mars in addition to Earth environment to explore their near-surface soils. CTA can successfully estimate the location of heavy mineral samples embedded inside host medium through the variation of reflected energy around buried sample and sharpen the reflecting interface. Results indicate that as the amount of the buried heavy minerals increases, the value of CTA parameters (Normal distribution of amplitude spectra `NDoAS' and tau-parameter) proportionally increase. TA measures combined can be used as an enhanced interpretation tool. The texture results show that heavy mineral concentrations can be identified by the high contrast, entropy, autocorrelation, correlation, cluster, dissimilarity, standard deviation, variance and low energy, maximum probability, and homogeneity. The measures also help in highlighting the edge of the buried samples

  2. The relationship between the self-esteem and employability attributes of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2012-04-01

    Research purpose: The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between self-esteem (as the Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory measures it and employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures it; to determine whether people’s biographical details significantly predict their self-esteem and employability attributes; and whether men and women differ significantly in their self-esteem and employability attributes. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of studies that investigate how people’s self-esteem relates to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multi-cultural context. Research design, approach and method: The researcher conducted a quantitative survey on a convenience sample of 304 employed adults enrolled for an honours degree in business management in a higher education institution. She used correlational statistics, multiple regression analyses, categorical regressions and independent t-tests to analyse the data. Main findings: The researcher found a number of significant relationships between the participants’ self-esteem and employability. The results showed that biographical details significantly predicted participants’ employability attributes. Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s self-esteem and their biographical details influence their employability attributes. Contribution/value-add: The findings add to the literature on the skills, abilities and biographical information that influence employability and give valuable information that organisations can use during career development support and career counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  3. Parental attributions for positive behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussanich, P; Hartley, S L; Bolt, D

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined parental attributions for positive child behaviour in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their association with parent outcomes. In total, 175 couples who had a child with ASD (5-12 years) completed measures about the child's positive behaviour, ASD symptoms, functional skills and negative behaviour problems, and their own positive and negative affect and closeness in the parent-child relationship. A comparison group of 170 couples who had a child without a neurodevelopmental disability also completed measures. Dyadic multilevel models were conducted. Parents of children with ASD believed that their child's positive behaviour was due to factors less internal to the child, less stable and less controllable by the child than the comparison group. Beliefs about stability were associated with closeness in the parent-child relationship. Child age and level of impairment and parent education were associated with parental attributions. Interventions that alter parental attributions may offer pathways to increase closeness in the parent-child relationship. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....

  5. K-Means Clustering for Problems with Periodic Attributes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Musílek, P.; Paluš, Milan; Pelikán, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2009), s. 721-743 ISSN 0218-0014 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300513 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 517133 - BRACCIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : clustering algorithms * similarity measures * K- means * periodic attributes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2009

  6. Evaluation of biological attributes of soil type latossol under agroecological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil attributes have shown to be good indicators of soil changes as a result of the management function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using cover crops, as well as planting and tillage systems on the biological attributes of a yellowish red latosol soil. Soil samples were taken at 0 to 0.10 m depth, seven days before the bean harvest. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, basal soil respiration, metabolic ratio and total enzyme activity were evaluated in this study. The best agroecological management was achieved under the association of the ground cover with millet and in direct seeding because they showed higher soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content and lower metabolic quotient, being pork bean the best plant coverage. All biological soil attributes were sensitive to the tillage system, which showed the best results of the total enzyme activity and of the soil metabolic quotient which resulted to be the most efficient.

  7. Impact of service attributes on customer satisfaction and loyalty in a healthcare context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonial, Subash; Raju, P S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of perceived service attributes in the development of overall customer satisfaction (OCS) and customer loyalty (CL) in a health-care setting. This paper also sheds light on the role of hospitalist physicians (HPs) and offers suggestions to improve patient satisfaction and loyalty. A telephone survey was used to collect data from recently hospitalized patients with respect to their HP. Structural equations modeling (SEM) was used to confirm the overall relationships between perceived service quality (PSQ), OCS and CL. The sample was then divided into customer relationship groups (CRGs) based on satisfaction and loyalty measures. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which attributes differentiated most between high and low satisfaction and loyalty groups. Overall relationships among PSQ, OCS and CL were in conformity with the conceptual model. Findings also revealed that service attributes played an important role in distinguishing between high and low satisfaction and loyalty groups, although some attributes were more important than others and different attributes emerged as being key influencers for satisfaction and loyalty. The conceptual model used is a fairly straight forward model, and we have not considered the impact of individual factors such as expectations and value perceptions or involvement levels and demographic characteristics on service quality and overall satisfaction. The data for this study were provided by a major health maintenance organization (HMO), and there is room for improvement in the manner in which certain constructs were measured. For example, OCS, recommendation and retention all used single item measures, and it might have been preferable to use multiple item measures for these constructs. The study shows that organizations can benefit by identifying and focusing on critical attributes as part of their customer relationship management program. The SEM results provide strong

  8. Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-05-01

    This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.

  9. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  10. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  11. Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Mark; Nargis, Nigar; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2018-01-01

    The detrimental impact of smoking on health has been widely documented since the 1960s. Numerous studies have also quantified the economic cost that smoking imposes on society. However, these studies have mostly been in high income countries, with limited documentation from developing countries. The aim of this paper is to measure the economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases in countries throughout the world, including in low- and middle-income settings. The Cost of Illness approach is used to estimate the economic cost of smoking attributable-diseases in 2012. Under this approach, economic costs are defined as either 'direct costs' such as hospital fees or 'indirect costs' representing the productivity loss from morbidity and mortality. The same method was applied to 152 countries, which had all the necessary data, representing 97% of the world's smokers. The amount of healthcare expenditure due to smoking-attributable diseases totalled purchasing power parity (PPP) $467 billion (US$422 billion) in 2012, or 5.7% of global health expenditure. The total economic cost of smoking (from health expenditures and productivity losses together) totalled PPP $1852 billion (US$1436 billion) in 2012, equivalent in magnitude to 1.8% of the world's annual gross domestic product (GDP). Almost 40% of this cost occurred in developing countries, highlighting the substantial burden these countries suffer. Smoking imposes a heavy economic burden throughout the world, particularly in Europe and North America, where the tobacco epidemic is most advanced. These findings highlight the urgent need for countries to implement stronger tobacco control measures to address these costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Gluon attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good

  13. State-Level Estimates of Obesity-Attributable Costs of Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide state-level estimates of obesity-attributable costs of absenteeism among working adults in the U.S. Methods Nationally-representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1998–2008 and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2012 are examined. The outcome is obesity-attributable workdays missed in the previous year due to health, and their costs to states. Results Obesity, but not overweight, is associated with a significant increase in workdays absent, from 1.1 to 1.7 extra days missed annually compared to normal weight employees. Obesity-attributable absenteeism among American workers costs the nation an estimated $8.65 billion per year. Conclusion Obesity imposes a considerable financial burden on states, accounting for 6.5%–12.6% of total absenteeism costs in the workplace. State legislature and employers should seek effective ways to reduce these costs. PMID:25376405

  14. Access control based on attribute certificates for medical intranet applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, I; Georgiadis, C; Pangalos, G; Khair, M

    2001-01-01

    Clinical information systems frequently use intranet and Internet technologies. However these technologies have emphasized sharing and not security, despite the sensitive and private nature of much health information. Digital certificates (electronic documents which recognize an entity or its attributes) can be used to control access in clinical intranet applications. To outline the need for access control in distributed clinical database systems, to describe the use of digital certificates and security policies, and to propose the architecture for a system using digital certificates, cryptography and security policy to control access to clinical intranet applications. We have previously developed a security policy, DIMEDAC (Distributed Medical Database Access Control), which is compatible with emerging public key and privilege management infrastructure. In our implementation approach we propose the use of digital certificates, to be used in conjunction with DIMEDAC. Our proposed access control system consists of two phases: the ways users gain their security credentials; and how these credentials are used to access medical data. Three types of digital certificates are used: identity certificates for authentication; attribute certificates for authorization; and access-rule certificates for propagation of access control policy. Once a user is identified and authenticated, subsequent access decisions are based on a combination of identity and attribute certificates, with access-rule certificates providing the policy framework. Access control in clinical intranet applications can be successfully and securely managed through the use of digital certificates and the DIMEDAC security policy.

  15. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  16. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  17. An Attribute-Based Access Control with Efficient and Secure Attribute Revocation for Cloud Data Sharing Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyamsuren Vaanchig; Wei Chen; Zhi-Guang Qin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there is the tendency to outsource data to cloud storage servers for data sharing purposes. In fact, this makes access control for the outsourced data a challenging issue. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution for this challenge. It gives the data owner (DO) direct control on access policy and enforces the access policy cryptographically. However, the practical application of CP-ABE in the data sharing service also has its own inherent challenge with regard to attribute revocation. To address this challenge, we proposed an attribute-revocable CP-ABE scheme by taking advantages of the over-encryption mechanism and CP-ABE scheme and by considering the semi-trusted cloud service provider (CSP) that participates in decryption processes to issue decryption tokens for authorized users. We further presented the security and performance analysis in order to assess the effectiveness of the scheme. As compared with the existing attribute-revocable CP-ABE schemes, our attribute-revocable scheme is reasonably efficient and more secure to enable attribute-based access control over the outsourced data in the cloud data sharing service.

  18. Social cognition and the manic defense: attributions, selective attention, and self-schema in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, H M; Startup, M; Bentall, R P

    1999-05-01

    Manic patients, depressed bipolar patients, and normal controls were compared on measures of social cognition. Manic patients showed a normal self-serving bias on the Attributional Style Questionnaire, but depressed patients attributed negative events more than positive events to self. On an implicit test of attributional style, both patient groups attributed negative events more than positive events to self. Both patient groups showed slowed color naming for depression-related but not euphoria-related words. Manic patients, like normal controls, endorsed mainly positive words as true of self but, like the depressed patients, recalled mainly negative words. Findings from the implicit tests indicate a common form of psychological organization in manic and depressed patients, whereas the contrasts between the scores on the implicit and explicit measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a manic defense.

  19. I think, therefore I am: a twin study of attributional style in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Eley, Thalia C

    2006-07-01

    Parenting factors may be important to the development of attributional style in adolescence, which in turn relates to depression symptoms. These relationships have mainly been considered in terms of social risk mechanisms, and little is known about the role of genetic influences. Self-reported measures of attributional style, depression symptoms and parental disciplinary styles were administered to over 1300 adolescent twin and sibling pairs. Model-fitting techniques were used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences. Moderate genetic influences on attributional style were demonstrated, and furthermore, its association with depression reflected considerable genetic effects. Familial factors were implicated in the association between attributional style and punitive parenting, although genetic from shared environmental causes could not be distinguished. Our results demonstrate that attributional style is influenced by genetic, as well as social factors. Implications for aetiological pathways integrating cognitive, genetic and social factors on adolescent depression are discussed.

  20. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Attribution Theory and Crisis Intervention Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, William M.

    It was proposed that existing therapeutic procedures may influence attributions about emotional states. Therefore an attributional analysis of crisis intervention, a model of community-based, short-term consultation, was presented. This analysis suggested that crisis intervention provides attributionally-relevant information about both the source…

  2. Technology, attributions, and emotions in post-secondary education: An application of Weiner's attribution theory to academic computing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymon, Rebecca; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study.

  3. Chemical composition and meat quality attributes of indigenous sheep and goats from traditional production system in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Dismas S; Mtenga, Louis A; Kimambo, Abiliza E; Laswai, Germana H; Mushi, Daniel E; Mgheni, Dynes M; Mwilawa, Angello J; Shirima, Eligy J M; Safari, John G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (3.77°C vs 3.15°C) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa.

  4. Textural, nutritional and functional attributes in tomato genotypes for breeding better quality varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Supradip; Hedau, Nirmal K; Mahajan, Vinay; Singh, Gyanendra; Gupta, Hari S; Gahalain, Anita

    2010-01-30

    Screening of natural biodiversity for their better quality attributes is of prime importance for quality breeding programmes. A set of 53 tomato genotypes was measured for their textural [skin firmness, pericarp thickness, total soluble solids (TSS)], nutritional [phosphorus (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and titrable acidity (TA)] and functional (beta-carotene, lycopene and ascorbic acid) quality attributes. Three sets of data (textural, nutritional and functional attributes) were obtained and analysed for their mutual relationships. Wide variations were observed in most of the measurements, e.g. skin firmness (coefficient of variability (CV) 269-612 g), pericarp thickness (CV 1.4-4.9 mm), potassium (CV 229-371 mg 100 g(-1)), iron (CV 611-1772 mg 100 g(-1)), ascorbic acid (CV 12-86 mg 100 g(-1)), suggesting that there are considerable levels of genetic diversity. Significant correlations (P acid and copper of 0.57, pericarp thickness and lycopene of - 0.52. However, there were no correlations between textural and nutritional attributes. Five factors were computed by principal component analysis that explained 66% of the variation in the attributes, among which all micronutrients other than iron, TSS, firmness and beta-carotene were most important. Functional attributes except beta-carotene played a less important role in explaining total variation. This knowledge could aid in the efficient conservation of important parts of the agricultural biodiversity of India. These results are also potentially useful for tomato breeders working on the development of new varieties. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Is the attribution of cultural differences to minorities an expression of racial prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui

    2009-02-01

    The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.

  6. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  7. Mobile Measurement of Methane and Ethane for the Detection and Attribution of Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Using Off-Axis Integrated Output Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Spillane, S.; Gardner, A.; Hansen, P. C.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas leaks pose a risk to public safety both because of potential explosions as well as from the greenhouse gas potential of fugitive methane. The rapid and cost effective detection of leaks in natural gas distribution is critical to providing a system that is safe for the public and the environment. Detection of methane from a mobile platform (vehicles, aircraft, etc.) is an accepted method of identifying leaks. A robust approach to differentiating pipeline gas (thermogenic) from other biogenic sources is the detection of ethane along with methane. Ethane is present in nearly all thermogenic gas but not in biogenic sources and its presence can be used to positively identify a gas sample. We present a mobile system for the simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane that is capable of detecting pipeline leaks and differentiating pipeline gas from other biogenic sources such as landfills, swamps, sewers, and enteric fermentation. The mobile system consists of a high precision GPS, sonic anemometer, and methane/ethane analyzer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). In order to minimize the system cost and facilitate the wide use of mobile leak detection, the analyzer operates in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum where lasers and optics are significantly less costly than in the mid-infrared. The analyzer is capable of detecting methane with a precision of detecting ethane with a precision of detection of leaks at speeds up to 50 mph. The sonic anemometer, GPS and analyzer inlet are mounted to a generic roof rack for attachment to available fleet vehicles. The system can detect leaks having a downwind concentration of as little as 10 ppb of methane above ambient, while leaks 500 ppb above ambient can be identified as thermogenic with greater than 99% certainty (for gas with 6% ethane). Finally, analysis of wind data provides an estimate of leak direction and distance. The system presented provides a robust, cost effective

  8. Attribute Learning for SAR Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification approach based on attribute learning for high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. To explore the representative and discriminative attributes of SAR images, first, an iterative unsupervised algorithm is designed to cluster in the low-level feature space, where the maximum edge response and the ratio of mean-to-variance are included; a cross-validation step is applied to prevent overfitting. Second, the most discriminative clustering centers are sorted out to construct an attribute dictionary. By resorting to the attribute dictionary, a representation vector describing certain categories in the SAR image can be generated, which in turn is used to perform the classifying task. The experiments conducted on TerraSAR-X images indicate that those learned attributes have strong visual semantics, which are characterized by bright and dark spots, stripes, or their combinations. The classification method based on these learned attributes achieves better results.

  9. Appearance Idealization, Body Esteem, Causal Attributions, and Ethnic Variations in the Development of Obesity Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul; Daniel, David B.; Keller, Peggy S.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the hypotheses that adolescents have more negative obesity stereotypes than children and that age differences in obesity stereotypes are mediated by weight attributions, body esteem, and appearance idealization. Hispanic- and Caucasian-American children completed measures of appearance idealization, body esteem, and attributions about…

  10. Stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with anorexia nervosa: an investigation of attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickert, Kristy; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Attribution Theory, this study assessed stigmatizing attitudes towards an individual with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to obesity and skin cancer, and examined the extent to which manipulating a target individual's level of blameworthiness affects levels of stigmatizing attitudes. One hundred and thirty-five female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Before and after receiving blameworthy or non-blameworthy information relating to the target's condition, participants completed a series of self-report inventories measuring their emotional reactions, desire for social distance, and causal attributions regarding the target. Participants reported a significantly greater desire for social distance from the target with AN compared to targets with obesity or skin cancer, and yet (contrary to Attribution Theory) attributed less blame to the target with AN. There were significant increases in stigmatization towards targets described as blameworthy relative to targets described as non-blameworthy. The findings provide insight into the elevated levels of stigmatizing attitudes held towards individuals with AN, and the role of Attribution Theory in partially accounting for this stigma.

  11. Attributability of health effects at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel

    2008-01-01

    without allowing for the uncertain possibility of a universal low-dose threshold, concludes that the evidence does not favour the existence of such a universal threshold. Consequently, radiation protection measures ought to be applied to radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses; 2) They are improvable at individual level. The effect occurrence on specific individuals is not demonstrable on a yes-no basis. Its reality is axiomatic: namely taken by granted as self-evident, solely based on the acceptance of the LNT hypothesis as the only true basis for argument or inference. It is unfeasible to demonstrate the existence of the effects by uncontestable evidence: the truth, validity, or genuineness of their diagnosis for specific individuals cannot be tested and the diagnostic correctness cannot be checked; 3) Their individual causation is counterfactual. The proposition 'a radiation exposure situation caused a health effect on an individual' cannot be explained in terms of the counterfactual conditional 'if the radiation exposure situation had not occurred, then the health effect would not have occurred'; 4) Their occurrence is not individually attestable. In addition to their improvability, any formal proof of the existence of a radiation health effect on any specific individual is generally absent and impossible to obtain at low radiation doses and cannot be established through scientific evidence. The papers winds up that attributability, namely the assumption that some health effect occurs as the result of a given low-dose radiation exposure situation, are distinct notions at the collective and individual level. It then concludes the following: - Increases in the effect (collective) prevalence can be attributable in the sense that the radiological impact on a population can, under certain conditions, be ascribed, namely credited, assigned, and imputed to a specific exposure situation as its cause or source. Attributability is only conditional on the

  12. Attributability of Health Effects at Low Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    without allowing for the uncertain possibility of a universal low-dose threshold, concludes that the evidence does not favour the existence of such a universal threshold. Consequently, radiation protection measures ought to be applied to radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses. (ii) They are improvable at individual level. The effect occurrence on specific individuals is not demonstrable on a yes-no basis. Its reality is axiomatic: namely taken by granted as self-evident, solely based on the acceptance of the LNT hypothesis as the only true basis for argument or inference. It is unfeasible to demonstrate the existence of the effects by uncontestable evidence: the truth, validity, or genuineness of their diagnosis for specific individuals cannot be tested and the diagnostic correctness cannot be checked. (iii) Their individual causation is counterfactual. The proposition 'a radiation exposure situation caused a health effect on an individual' cannot be explained in terms of the counterfactual conditional 'if the radiation exposure situation had not occurred, then the health effect would not have occurred'. (iv) Their occurrence is not individually attestable. In addition to their improvability, any formal proof of the existence of a radiation health effect on any specific individual is generally absent and impossible to obtain at low radiation doses and cannot be established through scientific evidence. The papers winds up that attributability, namely the assumption that some health effect occurs as the result of a given low-dose radiation exposure situation, are distinct notions at the collective and individual level. It then concludes the following: - Increases in the effect (collective) prevalence can be attributable in the sense that the radiological impact on a population can, under certain conditions, be ascribed, namely credited, assigned, and imputed to a specific exposure situation as its cause or source. Attributability is only conditional on

  13. Ambient assisted living healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mukhtiar; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Pedersen, Christian Fischer; Beevi, Femina Hassan Aysha; Hansen, Finn Overgaard

    2014-03-04

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  14. Ambient Assisted Living Healthcare Frameworks, Platforms, Standards, and Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Memon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  15. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  16. International study of perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes and Body Mass Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien; Salvo, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    environmentally and culturally diverse countries. METHODS: A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 cities (study sites) across 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and USA). Participants (n = 14222, 18-66 years) self...... reason for these mixed results is the limited variability in built environments in these single-country studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and BMI/weight status in a multi-country study including 12......-reported perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes. Height and weight were self-reported in eight countries, and measured in person in four countries. RESULTS: Three environmental attributes were associated with BMI or weight status in pooled data from 12 countries. Safety from traffic was the most robust...

  17. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  18. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  19. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  20. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  1. Assessing health status and quality-of-life instruments: attributes and review criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Neil; Alonso, Jordi; Burnam, Audrey; Lohr, Kathleen N; Patrick, Donald L; Perrin, Edward; Stein, Ruth E

    2002-05-01

    The field of health status and quality of life (QoL) measurement - as a formal discipline with a cohesive theoretical framework, accepted methods, and diverse applications--has been evolving for the better part of 30 years. To identify health status and QoL instruments and review them against rigorous criteria as a precursor to creating an instrument library for later dissemination, the Medical Outcomes Trust in 1994 created an independently functioning Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC). In the mid-1990s, the SAC defined a set of attributes and criteria to carry out instrument assessments; 5 years later, it updated and revised these materials to take account of the expanding theories and technologies upon which such instruments were being developed. This paper offers the SAC's current conceptualization of eight key attributes of health status and QoL instruments (i.e., conceptual and measurement model; reliability; validity; responsiveness; interpretability; respondent and administrative burden; alternate forms; and cultural and language adaptations) and the criteria by which instruments would be reviewed on each of those attributes. These are suggested guidelines for the field to consider and debate; as measurement techniques become both more familiar and more sophisticated, we expect that experts will wish to update and refine these criteria accordingly.

  2. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  3. Climate Central World Weather Attribution (WWA) project: Real-time extreme weather event attribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Uhe, Peter; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather detection and attribution analysis has emerged as a core theme in climate science over the last decade or so. By using a combination of observational data and climate models it is possible to identify the role of climate change in certain types of extreme weather events such as sea level rise and its contribution to storm surges, extreme heat events and droughts or heavy rainfall and flood events. These analyses are usually carried out after an extreme event has occurred when reanalysis and observational data become available. The Climate Central WWA project will exploit the increasing forecast skill of seasonal forecast prediction systems such as the UK MetOffice GloSea5 (Global seasonal forecasting system) ensemble forecasting method. This way, the current weather can be fed into climate models to simulate large ensembles of possible weather scenarios before an event has fully emerged yet. This effort runs along parallel and intersecting tracks of science and communications that involve research, message development and testing, staged socialization of attribution science with key audiences, and dissemination. The method we employ uses a very large ensemble of simulations of regional climate models to run two different analyses: one to represent the current climate as it was observed, and one to represent the same events in the world that might have been without human-induced climate change. For the weather "as observed" experiment, the atmospheric model uses observed sea surface temperature (SST) data from GloSea5 (currently) and present-day atmospheric gas concentrations to simulate weather events that are possible given the observed climate conditions. The weather in the "world that might have been" experiments is obtained by removing the anthropogenic forcing from the observed SSTs, thereby simulating a counterfactual world without human activity. The anthropogenic forcing is obtained by comparing the CMIP5 historical and natural simulations

  4. PLANE: A Platform for Negotiation of Multi-attribute Multimedia Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rharon M. Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the definition of a system to negotiate products in an e-commerce scenario. This negotiation system is defined as PLANE – Platform to Assist Negotiation – and it is carried in a semi-automatic way, using multi-attributes functions, based on attributes of the negotiated content. It also presents an architecture to interconnect the participant through an inter-network in the television broadcasters context. Each participant of the inter-network applies policies for its own contents, and all of them must comply these policies. If a participant needs a content not covered by the policies, it is possible to start a negotiation process for this specific content. Experiments present a simulation scenario where PLANE assists the negotiation between three sellers and one buyer with predefined negotiation profiles. Results demonstrated the success of the system in approximate the negotiator after some few interactions, reducing time and cost.

  5. Essential attributes and qualifiers of primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the primary health care (PHC has been associated with the first level of care from a health system and characterized by the kind of professional that in it operates, where is expected a predominance of specialists in this area. However, the major limitation for this type of characterization is that the profile of professionals engaged in this service may vary from country to country.Several theoretical and conceptual landmarks proposed approaches and indicators to assess and characterize the APS. In 1978, the American Institute of Medicine suggested an approach in which listed its attributes such as accessibility, integrality, coordination, continuity and responsibility. This was an important landmark in an attempt to outline a normative approach to measure it. However, most indicators and specific definition was not suggested. The selected indicators required a high level of performance, were difficult to be achieved, and focused on the capacity of services and not in its concrete realization(1.A 1996 report, from the same institution, defined PHC as the provision of integrated services and accessible by clinicians who are responsible for attending a large majority of personal care needs, developing a continued partnership with patients and working within family and community. This definition does not include the first contact and focuses on individual attention.The Canadian Medical Association, in 1996, considered the APS as a front door of the health system and community interventions included in the definition of the functions of APS. In the same year was published a Charter for General Practice / Family Medicine in Europe (Letter to General Practice / Family Medicine in Europe, which describes 12 characteristics: general, accessible, integrated, continuous, as a team, holistic, personalized, targeted for the family and the community, coordinated, confidential and protectress(2.Donabedian(3 systematized a group of important

  6. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  7. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  8. Patient and physician preferences for attributes of coronary revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magliano CAS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Alberto da Silva Magliano,1 Andrea Liborio Monteiro,2 Bernardo Rangel Tura,1 Claudia Silvia Rocha Oliveira,1 Amanda Rebeca de Oliveira Rebelo,1 Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira3 1HTA Department, National Institute of Cardiology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3The National School of Public Health Sergio Arouca ENSP/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Patients with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD may face important decisions regarding treatment options, with the “right choice” depending on the relative weights of risks and benefits. Studies performed as discrete choice experiments are used to estimate these weights, and attribute selection is an essential step in the design of these studies. Attributes not included in the design cannot be analyzed. In this study, we aimed to elicit, rank, and rate attributes that may be considered important to patients and physicians who must choose between angioplasty and surgery for coronary revascularization. Methods: The elicitation process involved performing a systematic review to search for attributes cited in declared preference studies in addition to face-to-face interviews with cardiologists and experts. The interviews were audio-recorded in digital format, and the collected data were transcribed and searched to identify new attributes. The criterion used to finish the data collection process was sampling saturation. Results: A systematic review resulted in the selection of the following 14 attributes: atrial fibrillation, heart failure, incision scar, length of stay, long-term survival, myocardial infarction, periprocedural death, postoperative infection, postprocedural angina, pseudoaneurysm, renal failure, repeat coronary artery bypass grafting, repeat percutaneous coronary intervention, and stroke. The interviews added no new attributes. After

  9. The habenula governs the attribution of incentive salience to reward predictive cues

    OpenAIRE

    Danna, Carey L.; Shepard, Paul D.; Elmer, Greg I.

    2013-01-01

    The attribution of incentive salience to reward associated cues is critical for motivation and the pursuit of rewards. Disruptions in the integrity of the neural systems controlling these processes can lead to avolition and anhedonia, symptoms that cross the diagnostic boundaries of many neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here, we consider whether the habenula (Hb), a region recently demonstrated to encode negatively valenced events, also modulates the attribution of incentive salience to a neutral...

  10. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  11. Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.

    1981-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m 2 is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the 214 Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented

  12. Supervised Multi-Authority Scheme with Blind Signature for IoT with Attribute Based Encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, O. V.; Ponomarov, K. Y.; Zaharov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    This article proposes a three-side cryptographic scheme for verifying device attributes with a Supervisor and a Certification Authority (CA) for attribute-based encryption. Two options are suggested: using a message authentication code and using a digital signature. The first version is suitable for networks with one CA, and the second one for networks with several CAs, including dynamic systems. Also, the addition of this scheme with a blind signature is proposed to preserve the confidentiality of the device attributes from the CA. The introduction gives a definition and a brief historical overview of attribute-based encryption (ABE), addresses the use of ABE in the Internet of Things.

  13. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  14. Proposed system for measuring project performance using process-based key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haponava, T.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite some evidence of its usefulness, performance measurement by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the construction industry also has its critics. Among the shortcomings attributed to existing KPIs is the fact that almost all of them are product oriented. This means that the indicators

  15. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...... the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...

  16. A multi-attribute decision model for portfolio selection aiming to replace technologies in industrial motor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderley Herrero Sola, Antonio; Mota, Caroline Maria de Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a multicriteria decision model for technology replacement. ► We prioritize induction motors in order to improve the energy efficiency. ► The best portfolio of options is selected based on decision maker’s utilities. ► The model contribute to surpass some organizational barriers. - Abstract: The energy efficient technologies offered by the market are in constant evolution, but their insertion in the productive sector comes up against organizational barriers, which obstruct decision making in firms. This paper proposes a multicriteria decision model in order to replace technologies in industrial energy systems, regarding organizational barriers for energy efficiency. The proposed model is applied in industrial motor systems, using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), in order to select the best portfolio of options based on the decision maker’s utilities. Portfolios of options from the prioritized set of motors compiled by the operational area of the studied industry are analyzed, including diverse suppliers and different classes of motors. The results show that it is essential to structure the proposed model in two steps, beginning with the operational level, to ensure that important technologies for the production system are prioritized, thus preserving the interests of the organization and improving the efficiency of industrial energy systems.

  17. A Safe, Self-Calibrating, Wireless System for Measuring Volume of Any Fuel at Non-Horizontal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    A system for wirelessly measuring the volume of fluid in tanks at non-horizontal orientation is predicated upon two technologies developed at Langley Research Center. The first is a magnetic field response recorder that powers and interrogates magnetic field response sensors [ Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System, (LAR-16908), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28]. Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields and when electrically active respond with their own magnetic fields whose attributes are dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. The response recorder facilitates the use of the second technology, which is a magnetic field response fluid-level sensor ["Wireless Fluid- Level Sensors for Harsh Environments," (LAR-17155), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 4 (April 2009), page 30]. The method for powering and interrogating the sensors allows them to be completely encased in materials (Fig. 1) that are chemically resilient to the fluid being measured, thereby facilitating measurement of substances (e.g., acids, petroleum, cryogenic, caustic, and the like) that would normally destroy electronic circuitry. When the sensors are encapsulated, no fluid (or fluid vapor) is exposed to any electrical component of the measurement system. There is no direct electrical line from the vehicle or plant power into a fuel container. The means of interrogating and powering the sensors can be completely physically and electrically isolated from the fuel and vapors by placing the sensor on the other side of an electrically non-conductive bulkhead (Fig. 2). These features prevent the interrogation system and its electrical components from becoming an ignition source.

  18. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  19. Elementary representative sizes of soil attributes via attenuation of gamma rays and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jaqueline Aparecida Ribaski

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Computed Tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) techniques were used in the investigation of representative sample sizes for attributes related to soil structure. First of all, the representative elementary length (REL) for experimental measurements of soil mass attenuation coefficient (μes), of samples from a sandy and a clayey soil, was analyzed. The study was conducted with two radioactive sources ( 241 Am and 137 Cs), three collimators (2 - 4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-5 cm). From these analyzes, it was possible to identify an ideal thickness range for each of the studied sources (2-4 cm and 12-15 cm for the sources of 241 Am and 137 Cs, respectively). The application of such results in representative elementary area evaluations, in clayey soil clods via CT, indicated that experimental soil mass attenuation coefficient average values obtained for x>4 cm and source 241 Am might induce the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations. Subsequently, μCT images with a total volume of 39×39×33 mm 3 and spatial resolution of 60 μm were used for macroporous system morphological characterization of a Rhodic Ferralsol with clayey texture, under no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) systems. Attributes as macroporosity (MAP), number of macropores (NMAP), tortuosity (τ) and connectivity (C) of the pores were assessed. The C degree was estimated based on the Euler-Poincare characteristic (EPC). Once 3D images enable the study of these attributes in different sample volumes, the proposed study is ideal for the analysis of representative elementary volume (REV). Usually, the selection of subvolumes for REV analysis occurs concentrically to a small volume or in adjacent positions. Here, we introduced a new method for selecting the positions of subvolumes, which are randomly chosen within the total image volume (random selection). It was observed that higher fluctuations in amplitude of each

  20. Exploring physical attributes of walkability from perspective of blind pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Frazila Russ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access has become a crucial issue for the persons with disabilities (PWDs, in which the inconvenient transportation facilities is contributed to the dependent living issue of PWD, specifically the visual impaired person. As a primary aspect of transportation, the walking facilities further needs to be carefully considered for facilitating their moving activities. Recently, the effect of built environment on walking behavior has obtained significant attention, which is generally constructed within the framework of walkability concept. The walkability has been extensively used for evaluating the physical attributes of pedestrian facilities by comparing it to the walker perception. Hence, the evaluation result can directly answer the needs of pedestrian. Despite of their recent research achievements, the walkability concept is mostly unsuccessful to take into account the blind walker characteristics. This paper then explore physical attributes of walkability environment in order to provide the friendly pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrian, which is rarely explored. The research is established based on the blind walker perspectives within the micro-level analysis that incorporates a smaller unit of measurement (i.e., the street-level physical attributes. The physical attributes result are thus potentially to be utilized for analyzing the required pedestrian facilities for the blind pedestrians.

  1. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  2. Social Attribution in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: An Exploratory Study in the Chinese Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Hu, Zhou-yi; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; McAlonan, Grainne M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine social attribution in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). A sample of 20 boys (9 with HFA and 11 with AS) and 20 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. All participated in two tasks measuring social attribution ability, the conventional Social Attribution Task…

  3. Technology, attributions, and emotions in post-secondary education: An application of Weiner’s attribution theory to academic computing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students’ computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study. PMID:29529039

  4. Control measurement system in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, V.V.S.

    1985-01-01

    The dependence of a bulk facility handling Purex Process on the control measurement system for evaluating the process performance needs hardly be emphasized. process control, Plant control, inventory control and quality control are the four components of the control measurement system. The scope and requirements of each component are different and the measurement methods are selected accordingly. However, each measurement system has six important elements. These are described in detail. The quality assurance programme carried out by the laboratory as a mechanism through which the quality of measurements is regularly tested and stated in quantitative terms is also explained in terms of internal and external quality assurance, with examples. Suggestions for making the control measurement system more responsive to the operational needs in future are also briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Computerized system for measuring cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure

  6. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam; Aslam, Muhammad; Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  7. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam

    2017-03-25

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  8. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  9. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  10. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  11. Lightning magnetic field measuring system in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Alvarado, Oscar Fernardo

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the configuration and performance of a lightning radiated electromagnetic field measuring system in Bogotá Colombia. The system is composed by both magnetic and electric field measuring systems working as separated sensors. The aim of the thesis is the design and construction of a Magnetic Field Measuring System and the implementation of a whole lightning measuring system in Bogotá. The theoretical background, design process, construction and implementation of the system ...

  12. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  13. Information systems for marine protected areas: How do users interpret desirable data attributes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tobi, H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how various user groups related to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) interpret desirable data attributes, whether their interpretations differ and to what extent. Moreover, this study aims to make a methodological contribution to the

  14. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  15. Uncovering attribute-based determinants of loyalty in cigarette brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market performance and loyalty levels of brands. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a stochastic approach to measure...... brand loyalty at the attribute level using the Dirichlet model as a benchmark tool. Data based on the Juster Probability Scale were collected from a sample of n ¼ 155 young smokers in Iceland. Findings – Product differentiation strategies operate differently. Light nicotine and tar content encourages...... smokers to switch across brands and within family brands, resulting on improved market performance and loyalty levels. Length and thickness-related differentiation are slightly better than nondifferentiation in inducing loyalty, but worse in improving performance. Practical implications – Two types...

  16. Investigating reliability attributes of silicon photovoltaic cells - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Reliability attributes are being developed on a wide variety of advanced single-crystal silicon solar cells. Two separate investigations: cell-contact integrity (metal-to-silicon adherence), and cracked cells identified with fracture-strength-reducing flaws are discussed. In the cell-contact-integrity investigation, analysis of contact pull-strength data shows that cell types made with different metallization technologies, i.e., vacuum, plated, screen-printed and soldered, have appreciably different reliability attributes. In the second investigation, fracture strength was measured using Czochralski wafers and cells taken at various stages of processing and differences were noted. Fracture strength, which is believed to be governed by flaws introduced during wafer sawing, was observed to improve (increase) after chemical polishing and other process steps that tend to remove surface and edge flaws.

  17. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  18. External Data and Attribute Hyperlink Programs for Promis*e(Registered Trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derengowski, Rich; Gruel, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    External Data and Attribute Hyperlink are computer programs that can be added to Promis*e(trademark) which is a commercial software system that automates routine tasks in the design (including drawing schematic diagrams) of electrical control systems. The programs were developed under the Stennis Space Center's (SSC) Dual Use Technology Development Program to provide capabilities for SSC's BMCS configuration management system which uses Promis*e(trademark). The External Data program enables the storage and management of information in an external database linked to a drawing. Changes can be made either in the database or on the drawing. Information that originates outside Promis*e(trademark) can be stored in custom fields that can be added to the database. Although this information is not available in Promis*e(trademark) printed drawings, it can be associated with symbols in the drawings, and can be retrieved through the drawings when the software is running. The Attribute Hyperlink program enables the addition of hyperlink information as attributes of symbols. This program enables the formation of a direct hyperlink between a schematic diagram and an Internet site or a file on a compact disk, on the user's hard drive, or on another computer on a network to which the user's computer is connected. The user can then obtain information directly related to the part (e.g., maintenance, or troubleshooting information) associated with the hyperlink.

  19. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution: A National Laboratory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2008-04-01

    Current capabilities in technical nuclear forensics - the extraction of information from nuclear and/or radiological materials to support the attribution of a nuclear incident to material sources, transit routes, and ultimately perpetrator identity - derive largely from three sources: nuclear weapons testing and surveillance programs of the Cold War, advances in analytical chemistry and materials characterization techniques, and abilities to perform ``conventional'' forensics (e.g., fingerprints) on radiologically contaminated items. Leveraging that scientific infrastructure has provided a baseline capability to the nation, but we are only beginning to explore the scientific challenges that stand between today's capabilities and tomorrow's requirements. These scientific challenges include radically rethinking radioanalytical chemistry approaches, developing rapidly deployable sampling and analysis systems for field applications, and improving analytical instrumentation. Coupled with the ability to measure a signature faster or more exquisitely, we must also develop the ability to interpret those signatures for meaning. This requires understanding of the physics and chemistry of nuclear materials processes well beyond our current level - especially since we are unlikely to ever have direct access to all potential sources of nuclear threat materials.

  20. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  1. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  2. Fundamental attributes of a practical configuration management program for nuclear plant design control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.M.

    1988-06-01

    This summarizes the results of an evaluation of findings identifies during a number of Safety-System Functional Inspections and Safety System Outage Modification Inspections which are related to configuration management for nuclear plant design control. A computerized database of these findings was generated from a review of the design inspection reports. Based on the results of the evaluation, attributes of a configuration management program were developed which are responsive to minimizing these types of inspection findings. Incorporation of these key attributes is considered good practice in the development of a configuration management program for design control at operating nuclear plants

  3. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting: Parenting: Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A

    2013-10-01

    Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.

  4. Attributes and descriptors for building performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopikrishnan

    2017-12-01

    In order to obtain the right feedback in levels of satisfaction with respect to these attributes, there is a need to have appropriate descriptors for incorporation in a survey instrument. This paper identifies attributes that indicate building performance and provides simple description of these attributes based on which items can be generated for a questionnaire. Such items can enable any user/occupant to easily understand the characteristics of these attributes and offer an objective feedback during questionnaire survey.

  5. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  6. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    in software engineering from CMU. 6June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011 Carnegie Mellon University Agenda Service -Oriented Architecture and... Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges 7June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011...Architecture and Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges Review 10June 2011 Twitter

  7. Attributions of Academic Performance among Third Year and Fourth Year Biology Major Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick John B. Solar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students in the College of Education, West Visayas State University, School Year 2013-2014. The academic performance were categorized or measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance. The Attributions in academic performance were evaluated using the closed-form questionnairechecklist,categorized intoin termsof ability, effort, luck, or task difficulty. Mean frequency, mean percentage, Mann-Whitney U-test, two-sampled test set at 0.05 level of significance were used to determine if there were significant difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level. The result of the study revealed that the Third Year biology majors attributed their academic performance to effort which is shown to have the highest percentage attribution in overall rank. There was no significant difference in the attributions of academic performance for third year and fourth year biology major students in termsof test, whilethe result forprojects, workbooks, and laboratory experiment and class participation and attendance categories,was found out to havea significant difference in the attributionfor the third and fourth years biology Major students’ academic performances.

  8. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Recreational preferences of urban teenagers: the influence of cultural and environmental attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson

    1977-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...

  10. Medical costs of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Castañeda López, Rosario; Urbanos Garrido, Rosa; López Menduiña, Patricia; Markowitz, Steven

    2013-01-01

    [corrected] Underreporting of work-related cancer in the Basque Country (Spain) is massive. The aim of our study is to estimate the job-related cancer in the Basque Country in 2008 treated by the Basque Public Health System-Osakidetza, as well as the medical costs derived from its treatment in the same year. Scientific evidence from industrialised countries is used to estimate the number of processes of cancer attributable to work. Medical costs for specialised care (outpatient and hospital admissions) are derived from the National Health System cost accounts. Costs due to primary health care and pharmaceutical benefits are obtained from Spanish secondary sources. Figures were computed according to disease and sex. We estimate 1,331 work-attributable cancers hospitalizations and 229 work-attributable cancers specialized ambulatory cases. Medical costs borne by public health care system exceed 10 million euros. Specialized care accounts for 64.2% of the total cost. Bronchus and lung cancer represents the largest percentage of total expenditure (27%), followed by the bladder cancer (12.6%), mesothelioma (8.6%), the colon cancer (7.3%), and stomach (6.7%). The magnitude of cancer attributable to work in the Basque Country is much higher than reflected in the official Registry of Occupational Diseases. Underreporting of work-related cancers hampers prevention and shifts funding of medical costs from social security to the tax-financed public health system. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Emittance measuring system on the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrich, A.; Glatz, J.; Strahl, P.

    A description is given of one of the beam emittance measuring systems designed for the UNILAC at GSI. The measuring system mechanics and the detector system are detailed, and the associated electronics are discussed. Computer programming and data processing and evaluation are described

  12. Predicting deleterious nsSNPs: an analysis of sequence and structural attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqi Mansoor AS

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an explosion in the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within public databases. In this study we focused on non-synonymous protein coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs, some associated with disease and others which are thought to be neutral. We describe the distribution of both types of nsSNPs using structural and sequence based features and assess the relative value of these attributes as predictors of function using machine learning methods. We also address the common problem of balance within machine learning methods and show the effect of imbalance on nsSNP function prediction. We show that nsSNP function prediction can be significantly improved by 100% undersampling of the majority class. The learnt rules were then applied to make predictions of function on all nsSNPs within Ensembl. Results The measure of prediction success is greatly affected by the level of imbalance in the training dataset. We found the balanced dataset that included all attributes produced the best prediction. The performance as measured by the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC varied between 0.49 and 0.25 depending on the imbalance. As previously observed, the degree of sequence conservation at the nsSNP position is the single most useful attribute. In addition to conservation, structural predictions made using a balanced dataset can be of value. Conclusion The predictions for all nsSNPs within Ensembl, based on a balanced dataset using all attributes, are available as a DAS annotation. Instructions for adding the track to Ensembl are at http://www.brightstudy.ac.uk/das_help.html

  13. Attribution of the French human Salmonellosis cases to the main food-sources according to the type of surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J M; Sanders, P; Bemrah, N; Granier, S A; Denis, M; Weill, F-X; Guillemot, D; Watier, L

    2013-05-15

    Salmonella are the most common bacterial cause of foodborne infections in France and ubiquitous pathogens present in many animal productions. Assessing the relative contribution of the different food-animal sources to the burden of human cases is a key step towards the conception, prioritization and assessment of efficient control policy measures. For this purpose, we considered a Bayesian microbial subtyping attribution approach based on a previous published model (Hald et al., 2004). It requires quality integrated data on human cases and on the contamination of their food sources, per serotype and microbial subtype, which were retrieved from the French integrated surveillance system for Salmonella. The quality of the data available for such an approach is an issue for many countries in which the surveillance system has not been designed for this purpose. In France, the sources are monitored simultaneously by an active, regulation-based surveillance system that produces representative prevalence data (as ideally required for the approach) and a passive system relying on voluntary laboratories that produces data not meeting the standards set by Hald et al. (2004) but covering a broader range of sources. These data allowed us to study the impact of data quality on the attribution results, globally and focusing on specific features of the data (number of sources and contamination indicator). The microbial subtyping attribution model was run using an adapted parameterization previously proposed (David et al., 2012). A total of 9076 domestic sporadic cases were included in the analyses as well as 9 sources among which 5 were common to the active and the passive datasets. The greatest impact on the attribution results was observed for the number of sources. Thus, especially in the absence of data on imported products, the attribution estimates presented here should be considered with caution. The results were comparable for both types of surveillance, leading to the

  14. The Role of Perceptual Similarity, Context, and Situation When Selecting Attributes: Considerations Made by 5-6-Year-Olds in Data Modeling Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead

    2018-01-01

    Classroom data modeling involves posing questions, identifying attributes of phenomena, measuring and structuring these attributes, and then composing, revising, and communicating the outcomes. Selecting attributes is a fundamental component of data modeling, and the considerations made when selecting attributes is the focus of this paper. A…

  15. CAT & MAUS: A novel system for true dynamic motion measurement of underlying bony structures with compensation for soft tissue movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison; Mellon, Stephen

    2017-09-06

    Optoelectronic motion capture systems are widely employed to measure the movement of human joints. However, there can be a significant discrepancy between the data obtained by a motion capture system (MCS) and the actual movement of underlying bony structures, which is attributed to soft tissue artefact. In this paper, a computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system with an augmented globally optimal registration algorithm is presented to dynamically track the underlying bony structure during movement. The augmented registration part of CAT & MAUS was validated with a high system accuracy of 80%. The Euclidean distance between the marker-based bony landmark and the bony landmark tracked by CAT & MAUS was calculated to quantify the measurement error of an MCS caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. The average Euclidean distance between the target bony landmark measured by each of the CAT & MAUS system and the MCS alone varied from 8.32mm to 16.87mm in gait. This indicates the discrepancy between the MCS measured bony landmark and the actual underlying bony landmark. Moreover, Procrustes analysis was applied to demonstrate that CAT & MAUS reduces the deformation of the body segment shape modeled by markers during motion. The augmented CAT & MAUS system shows its potential to dynamically detect and locate actual underlying bony landmarks, which reduces the MCS measurement error caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Threshold Effects of Creative Problem-Solving Attributes on Creativity in the Math Abilities of Taiwanese Upper Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for this study, with the aim of measuring students’ perceptions on their motivation, knowledge, and skills, both in general and in specific domains. Divergent and convergent thinking were also measured. Cluster analyses yielded three creative problem-solving typologies: High, Medium, and Low. The High Attribute group scored significantly higher in the Math Creative Problem-Solving Ability Test than did the Medium Attribute and Low Attribute groups. The results suggest a threshold effect from several attributes—divergent thinking, convergent thinking, motivation, general knowledge and skills, domain-specific knowledge and skills, and environment—on students’ creative problem-solving abilities. Balanced development of attributes may be an important consideration in nurturing creativity in children.

  17. Assessing brand image through communalities and asymmetries in brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Anna; Bijmolt, Tarnmo H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Brand image is a key component of customer-based brand equity, and refers to the associations a consumer holds in memory. Such associations are often directional; one should distinguish between brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations, Information on these associations arise from two

  18. Multiple attribute decision making model and application to food safety risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lihua; Chen, Hong; Yan, Huizhe; Yang, Lifeng; Wu, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Decision making for supermarket food purchase decisions are characterized by network relationships. This paper analyzed factors that influence supermarket food selection and proposes a supplier evaluation index system based on the whole process of food production. The author established the intuitive interval value fuzzy set evaluation model based on characteristics of the network relationship among decision makers, and validated for a multiple attribute decision making case study. Thus, the proposed model provides a reliable, accurate method for multiple attribute decision making.

  19. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  20. Quantifying multi-dimensional attributes of human activities at various geographic scales based on smartphone tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Li, Dongying

    2018-05-09

    Advancement in location-aware technologies, and information and communication technology in the past decades has furthered our knowledge of the interaction between human activities and the built environment. An increasing number of studies have collected data regarding individual activities to better understand how the environment shapes human behavior. Despite this growing interest, some challenges exist in collecting and processing individual's activity data, e.g., capturing people's precise environmental contexts and analyzing data at multiple spatial scales. In this study, we propose and implement an innovative system that integrates smartphone-based step tracking with an app and the sequential tile scan techniques to collect and process activity data. We apply the OpenStreetMap tile system to aggregate positioning points at various scales. We also propose duration, step and probability surfaces to quantify the multi-dimensional attributes of activities. Results show that, by running the app in the background, smartphones can measure multi-dimensional attributes of human activities, including space, duration, step, and location uncertainty at various spatial scales. By coordinating Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor with accelerometer sensor, this app can save battery which otherwise would be drained by GPS sensor quickly. Based on a test dataset, we were able to detect the recreational center and sports center as the space where the user was most active, among other places visited. The methods provide techniques to address key issues in analyzing human activity data. The system can support future studies on behavioral and health consequences related to individual's environmental exposure.

  1. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  2. Physical attributes of kaolinitic and oxidic oxisols resulting from different usage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Frederico Centurion

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the physical attributes of a kaolinitic oxisol, medium texture (Haplustox and an oxidic oxisol, clayey (Eutrustox under different usage systems, localized in the region of Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. The usage systems were sugarcane, cotton and forest. Parameters such as soil bulk density, total porosity, macro and microporosity at the depths of 0.0-0.1; 0.1-0.2; 0.2-0.3, and 0.3-0.4 m were evaluated. Haplustox showed greater bulk density and smaller total porosity, macro and microporosity. The usage increased the bulk density in 0.0-0.3 m depth, with greater effects on the kaolinitic oxisol, mainly in 0.1-0.2 m depth in the areas cultivated with sugarcane.A mineralogia da fração argila e os sistemas de uso exercem fundamental importância na estrutura do solo. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico, caulinítico (LVd, e, de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico, oxídico (LVef, sob diferentes sistemas de uso, localizados no município de Jaboticabal (SP, Brasil. Os sistemas de uso foram: cana-de-açúcar; algodão e mata. Foram avaliadas a densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade, nas profundidades de 0,0-0,1, 0,1-0,2, 0,2-0,3, 0,3-0,4 m. O Latossolo caulinítico (LVd apresentou maior densidade do solo e menor porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. O uso aumentou a densidade do solo na profundidade de 0,0-0,3 m, com efeitos maiores no Latossolo caulinítico, principalmente na profundidade de 0,1-0,2 m na área cultivada com cana-de-açúcar.

  3. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z Z T; Sum, C W; Ghosh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further

  4. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  5. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubica Floreková; Ján Terpák; Marcela Čarnogurská

    2006-01-01

    Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what), operation (how) and structure (why). Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirem...

  6. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the MADAM waste measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrates commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability with a multienergy x-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporates a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and the capability for automated high-resolution gamma-ray analysis for isotope identification. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of the waste measurement characteristics of the system has been conducted. A set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards was fabricated for calibration and evaluation of the low-level waste (LLW) measurement system. The measurement characteristics of the LLW assay system were determined during the evaluation, including detection limits for all isotopes of interest, matrix attenuation effects, and detector response as a function of source position. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software.

  8. Evaluation of the MADAM waste measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrates commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability with a multienergy x-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporates a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and the capability for automated high-resolution gamma-ray analysis for isotope identification. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of the waste measurement characteristics of the system has been conducted. A set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards was fabricated for calibration and evaluation of the low-level waste (LLW) measurement system. The measurement characteristics of the LLW assay system were determined during the evaluation, including detection limits for all isotopes of interest, matrix attenuation effects, and detector response as a function of source position. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software

  9. State-level Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Finkelstein, Eric A; Fiebelkorn, Ian C

    2009-07-01

    Medicaid recipients are disproportionately affected by tobacco-related disease because their smoking prevalence is approximately 53% greater than that of the overall US adult population. This study estimates state-level smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures. We used state-level and national data and a 4-part econometric model to estimate the fraction of each state's Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking. These fractions were multiplied by state-level Medicaid expenditure estimates obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to estimate smoking-attributable expenditures. The smoking-attributable fraction for all states was 11.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-17.0%). Medicaid smoking-attributable expenditures ranged from $40 million (Wyoming) to $3.3 billion (New York) in 2004 and totaled $22 billion nationwide. Cigarette smoking accounts for a sizeable share of annual state Medicaid expenditures. To reduce smoking prevalence among recipients and the growth rate in smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures, state health departments and state health plans such as Medicaid are encouraged to provide free or low-cost access to smoking cessation counseling and medication.

  10. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  11. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikku, Laura; Soimakallio, Sampo; Pingoud, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from land use changes are highly important. ► Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. ► Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  13. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  14. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Multi-Attribute Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most existing multi-attribute optimization researches for the modern CNC (computer numerical control turning industry were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high are considered to optimize the multi-attribute (surface roughness, tool wear, and material removal rate finish turning. Through FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with eighty intervals for each attribute, the weight of each attribute is evaluated from the paired comparison matrix constructed by the expert judgment. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for each attribute are constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzifierion using center of gravity is thus completed. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is moreover utilized to integrate and evaluate the multiple machining attributes for the Taguchi experiment, and thus the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the attributes from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters are all significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach for multiple CNC turning attributes with profound insight.

  15. Male partners of women with provoked vestibulodynia: attributions for pain and their implications for dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca

    2008-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.

  16. A Chance for Attributable Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas

    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.

  17. Social workers' attributions towards individuals with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araten-Bergman, T; Werner, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore the applicability of the attribution model to social workers' attributions towards clients with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and psychiatric illness. Specifically, the study examined the relations between social workers' attribution of responsibility, causality, stereotypes of dangerousness, their emotional reactions and behavioural reactions towards clients with dual diagnosis. Social workers (N = 279) completed questionnaires measuring attributions of responsibility, causation and dangerousness, and reported on their emotional and behavioural reactions to clients diagnosed with DD. Most social workers reported high levels of helping behaviours. The strongest predictor of discriminatory behaviours was the stereotype of dangerousness. Social workers who reported feeling less anger and more pity towards clients with DD tended to report higher levels of helping behaviour. But contrary to attribution theory, fear and anger did not predict discriminatory behaviours. The results are discussed in relation to the core values of social work and to professional identity. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multi-attribute utility theory. Toward a more general framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, F.; Munier, B.; Serquin, Y.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan

    1997-12-01

    Optimizing maintenance programs for nuclear power plants is a difficult task. Beyond the reliability of the systems at hand, one has to consider several conflicting objectives such as safety, availability, maintenance costs, personal exposure to radiations, all under risk. Multi-Attributed Utility Theory is a widely used framework to cope with such problems. This procedure is, however, based on a set of axioms which imply an expected utility treatment of risk. It has been shown elsewhere that the risk structure to be considered in such cases does not correspond to behavior consistent with such a treatment of risk, but would rather correspond to a rank dependent evaluation type of model. The question raised is then how to use a multi-attributed scheme of preferences under such conditions. (author)

  19. Multiple attribute decision making model and application to food safety risk evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Ma

    Full Text Available Decision making for supermarket food purchase decisions are characterized by network relationships. This paper analyzed factors that influence supermarket food selection and proposes a supplier evaluation index system based on the whole process of food production. The author established the intuitive interval value fuzzy set evaluation model based on characteristics of the network relationship among decision makers, and validated for a multiple attribute decision making case study. Thus, the proposed model provides a reliable, accurate method for multiple attribute decision making.

  20. ATTRIBUTES OF FORM IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT THAT INFLUENCE PERCEIVED WALKABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Charles, Pablina Roth Suzanne Lanyi; Shepherd, Dido Tsigaridi Kathrine; Nelson, Kerrie P; Bar, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    A recent focus of design and building regulations, including form-based codes and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development rating system, has been on promoting pedestrian activity. This study assessed perceptions of walkability for residential and commercial streetscapes with different design attributes in order to inform form-based regulations and codes that aim to impact walkability. We scored 424 images on four design attributes purported to influence walkability: variation in building height, variation in building plane, presence of ground-floor windows, and presence of a street focal point. We then presented the images to 45 adults, who were asked to rate the images for walkability. The results showed that perceived walkability varied according to the degree to which a particular design attribute was present, with the presence of ground-floor windows and a street focal point most consistently associated with a space's perceived walkability. Understanding if and which design attributes are most related to walkability could allow planners and developers to focus on the most salient built-environment features influencing physical activity, as well as provide empirical scientific evidence for form-based regulations and zoning codes aimed at impacting walkabilit.

  1. Do hostile attributions and negative affect explain the association between authoritarian beliefs and harsh parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted

  3. An experimental detrending approach to attributing change of pan evaporation in comparison with the traditional partial differential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Xia, Jun; Liu, Wenbin; Sang, Yanfang

    2017-04-01

    In predicting how droughts and hydrological cycles would change in a warming climate, change of atmospheric evaporative demand measured by pan evaporation (Epan) is one crucial element to be understood. Over the last decade, the derived partial differential (PD) form of the PenPan equation is a prevailing attribution approach to attributing changes to Epan worldwide. However, the independency among climatic variables required by the PD approach cannot be met using long term observations. Here we designed a series of numerical experiments to attribute changes of Epan over China by detrending each climatic variable, i.e., an experimental detrending approach, to address the inter-correlation among climate variables, and made comparison with the traditional PD method. The results show that the detrending approach is superior not only to a complicate system with multi-variables and mixing algorithm like aerodynamic component (Ep,A) and Epan, but also to a simple case like radiative component (Ep,R), when compared with traditional PD method. The major reason for this is the strong and significant inter-correlation of input meteorological forcing. Very similar and fine attributing results have been achieved based on detrending approach and PD method after eliminating the inter-correlation of input through a randomize approach. The contribution of Rh and Ta in net radiation and thus Ep,R, which has been overlooked based on the PD method but successfully detected by detrending approach, provides some explanation to the comparing results. We adopted the control run from the detrending approach and applied it to made adjustment of PD method. Much improvement has been made and thus proven this adjustment an effective way in attributing changes to Epan. Hence, the detrending approach and the adjusted PD method are well recommended in attributing changes in hydrological models to better understand and predict water and energy cycle.

  4. Excess Hospitalization Expenses Attributable to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chia, Kee Seng

    2018-04-20

    To estimate the excess hospitalization expenses attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a high-income Asian country from the health system perspective and the patient perspective. Electronic medical records from a tertiary academic hospital in Singapore from 2012 to 2013 were used to create propensity score-matched cohorts with and without T2DM on the basis of their entry characteristics. A two-part model was then used to control for remaining differences between the cohorts. Excess cost due to diabetes was defined as the difference in hospital expenses between a patient with diabetes and a matched patient without diabetes. As part of the sensitivity analysis, a two-part model without matching and different matching algorithms were used to obtain the range of hospitalization expenses attributable to patients with T2DM. Balance of covariates after matching was investigated. All costs were presented in 2013 US dollars. Mean adjusted excess hospital expense of one hospital visit attributable to diabetes was approximately $1007 and $113 from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. For the cohort of patients with T2DM in Singapore, this amounts to a total average expenditure of $117 million and $13 million from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. Hospitalization expenses from diabetes result in a significant cost to the health care system in Singapore. Nevertheless, the excess burden of hospitalization on patients is mitigated significantly by cost sharing, which may reduce financial incentives to avert admissions through preventative care, which is largely out-of-pocket. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Is it advisable to include negative attributes to assess the stereotype content? Yes, but only in the morality dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Rojas Tejada, Antonio José; Cuadrado Guirado, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Competence, morality and sociability dimensions have shown to be essential to measure stereotypes. Theoretically, the attributes associated with the negative pole of morality are more reliable and have shown to have higher evaluative weight. However, the current research usually employs only positive attributes to measure each dimension. Since the advantages of the inclusion of negative morality are clear it would be interesting to know about the effects of the inclusion of such type of attributes (i.e., it is good or bad for the measurement). The purpose of this study is to examine if the addition of negative items makes possible to improve the stereotype content measures. This study compares the differences between scales with various compositions of positive and negative items of stereotypes to predict three related variables: anger, fear and a semantic differential of evaluation. The study was carried out with a sample of 550 Spaniards. The data found highlights the importance of using attributes of the negative pole of morality in studying stereotypes. Their use was able to explain the intergroup emotional responses and the semantic differential more efficiently. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  7. Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of SOA Patterns on Quality Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris; Tang, A; Muccini, H

    2012-01-01

    Software architecture patterns are proven and reusable solutions to common architecture design problems. One characteristic of architecture patterns is that they affect quality attributes (e.g., performance, reliability). Over the past years, architecture patterns for service-based systems have been

  8. LabData database sub-systems for post-processing and quality control of stable isotope and gas chromatography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements need post-processing to obtain results that are comparable between laboratories. Raw data may need to be corrected for blank, memory, drift (change of reference values with time), linearity (dependence of reference on signal height) and normalized to international reference materials. Post-processing parameters need to be stored for traceability of results. State of the art stable isotope correction schemes are available based on MS Excel (Geldern and Barth, 2012; Gröning, 2011) or MS Access (Coplen, 1998). These are specialized to stable isotope measurements only, often only to the post-processing of a special run. Embedding of algorithms into a multipurpose database system was missing. This is necessary to combine results of different tracers (3H, 3He, 2H, 18O, CFCs, SF6...) or geochronological tools (Sediment dating e.g. with 210Pb, 137Cs), to relate to attribute data (submitter, batch, project, geographical origin, depth in core, well information etc.) and for further interpretation tools (e.g. lumped parameter modelling). Database sub-systems to the LabData laboratory management system (Suckow and Dumke, 2001) are presented for stable isotopes and for gas chromatographic CFC and SF6 measurements. The sub-system for stable isotopes allows the following post-processing: 1. automated import from measurement software (Isodat, Picarro, LGR), 2. correction for sample-to sample memory, linearity, drift, and renormalization of the raw data. The sub-system for gas chromatography covers: 1. storage of all raw data 2. storage of peak integration parameters 3. correction for blank, efficiency and linearity The user interface allows interactive and graphical control of the post-processing and all corrections by export to and plot in MS Excel and is a valuable tool for quality control. The sub-databases are integrated into LabData, a multi-user client server architecture using MS SQL server as back-end and an MS Access front-end and installed in four

  9. Aberrant link between empathy and social attribution style in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Reddan, Marianne C; Brosch, Tobias; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Before the experiment, we measured trait levels of empathy, paranoia, and need for cognition. Behaviorally, we found that empathy levels predicted the tendency to attribute behavior to traits in healthy controls, whereas in patients with BPD this relationship was significantly weakened. Whole brain analysis of group-by-empathy interaction revealed that when participants judged the behavior during the attribution phase, several brain regions implicated in mentalizing distinguished patients from controls: In healthy controls, neural activity scaled negatively with empathy, but this relationship was reversed in BPD patients. Due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot establish a causal link between empathy and social attributions. These findings indicate that the self-reported tendency to feel for others is related to the tendency to integrate situational information beyond personality. In BPD patients, by contrast, the association between empathy and attribution was significantly weaker, rendering empathy less informative in predicting the overall attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental Attributions for the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Schaidle, Emily M.; Burnson, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3–20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Method Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter’s severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Results Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents’ level of parenting burden. Implications Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families

  11. Parental attributions for the behavior problems of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Schaidle, Emily M; Burnson, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3-20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter's severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter's behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents' level of parenting burden. Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families of children and adolescents with ASDs.

  12. Selection of key terrain attributes for SOC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Adhikari, Kabindra; Chellasamy, Menaka

    As an important component of the global carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. SOC pool is the basic information to carry out global warming research, and needs to sustainable use of land resources. Digital terrain attributes are often use...... was selected, total 2,514,820 data mining models were constructed by 71 differences grid from 12m to 2304m and 22 attributes, 21 attributes derived by DTM and the original elevation. Relative importance and usage of each attributes in every model were calculated. Comprehensive impact rates of each attribute...

  13. Automated measuring systems. Automatisierte Messsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessors have become a regular component of automated measuring systems. Experts offer their experience and basic information in 24 lectures and 10 poster presentations. The focus is on the following: Automated measuring, computer and microprocessor use, sensor technique, actuator technique, communication, interfaces, man-system interaction, distrubance tolerance and availability as well as uses. A discussion meeting is dedicated to the theme complex sensor digital signal, sensor interface and sensor bus.

  14. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  15. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  16. Decision analysis for a data collection system of patient-controlled analgesia with a multi-attribute utility model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Jung; Huang, Shih-Yu; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Chang, Kuang-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Data collection systems are very important for the practice of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study aimed to evaluate 3 PCA data collection systems and selected the most favorable system with the aid of multiattribute utility (MAU) theory. We developed a questionnaire with 10 items to evaluate the PCA data collection system and 1 item for overall satisfaction based on MAU theory. Three systems were compared in the questionnaire, including a paper record, optic card reader and personal digital assistant (PDA). A pilot study demonstrated a good internal and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. A weighted utility score combining the relative importance of individual items assigned by each participant and their responses to each question was calculated for each system. Sensitivity analyses with distinct weighting protocols were conducted to evaluate the stability of the final results. Thirty potential users of a PCA data collection system were recruited in the study. The item "easy to use" had the highest median rank and received the heaviest mean weight among all items. MAU analysis showed that the PDA system had a higher utility score than that in the other 2 systems. Sensitivity analyses revealed that both inverse and reciprocal weighting processes favored the PDA system. High correlations between overall satisfaction and MAU scores from miscellaneous weighting protocols suggested a good predictive validity of our MAU-based questionnaire. The PDA system was selected as the most favorable PCA data collection system by the MAU analysis. The item "easy to use" was the most important attribute of the PCA data collection system. MAU theory can evaluate alternatives by taking into account individual preferences of stakeholders and aid in better decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of patient health literacy, patient engagement and a system-level health literacy attribute on patient-reported outcomes: a representative statewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Brown, Melissa L R; Buskirk, Trent; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2014-10-07

    The effects of health literacy are thought to be based on interactions between patients' skill levels and health care system demands. Little health literacy research has focused on attributes of health care organizations. We examined whether the attribute of individuals' experiences with front desk staff, patient engagement through bringing questions to a doctor visit, and health literacy skills were related to two patient-reported outcomes. We administered a telephone survey with two sampling frames (i.e., household landline, cell phone numbers) to a randomly selected statewide sample of 3358 English-speaking adult residents of Missouri. We examined two patient-reported outcomes - whether or not respondents reported knowing more about their health and made better choices about their health following their last doctor visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the independent contributions of predictor variables (i.e., front desk staff, bringing questions to a doctor visit, health literacy skills). Controlling for self-reported health, having a personal doctor, time since last visit, number of chronic conditions, health insurance, and sociodemographic characteristics, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 2.65 times as likely (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13, 3.30) and those who brought questions were 1.73 times as likely (95% CI: 1.32, 2.27) to report knowing more about their health after seeing a doctor. In a second model, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 1.57 times as likely (95% CI: 1.26, 1.95) and those who brought questions were 1.66 times as likely (95% CI: 1.29, 2.14) to report making better choices about their health after seeing a doctor. Patients' health literacy skills were not associated with either outcome. Results from this representative statewide survey may indicate that one attribute of a health care organization (i.e., having a respectful workforce) and patient engagement through

  18. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  19. Cross-Domain Shoe Retrieval with a Semantic Hierarchy of Attribute Classification Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Huijing; Shi, Boxin; Kot, Alex C

    2017-08-04

    Cross-domain shoe image retrieval is a challenging problem, because the query photo from the street domain (daily life scenario) and the reference photo in the online domain (online shop images) have significant visual differences due to the viewpoint and scale variation, self-occlusion, and cluttered background. This paper proposes the Semantic Hierarchy Of attributE Convolutional Neural Network (SHOE-CNN) with a three-level feature representation for discriminative shoe feature expression and efficient retrieval. The SHOE-CNN with its newly designed loss function systematically merges semantic attributes of closer visual appearances to prevent shoe images with the obvious visual differences being confused with each other; the features extracted from image, region, and part levels effectively match the shoe images across different domains. We collect a large-scale shoe dataset composed of 14341 street domain and 12652 corresponding online domain images with fine-grained attributes to train our network and evaluate our system. The top-20 retrieval accuracy improves significantly over the solution with the pre-trained CNN features.

  20. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  1. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  2. Relations between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.

  3. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  4. Growth and fillet quality attributes of five genetic strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in a partial water reuse system and harvested at different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetics and environment can interact to influence fish growth performance and product quality attributes. Interaction in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) makes selection of fish strain and harvest sizes critical for optimizing fish quality. Definition of growth performance and quality outcom...

  5. Prediction of creamy mouthfeel based on texture attribute ratings of dairy desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative predictive model for creamy mouthfeel in dairy desserts was developed, using PLS multivariate analysis of texture attributes. Based on 40 experimental custard desserts, a good correlation was obtained between measured and predicted creamy mouthfeel ratings. The model was validated by

  6. The Rubber Hand Illusion Revisited: Visuotactile Integration and Self-Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked, while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, may cause the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body, to "feel like it's my hand." A behavioral measure of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a drift of the perceived position of one's own hand toward the rubber hand. The authors investigated (a) the…

  7. An Agent Architecture for Multi-Attribute Negotiation Using Incomplete Preference Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Robu, V.; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    A component-based generic agent architecture for multi-attribute (integrative) negotiation is introduced and its application is described in a prototype system for negotiation about cars, developed in cooperation with, among others, Dutch Telecom KPN. The approach can be characterized as cooperative

  8. Interpersonal reactivity and the attribution of emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

    2015-06-01

    The ability to identify the cause of another person's emotional reaction is an important component associated with improved success of social relationships and survival. Although many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in emotion recognition, very little is currently known regarding the processes involved during emotion attribution decisions. Research on complementary "emotion understanding" mechanisms, including empathy and theory of mind, has demonstrated that emotion understanding decisions are often made through relatively emotion- or cognitive-based processing streams. The current study was designed to investigate the behavioral and brain mechanisms involved in emotion attribution decisions. We predicted that dual processes, emotional and cognitive, are engaged during emotion attribution decisions. Sixteen healthy adults completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to characterize individual differences in tendency to make emotion- versus cognitive-based interpersonal decisions. Participants then underwent functional MRI while making emotion attribution decisions. We found neuroimaging evidence that emotion attribution decisions engage a similar brain network as other forms of emotion understanding. Further, we found evidence in support of a dual processes model involved during emotion attribution decisions. Higher scores of personal distress were associated with quicker emotion attribution decisions and increased anterior insula activity. Conversely, higher scores in perspective taking were associated with delayed emotion attribution decisions and increased prefrontal cortex and premotor activity. These findings indicate that the making of emotion attribution decisions relies on dissociable emotional and cognitive processing streams within the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  10. Parenting Attributions and Attitudes in Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This article used the Parenting Across Cultures Project to evaluate similarities and differences in mean levels and relative agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions and attitudes in parenting in 9 countries. Design Mothers and fathers reported their perceptions of causes of successes and failures in caregiving and their progressive versus authoritarian childrearing attitudes. Gender and cultural similarities and differences in parents’ attributions and attitudes in 9 countries were analyzed: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, or the United States. Results Although mothers and fathers did not differ in any attribution, mothers reported more progressive parenting attitudes and modernity of childrearing attitudes than did fathers, and fathers reported more authoritarian attitudes than did mothers. Country differences also emerged in all attributions and attitudes that were examined. Mothers’ and fathers’ attributions and their attitudes were moderately correlated, but parenting attitudes were more highly correlated in parents than were attributions. Conclusions We draw connections among the findings across the 9 countries and outline implications for understanding similarities and differences in mothers’ and fathers’ parenting attributions and attitudes. PMID:21927591

  11. Improved Conflict Detection for Graph Transformation with Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kulcsár

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In graph transformation, a conflict describes a situation where two alternative transformations cannot be arbitrarily serialized. When enriching graphs with attributes, existing conflict detection techniques typically report a conflict whenever at least one of two transformations manipulates a shared attribute. In this paper, we propose an improved, less conservative condition for static conflict detection of graph transformation with attributes by explicitly taking the semantics of the attribute operations into account. The proposed technique is based on symbolic graphs, which extend the traditional notion of graphs by logic formulas used for attribute handling. The approach is proven complete, i.e., any potential conflict is guaranteed to be detected.

  12. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  13. Measurement system and model for simultaneously measuring 6DOF geometric errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqiong; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qibo

    2017-09-04

    A measurement system to simultaneously measure six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) geometric errors is proposed. The measurement method is based on a combination of mono-frequency laser interferometry and laser fiber collimation. A simpler and more integrated optical configuration is designed. To compensate for the measurement errors introduced by error crosstalk, element fabrication error, laser beam drift, and nonparallelism of two measurement beam, a unified measurement model, which can improve the measurement accuracy, is deduced and established using the ray-tracing method. A numerical simulation using the optical design software Zemax is conducted, and the results verify the correctness of the model. Several experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system and measurement model.

  14. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  15. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  16. Learning of Rule Ensembles for Multiple Attribute Ranking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembczyński, Krzysztof; Kotłowski, Wojciech; Słowiński, Roman; Szeląg, Marcin

    In this paper, we consider the multiple attribute ranking problem from a Machine Learning perspective. We propose two approaches to statistical learning of an ensemble of decision rules from decision examples provided by the Decision Maker in terms of pairwise comparisons of some objects. The first approach consists in learning a preference function defining a binary preference relation for a pair of objects. The result of application of this function on all pairs of objects to be ranked is then exploited using the Net Flow Score procedure, giving a linear ranking of objects. The second approach consists in learning a utility function for single objects. The utility function also gives a linear ranking of objects. In both approaches, the learning is based on the boosting technique. The presented approaches to Preference Learning share good properties of the decision rule preference model and have good performance in the massive-data learning problems. As Preference Learning and Multiple Attribute Decision Aiding share many concepts and methodological issues, in the introduction, we review some aspects bridging these two fields. To illustrate the two approaches proposed in this paper, we solve with them a toy example concerning the ranking of a set of cars evaluated by multiple attributes. Then, we perform a large data experiment on real data sets. The first data set concerns credit rating. Since recent research in the field of Preference Learning is motivated by the increasing role of modeling preferences in recommender systems and information retrieval, we chose two other massive data sets from this area - one comes from movie recommender system MovieLens, and the other concerns ranking of text documents from 20 Newsgroups data set.

  17. Digital System Categorization Methodology to Support Integration of Digital Instrumentation and Control Models into PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    inter-conductivity include, number and types of inputs and outputs, inter-system communications and the importance of timing of events in system communication. The third attribute is digital system importance. This attribute measure looks at both traditional risk important measures, such as component risk achievement worth, and the importance of the system is for maintaining defense-in depth concepts. Potential sub-attributes of digital system importance include, systems risk importance (F-V, RAW, etc.), importance with respect to defense-in depth and system error prorogation potential

  18. Digital System Categorization Methodology to Support Integration of Digital Instrumentation and Control Models into PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Steven A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2011-08-15

    digital system inter-conductivity include, number and types of inputs and outputs, inter-system communications and the importance of timing of events in system communication. The third attribute is digital system importance. This attribute measure looks at both traditional risk important measures, such as component risk achievement worth, and the importance of the system is for maintaining defense-in depth concepts. Potential sub-attributes of digital system importance include, systems risk importance (F-V, RAW, etc.), importance with respect to defense-in depth and system error prorogation potential.

  19. A novel selection method of seismic attributes based on gray relational degree and support vector machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Huang

    Full Text Available The selection of seismic attributes is a key process in reservoir prediction because the prediction accuracy relies on the reliability and credibility of the seismic attributes. However, effective selection method for useful seismic attributes is still a challenge. This paper presents a novel selection method of seismic attributes for reservoir prediction based on the gray relational degree (GRD and support vector machine (SVM. The proposed method has a two-hierarchical structure. In the first hierarchy, the primary selection of seismic attributes is achieved by calculating the GRD between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters, and the GRD between the seismic attributes. The principle of the primary selection is that these seismic attributes with higher GRD to the reservoir parameters will have smaller GRD between themselves as compared to those with lower GRD to the reservoir parameters. Then the SVM is employed in the second hierarchy to perform an interactive error verification using training samples for the purpose of determining the final seismic attributes. A real-world case study was conducted to evaluate the proposed GRD-SVM method. Reliable seismic attributes were selected to predict the coalbed methane (CBM content in southern Qinshui basin, China. In the analysis, the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous bandwidth, instantaneous frequency, and minimum negative curvature were selected, and the predicted CBM content was fundamentally consistent with the measured CBM content. This real-world case study demonstrates that the proposed method is able to effectively select seismic attributes, and improve the prediction accuracy. Thus, the proposed GRD-SVM method can be used for the selection of seismic attributes in practice.

  20. Measurement system for diffraction efficiency of convex gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Xin-hua; Zhou, Jian-kang; Zhao, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Quan; Luo, Chao; Wang, Xiao-feng; Tang, Min-xue; Shen, Wei-min

    2017-08-01

    A measurement system for diffraction efficiency of convex gratings is designed. The measurement system mainly includes four components as a light source, a front system, a dispersing system that contains a convex grating, and a detector. Based on the definition and measuring principle of diffraction efficiency, the optical scheme of the measurement system is analyzed and the design result is given. Then, in order to validate the feasibility of the designed system, the measurement system is set up and the diffraction efficiency of a convex grating with the aperture of 35 mm, the curvature-radius of 72mm, the blazed angle of 6.4°, the grating period of 2.5μm and the working waveband of 400nm-900nm is tested. Based on GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement), the uncertainties in the measuring results are evaluated. The measured diffraction efficiency data are compared to the theoretical ones, which are calculated based on the grating groove parameters got by an atomic force microscope and Rigorous Couple Wave Analysis, and the reliability of the measurement system is illustrated. Finally, the measurement performance of the system is analyzed and tested. The results show that, the testing accuracy, the testing stability and the testing repeatability are 2.5%, 0.085% and 3.5% , respectively.

  1. Electromagnetic-coil (EM-coil) measurement technique to verify presence of metal/absence of oxide attribute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Hockey, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes how an Electromagnetic-coil (EM-coil) measurement technique can be used to discriminate between plutonium metal and plutonium oxide inside sealed storage containers. As evidence, measurements on a variety of metals and their oxides are presented. This non-radiation measurement method provides assurance of the 'presence of metal/absence of oxide' attribute in less than a minute. During initial development, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated the ability of this method to discriminate between aluminum and aluminum oxide placed inside an AT-400R storage container (total stainless steel wall thickness of over 2.5 cm). Similar results are expected, since Pu metal is electrically conductive and a Pu oxide behaves as an electrical insulator. At this writing, work is underway to perform the same demonstration using plutonium and plutonium oxide. Similar success has been demonstrated when using ALR-8 storage containers (basically carbon steel drums). Within these container types two scenarios have been explored. 1.) The same configuration made from different metals for demonstrating material property effects. A clear distinction was seen between the slight alloy changes among various forms of aluminum and brass in the same configuration. 2.) The same metal configured differently to demonstrate how mass distribution affects the EM signature. Hundreds of bb's (each about 2 mm in diameter) were placed in different containers to show how a slight change in distribution will affect the EM signature. With a five percent change in bb container diameter, the resulting EM signature changes are clear. This measurement method offers an extremely wide dynamic range resulting from its sensitivity to the wide range in electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability found in most metals and alloys. In fact, electrical conductivity spans the widest spectrum of all the known physical properties. Most insulators such as the oxides cover the

  2. An Attributional Analysis of Reactions to Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kaori

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined observers' attributions and reactions to negative emotional displays, as well as expressers' expectations about others' reactions. Analysis revealed that people attribute others' negative emotions equally to situational factors and dispositions, whereas their own emotions are attributed to the situation more than to…

  3. [Deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on life expectancy in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Y; Liu, S W; Ji, N; Zeng, X Y; Liu, Y N; Zhang, M; Wang, L M; Li, Y C; Zhou, M G

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on people's life expectancy in China in 2013. Methods: The mortality data from the Disease Surveillance Points System and alcohol use data from China Chronic Disease Surveillance (2013) were used. The deaths attributed to alcohol use and its impact on the life expectancy of Chinese residents were estimated based on the principle of comparative risk assessment by calculating population attributable fraction. Results: In 2013, alcohol use resulted in 381 200 deaths, including 97 100 hemorrhagic stroke deaths, 88 200 liver cancer deaths, 61 400 liver cirrhosis deaths and 48 700 esophageal cancer deaths, and prevented 76 500 deaths, including 68 500, 4 900 and 3 100 deaths which might be caused by ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke and diabetes respectively. If risk factor of alcohol use is removed, the people's life expectancy would rise by an average of 0.43 years, especially in western China by 0.52 years, which was 0.12 years higher than that in eastern and central China, and the life expectancy of the population in rural and urban areas would rise by 0.48 years and 0.31 years respectively. Conclusions: Although alcohol has a protective effect on reducing ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes deaths, alcohol use is still a risk factor influencing the mortality and life expectancy of residents in China. It is necessary to take targeted measures to reduce the health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol.

  4. Stable personal attributes and a resilient approach to work and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Flint-Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main research aim was to explore, at a detailed level, relationships between enduring personal characteristics and a resilient approach to work and career. Motivation for the study: Moving away from the idea of resilience as a specific trait or set of traits raises the question of how general personality and ability constructs influence a resilient approach. Research approach, design and method: This was an exploratory, quantitative study involving predictor (ability and personality and criterion (satisfaction and involvement data for 168 senior managers in five businesses within a retail and distribution group. Main findings: Evidence was found for differential relationships between personal attributes and a resilient approach (measured in terms of positive vs. negative perspectives on work and career. For example, the personality factor of Openness to Experience was negatively related to Organisation and Career Satisfaction, but positively related to Career and Job Involvement. Practical/managerial implications: In designing selection, development and employee survey procedures, organisations need to be aware of the differential nature of the relationships between attributes and a resilient approach to work and career. Contribution/value-add: The study brings together recent research on resilience, personal attributes and work outcomes, and supports the potential of general attribute models for studying and improving the process of developing and exercising a resilient approach in the work context.

  5. Audit Committee Attributes and Earnings Management: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afensimi Elijah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the agency theoretical framework, the  study postulates that audit committee attributes can impact significantly, constraining accrual-based distortion of financial reporting credibility and thus improve the quality of financial reporting. To assess our arguments, audit committee size, audit committee financial literacy, audit committee attendance at meetings, audit committee independence and audit meetings frequency of meeting were regressed on financial reporting quality measured by discretionary accruals. The findings for the full sample and negative discretionary accruals sample confirm our expectation that audit committee characteristics have a constraining effect on earnings management. Specifically, audit committee financial expertise, audit committee size, audit committee independence and diligence showed an inverse and significant relationship with earnings management. This is in tandem with theoretical expectations and suggest that increases in these variables we exert a declining influence on earnings management. The study concludes that there is the need for companies to focus on attributes that strengthen the effectiveness of their audit committees.

  6. Simple Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption for Short Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria I. Villanyi

    2016-01-01

    Central authority free multi-authority attribute based encryption scheme for short messages will be presented. Several multi-authority attribute based encryption schemes were recently proposed. We can divide these schemes into two groups, one of them are the ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption schemes (CP-ABE), the another one are the key-policy attribute based encryption schemes (KP-ABE). In our new multi-authority attribute based encryption scheme we combine them: the access struct...

  7. Regarding KUR Reactivity Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Akira; Hasegawa, Kei; Tsuchiyama, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okumura, Ryo; Sano, Tadafumi

    2012-01-01

    This article reported: (1) the outline of the reactivity measurement system of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), (2) the calibration data of control rod, (3) the problems and the countermeasures for range switching of linear output meter. For the laptop PC for the reactivity measurement system, there are four input signals: (1) linear output meter, (2) logarithmic output meter, (3) core temperature gauge, and (4) control rod position. The hardware of reactivity measurement system is controlled with Labview installed on the laptop. Output, reactivity, reactor period, and the change in reactivity due to temperature effect or Xenon effect are internally calculated and displayed in real-time with Labview based on the four signals above. Calculation results are recorded in the form of a spreadsheet. At KUR, the reactor core arrangement was changed, so the control rod was re-calibrated. At this time, calculated and experimental values of reactivity based on the reactivity measurement system were compared, and it was confirmed that the reactivity calculation by Labview was accurate. The range switching of linear output meter in the nuclear instrumentation should automatically change within the laptop, however sometimes this did not function properly in the early stage. It was speculated that undefined percent values during the transition of percent value were included in the calculation and caused calculation errors. The range switching started working properly after fixing this issue. (S.K.)

  8. Radionuclide measuring systems and improved methods of evaluation for the measurement of wear in stationary and mobile systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausch, W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developped flow through measuring unit makes it possible to perform continuous wear measurements on stationary and mobile systems. It was specifically designed for measurements on engine components of passenger cars. For tests of long duration an oil sampling technique was developed. Fully automated measurements are achieved with a sampling device suitable for both stationary and mobile systems. For systems with oil consumption a mathematical model provides for the necessary connection of the loss of wear particles through oil consumption. In certain cases an empirical graphical method can achieve nearly the same results. (orig.) [de

  9. Analyze This! Thematic Analysis: Hostility, Attribution of Intent, and Interpersonal Perception Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizova, Zhana; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2017-11-01

    Research suggests that aggressive individuals exhibit a strong tendency to attribute hostile intent to the behavior of others when confronted with an ambiguous social situation. The vignettes method has become a standard procedure to assess hostile attributions. Vignettes represent incomplete ambiguous social stories, in which the subjects experience a negative outcome and are asked to attribute intent to the provocateur's action. This article explores the ways in which subjects perceive ambiguous social situations and other people's intentions, their tendency to refer negative outcome to oneself, and the components defining hostility in the interpersonal relationships. The sample consisted of male adolescent violent offenders ( N = 45) recruited from the Social Therapy Department of the German correctional facility for juvenile offenders in Berlin. All offenders were incarcerated for a violent or sexual crime and were currently undergoing individual and group psychotherapy. The five hypothetical vignettes used in this study were originally designed to assess hostile attributions in both institutional and noninstitutional social situations. Participants' responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis revealed three key themes regarding the social perception-positive, negative, and neutral-and two themes regarding the components of hostility-provocateur-related personality features and relationship type. Although the vignettes were originally developed to detect hostility-prone perception bias, they seem to be able to reveal a wider set of different attributions of intent, both positive and negative. Thus, vignettes are not limited to assessment of hostility specifically. They much rather seem to be a measure which is sensitive to diverse attributions of intent in general. The diagnostic qualities of the vignettes, their area of application, limitations of the study, and future perspective are discussed.

  10. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. System tuning and measurement error detection testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, Petr; Machek, Jindrich

    2008-09-01

    The project includes the use of the PEANO (Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators) system to verify the monitoring of the status of dependent measurements with a view to early measurement fault detection and estimation of selected signal levels. At the present stage, the system's capabilities of detecting measurement errors was assessed and the quality of the estimates was evaluated for various system configurations and the formation of empiric models, and rules were sought for system training at chosen process data recording parameters and operating modes. The aim was to find a suitable system configuration and to document the quality of the tuned system on artificial failures

  12. A Multi-Session Attribution Modification Program for Children with Aggressive Behaviour: Changes in Attributions, Emotional Reaction Estimates, and Self-Reported Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P; Brouzos, Andreas; Andreou, Eleni

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that aggressive children are prone to over-attribute hostile intentions to peers. The current study investigated whether this attributional style can be altered using a Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) procedure. A sample of 10-12-year-olds selected for displaying aggressive behaviours was trained over three sessions to endorse benign rather than hostile attributions in response to ambiguous social scenarios. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 18), children receiving CBM-I (n = 16) were less likely to endorse hostile attributions and more likely to endorse benign attributions in response to a new set of ambiguous social situations. Furthermore, aggressive behaviour scores reduced more in the trained group than in the untrained controls. Children who received attribution training also reported less perceived anger and showed a trend to report more self-control than those in the control group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Quality control of gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed

  14. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem

  15. Multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Frommknecht, Andreas; Kühnle, Jens; Pidan, Sergej; Effenberger, Ira

    2015-01-01

    A multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling is presented. The system enables a robot to measure its 6D pose with respect to the work piece and to establish a reference coordinate system for drilling. The robot approaches the drill point and performs an orthogonal alignment with the work piece. Although the measurement systems are readily capable of achieving high position accuracy and low deviation to perpendicularity, experiments show that inaccuracies in the robot's 6D-pose and e...

  16. Burnup verification using the FORK measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    Verification measurements may be used to help ensure nuclear criticality safety when burnup credit is applied to spent fuel transport and storage systems. The FORK measurement system, designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards program, has been used to verify reactor site records for burnup and cooling time for many years. The FORK system measures the passive neutron and gamma-ray emission from spent fuel assemblies while in the storage pool. This report deals with the application of the FORK system to burnup credit operations based on measurements performed on spent fuel assemblies at the Oconee Nuclear Station of Duke Power Company

  17. Listening to the customer: implementing a patient satisfaction measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L; Delaney, P; Boston, P

    1994-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important issue in positioning ambulatory medical services. An effective patient satisfaction measurement program not only helps hospital managers improve the quality of clinical and administrative activities, but also helps the hospital remain viable in increasingly competitive markets. A method for the design and measurement of patient satisfaction with outpatient Endoscopy Lab services is described in this article. The survey focuses on the sequence of events experienced by the patient. Outcome measures of primary interest include global patient satisfaction and the likelihood of using the service again if given a choice. Analysis of patient responses shows that global satisfaction with the outpatient experience is positively associated with service return intention. Additional analysis shows that facility cleanliness, privacy and nurse attention are most strongly associated with global patient satisfaction. Results underscore the importance of various service attributes on patient satisfaction and return intention and of the need to further expand the uses of patient satisfaction measurement in the outpatient Endoscopy Lab.

  18. Understanding perceptions of stuttering among school-based speech-language pathologists: an application of attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether attribution theory could explain speech-language pathologists (SLPs) perceptions of children with communication disorders such as stuttering. Specifically, it was determined whether perceptions of onset and offset controllability, as well as biological and non-biological attributions for communication disorders were related to willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward children with these disorders. It was also of interest to determine if blame for stuttering was related to perceived controllability of stuttering and negative attitudes toward people who stutter (PWS). A survey was developed to measure perceived onset and offset controllability, biological and non-biological attributions, willingness to help, sympathy, and anger toward middle school children with developmental stuttering, functional articulation disorders, and cerebral palsy. In addition, a scale was developed to measure blame and negative attitudes toward PWS in general. Surveys were mailed to 1000 school-based SLPs. Data from 330 participants were analyzed. Supporting the hypotheses of attribution theory, higher perceived onset and offset controllability of the disorder was linked to less willingness to help, lower sympathy, and more anger across conditions. Increased biological attributions were associated with more reported sympathy. Increased blame for stuttering was linked to higher perceived controllability of stuttering, more dislike of PWS, and more agreement with negative stereotypes about PWS. Educating SLPs about the variable loss of control inherent in stuttering could improve attitudes and increase understanding of PWS. Reductions in blame may facilitate feelings of sympathy and empathy for PWS and reduce environmental barriers for clients. Learning outcomes Readers should be able to: (1) identify the main principles of Weiner's attribution theory (2) identify common negative perceptions of people who stutter (3) describe how

  19. Entropy and Recurrence Measures of a Financial Dynamic System by an Interacting Voter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A financial time series agent-based model is reproduced and investigated by the statistical physics system, the finite-range interacting voter system. The voter system originally describes the collective behavior of voters who constantly update their positions on a particular topic, which is a continuous-time Markov process. In the proposed model, the fluctuations of stock price changes are attributed to the market information interaction amongst the traders and certain similarities of investors’ behaviors. Further, the complexity of return series of the financial model is studied in comparison with two real stock indexes, the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and the Hang Seng Index, by composite multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The empirical research shows that the simulation data for the proposed model could grasp some natural features of actual markets to some extent.

  20. Attributing Hacks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for estimating the provenance of hacks on websites. That is, given properties of sites and the temporal occurrence of attacks, we are able to attribute individual attacks to joint causes and vulnerabilities, as well as estimating the evolution of these vulnerabilities over time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are co...

  1. Mediated Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Its Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Petkovic, M.; Nikova, S.I.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem; Youm, Heung Youl; Yung, Moti

    2009-01-01

    In Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE), a user secret key is associated with a set of attributes, and the ciphertext is associated with an access policy over attributes. The user can decrypt the ciphertext if and only if the attribute set of his secret key satisfies the access

  2. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  3. Quantifying how smokers value attributes of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; MacMonegle, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have increased quickly among US adults (3.3% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2013) and youth (4.5% in 2013 to 13.4% in 2014). As state and local governments consider regulatory policies, understanding what smokers believe about e-cigarettes and how they value e-cigarettes is important. Using data from a convenience sample of Florida adult smokers (N=765), we investigated the value smokers place on specific attributes of e-cigarettes (availability of flavours, effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, ability to use e-cigarettes in public places) by asking smokers how much they would be willing to pay for e-cigarettes with and without each of these attributes. For cigarette-only and dual users, losing the ability to use an e-cigarette as a quit aid and losing the harm reduction of an e-cigarette significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. For cigarette-only users, not being able to use an e-cigarette indoors and losing flavours also significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. Our results suggest that smokers value multiple attributes of e-cigarettes. Our valuation measures also appear to align with smokers' beliefs about e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Marland, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    When forest is harvested some of the forest carbon ends up in wood products. If the forest is managed so that the standing stock of the forest remains constant over time, and the stock of wood products is increasing, then carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere in net and this should be reflected in accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. We suggest that carbon sequestration in wood products requires cooperation of multiple parties; from the forest owner to the product manufacturer to the product user, and perhaps others. Credit for sequestering carbon away from the atmosphere could acknowledge the contributions of these multiple parties. Accounting under a cap-and-trade or tax system is not necessarily an inventory system, it is a system designed to motivate and/or reward an environmental objective. We describe a system of attribution whereby credits for carbon sequestration would be shared among multiple, contributing parties. It is hoped that the methodology outlined herein proves attractive enough to parties concerned to spur them to address the details of such a system. The system of incentives one would choose for limiting or controlling greenhouse gas emissions could be quite different, depending on how the attribution for emissions and sequestration is chosen

  5. Essential attributes and qualifiers of primary health care - doi:10.5020/18061230.2012.p3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Sílvia Walter de Aguiar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the primary health care (PHC has been associated with the first level of care from a health system and characterized by the kind of professional that in it operates, where is expected a predominance of specialists in this area. However, the major limitation for this type of characterization is that the profile of professionals engaged in this service may vary from country to country. Several theoretical and conceptual landmarks proposed approaches and indicators to assess and characterize the APS. In 1978, the American Institute of Medicine suggested an approach in which listed its attributes such as accessibility, integrality, coordination, continuity and responsibility. This was an important landmark in an attempt to outline a normative approach to measure it. However, most indicators and specific definition was not suggested. The selected indicators required a high level of performance, were difficult to be achieved, and focused on the capacity of services and not in its concrete realization(1.A 1996 report, from the same institution, defined PHC as the provision of integrated services and accessible by clinicians who are responsible for attending a large majority of personal care needs, developing a continued partnership with patients and working within family and community. This definition does not include the first contact and focuses on individual attention.The Canadian Medical Association, in 1996, considered the APS as a front door of the health system and community interventions included in the definition of the functions of APS. In the same year was published a Charter for General Practice / Family Medicine in Europe (Letter to General Practice / Family Medicinein Europe, which describes 12 characteristics: general, accessible, integrated,continuous, as a team, holistic, personalized, targeted for the family and the community, coordinated, confidential and protectress(2.Donabedian(3 systematized a group of important

  6. Effect of hierarchy legitimacy on low status group members' attributions for ingroup and outgroup failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatson, Ruth M; Halloran, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has shown that people have a tendency to explain successes and failures in ways that favor their ingroups relative to outgroups. However, there has been a dearth of research examining whether social-contextual factors such as group status and hierarchy legitimacy moderate such intergroup attributions. Participants in this study were assigned to a low status group, and perceived hierarchy legitimacy was then experimentally manipulated; the extent to which ingroup versus outgroup failures were attributed to several causes was measured. When low status was considered illegitimate, ingroup failure was attributed to external causes (task difficulty, bad luck) more so than outgroup failure. Implications and directions for future research examining consequences and mediating processes are discussed.

  7. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  8. Biological and microbiological attributes in Oxisol managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of winter cover crops and fertilization with nitrogen to the soil can have an effect on their biological and microbiological attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and microbiological attributes in soil under different winter cover crops and nitrogen doses. The experiment was conducted at the Frederico Westphalen-RS campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM in a Rhodic Hapludox soil. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement (2 x 10: 10 winter cover crops systems (Fallow [control], black oats, white oats, ryegrass, forage turnip, vetch, white lupine; black oat + forage turnip; black oat + vetch and black oat + vetch + fodder turnip, and two nitrogen rates in the form of urea applied in successive crops of beans common and maize, with four replications. We assessed the biological attributes (Margalef’s richness, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity and abundance of organisms and microbiological (carbon and nitrogen microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient of the soil. The fallow with wild species and white lupine showed greater Simpson’s dominance and abundance of organisms due to the increase in the number of individuals of the order Collembola. Vetch improved the biological attributes of the soil with increase in Collembola abundance and diversity of organisms of soil fauna. The application of nitrogen favored the microbial biomass carbon and reduced the metabolic quotient.

  9. Dynamic Properties of Impulse Measuring Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.

    1971-01-01

    After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...... the interaction between the generator and the measuring circuit is of paramount importance to the voltage across the test object. Based on the measured values the determination of the applied voltage is considered....

  10. Multi-Index Attribution of Beijing's 2013 "Airpocalypse"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Horton, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Poor air quality causes 2 to 4 million premature deaths per year globally. Individual high-impact events, like Beijing's January 2013 "airpocalypse," have drawn significant attention, as they have demonstrated that short-lived air quality events can have outsized effects on public health and economic vitality. Poor air quality events are the result of emission of pollutants and the meteorological conditions favorable to their accumulation in the near-surface environment. Accumulation occurs when pollutants are not dispersed or scavenged from the atmosphere. The most important meteorological precursors of these conditions include lack of precipitation, low wind speeds, and vertical temperature inversions. Recent reports of extreme air quality, in conjunction with projected future changes in some meteorological air quality indices, raise the question: have the meteorological conditions that shape air quality changed in frequency, intensity, or duration over the observational era? Here we assess whether anthropogenic climate change has altered meteorological conditions conducive to poor air quality. To gain a more complete picture of the effect of anthropogenic change on air quality, we use three indices that quantify poor air quality: the Pollution Potential Index (Zou et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and surface wind speeds, the Haze Weather Index (Cai et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and mid-level wind speeds, and the Air Stagnation Index (Horton et al, 2014), which measures precipitation, surface wind speeds, and mid-level wind speeds. Drawing on the attribution methods of Diffenbaugh et al (2017), we assess the contribution of observed meteorological trends to the magnitude of air quality events, the return interval of events in the observational record, historical simulated climate, and pre-industrial simulated climate, and the probability of the observed trend in historical and pre-industrial simulated climates. Particular

  11. Quality Attribute Design Primitives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Len

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the quality attribute aspects of mechanisms. An architectural mechanism is a 'structure whereby objects collaborate to provide some behavior that satisfies a requirement of the problem...

  12. Superconducting property measuring system by magnetization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikisawa, K.; Mori, T.; Takasu, N.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting property measuring system (CMS-370B) for high temperature oxide superconductor has been developed. This system adopts magnetization measurement. The superconducting properties are able to be measured automatically and continuously changing the temperature and external magnetic field. The critical current density as a function of temperature and magnetic field of high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) has been measured. This paper reports how it was confirmed that this system having the high performance and the accuracy gave the significant contribution to the superconducting material development

  13. Recreation visitor preferences for and perceptions of outdoor recreation setting attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1994, a comprehensive national survey was conducted by the USDA Forest Service (FS), Southern Research Station, to measure visitor preferences for, and perceptions of, setting attributes at a variety of outdoor recreation sites. Over 11,000 visitors at 31 outdoor recreation sites across the country were interviewed in this study. The study was entitled...

  14. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  15. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  17. Magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrosavljevic, A.; Cirkovic, S.; Zdravkovic, A.; Urosevic, Z.; Lucic, M.; Gemaljevic, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron, main part of the TESLA accelerator installation whose construction has been going on in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Measurement system consists of mechanical structure and control unit for the automatic positioning of the measurement probe in the median plane, between the poles of the magnet, and corresponding measuring instrumentation, based on two digital tesla meters. Concept of the measurement system is defined by the TESLA team, while realisation of the measurement system is performed in co-operation with the LOLA Institute. (author)

  18. Attributing and Managing the Crisis: Lay Representations in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamos Papastamou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger research project, we asked 1,806 adults from France, Greece, and Italy (in the larger project, Portuguese students were included to discuss the causes of the current economic crisis and the strategies that should be adopted by the countries to overcome it. The six factors extracted by the factor analysis revealed that the economic crisis was attributed to the depletion of resources, the weakness of the financial system, planned conspiracy, system inequality, overconsumption, or the weakness of the political system. These causes had cross-national structural equivalence and overconsumption – a people-blaming cause – as opposed to conspiracy attributions to a global power or to structural inequalities inherent to the system. Further analyses found three types of strategies to exit the crisis – conforming to EU requests, rationalizing the public sector, and leaving the European Union – but failed to establish cross-national structural equivalence. Results thus suggest that there is some similarity in the discourses of the media that is reflected on people’s perceptions about the causes of the economic crisis, but that the strategies to exit the crisis are more linked to the socioeconomic conditions of the countries.

  19. Attributes of ethical employees in Malaysian public sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to explore the attributes of ethical employees in public sector and to pattern match the attributes with human behavior, social and ethics theories. A qualitative research is used by focusing on first-order attributes (through interviews) and second-order concepts (using theories to explain the facts). This study ...

  20. Automated statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) has been completely automated through computer software. The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems is one part of a complete quality control program used by the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the ICPP. The quality control program is an integration of automated data input, measurement system calibration, database management, and statistical process control. The quality control program and statistical modeling program meet the guidelines set forth by the American Society for Testing Materials and American National Standards Institute. A statistical model is a set of mathematical equations describing any systematic bias inherent in a measurement system and the precision of a measurement system. A statistical model is developed from data generated from the analysis of control standards. Control standards are samples which are made up at precise known levels by an independent laboratory and submitted to the RAL. The RAL analysts who process control standards do not know the values of those control standards. The object behind statistical modeling is to describe real process samples in terms of their bias and precision and, to verify that a measurement system is operating satisfactorily. The processing of control standards gives us this ability

  1. Proton gyromagnetic precision measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Deming; Deming Zhu

    1991-01-01

    A computerized control and measurement system used in the proton gyromagnetic precision meausrement is descirbed. It adopts the CAMAC data acquisition equipment, using on-line control and analysis with the HP85 and PDP-11/60 computer systems. It also adopts the RSX11M computer operation system, and the control software is written in FORTRAN language

  2. Evaluation of Railway Level Crossing Attributes on Accident Causation in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu O Dina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the contribution of Railway Level Crossing (RLCphysical attributes to accident occurrence using the12 major level crossings within the Lagos metropolis. The 48km single track mainline section under consideration which barely make up 1.1% of the entire narrow gauge track network of the country within a 5 year period contributed about 45% of the total National crossing accidents recorded in Nigeria. The method of investigation involved recording the individual attributes of each RLC such asgates, pedestrian traffic, car traffic light, proximity of signage to crossing, vehicular traffic as dummy variables.The regression analysis  was used to measure their effect on accidents.The result indicates gates, pedestrians and the location of signage had significant impact on accidents occurrence at level crossings within Lagos metropolis. Based on the findings, enhancement of active warning systems among other recommendations was suggested as potent counter measures for RLC accident reduction. Abstrak Penelitian menguji tingkat kontribusi atribut fisik dari perlintasan jalan kereta api terhadap kejadian kecelakaan menggunakan 12 perlintasan utama dalam kota metropolis Lagos. 48 km jalan utama tunggal menjadi pertimbangan yang hampir meningkat 1.1% dari seluruh trek sempit jaringan negara dalam jangka waktu 5 tahun menyumbang sekitar 45% dari total kecelakaan perlintasan secara Nasional di Nigeria. Metode penelitian melibatkan catatan dari masing-masing atribut RLC seperti pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, lampu lalu lintas mobil, kedekatan tanda penyebarangan, lalu lintas kendaraan sebagai variabel dumi. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk mengukur pengaruh dari atribut terhadap kecelakaan. Hasilnya menunjukkan pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, dan lokasi tanda perlintasan mempunyai dampak signifikan pada kecelakaan dalam kota metropolis Lagos.Berdasarkan penemuan tersebut, perbaikan dari sistem peringatan aktif disarankan sebagai upaya

  3. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  4. Personalized Recommendation of Learning Material Using Sequential Pattern Mining and Attribute Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa; Ghaznavi Ghoushchi, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Material recommender system is a significant part of e-learning systems for personalization and recommendation of appropriate materials to learners. However, in the existing recommendation algorithms, dynamic interests and multi-preference of learners and multidimensional-attribute of materials are not fully considered simultaneously. Moreover,…

  5. A methodology for translating positional error into measures of attribute error, and combining the two error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...

  6. What is the source of cultural differences? -- Examining the influence of thinking style on the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chun-Hui; Lien, Yunn-Wen

    2010-02-01

    The present research is intended to find out whether individuals with analytic or holistic thought have different attribution processes. Cross-cultural research has suggested that East Asians, who tend to have a holistic thought pattern, differ in cognitive process from Westerners, who tend to engage in analytic thought. However, studies that found cultural difference in attribution process may have non-equivalence problems that make it hard to interpret the causal relationship between thinking style and attribution process. The present research extends this by measuring participants' thinking style within a single culture in order to ensure equivalence on potentially confounding variables such as prior knowledge and cognitive capacity. Two experiments demonstrate that both types of thinkers have identical attribution processes and suggest different thinking styles might relate to different tendencies toward situational information, but not to the attribution process itself. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  8. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  9. Authorship attribution based on Life-Like Network Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Corrêa, Edilson A; Miranda, Gisele H B; Ama